Open Access Original Research Article

Analytical Methods for the Quantification of Ribavirin in Pharmaceutical Preparations, A Comparative Study

Serdar Gungor, Ibrahim Bulduk

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i13A35569

Ribavirin is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug and is used to treat diseases caused by many viral infections. In this study, high-pressure liquid chromatographic and UV-Vis spectrophotometric methods were developed, validated and statistically compared to determine the amount of ribavirin in pharmaceutical preparations. HPLC analyses were performed by UV detection at 207 nm using a mobile phase consisting of 20mm KH2P04 with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1 on a C18 column. Ultrapure water was used as a solvent in spectrophotometric analyses. The UV spectrum of the standard and sample solutions was recorded between 200 and 400 nm and absorbance values were measured at 207 nm. Both methods were validated according to the procedures described in ICH guidelines Q2(R1) for verification of analytical methods. The results showed that spectrophotometric and liquid chromatographic methods were linear, precise, accurate, rugged, and robust with RSD values less than 1.00%, and the recovery percentage was within standard limits (98-102%). Then a statistical comparison of these two analytical methods was performed, and the results showed no significant difference. As a result, the developed analytical methods were determined to be accurate, highly effective, reliable, fast, simple, and could be used for routine quality control analysis of ribavirin in pharmaceutical formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinico-Hematological Study of Thrombocytopenia on the Basis of Bone Marrow Examination in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Vaidehi Nagar, Nanda Patil, Sujata Kanetkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i13A35571

Background: Thrombocytopenia can occur in a variety of clinical conditions. Bone marrow aspiration is crucial for diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes of thrombocytopenia, its spectrum, and how to interpret the results of bone marrow aspiration.

Aim & Objectives: To study the cases of thrombocytopenia on the basis of bone marrow examination for correlation of bone marrow findings with clinical features, haematological parameters and other investigations in cases of thrombocytopenia. Secondary objective is to investigate the role of morphological examination of bone marrow aspiration and trephine biopsy in diagnosis of various disorders leading to thrombocytopenia.

Results: The cross-sectional prospective study lasted two years, from May 2019 to May 2021, at a tertiary care centre where clinico-haematological evaluation of patients with thrombocytopenia was done on the basis of bone marrow examination. A total of 103 cases with thrombocytopenia underwent bone marrow examination of which most patients belonged to the age group of 41-50 with a male preponderance. Majority of the patients presented with generalized weakness and pallor. Megaloblastic anaemia was the most predominant cause followed by acute myeloid leukemia and dimorphic anaemia. More research into the pathogenesis of megakaryocytic alteration and its contribution to thrombocytopenia could lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of a variety of hematopoietic disorders and the identification of broader clinical applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Associated Factors among Caregivers of Patients with COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-sectional Study

Adnan Innab, Ghareeb Bahari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i13A35572

Background: One of psychological disorders caused by catastrophic life events or severe medical problems is the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder among people. Different sociodemographic factors have been associated with the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Such research is lacking with COVID-19 especially in the Saudi context.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with PTSD during the outbreak of COVID-19.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample of 92 Saudi citizens, living in Saudi Arabia, and had at least one relative who had been diagnosed with COVID-19. Data were collected using the impact of event scale (IES-R). SPSS was used to run a multiple linear regression analysis.

Results: The results revealed that participants suffered from a partial PTSD. The regression analysis showed a significant relationship between participants’ characteristics and PTSD. The model explained 13.9% of the variance of PTSD (F [5, 77] = 2.49, R2 =.139, p< .05). Two predictors of gender (p<.01) and level of education (p<.05) were statistically significant to the prediction. Male participants had higher PTSD scores than female participants (beta = -9.19, t = -2.73, p< .01). Also, those caregivers with low level of education had higher PTSD levels (beta = 3.279, t = 2.30, p <.05).

Conclusion: The current study demonstrated a strong association between participants’ demographic characteristics (namely gender and level of education) and PTSD. A lack of information and the evolution of the COVID-19 outbreak may be important factors in increasing people’s levels of PTSD. Therefore, future research aiming to find appropriate solutions to such issues is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and in vitro Evaluation of Diacerein Loaded Transferosomal Topical Gel for the Effective Treatment of Osteoarthritis

Kranthi Kumar Pola, Rada Santosh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 41-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i13A35573

Aim: The main objective of the current research work was to formulate and evaluate Diacerein-loaded transferosomal topical gel to overcome the drawbacks associated with oral administration of Diacerein in Osteo arthritis treatment.

Study Design: Transferosomal topical gel

Methodology: Transferosomes were developed using different ratios of Phospholipid® 90G as phospholipid and Span-60 as surfactant and cholesterol as fluidity buffer. The selected best formulation of transferosomes was further optimized as a topical gel using different rate controlling polymers such as hydroxylethyl cellulose (HEC), hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and, carbopol. Transcutol P was used as a penetration enhancer. In vitro diffusion studies of developed formulations were carried out using Franz diffusion cell apparatus.

Results: The formulations prepared with Hydroxy ethyl cellulose (TBG1, TBG2, TBG3), HPMC (TBG4, TBG5, TBG6) was shown rapid drug release when compared to formulations prepared with carbopol (TBG7, TBG8, TBG9) are showing controlled drug release.Where the formulation prepared with carbopol with 0.75% concentration has shown acceptable extended drug release for 12 hours with acceptable other physico-chemical properties.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that Diacerein-loaded transferosomal gel can be administered topically for the treatment of osteoarthritis with reduced oral side effects.

Open Access Review Article

A Systematic Medico Historical Review of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris L.): A Traditional Indian Medicine

Ekta Manhas, Anil Kumar Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i13A35570

Objective: This review aims to reveal the classic and experience-based traditional uses of Gokshura for health and wellness, and emphasizes the pharmacological and biochemical scientific evidence to confirm them.

Data Source: The available literature on Gokshura from original Ayurvedic scriptures, classical Ayurvedic texts from different periods, Indian Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia, and scientific databases such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Google Scholar, with Gokshura and T.terrestris as keywords were  searched to determine the basis of the Latin scientific name, the correct identity, properties, pharmacological actions and clinical uses.

Review Methods: In search of scientific evidence of use, international and national journals and other published materials were also searched to pique the curiosity of academics interested in Ayurvedic medicinal plants. This article reveals the ancient brilliance behind the therapeutic use of a promising plant, Gokshura from ancient India, to date. Several bioactive phytoconstituents, which include steroids, saponin, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, and unsaturated acids, were isolated and recognized from Gokshura which might be responsible singly or in compound form for numerous pharmacological activities, and traditional application confirms that the basic principles of available Ayurvedic classics in various periods in India have been too scientific, and authentic.

Conclusion: In this research work, it was found that Gokshura overcome diseases of Mutravaha srotasa (Urinary Tract Disorders) and other systems. Various simple and compound preparations can reasonably maintain health and are used as analgesic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, aphrodisiac, and rejuvenator.

Open Access Review Article

Mucormycosis of Maxillofacial Region Secondary to COVID-19 Infection and It’s Management: A Review

Dalvi Tanushri, Shrivardhan Kalghatgi, Asawari Yadav, Pranjali Narale, Prachi Sakpal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 53-56
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i13A35574

Mucormycosis mainly affects people who have health problems or take medicines that lower the body’s ability to fight germs and sickness. It most commonly affects the sinuses or the lungs after inhaling fungal spores from the air. It can also occur on the skin after a cut, burn, or other type of skin injury. The most common types that cause mucormycosis are Rhizopus species and Mucor species. Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection with high morbidity and mortality but nowadays it is observed in many covid -19 patients therefore it is identified as a complication after covid-19. It is most commonly seen in patients with systemic illness such as Diabetes Mellitus, Neutropenia, corticosteroid use, Organ transplantation, advanced age and also seen in patients who have stayed prolonged in ICU. This review article includes etiology, risk factors, site specificity, oral manifestations of Mucormycosis, diagnosis based on oral and maxillofacial symptoms and also management of the complications.