Open Access Study Protocol

Helping Dentists Make Accurate Denture through PAA Articulator

Pronob Kumar Sanyal, Abhijeet Ramchandra Kore, Aishwarya Satish Rao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 56-60
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i12B35568

Introduction: An articulator is defined as a mechanical instrument that represents the temporomandibular joints and jaws, to which maxillary and mandibular casts may be attached to simulate some or all mandibular movement. There have been many major modifications and researches in this field of stomato-mechanics in order to facilitate the orientation of the jaws during static and functional movements.

Objective: The main objective of the present research is to provide a novel machine which aids in simulating the temporo-mandibular joint and jaws by using with high accuracy tool for precise & easy mounting & compensatory curved plates for detailed teeth arrangement.

Methods: After the jaw relations procedure, casts should be placed on the wax studs to orient the casts for mounting. The occlusal plane should coincide with the occlusal plane orientor, lingual midline locator and the incisal pin (3- point guidance). This is a more accurate method compared to the arbitrary thread relation we use.

Results: Accordingly the present research provides the gen-next articulator.

Conclusion: This articulator aids in helping dentists make accurate dentures using a regularly used mean value articulator. It will not only improve the quality but also the efficiency of work among dental students and professionals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Safety of Sofosbuvir/Daclatasvir and Sofosbuvir/ Ribavirin in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Hepatitis C

Adil Hassan Chang, Ubedullah Bughio, Rehmatullah Bhatti, Laraib Jamali, Bushra Kadir, Muhammad Sadik Memon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i12B35557

Introduction: Sofosbuvir/ribavirin and sofosbuvir/ledipasvir regimes are approved by European Association for Study of Liver (EASL) for Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) infection in adolescents although none of the combinations is approved for age below twelve years.

Objective: The aim of the study is to investigate the use of sofosbuvir/daclatasvir with or without ribavirin and sofosbuvir/ribavirin in children and adolescents with CHC infection.

Methods: A single-centre, observational (off-label) study was performed. Patients with CHC and detectable HCVRNA, of either gender with age between three to seventeen years were included. Patients were given one of the two combinations; sofosbuvir/daclatasvir with or without ribavirin for 12 weeks and sofosbuvir/ribavirin for 24 weeks, according to the body weight. The patients were followed precisely for side effects of treatment and sustained virological response after twelve week (SVR12).

Results: Fourteen patients were enrolled with mean age of 12.36 ± 5.43 years. Six (42.9%) were less than twelve years and eight (57.1%) were more than twelve years. Nine (64.28%) patients were given sofosbuvir/daclatasvir with or without ribavirin and five (35.71%) patients were given sofosbuvir/ribavirin. All fourteen (100%) patients achieved SVR12. No side effect was observed and normal growth was evaluated.

Conclusion: The combination of sofosbuvir/daclatasvir with or without ribavirin showed high safety and efficacy in children and adolescents. Moreover, sofosbuvir/ribavirin combination also showed comparable safety and efficacy in age less than twelve years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fabrication of Transdermal Matrix Patch of Lercanidipine Hydrochloride Using Natural Polymer and Essential Oil

Rupalben Kaushalkumar Jani, Goswami Kaushal Puri, G. S. Chakraborthy, Nidhi Patel, Dave Pooja, Vijay J. Upadhye

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 16-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i12B35562

The goal of the present research work was to develop and characterize a transdermal matrix patch of Lercanidipine hydrochloride (L.H.) for controlled drug delivery using the solvent evaporation method. To achieve controlled drug release, polymers such as Psyllium and HPMC K15M were optimized. Moreover, the skin permeation effect of essential oils such as linseed oil, jojoba oil, and pumpkin seed oil was investigated on Wistar rat skin. A 32 full factorial design was applied to optimize two formulation variables: concentration of essential oil as a permeation enhancer and polymer fixed-weight ratio. To study drug-excipients incompatibility, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) had employed, which showed the absence of chemical interaction. All formulations were evaluated for Physico-chemical parameters, ex-vivo drug release study, an in-vivo skin-irritation study on Wistar rats, and stability study. Developed matrix patch showed optimum Physico-chemical properties with the absence of skin irritation. An Ex-vivo drug release study revealed that both formulation variables show an effect on drug release from matrix patches. The effectiveness of the oils as the permeation enhancer was found to be in the following descending order: Pumpkin seed oil > Linseed oil > Jojoba oil. Therefore, pumpkin seed oil was selected as a permeation enhancer in the final Formulation that shows the highest flux (164.09±1.49 µg/cm2/h) and desired drug release for transdermal administration. Stability study shows that the patch was stable up to 6 months at 40±2 ˚C and 75±5 % R.H. and 30±2 ˚C and 65±5 % R.H. The present investigation demonstrates that the prepared matrix patch can deliver therapeutically effective controlled release dose of lercanidipine hydrochloride (L.H.) via transdermal route using pumpkin seed oil as the permeation enhancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Discharge Outlines of Subthalamic Nucleus-Globus Pallidus External and the Favorable Impact of Deep Brain Stimulation in the Parkinson State

Shruti Gupta, Jyotsna Singh, Kaushal Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i12B35563

Aims: The aim of our model is to simulate deep brain stimulation mathematically instead of doing it experimentally to check whether the outlines in Parkinson’s disease helps in reducing the motor symptoms or not. The model is simulated here mathematically because clinical research is not feasible. My model is STN-GPe in which there are different differential equations. Also, to prove that the symptoms for Parkinson’s disease are reduced up to 99.59%.

Study Design: Cross-correlation function.

Place and duration of Study: Study was conducted in private college of Gurugram from January 2021 to September 2021.

Methodology: Self designed, the conduct of the model has been accessible with the support of activity outlines produced in a normal state and Parkinson's state. These outlines have been related by finding out their correlation coefficient for dissimilar values of essential parameters. Here, a single-compartment conductance-based model is taken that concentrates on the subthalamic nucleus and synaptic input from globus pallidus (external). Current model displays extremely nonlinear behavior regarding many essential parameters.

Results: Outcomes show that the activity outlines are extremely penetrating to several essential parameters. Deep brain stimulation is measured as a harmless and well-borne surgical technique to lighten Parkinson’s disease and extra movement ailments indications across some psychiatric situations. So, the deep brain stimulation technique has been applied here mathematically to find the cross-correlation between the two states. With the help of this stimulation, some promising results are obtained.

Conclusion: The conclusion is that DBS is operative at reducing motor indications of parkinsonism by 99.59%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neuroprotective Effects of Lantana camara in BPA Induced-cognitive Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Rats

I. Neelam, Abhisek Pal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 48-55
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i12B35567

The present study was aimed to screen neuroprotective effects of lantana camara in BPA induced-cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress in rats. In methodology animals were divided into 5 groups. Group I serve as vehicle control group and was administered with 2 ml of normal saline. Group II was administered with BPA 50 µg/kg for 21 days. Group III and IV served as drug treated group and pre treated for 1 week with methanolic extract of L.camara (250 and 500 mg/kg bw/day orally). Group V serve as standard drug treated group and treated with piracetam 200mg/kg i.p. after the completion of dosing, rats were subjected to various test to analyze their behaviour performance and later sacrificed for further test. Animals were screened for elevated plus maze and Y-maze. Animals were sacrificed and evaluated the brain anti oxidant parameters like catalase (CAT), Estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), Estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Estimation of glutathione (GSH). All the Parameters of extract treated group animals have shown better results when compared with toxic and test groups. These findings provide a preliminary evidence for its potential as neuroprotective effect.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Updates in Diagnosis and Management of Puerperal Sepsis

Hesham Mohamad Hamad Morcy, Ashwaq Aziz Alanazi, Amaal Saeed Alanazi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i12B35558

Puerperal sepsis caused 31% of pregnancy - related deaths in a retrospective study from Mbarara, Uganda, making it the most leading cause of maternal deaths mortality. The majority of postpartum infection research has taken place in high-resource countries, where risk factors such as inadequate cleanliness, poor socioeconomic position, prolonged labor, and these factors could differ in low- resources countries due to changes in the patient environment and healthcare system. The pathogenesis of puerperal sepsis is extremely complicated and poorly understood. as the pregnant woman acquire different adaptations on both scales, immunological and physiological which are intended to help the fetus develop, all these changes can hinder the mother's ability to defend against infection during pregnancy and the puerperium. Management of puerperal sepsis based on three main levels, the first is the prevention of sepsis using empirical antibiotics, the second one is for the management of the septic patient using resuscitation and source control, if the case continues to worse, admission to ICU is necessary where some measurements should be taken such as glycemic control, using oxygen, vasopressors and steroids.