Open Access Study Protocol

Effect of Restorative Crown of Different Cuspal Inclination and Occlusal Contact on Stress Distribution in Mandibular Second Premolar with Different Ferrule Configuration and Peripheral Bone- 3D Finite Element Analysis

Shahinwaz Mulani, Surekha Dubey-Godbole, Shoeb Shaikh, Safia Shaikh, Dipak Shinde

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 18-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i12A35547

Background: Restoration of pulpless teeth have been difficult because of coronal loss from dental caries, diminished moisture content, endodontic therapy and fractures, resulting in prone to fracture of the tooth during function. Cast metallic band enclosing around cervical surface of a tooth is called ferrule. The role of ferrule is to assist in strengthening the endodontically treated tooth.

Purpose: In case of ferrule less tooth, the post performs as a wedge and may result in root fracture. Therefore modification in design of ferrule is required. Presence or absence of ferrule of coronal dentin influenced stress distribution pattern within tooth structure. Failure or success of a restoration may be influenced by on how the stress is dispersed to the tooth structure so it is essential to study the stress dispersal pattern within tooth and associated structure.

Materials and Methods: A three-dimensional FE method (FEM) will be carried out for study and finite element structural analysis programs will be HYPERMESH 11 and ANSYS 18.1 software. Eight 3D models will be created to simulate endodontically restored mandibular second premolar with different coronal dentin configurations. The complete crown will be modeled with a 20-degree, 33- degree, 45-degree facial cusp inclination. The oblique force of 200 N will be executed to the buccal cusp of mandibular second premolar. Analysis of results will be done by both color-coding and numerically. By using FEA software the von Mises equivalent stress (MPa) will be calculated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Haematological Parameters of Obese Individuals Based on Age Groups at Omisanjana Area of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State

Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Huba K. Rashid, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Precious Ifeoluwa Omotunde

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i12A35546

Obesity is a chronic disease which has spread all over the world and threatens public global health. Eighty (80) obese individuals based on age groups. The table above show no significant difference in PCV (p=0.241), WBC (p=0.445), LYM (p=0.531), GRAN (p=0.514), MID (p=0.930), LYM (p=0.984), GRAN (p=0.682), MID (p=0.343), RBC (p=0.971), HGB, MCV (p=0.389), MCH (p=0.755), MCHC (p=0.052), RDW_CV (p=0.392), RDW_SD (p=0.177), PLT (p=0.055), MPV (p=0.224), PDW (p=0.432), P_LCR (p=0.096) when compared between obese individuals and non-obese individuals based on age group respectively.  Age group has no changes in the haematological parameters of obese individuals among the studied subjects.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Significance of Nigella sativa on Histomorphological Variations of Seminiferous Tubules in Doxorubicin Treated Albino Rats

Ashok Kumar, Anjum Rehman, Sadia Sundus, Saher Fatima, Zeeshan Ahmed, Asma Aijaz

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i12A35548

Objective: To analyze the impact of nigella sativa on Histomorphological changes in doxorubicin treated albino rats.

Research Design: Experimental research.

Abode of Study: Anatomy Department, BMSI, Karachi, Pakistan.

Materials and Methods: Piloted on 40 albino rats for 35 days in the Anatomy Department of BMSI. They were 3-4 months old and about 221 to 238 gm in weight. Rats were separated into 4 groups, Ao, Bo, Co & Do. Ao represented as control, Bo recieved Doxorubicin (DOX) 0.003g/1000g/ at 7TH day intraperitonealy, Co recieved Nigella sativa 1000mg/1000g everyday oral along with Doxorubicin 0.003g/1000g/ at 7TH day intraperitonealy and Do recieved Nigella sativa 1000mg/kg everyday oral. At the end of experiment, rats were dissected and conserved slides for staining.

Results: Bo showed loss of normal architecture of seminiferous tubules and diverse level of atrophy while condition was improved in Co which were given Doxorubicin with extract of Nigella sativa.

Conclusion: Our result tells us that Nigella sativa amended the histomorphological changes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage of Three Different Restorative Materials (Cention N, Zirconomer Improved and Glass Hybrid Restorative System) in Class V Cavity Restoration Using Stereomicroscope: In vitro Study

S. Dhivya, A. Vasanthakumari, A. Selvabalaji, S. Preethi Archana, C. Anagha, K. Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-42
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i12A35549

Aim and Objective: Microleakage is the most important factor responsible for the destruction of restoration margins. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the microleakage of three different restorative materials namely glass hybrid restorative system, zirconomer improved and Cention N under stereomicroscope.

Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, 45 Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surface of maxillary premolars. The prepared cavities were divided into three groups for restoration with Cention N(group I), Zirconomer Improved(group II), Equiaforte (group III). All the samples were thermocycled for 500 cycles between 5-55°C initially and then immersed in 0.5% methylene blue for 24 hours before sectioning. All the sectioned samples were observed for microleakage under a stereomicroscope.

Results: Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA test for comparison between three groups and the result revealed statistically significant difference between the groups(p<0.05). Post hoc Tukey test was used for intergroup comparison and it was observed that both Cention and Equiaforte are inferior to Zirconomer improved in terms of microleakage (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Zirconomer improved exhibited lower microleakage when compared to Cention N and Equiaforte cements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rivaroxaban: Compatibilty with Pharmaceutical Excipients using DSC and FTIR Spectrophotometry

Rama Rao Nadendla, J. Satynarayana, Jaya Krishna Burri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 43-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i12A35554

Rivaroxaban (RN) is a recently developed potent oral anticoagulant. The aim of the present study envisages compatibility studies of rivaroxaban with crospovidone, sodium startch glycolate, magnesium stearate, talc, microcrystalline cellulose, aerosil, HPMC K100 M, croscarmellose sodium using Differential scanning calorimeter and FTIR spectrophotometer. DSC thermograms, of rivaroxaban and physical mixture of individual pharmaceutical excipient, exhibited the range of transition of the drug in between 224ºC and 232ºC. The FTIR graphs showed that the wave numbers of rivaroxaban, matched with all the chosen pharmaceutical excipients combinations. Thus the DSC and FTIR studies showed that RN was not interactive with selected pharmaceutical excipients and can be carried forward for further studies.

Open Access Review Article

QbD Approach: A Framework for Integrating Quality into Pharmaceutical Products

Monika Kharb, Kamal Singh Rathore

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i12A35854

Introduction: The traditional development processes use a quality by testing (QbT) approach that needs continuous testing to determine quality. Such processes are fixed, averse to change, and focus only on process reproducibility. This approach does not allow variation in material and process controls. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional process, regulatory bodies have issued guidelines for the industries to improve the understanding of the process and the quality of the product. It aims to shift from traditional process QbT to a scientific approach quality by design (QbD) to assure product quality in the pharmaceutical industry.

Methodology: Articles related to QbD published in many search engines such as Scopus, Google Scholar, and PubMed were reviewed.

Review Findings: In order to ensure the quality of pharmaceutical products, regulatory bodies have emphasized on the implementation of QbD. For this, various guidelines have been published from time to time. The Indian pharmaceutical industry has started to apply the principles of QbD. Implementation of QbD develops a detailed understanding of the manufacturing process. The design space is achieved by QbD within which the expected quality is achieved even with changes in process parameters.

Conclusion: In short, the QbD approach is a great tool for assuring pharmaceutical product quality and better understanding of the manufacturing process. Therefore, it is imperative to have a successful implementation of the QbD approach.