Open Access Case Study

Designing and Development of a Nursing Care Plan Based on Johnson’s Behavioural Model in Patient with Carcinoma of Larynx: A Case study

Neethu Jose, Ramya Kundayi Ravi, Sheeja Sebastian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i11B35540

Background: Behavioural model can be very easily applied in the clinical settings and nurses will be able to design and implement an appropriate nursing care planning using Johnson’s behaviour model in patients with carcinoma of larynx.

Aim: The aim of this paper was to investigate the application clinical function of Johnson’s Behavioural model in a patient with carcinoma of Larynx in a clinical setting.

Methodology: This is a case study, in which nursing process has been used in accordance with the Johnson’s Behavioural model applied in Mr.X who is affected with cancer of Larynx.

Result: After implementing Johnson’s Behaviour model in nursing process, the researcher achieved the goal easily. This case study was a very successful on application of Johnson’s Behaviour model.

Conclusion: Johnson’s behaviour model is related to a person’s environment and can be used in a clinical setting as a frame work for identifying the problems of a patient and helps in evaluating the quality of nursing care. The patient who has been studied in this paper reveals the application of Johnson’s Behaviour model in a clinical setting.

Open Access Case Study

A Clinical Case Report: Closed Extraction of a Broken Distal Piece of the Tibial Intramedullary Nail Remaining for 8 Years

Guoshu Mao, Changbao Wei, Qudong Yin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i11B35862

Aim: Closed extraction of a broken distal piece of the intramedullary nail is very challenging. We herein report a case of the broken distal piece of the tibial intramedullary nail remaining for 8 years, which was successfully extracted by closed method using a self-made broken nail extractor.

Case Presentation: A 51-year-old male patient was admitted to our hospital for extraction of the broken distal piece of the tibial intramedullary nail for 8 years. The preoperative X-ray films showed the broken intramedullary nail was cannulated and the outer diameter is 10 mm, larger than the isthmus of the medullary cavity.

Results: After reaming with Φ 11 mm drill, the self-made broken nail extractor was inserted into the medullary cavity from the nail entry point and passed through the canal of the broken nail, and successfully pulled out the broken nail.

Conclusion: Our technique is a simple reproducible alternative that has high extraction success rate for broken distal piece of cannulated intramedullary nails.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Mediated Enhanced Solubilization and Stability by UV-Spectroscopy

Manoj Jangde, S. K. Chatterjee, Sanjay Ghosh, Deepak Sinha, Rajendra Jangde

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i11B35535

In the case of solubility limited absorption, creating supersaturation in the GI fluid is very critical as supersaturation may provide great improvement of oral absorption. The techniques to create the so-called supersaturation in the GI fluid include microemulsions, emulsions, liposomes, complexations, polymeric micelles, and conventional micelles. Ciprofloxacin was chosen because it is practically insoluble in water; hence its salt form is used commercially, which is soluble in water. The objective of the present investigation was to enhance the solubility of ciprofloxacin by formulating solid dispersions techniques in water soluble carriers have attracted considerable interests as a mean of improving the dissolution rate & hence possibly bioavailability range of hydrophobic drugs. The poor solubility of ciprofloxacin leads to poor dissolution & hence variation in bioavailability. The purpose of present investigation was formulation & evaluation of controlled release floating capsule of ciprofloxacin with improved solubility & dissolution rate. In the present study solid dispersions using various carriers like mannitol & lactose in different ratios were prepared by solvent evaporation method. The prepared solid dispersions were characterized for drug content, solubility & dissolution rate. The dissolution rate substantially improved for ciprofloxacin from its solid dispersions compared with the pure drug. Dissolution rate increased with increasing carrier content.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Analysis of the Performance of Multiple Data Mining Classification Approaches Using the Kn Fold Validation

D. K. Girija, Manish Varshney

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i11B35542

In Healthcare the data is very large and sensitive. The data is mandatory to be handled very carefully without any negligence. A variety of data mining categorization approaches have been employed in the healthcare industry to assess the quality of services. On the basis of 150 patients' records, this study provides and evaluates the experience of implementing various data mining methodologies and procedures. Using data mining techniques, a new method for determining a product's correctness has emerged. The evaluation of performance on data mining classification by using a different algorithms like Decision Tree, Naïve Bayes, KNN, Radom Tree Set and Rule Model. Finally we tend to aim to contemplate the performance analysis of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity proportion to produce a result.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness about Wound Infection after Surgery among Population in Saudi Arabia

Khalil Terro, Abdulaziz Alatef, Razana Saleh Baeisa, Raghad Hamdan Albalawi, Mohammed I. Altidlawi, Rahaf Yasser Altowairqi, Tariq Bander F. Alanazi, Khames Alzahrani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i11B35543

Background: Surgical site infections (SSI) continue to be one of the most common post-operative consequences following surgery, it is an infection that develops in the incision made during a surgical operation is a significant cause of hospital morbidity, increasing ICU admission rates, hospital readmission, lengthening total hospital stay and tripling death rates. To assess knowledge and awareness about wound infection after surgery among population in Saudi Arabia.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conduct in Saudi Arabia during July to December 2021, we distributed our questionnaire in Kingdome of Saudi Arabia, the participants involving general population adult living in Saudi (>15). The sample size was 3357 participants. The sample size was estimated using the Qualtrics calculator with a confidence level of 95%. Our inclusion criteria were Age,15 years old and older, residency in Saudi Arabia, Male and female, Saudi and non-Saudi, agree to participate. Analyzes was done by using the “Microsoft Office Excel Software” (2019) for Windows was used to enter data on the computer. The data was then statistically evaluated using the SPSS program, version 23.

Results: 63.8% of the participants were females. More than half of the respondents were younger than 25 years old. Most of the respondents (9.1%) had a university degree or higher education. Regards area of residence, 10.1% lived in Riyadh, 14.0% in Medina. The prevalence of SSI was 8.0%. There are 50.2% of respondents have reported that times being admitted to hospital were 5 or less, 53.9% have denied history of undergoing other previous surgeries. Also, 95.5% of respondents denied having a hospital acquired infection besides surgical site infection.

Conclusion: SSI is one of the commonest healthcare related infections which have a great impact on patient morbidity and mortality. The causes of SSIs are multi-factorial. The antimicrobial regimen isn’t much more effective than the persuasive strategy in controlling antimicrobial use in the long-term. Moreover, in many settings, there may be inadequate personnel for a restrictive approach and restriction strategies are unable to consider the appropriateness of use of non-restricted antibiotics, which forms the vast majority of antibiotics used in hospital.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Investigation on the Oral Microbiota in Plaque Samples during Orthodontic Treatment

K. K. Shantha Sundari, R. Rajagopal, Rajagopalan Vijayaraghavan, S. Sasidharan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 41-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i11B35544

Malocclusion can be corrected by fixed orthodontic appliance therapy. However, ‌the‌ ‌complex‌ ‌appliance design‌‌ ‌and ‌‌the‌ ‌material‌ surface ‌characteristics of the appliance make mechanical debriding difficult, enabling biofilm formation. This‌ ‌study‌ ‌was performed‌ ‌to‌ investigate‌ the‌ ‌microbial‌ ‌load‌ ‌in‌ ‌‌plaque‌ at‌ ‌different‌ time ‌periods‌ ‌of‌ ‌the‌ ‌orthodontic‌ ‌therapy in participants with professionally well-maintained oral hygiene.‌ ‌This‌ ‌prospective‌ ‌study‌ was ‌conducted‌ ‌among‌ ‌12‌ ‌adult‌ ‌‌male‌ ‌participants. Six control (C batch) and six under orthodontic treatment (T batches). Simplified oral hygiene index OHI (S), Plaque index (PlI) and Russell’s Periodontal index (PI) scoring was performed for all subjects prior to sample collection. Plaque‌ ‌samples‌ ‌were‌ ‌collected‌ from both batch T,.and C at similar multiple intervals, corresponding with the sequential archwires for group T in regular use. ‌Six‌ ‌bacterial‌ ‌phyla‌‌ and‌ one‌ ‌fungal‌ ‌phyla ‌examined by subculture.‌ ‌Index scoring revealed that hygiene was maintained throughout study in both the control and treatment batches. A general increase in the microorganisms‌ was noticed,‌ in treatment group ‌reaching‌ ‌a‌ ‌peak‌ ‌at‌ ‌18th ‌month‌ ‌of‌ ‌treatment at T4 and reduced to pretreatment‌ ‌levels on debonding. Though, the microorganisms count increased during treatment, it was not exponential and can be considered favourable flora which matched with the good clinical oral health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Flax Seeds Extract Rinse against Streptococcus mutans Colonies

Ulfat Sultana, Syeda Amber Zaidi, Nasima Iqbal, Faiza Quraishi, Muhammad Aitmaududdolah Khan, Faisal Ali Baloch

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i11B35863

Background: Flax seeds has health-potentiating medicinal benefits due to the presence of a remarkable amount of bioactive compounds. The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of flax seeds against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae has been documented. Therefore, the current study current aims to investigated the antibacterial activity flax seeds extract rinse against Streptococcus mutans colonies

Methodology: It was a preclinical experimental study and sample size was n = 60. The participants were given an envelope for group randomization. Film of plaque from labial surface of teeth of study participants was collected on sterile strips that was transported to laboratory for culture in sterile containers. For culture S. mutant samples were inoculated in Columbia Agar. The flax seeds extract was diluted in distilled water in 1:4 (Extract: Distilled water) concentration. And participants were divided into 3 groups. (negative control, positive control, flax seed extract group). Diluted flax seed extract was given to experimental group for rinses, distilled water was given to negative control group and positive controls were given a commercially available mouth rinse. Next sample of plaque was collected after two hours to observe the effects of flax seed extract on bacterial colonies.

Results: The growth of colonies was calculated on growth media plates in samples prior to rinsing and samples that were taken after the rinsing. The pre and post samples showed significant (p-value <0.05) decrease in number of colonies in positive control group (conventional rinse) and flax seed extract group.

Conclusion: Flax seeds extract mouth rinse reduced the number of colonies equally as that of commercially available mouth rinse.