Open Access Systematic Review Article

Oral Manifestations of COVID-19 in Adult Patients: A Systematic Review

Jackeline Beatriz Pedrosa Astudillo, Catherine Andrea Vallejo Monrroy, Miriam Fernanda Ortega López, Celia María Pulgarin Fernández, José Luis Do Pico, Ronald Roossevelt Ramos Montiel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i11A35529

Introduction: It is currently considered that patients with COVID-19 may present certain common oral lesions of the oral cavity; However, in medically compromised patients, such as diabetics, hypertensive individuals, those suffering from obesity or heart disease there is an increased risk of developing ulcers, recurrent blisters on the palatal mucosa, burning sensation, dry mouth (xerostomia) and reduced saliva production, due to alteration of the mucosal barrier in the respiratory tract, thus presenting a broad differential diagnosis in the evolution of the disease.

Objective: The objective was to identify the oral manifestations of COVID-19 in adult patients.

Data: A database registry of n = 1956 was established, of which 100 studies were selected for this review, distributed: 36% from Europe, 26% from Asia, 26% from South America and 12% from North America.

Sources: Extensive electronic research was carried out in the databases: PubMed, Scopus, Epistemonikos, Web of Science, Springer, Lilacs, Latindex, Redalyc, Bireme, and the reports of the World Health Organization and the Pan-American Health Organization.

Study Selection: The research strategy was based on Medical Subject Heading terms, along with Health Sciences Descriptors. Certain descriptors were amplified for the Elsevier COVID-19 oral disease database and resources.

Conclusion: Dysgeusia would be one of the initial oral manifestations of the COVID-19. Health workers would have a new resource for the early diagnosis of asymptomatic patients or those in initial stages of COVID-19, through the effective collaboration between the team from the Critical Care Unit and the Dentistry Service.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Evaluation of 0.5% Levobupivacaine V/S 0.5% Levobupivacaine Mixed with 20µG Dexmedetomidine in Mandibular Iii Molar Surgeries – A Double Blind Randomised Controlled Trial

Shweta Patil, Nitin Bhola

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 56-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i11A35534

Background: Mandibular third molars (M3M) are the most common impacted teeth in the human dentition. Removal or extraction of these teeth is frightening for the patients owing to the perception of pain. As a result, pain control mechanism like anesthesia is the major factor that needs to be executed appropriately. Using newer local anesthetic drugs minimizes side effects and drug interactions. Levobupivacaine (Levo) is a congener of bupivacaine thereby minimizing the cardiotoxic effects of bupivacaine. Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is an alpha agonist which alongwith Levo is capable of providing prolonged duration of anesthesia decreasing the need for rescue analgesics.

Aim: This study will compare the anesthetic effectiveness between Levo and Levo alongwith Dex during the extraction of impacted M3M.

Methodology: A total of 50 consecutive systemically healthy patients requiring unilateral surgical extraction of impacted M3M with similar orientations will be divided into two groups randomly, one group (L) will receive nerve block with levo while the second group (LD) will receive Levo plus Dex during the extraction procedure.

Results: ‘Students t-test’ will be used to analyse and evaluate. The patients will be evaluated based on different parameters. The patient will be asked to reciprocate about the first bout of pain experience based on the Visual Analog Scale that will be handed over to patient after the procedure. The other parameters that will be evaluated are Onset on Anesthesia, Depth of Anesthesia, Hemodynamics, Oxygen saturation level, Sedation level and duration of post-operative analgesia. The patient will be evaluated over the time duration after which the patient had to take a rescue analgesic.

Conclusion: Levo with Dex is more efficient than Levo in providing prolonged duration of anesthesia and has prolonged duration of postoperative analgesia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Metoclopramide Prescribing Pattern in Al-Kharj

Nehad J. Ahmed, Dina I. Fouda, Ahmed I. Foudah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i11A35524

Aim: The present study aimed to describe metoclopramide prescribing pattern in Al-Kharj.

Methodology: This was a retrospective study that was conducted to know the prescribing pattern of metoclopramide in a public hospital in Alkharj. The data were collected from the electronic prescriptions in the hospital in the first half of 2018.

Results: The outpatient pharmacy dispensed metoclopramide to 160 patients during the first half of 2018. More than half of the patients were female patients (51.25%). The age of 36.25% of the patients was between 29 and 29 years old and the age of 25.00% of them was between 30 and 39 years old. Most of the prescriptions were prescribed for 3 days (68.13%) followed by 5   days (20.00%). Emergency department prescribed about 96.25% of the metoclopramide prescriptions.

Conclusion: The present study showed that metoclopramide was used commonly in Al-kharj. Further studies are needed to describe the frequency and pattern of using metoclopramide and also to describe the pattern of using other antiemetic medications in different settings.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey on Jaw Correction in Aesthetical Aspects

S. Nehal Safiya, Dinesh Premavathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i11A35531

Introduction: Orthognathic surgery helps in adjusting your bite, correcting conditions that affect the symmetry of your face etc. Corrective jaw surgery or is designed to correct conditions of the jaw and lower face.

Aim: The aim of this study is to pass on the knowledge and information about Jaw correction in aesthetical aspects

Materials and Methods: The present study was a questionnaire based survey. The data was entered and analyzed using a software program called SPSS Statistics version 23.

Result: From the responses obtained, about 40 percent of the respondents belonged to the age group of 23-25 whereas about 35 percent belonged to the age group of 17-19 and the rest of 25 percent belonged to the age group of 20-22

Conclusion: The present study thus concluded that the knowledge of jaw correction in aesthetical aspects was passed on to the undergraduates students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Fundus Fluorescein Angiography in Early Diabetic Maculopathy: A Cross-sectional Study

Ghulam Hyder Sahito, Mahtab Alam Khanzada, Azfar Ahmed Mirza, Mona Liza Mahesar, Imtiaz Ahmed Gilal, Urooj Bhatti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i11A35532

Aim: To assess the role of fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) for early detection of diabetic maculopathy.

Study Design: Prospective Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration: Department of Ophthalmology, unit II Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences (LUMHS), Jamshoro, Hyderabad between March 2020 to March 2021.

Methodology: Diabetic patients above the age of 20 years were screened by visual acuity recording, fundus, slit-lamp examination, and Fundus fluorescein angiography. Complete ophthalmic detail was obtained from each participant using pre-designed Proforma. Outcomes of the study were recorded.

Results: A total of 100 subjects having 200 eyes were observed in the study. There were 53(53%) males and 47(47%) females with a mean age of 54±21.22 years. FFA was done in 124(62%) eyes. Diabetic maculopathy with diabetic retinopathy was higher in moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) 53(42.7%) followed by proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) 22(17.7%), severe NPDR 20(16.1%), and mild NPDR 08(6.5%). Most of the subjects 79(63.7%) had the diffuse type of leakage followed by focal 33(26.6%) and mixed type of leakage. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and Central Macular Thickness (CMT) were improved at the 3rd and 6th-month follow-up visit as compared to baseline visit.

Conclusion: Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), a diagnostic method of diabetic retinopathy is reliable, more accurate, and precise. Our study recommends that diabetic patients should be regularly screened through FFA to save the precious vision of the diabetic population.

Open Access Review Article

Applications of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma in Dentistry- A Review

Mitthra Suresh, V. T. Hemalatha, N. Mani Sundar, Arthi Nisha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-55
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i11A35533

Plasma is one of the most dominant states of matter in the universe and was identified  by Sir William Crooke in 1879. It is an electrically conducting medium that responds to electric and magnetic fields. It implies studies concerning the direct action of low temperature and the effect of low atmospheric plasma pressure on body tissues for various non-invasive therapeutic treatments or diagnostic purposes. Plasma consists of large quantities of highly reactive species, such as ions, energetic electrons, exited atoms and molecules, ultraviolet photons in the meta-stable state, and active radicals. Research has revealed promising and successful medical applications of these non-thermal, cold plasma-reactive oxygen species. The objective of this minor review is to highlight the numerous applications of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) in dentistry, which include: dental caries prevention by bacterial inactivation; prevention of oral cancer by selective destruction of the tumour cells and damaged tissue repair effects; tooth bleaching or whitening procedures; in restorative dentistry for placement of composite restorations; in endodontic therapy for root canal disinfection; and for the treatment of oral thrush (induced by Candida albicans).