Open Access Case Study

Cystitis Glandularis with Intestinal Metaplasia

Martha Rinnah Bijou, A. Josephine, S. Mary Lilly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-42
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i5A35407

Cystitis glandularis (CG) is an unusual proliferative disorder of the urinary bladder, which is characterized by transitional cells that have undergone glandular metaplasia.  Cystitis glandularis has occasionally been proposed as a precursor of adenocarcinoma by various studies. Also, the intestinal subtype of cystitis glandularis has been described as premalignant. Here, we report a case of 37 year old female presenting with hematuria and acute retention of urine with cystoscopy revealing a pedunculated growth arising from the anterior wall of the bladder. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumour was performed and histopathology suggested cystitis glandularis with intestinal metaplasia. Immunohistochemical study was done using CDX2 and CK20 which showed nuclear and cytoplasmic positivity respectively and hence the diagnosis was confirmed. Intestinal metaplasia is a risk factor and a putative precursor of adenocarcinoma. Hence the, proper evaluation of the histological features and immunohistochemical studies of cystitis glandularis, especially intestinal type helps in correct categorization of this lesion.

Due to the increased occurrence of adenocarcinoma in patients with cystitis glandularis, it is recommended to have a close follow up of the patients diagnosed with cystitis glandularis with intestinal metaplasia because it may turn malignant.

Open Access Method Article

A Novel Synthesis of 1,2,3triazole Substituted Pyrimidine, Pyrazole by Using 1,2,3triazolchalcone

A. J. Shadakshari, T. H. Suresha Kumara, H. B. V., A. J. Yamuna

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 55-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i5A36312

A series of 1- benzyl-5-methyl 1,2,3 triazole pyrimidine , 1- benzyl-5-methyl 1,2,3 triazole pyrazole were synthesised by using intermediate as phenyl Substituted prop-2-en-1-one .We obtained pyrazole when we treated propenones by using hydrazine hydrate and we obtained pyrimidine by using urea and thiourea. Conformations of the compounds were done by 1HNMR and C13 NMR analysis and these compounds were screened for antimicrobial activities.


Graphical Abstract


Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Oral Health Related Knowledge and Practices among Support Staff at a Dental Institution: A Cross-sectional Survey

Amol Karagir, Tanushri Dalvi, Shrivardhan Kalghatgi, Shridevi Adaki, Aniruddha Shete, Anagha Shete, Shraddha Thorat

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i5A35403

Aim: Knowledge of oral health is considered as one of the important factors as it influences the oral health related behaviour of an individual and oral hygiene practices in turn affects the oral heath related quality of life. Hence, the main aim of this survey was to assess the knowledge and practices of support staff at dental institute in Maharashtra.

Study Design: Cross-sectional survey.

Methodology: The present survey was cross-sectional survey conducted among 103 Support staff of a Dental Institute. The questionnaire consisted of 16 questions which which was distributed. Demographic characteristics, oral health related knowledge and practices were presented using descriptive statistics. Knowledge among different categories of support staff was compared using chi-square test.

Results and Conclusion: The results of the present study conclude that majority of the participants had a good knowledge about their oral health but were not motivated to utilize dental services which were available to them. The oral hygiene practices lacked the use of supplemental oral hygiene aids.

Open Access Original Research Article

Screening of a Benzimidazole Derivative for Anthelmintic Activity with "Rule of 5" Approach

Chaitanya Prasad Meher, Vijaya Kumar Meher, Dharmendra Pradhan, Ashish Kumar Meher, Subodha Chandra Sahu, Soumitri Sahu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i5A35404

Purpose: Synthetic chemistry is an important route to develop new therapeutics for every disease. The presented research is focusing on the design, synthesis, evaluation, and Lipinski’s rule approach for a new biologically active benzimidazole derivative.

Methods: The synthesis comprises the reaction between lactic acid and o-phenylenediamine (OPD) to produce a corresponding product followed by self-condensation for obtaining a complex multiple.

Results: The newly produced composite was found to hold weighty anthelmintic property when we compared the same with Albendazole(Standard drug). When the concentration of the desired compound increases paralysis as well as death time found to decreases respectively. 50µg/ml of the synthesized drug gave a time for paralysis is 30.43 ± 5.33 min & time for death is 0.56 ± 5.32 min.

Conclusion: The synthesized final compound showed to have anthelmintic activity and its orally active property was also predicted from the Molinspiration software using physicochemical (RO5) as well as bioactive limits. It can be used for anthelmintic drugs as an oral formulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioprocessing of Agricultural Waste (Banana Pseudostem) by Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) for Production of Cellulase

Sharanappa Achappa, Anil R. Shet, Veeranna S. Hombalimath, Laxmikant R. Patil, Shivalingasarj V. Desai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 15-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i5A35405

Cellulase was produced by Cellulomonas uda utilizing banana stem waste by solid state fermentation (SSF). The different parameters effects considered like particle size of substrate, pH(incubation and extraction), incubation period, temperature (incubation and extraction), media components (yeast extract and peptone) and moisture of substrate on the production of cellulase was investigated. The optimum activity of cellulase produced by Cellulomonas uda on banana waste for particle size (6.97 IU/min for 1mm), extraction pH (7.13 IU/min for pH 7), incubation pH(6.97 IU/min for pH 7), extraction temperature (7.10 IU/min for 500C), incubation temperature (7.20 IU/min for 450C), incubation period (7.20 IU/min on 3rd  day), moisture content (7.12 IU/min for 100% ), peptone content ( 7.23 IU/min for 0.5 gm) and yeast extract content (7.18 IU/min for 0.30gm) was recorded.  The cellulase produced by Cellulomonas uda by using banana stem waste indicates the socio-econic utilization of agricultural waste. After purification and characterization; cellulase enzyme can be used in industrial processes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Potential of the Sulphated Polysaccharides Fraction of Turbinaria ornata against paracetamol-induced Liver Damage in Rats

N. T. Ravindran, A. Mohamed Sadiq

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i5A35406

Aims: To assess the potential of the sulphated polysaccharides fraction from brown marine alga Turbinaria ornata in protecting the liver damage induced by high dose of paracetamol.

Study Design: In the present work, liver damage was induced in rats with paracetamol. Simultaneously other groups of rats were given standard drug or Turbinaria ornata sulphated polysaccharides fraction. From the rats’ serum, parameters like alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and reduced glutathione were determined; and from the liver homogenate, reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were determined for the evaluation of the hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of the sulphated polysaccharides fraction from Turbinaria ornata.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Adhiparasakthi College of Arts and Science (Autonomous), G.B. Nagar, Kalavai – 632 506, Tamil Nadu, India.

Methodology: This study was performed using Wistar albino rats divided into six groups. Group 1 Control group. Groups 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 received paracetamol (2 g/kg) for 7 days. In addition to paracetamol, group 3 received silymarin (100 mg/kg), groups 4, 5 and 6 received Turbinaria ornata sulphated polysaccharides fraction at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg respectively for 7 days. On the 8th day, serum and liver samples were collected from the animals and the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities were assessed by studying the levels of liver marker enzymes, bilirubin, protein, reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes.

Results: Turbinaria ornata sulphated polysaccharides fraction, at the tested doses, restored the levels of all serum markers and enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and reduced glutathione) as well as liver homogenate antioxidant markers (reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) significantly, in dose-dependent manner.

Conclusion: This study suggests that the Turbinaria ornata sulphated polysaccharides fraction has a hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver damage and possess antioxidant activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Angiotensin Receptor Blocker and Probiotics in Caffeine-Induced Anxiety Model

Pooja Verma, Siraj Anwar, Rohit Dutt

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 43-54
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i5A35408

Aim:  To evaluate to anti-anxiety effectof probiotics and angiotensine receptor blocker in caffeine induced anxiety rat model.

Methodology: The study was conducted in six groups (n=6). Caffeine was given intraperitoneally at a dosage of 25 mg/kg each day for 14 days. Blood samples, body temperature, and glucose measurements were taken prior to the trial. Caffeine was given intraperitoneally to G1-G5 mice at a dosage of 25 mg/kg. For groups 3 and 4, a probiotic formulation was given orally following the caffeine dosage. In group 5, a probiotic topical gel (30 mg) was given topically to the animals' foreheads. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) was given to group 2 animals.

Results: The body weight was not changed significantly throughout the study period in all the groups. Mortality and clinical signs were not observed during study. When compared to the anxiety control group, there was no statistical significance in either of the groups' glucose levels. There was no statistical significance in Hemoglobin (Hb) levels of animals on day 14 when we compare with anxiety control group. The changes in SGOT and SGPT levels were not found to be statistically significant. There was no statistical significance in rectal temperature of animals. There was no statistical significance in all the groups in hot plate readings on day 7 when compared with anxiety control group. Whereas there was significance increase in latency time (time spent) was observed in group 2 & group 6 when compared to anxiety control group on day 14. Probiotic high dosage and probiotic topic gel treated animals similarly spent significantly more time in open arms than anxiety control animals (P< 0.01). High serotonin levels were observed In the anxiety control rats .however it reduced in treatment groups.

Conclusion: The study concludes the potential benefit of probiotics and Losartan for the treatment of caffeine induced anxiety.