Open Access Case Report

Potential Application of Wharton's Jelly-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Conditioned Medium (WJMSCs-CM) on Delayed Wound Healing: A Case Report

Cindy Christella Chandra, Yurike Indah Pratiwi, Sukmawati Tansil Tan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i4A35393

Delayed wound healing refers to wounds that do not repair the wounded tissue's integrity in a timely manner, prolonging the inflammatory, proliferative, and remodelling phases of healing. Delayed wound healing increases the chance of infection, causing discomfort, lowering the quality of life, and increasing healthcare costs. One of the newest techniques to heal wounds is to use the conditioned medium (secretome) of mesenchymal stem cells. One case was reported, a seventeen-year-old man appeared with a one-month history of wound in his left neck that had not healed after a keloid removal surgery. The wound was treated with a 10% Wharton's Jelly-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Conditioned Medium (WJMSCs-CM) topical gel. During the two weeks of the intervention, the results are encouraging. The lesion has reduced in size and turned into a closed wound.

Open Access Minireview Article

The Application of Hydroxyapatite in Socket Preservation: A Review of the Past and Current Advancement

Nurul Saadah Razali, Luay Thanoon Younis, Mohamed Ibrahim Abu Hassan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i4A35394

Alveolar ridge dimensional loss is a physiologic consequence of tooth extraction. Often, this event causes compromised feasibility of implant placement, prosthetic rehabilitation and esthetic outcome. As an attempt to minimize the shrinkage of the alveolar bone, socket preservation was introduced to intervene with the natural process by providing a scaffold with antibacterial and regenerative properties that aid in the healing process. For past decades, hydroxyapatites (HA) are one of the biomaterials used in socket preservation procedure and was thought to be biocompatible, long-term resorbable or non-resorbable and osteoconductive. Several improvements have been made to enhance the properties of hydroxyapatites that acted in providing a framework during the healing process to provide better outcomes. Here, we summarize the past and current advancements in the use of hydroxyapatite in socket preservation and its future direction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Statins for the Treatment of Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis-C Patients

Amina Abbassi, Ashok Kumar Lohano, Anwar Ali Jamali, Farah Mughul, Muhammad Khalid Shaikh, Muhammad Zain Shaikh, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 15-21
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i4A35395

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease and the leading indication for liver transplantation worldwide. Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) leads to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Statins have gained attention for their pleiotropic effects. There is mounting evidence that statins offer chemoprevention against many malignancies. The aim of this was to determine the efficacy of the statin for the treatment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients.

Methodology: A randomized control trial was conducted at Hepatitis Clinic, People Medical College Hospital, Nawabshah from August 20, 2020, to February 20, 2021. Non-probability, consecutive sampling was adapted. Patients with chronic hepatitis C infection and liver fibrosis were included. Group-A was administered statins in addition to antiviral treatment while Group-B was given anti-viral medications only. Stages of fibrosis were determined by shear wave elastography at the start of the study and after 6 months. All the data were entered and analyzed in Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) v25.0.

Results: There were 73 patients in each group. Fibrosis progression occurred in 7(9.6%) patients in group-A and 23(31.5%) in group-A. The link between the efficacy of the treatment given with the group-A and group-B was significant with a p-value of 0.001.

Conclusion: Findings demonstrate a significant reduction in the risk of fibrosis progression among statin users with advanced chronic hepatitis C. These results support a possible role for statins in the prevention of liver disease progression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Diabetic Retinopathy among the Diabetes Mellitus Type –II Patients at Tertiary Care Hospital of Hyderabad

Asadullah Jatoi, Noman Ahmed Shaikh, Mona Liza Mahesar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i4A35396

Background: Diabetes Mellitus is the major and leading cause of mortality among the local population of Asian countries. Routinely increase in the number of diabetes mellitus can produce financial and health crises.

Aim and Objective: This study aims to evaluate the diabetic retinopathy among the diabetes mellitus type-II at tertiary care hospital of Hyderabad.

Materials and Methods: The current research was conducted for the period of 06 months at Department of Medicine, tertiary care hospital of Hyderabad. Total 158 patients were selected with confirmed report of diabetic retinopathy. Demographic data was taken from all participants. Eye examination was performed by ophthalmologist and results were analyzed.

Results: After proper collection of data, results were compiled accordingly, total 158 participants were included in the study, from them 92 were males, 66 females. 49 patients were fall in the category of 33-39years of age group, 87 patients were having less than 1 year diabetic history, 66 participants had moderate level of HbA1c, 79 people only use Oral medicine for diabetic control, 109 patients had hypertension, 01 patients was reported with heart failure, whereas 81 patients had reported NPDR (Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy) and 77 had PDR (Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy).

Conclusion: It was concluded from the current study that diabetic retinopathy was associated with long term complication of diabetes and considered as indication for severe type of diseases associated with diabetes. Patients of NPDR with very low care can develop PDR. So the patients of NPDR were closely monitored through Ophthalmologist and Diabetologist.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness, Seeking Behaviors and Preventive Practices towards COVID-19 among Najran University Students

Abdullah I. Aedh, Nahid Kh. Elfaki, Mohammed Abdulrahman Alshahrani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i4A35418

Background: New corona virus (COVID-19), as an international health threat poses a challenge to physical as well as psychological resilience in the affected countries.

Objective: The aim of this survey is to explore the level of awareness, health seeking behaviors and preventive measures towards COVID19 among Najran University students.

Methodology: By adopting a convenient sampling technique, an observational and cross-sectional study was carried out at Najran University, Najran city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A self-reporting electronic questionnaire had been utilized for collecting data.

Results: A total of 684 students voluntarily completed the questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 20.2±4.1 The most cited source for obtaining information about COVID-19 was the social media (51%). Females showed higher level of knowledge and awareness about the symptoms of the disease than males (74.3% vs 69.9%) respectively, although the difference was not significant with (P-value >0.05). Concerning compliance with preventive measures, medical students were significantly aware and complying with various preventives measures towards COVID-19 (P-value <0.05). Moreover, females seem to be significantly more keen in seeking medical advice when needed than males (P-value <0.05). Almost more than two-third of the respondents know the recommended general precautions in terms of wearing masks, not to touch outdoors surfaces directly without gloves and avoiding crowded places. 556 (81.3%) of the participants believe that they should wear face-masks outdoors. Interestingly, 6% of the participants thought that they prefer to take some herbs daily in different forms to avoid being infected with COVID-19. Additionally, females had an overall higher Mean tension level towards being infected than males (Mean± SD was 5.61 ±1.65 vs 4.55± 1.63) respectively.

Conclusion: It was concluded that the students have high level of knowledge and awareness about COVID-19, beside positive attitudes to preventive measures and acceptable health seeking behaviors. It is highly recommended that the entire Najran University community level of awareness be assessed to design and implement educational programs when needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) About Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 among the General Public

G. Ramya Balaprabha, K. Priyanka, T. Ruth Jerusha, G. Hemanth, S. Catherine Sushmitha, T. Rama Rao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i4A35419

Background: A Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) survey is a quantitative method (predefined questions formatted in standardized questionnaires) that provides qualitative and quantitative information. Measure the extent of a known situation; provides new tangents of a situations reality This has resulted in the public becoming more cautious, thereby minimizing the transmission of the disease to a certain level.

Introduction: COVID-19 (COVID-19 is disease caused by a new strain of Coronavirus. ’CO’ stands for corona, ’VI’ for virus, and ‘D’ for disease. the most common symptoms which appear 2-14 days after exposure [1].Headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, sore throat and muscle weakness are some of the less common symptoms experienced by some people, while some others may not develop any symptoms until later. This study is conducted to understand the extent of awareness among the general public and the importance of preventing the spread of Coronavirus infection in the community. An online questionnaire survey is conducted consisting the essential parameters about the important aspects of disease spread.

Objective: To assess Coronavirus awareness among people. To understand the attitude of people towards Coronavirus

Results: A total number of 564 participants took part In this study during the study period of 6months. Among which 325 were male and 239 were female. The male participants compromised the majority percentage (57%) of the total number of participants while the female participants comprised only (42.4%) of the participants. The result showed a significant correlation between female gender, higher age, and higher education, with knowledge, attitude, and practice.

Conclusion: To adhere to the guidelines released by the Government and the guidelines provided by the WHO have played an extremely vital role in improving the knowledge and awareness among the general population which in turn brought positive effects in people’s attitude and practices towards Coronavirus since the WHO’s declaration of Coronavirus as a pandemic. This has resulted in the public becoming more cautious, thereby minimizing the transmission of the disease to a certain level. Several public health measures which are now being implemented around the world will hopefully diminish the spread of the virus while safe and effective treatments and vaccines are being developed to terminate it.