Open Access Case Study

Effect of Brunnstrom Movement Therapy Combined with Neurodevelopmental Therapy on Balance and Mobility in a Patient with Acute Stroke: An Interesting Case Report

Saurabh Puri, Rakesh Krishna Kovela, Mohammed Irshad Qureshi, Ragini Dadgal, Rebecca Timothy, Snehal Samal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i2A35354

Stroke is the world's second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability. Ischemic strokes account for 68 percent of all strokes worldwide, while hemorrhagic strokes account for 32 percent. A stroke is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention. Early intervention can help to prevent brain damage and other problems. The present case report is of a 24 year male suffered with stroke on 24th July 2021. He was private employee in a hospital. He was presented with weakness of left side of the body. He was treated by using brunnstrom movement therapy and Neurodevelopmental therapy (NDT). He was treated for a period of 4 weeks. First two weeks as inpatient and last two weeks as outpatient. He was treated one hour per day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Modified Ashworth scale (MAS), brunnstrom recovery stages of upper limb, lower limb and trunk were taken pre and post treatment. There was tremendous improvement in both upper and lower limbs. Patient is able to walk and perform all the activities. Thus in conclusion, brunnstrom movement therapy in combination with NDT is an effective treatment strategy for early recovery of stroke patient.

Open Access Case Study

Benefit of Early and Goal Directed Physiotherapy Intervention on Gross Motor Function in a Child with Japanese Encephalitis: A Rare Case Report

Riya Kale, Rakesh Krishna Kovela, Mohammed Irshad Qureshi, Ragini Dadgal, Rebecca Timothy, Snehal Samal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i2A35358

Due to its widening geographical range, Japanese encephalitis (JE) has lately been named a notifiable disease in India. The disease notification makes it easier to put preventive measures in place and manage cases. JE is a vector-borne disease that is preventable with vaccination. The virus that causes it is the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which belongs to the Flaviviridae family. The present case report is of an infant of 18 months old presented with problems of decreased tone, loss of developmental achieved milestones and convulsions with severe fever. On examination there was hypotonia, lack on neck control, difficulty in rolling, low pitch cry and smile. We managed the child with standard physiotherapy protocol. We framed goals focusing both on preventing complications and promoting recovery. We gave treatment for a period of 4 weeks. We measured Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and Gross motor function measure (GMFM-88) Pre and post treatment. We would like conclude our case report by mentioning the importance early and goal specific supportive and restorative care to a child will enable him or her to take more vigorous physiotherapy care in future for restoring sensorimotor and behavioral function.

Open Access Study Protocol

Effectiveness of Self-instructional Module on Knowledge Regarding Healthy Sleep Hygiene Habits on Quality of Sleep, among Arthritis Patients

Sheetal Sakharkar, Ranjana Sharma, Ruchira Ankar, Vaishali Tembhare, Arati Raut, Khushabu Meshram, Dinesh V. Mude

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i2A35353

Aim of the Study: To assess the effectiveness of self-instructional module on healthy sleep hygiene habits on quality of sleep, among arthritis patients.

Study Design: The design that will be used in the study is One Group Pre Test Post Test research design. 

Methodology: A study used a pre-test post-test design with no control group and a pre-experimental design. The study will be conducted during December 2021 to May 2021.The impact of self-instructional module on healthy sleep hygiene habits on quality of sleep, among arthritis patients will be assessed using the purposive sampling technique. In this study Evaluatory research approach will be used. Selected 140 arthritis patients will be assessed primarily for knowledge by giving structured questionnaires regarding healthy sleep hygiene habits and then self-instructional module on healthy sleep hygiene habits on quality of sleep, will be given to the selected sample developed by researcher as intervention.

Expected Results: To assess the effectiveness of self-instructional module on healthy sleep hygiene habits on quality of sleep, among arthritis patients. In this study self-instructional module on healthy sleep hygiene habits on quality of sleep will be useful in improving the arthritis patient’s knowledge.

Conclusion: The conclusion will be drawn from the results and will be published in per review journal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gene Expression Analysis of Specific Genes Related to Genomic Stability in Colon Cancer Cell Lines - A Resource for Cancer Research

Ghadah Alamro, Norah Almousa, Jamilah Almusallam, Maram Bin Watyan, Sara Alghamdi, Sadeem Al- Jabr, Nada Alqahtani, Abeer Aldbass, Ramesa Shafi Bhat, Sooad Al Daihan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i2A35355

Appropriate cell models are the foundation of cancer research as all the cell lines are not the same in their ability to mimic primary tumor tissue. Molecular characteristics of various cell lines can help in selecting the right cell model for biomedical studies.  This study describes the gene expression profile of nine genes, include the six-protein shelterin complex, tankyrases1and 2, and CTNNB1 in three different models of human colon cancer cell lines. Also, the relative telomere length in each cell line was evaluated. All genes' expression levels were analyzed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Nearly all test genes were significantly highly expressed in HT-29 as compared to HCT-116 and SW-620. SW-620 record a significantly increased expression of the  CTNNB1 gene (P-value < 0.01) while most genes were poorly expressed in HCT-116. A positive correlation between CTNNB1 and hTERT expression was found in HCT-116 and SW-620 but not in HT-29. Telomere was found to be of the same length in all cell.  Gene expression data presented in our results can assist in selecting appropriate cell lines in colon cancer research. Unique molecular properties of various cancer cell lines should be   evaluated before selecting a cell line mmodelfor research purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychological Impact of the COVID 19 Pandemic among College Students: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Survey

Bhupalam Pradeepkumar, E. Madhubala, N. Sai Venkat, Y. Kiran Kumar, Narayana Goruntla, C. Haranath, K. Soma Sekhar Reddy, Abdul Ahad, A. Sudheer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i2A35356

The novel coronavirus (COVID-2019) has spread very rapidly all over the globe, causing an outbreak of acute infectious pneumonia. This pandemic brought not only the risk of death but also psychological pressure on people and remarkably on college students. To assess the psychological impact of COVID-19 on college students. A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted on college students studying diploma, graduation, and post-graduation irrespective of their gender was included in the study.  The data was collected through online mode by providing links to fill google form.  The survey tool was disseminated in various messenger groups and social media networks.  The survey tool comprises demographics, COVID-19 stressors, generalized anxiety disorder scale (GAD 7), and patient health questionnaire (PHQ 9) scale. Chi-square was used to find the association between demographic characters with anxiety and depression. 443 students participated in this web-based survey. Among all participants, 44.25% were normal range, 31.38% are mild anxiety, 18.97% were moderate anxiety, and 5.42% were severe anxiety.  Results also indicated that there were 37.25% participants were in normal range, about 27% were mild depression, 22.13% moderate depression, 7.45% moderately severe depression and 6.1% severe depression. All the variables other than gender, place of residence, and steady family income were significantly associated with anxiety, whereas gender and place of residence variables were not significantly associated with depression. To conclude, the mental health of college students was significantly affected by the pandemic. More help and support from society, families and colleges would be supportive to them. It is suggested that the government and colleges should collaborate to resolve this problem by providing high-quality, timely crisis oriented psychological services to college students.

Open Access Review Article

Comparison of Preauricular Versus Retromandibular Approach in the Management of Mandibular Condyle Fractures

. Lavina, Tahera Ayub, Bharti Kumari, Raj Kumar, Babar Abro, Syed Ghazanfar Hassan, Salman Shams

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i2A35357

Objective: To compare the rate of complications encountered on using different incision to access the fracture site for the open reduction and internal fixation of condylar fractures.

Setting: Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Institute of Dentistry, LUMHS

Subject and Methods: A total 64 patients with unilateral condyle fractures were randomly treated into two groups. Thirty two patients in group A were treated with preauricular incision and 32 were treated with Retro mandibular incision. Patients were followed for period of upto six months for assessment of complications of facial nerve injury such as: salivary fistula and hypertrophic scar formation.

Results: The average age of the patients was 31.66±9.40 years. Rate of facial nerve palsy was significantly high in group A than group B (18.75% vs. 6.25%; p=0.021) similarly, the rate of salivary fistula and scar formation were also significantly high in group A as compare to groups B (12.5% vs. 1.56% p=0.026) and (14.06% vs. 1.56%;p=0.013) respectively.  

Conclusion: The retromandibular approach is more suitable for the lower level condylar neck fractures, providing a direct visual field and wide, straight-line access for implant fixation at this region.