Open Access Case Report

Study on Acalculous Cholecystitis in Critically Ill Patients

P. Krishmitha, Divyan Devasir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35245

Introduction: Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) may be a serious complication of critical illness. We evaluated the underlying diseases, clinical and diagnostic features, the severity of associated organ failures, and the outcome of operatively treated AAC during a mixed ICU patient population.

Aim: To study acalculous cholecystitis in critically ill patients with given data.

Methods: The data of all ICU patients who had operatively confirmed AAC during their ICU stay between 1 January 2021 and 31 July 2021 were collected from the hospital records and the intensive care unit's data management system for further analysis.

Results: Two hundred and eighteen cases of acute cholecystitis with complete charts were available for analysis. The study group included 67 critically ill patients with ASA 3 and 4, while the control group included 150 fit patients with ASA 1 and 2. Both groups were comparable with regard to preoperative data. Histopathology confirmed severe cholecystitis in a significant number of cases in the study group compared to the control group. Significantly higher rates of morbidity and mortality were recorded in the study group. Equally, significantly more patients from the study group were managed in the ICU.

Conclusion: Acute acalculous cholecystitis was associated with severe illness, infection, long ICU stay, and multiple organ failure. Mortality was related to the degree of organ failure. Prompt diagnosis and active treatment of AAC are often life-saving in these patients.

Open Access Case Report

Holistic Approach via Physiotherapeutic Intervention in a Complex Multiple Fracture Hampering a Middle-Class Man’s Life- a Case Report

Manali Boob, Madhu Lakhwani, Pratik Phansopkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 80-91
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35255

Ankle fractures contribute to almost nine percent of all fractures of the weight-bearing joints, with uni, bi, and trimalleolar fractures being the most prevalent. Weber’s and (AO/ASIF) classifications are commonly used for easy analysis. Tibial plateau fractures can range in severity from stable to severely comminuted unstable fractures with extensive tissue injury, putting the extremities' at risk, according to the Schatzker grading system. The ulna is a long bone in the forearm that extends parallel to the radius and travels medially. The severity of proximal ulna fractures ranges from basic AO/OTA Classification fractures to severe Monteggia fractures or Monteggia-like lesions. After a road accident, a 35-year-old man with compound grade 3B ankle dislocation, Schatzker type 1 fracture of tibia, and proximal 1/3 ulnar shaft fracture of the left side were diagnosed on x-ray with external application of a delta fixator over the ankle, open reduction and internal fixation on the tibial plateau with screws and the nail was impacted over the ulna fracture. After the procedure, the patient was treated with physical therapy for 12 weeks, beginning with static regimens and proceeding to dynamic exercises, electrotherapeutic modalities, strengthening exercises, and gait exercises. The purpose of this study was to explore potential favorable rehabilitation effects in the use of exercises following operatively treated unstable ankle fractures requiring partial weight-bearing in the first six postoperative weeks.

Conclusion: It could be shown that Immediate Postoperative Physical Therapy protocol in a proper scheduled manner helped the Patient to return to his daily activities with improved ranges, strength, and motivation to work again without any difficulties.

Open Access Case Report

Case Report on Hirschsprung’s Disease

Yash Talekar, Suhas Tivaskar, Anurag Luharia, Ravi Christian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 191-197
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35276

Introduction: Hirschsprung's disease (HIRSH-SPROONGZ) is a disorder that affects the large intestine (colon) and makes passing faces difficult. As a result of missing nerve cells in the baby's colon muscles, the disease is present at birth (congenital). Hirschsprung’s popularized it in 1886 after “Ruysch” recognized it in 1961. Hirschsprung’s disease is an intrinsic developmental condition. The enteric nervous system has an inherent component.

Clinical Findings: Difficulty in passing stool, Abdominal pain, Fever, (Temperature 100-degree f) Vomiting, Failure of thrive, constipation, tiredness.

Diagnostic Evaluation: CBC Investigation, blood test, Hb-12.9%, Total RBC count-4.84million/cumm, RDW-13.2%, HCT-36.7%, Total WBC Count-26200 cu mm, Monocytes- 01%, Granulocytes- 30%, Lymphocytes- 65%, Total platelet count-3.5 Lacs/cu mm, ALT(SGPT)-17 U/L, AST (SGOT)-44 U/L.

Peripheral Smear: RBCs-Normocytic Normochromic Platelets-Adequate on smear, No Hemiparasite seen, WBCs-Neutrophilic leukocytosis.

Therapeutic Intervention: - blood Transfusion, Inj.Aminoven 200 mg BD, Inj. Cefotaxime 400mg BD IV, Inj. Pantaprazole 12mg OD, Syp. Augmentin 3ml BD, Syp. Azee 5ml OD, Inj. Emset 1.8 mg SOS.

Outcome: After treatment the child shows improvement his passing stool frequently and relive vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, and facial expression are good.

Conclusion: - My patient was admitted in pediatric ward no 22 at AVBRH with a known case of Hirschsprung’s disease, and he had complaint of difficulty in passing stool at birth, after getting appropriate treatment and surgery his condition was improve.

Open Access Case Study

Study the Effectiveness of Vacuum Assisted Closure Therapy in the Healing of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcer

B. Magesh, M. Magesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 198-203
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35277

Aim: To determine the effectiveness of vacuum assisted closure(vac) therapy in the healing of chronic diabetic foot ulcer.

Methodology: A prospective study was conducted among the patients who were admitted and treated for diabetic foot ulcer in Saveetha Medical College And Hospital over a period of 6 months from January 2021 to June 2021. There were about 15 patients admitted and treated for the same.

Results: An aggregate of 15 patients were remembered for the review. Among them 62% (n=9) were male and 38% (n=6). Age range was from 30 to 70 years with a mean age of 50 ± 9.75 years. The recurrence of VAC dressing change was following 24-48 hours for 75% (n=11) wounds, like clockwork for 15% (n=4) wounds. Larger part of patients (92.5%, n=13) don't need extra debridement over the span of VAC treatment. Normal decrease in injury region noticed was 11.4 ± 4.55 cm2 (territory, 3.4 to 38.6cm2) and the normal season of recuperating noticed was 21.75±10.55 days (range, 14 to 4 days).

Conclusion: VAC treatment is exceptionally powerful and helpful in the treatment of diabetic foot disease and ulcers and plays an authoritative part upgrading granulation tissue arrangement, wound size decrease, recuperating of twisted in lesser time.

Open Access Study Protocol

Protocol of Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of Kulattha Gutika with Atorvastatin in the Management of Dyslipidemia (Medoroga)

Praveen Nandal, Sadhana Misar Wajpeyi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 50-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35251

Introduction: The term 'Dyslipidemia' can be referred to Medoroga included under santarpanajanyavyadhi as per Ayurveda. In Dyslipidemia there is involvement of Tridosha with kaphadominance. Intake of unhealthy food, alcohol, cigarette smoking, stress and lack of physical activity are the main etiological factors of Dyslipidemia. According to Ayurveda Guru, Madhur, Sheet, Snigdha, Kapha Meda Vardhaka Ahar, Avyayam, Diwaswapa, Achinta and Bijadosha are the main causative factors for medoroga.

Aim and Objectives: Comprarative evaluation of Efficacy of Kulattha Gutika and Atoravastatin in the management of Dyslipidemia (Medoroga).

Material and Methods: Study contains 60 patients of Dyslipidemia which will be divided into two equal groups (each contains 30 patients). Group A (Interventional) patients will be treated with KulatthaGutika1 gm thrice a day after meal with warm water for 45 days and Group B (Experimental group) will be given Tab, Atorvastatin 10 mg at bedtime with warm water for 45 days. Objective parameters like BMI, Lipid profile and Fasting Blood Sugar will be assessed before and after treatment. Incidence of Dyslipidemia as per prakriti will be assessed by analysing prakriti of each patient.

Discussion: Kulttha is indicated for medoroga in Bhavprakash due to its kaphamedohar property which may help in improving objective parameters.

Result: Subjective and Objectives outcomes will be statistically analysed by appropriate method.

Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn from result obtained.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Study Protocol for Assessment of Outcomes of Adjuvant versus Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Stage-IIIA of Breast Cancer

Poosapati D. Devasilpa Raju, Raju K. Shinde

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-64
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35252

Background: Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) includes stage III along with stage IV breast cancer and consists of operable and inoperable advanced breast cancer and metastatic disease. LABC is among the most common breast malignancies with increasing incidence now a days. In India, it accounts for 30-35% of all cases.  The use of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for the treatment of LABC offers benefits like initiation of early systemic treatment, the drugs can be delivered via intact vasculature, the tumours can be down staged which helps to convert inoperable tumours into operable tumours and renders tumours suitable for breast conserving surgery (BCS). This study is aimed to compare the outcomes of neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy using taxane based drugs for locally advanced breast cancers.

Methodology: This was an observational study will be undertaken in AVBRH.  Total 40 patients will be enrolled in the study. Confirmed patients of breast malignancy either by FNAC or true cut histopathology with advanced breast malignancy confirmed on FNAC or true cut histopathology and planned for neo-adjuvant chemotherapy will be included in the study. For all the patients HER2, PR and ER status will be checked via immunohistopathology. Data will be analysed with appropriate statistical tests.

Results: We expect neoadjuvant chemotherapy to have better surgical outcomes compared to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. 

Conclusion: Neoadjuvant paclitaxel based chemotherapy can be a better option for patients undergoing BCS (breast conserving surgery).

Open Access Study Protocol

Correlation of Periodontal Status and Salivary Flow in Patients with Oral Submucous Fibrosis in Central India Population: A Study Protocol

Muskan Kewalramani, Priyanka Jaiswal, Diksha Agrawal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 73-79
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35254

Background: One of the commonest premalignant condition is Oral Submucous Fibrosis. The main etiology is consumption of areca nut and its products which leads to reduced mouth opening (Trismus) and reduction in the salivary flow (Xerostomia). Both these conditions eventually result in periodontal destruction.

Objectives: The purpose of this research is to see if there is a link between periodontal health and salivary flow in OSMF patients.

Methodology: 50 patients each clinically diagnosed as chronic periodontitis with and without OSMF will be enrolled in test and control group respectively. Plaque Index, Papillary Bleeding Index, Probing Pocket Depth, Clinical Attachment Loss (CAL), Gingival Recession (REC) will be compared in both the group for assessment of the result. Saliva that has not been stimulated will be collected using a funnel in a calibrated beaker in both the groups.

Results: Patients with OSMF and chronic periodontitis will have reduced salivary flow and a compromised periodontal status whereas chronic periodontitis patients without OSMF will have normal salivary flow and comparatively less periodontal destruction.

Conclusion: OSMF is precancerous condition which leads to xerostomia and may result  in periodontal destruction and therefore OSMF condition should be identified and treated as early as possible.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Study of Clinical Profile and Outcome of Status Epilepticus in Children Aged 1 Month to 18 Years

Y. Maheswara, Jayant Vagha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 131-137
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35262

Background: A common neurological emergency in children is Status epilepticus which, if not treated immediately, may trigger marked neuro morbidity and mortality and hence will need immediate and aggressive management. The neurological outcome worsens in a child as the time taken to control seizures increases and it becomes harder to terminate the seizures. This attempts to explain clinical profile and development of children with convulsive status epilepticus        coming to rural hospital in central India and assess the effect of drugs used for treatment of status epilepticus.

Methodology: This Prospective Cross-sectional Study will be conducted in the paediatric intensive care unit Department of Paediatrics, PICU, AVBRH, Wardha. Parameters like clinical presentations, clinical signs, duration and types of status epilepticus, investigations used to diagnose status epilepticus, drugs (anti-epileptic drugs), immediate outcome, effect of drugs used to control seizures will be recorded. Data will be analysed using Chi- square test and independent t-test as applicable. Univariate analysis will be used for testing the influence of different variables in the outcome of present study.

Expected Results: Many factors like age, type and time period of status epilepticus, cause, treatment and corresponding comorbidities determine the end result in status epilepticus. From this study, we expect to get significant evidences to explain profile of cases of convulsive status epilepticus.

Conclusion: Outcomes of status epilepticus are determined by factors like age, time period, cause, treatment and associated comorbidities.

Open Access Study Protocol

Estimating the Correlation between Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders and Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: A Study Protocol

Meghana Pendam, Bhushan Madke

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 145-152
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35264

Background:  Chronic spontaneous urticaria is thought to occur due to the patient's predilection to produce self-reactions. Urticaria contributes to loss of sleep, anxiety, depression, lack of motivation and social isolation, which may contribute to a substantial decrease in the patient's quality of life. Chronic spontaneous urticaria is unpredictable and can impair the patient's usual everyday activities. Autoimmune thyroid disorders are as a consequence of immune system dysregulation, that results in a thyroid invasion. A relationship between Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria and Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders is related to the duration and severity of the disease. Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria is associated with the presence of antithyroid antibodies. This study aims to analyze the changes in Patients detected with T3, T4, TSH and anti-TPO of chronic spontaneous urticaria, in contrast to normal healthy individuals and patients with other skin diseases which do not have abnormal thyroid etiopathogenesis.

Materials and MethodsThis will be a Case Control study conducted at Department of Dermatology, AVBRH, Sawangi, Wardha.  Patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria will be subjected to a thorough clinical review and will be scored based on urticaria severity scoring. To test for autoimmune thyroid disease, the levels of T3, T4, TSH and anti-TPO antibodies will be  traced. Data will be collected and analysed with appropriate statistical tests.

Expected Results: Statistical correlation between chronic spontaneous urticaria and  autoimmune thyroid disorders which can aid in the early detection and arrest of progression of autoimmune thyroid disorders in chronic spontaneous urticaria.

Conclusion: Preventive steps toward patient management can be taken with this analysis in chronic spontaneous urticaria, in patients with deranged parameters for the T3, T4, TSH and ANTI – TPO.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Study Protocol for Assessing the Effect of Diode Green Photocoagulation with Rose Bengal in Progressive Infectious Keratitis

Kalyani Katruwar, Mona Sune

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 163-169
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35272

Background: Infectious keratitis manifested as corneal ulcer can result in formation of pus in corneal tissue. The incidence has increased in recent years due to overuse of steroids. Infectious keratitis is the most common cause of blindness in India. Rose Bengal proves to be a promising option to treat this condition. Rose Bengal is topical ophthalmic dye which is mildly toxic. It is absorbed by damaged epithelial cells, mucus and fibrous cells. This stain is available in the form of 1% solution or impregnated filter strips. This study aims to assess the duration of resolution of corneal ulcer after Rose Bengal photodynamic therapy.

Methodology: This will be an experimental study carried out at ophthalmology department of AVBRH, Wardha.  Total 55 cases will be enrolled and examined on daily basis for one week. Pachymetry and specular microscopy will be done before Rose Bengal Photodynamic Therapy and at the end of three months of treatment.

Results: Resistant infectious keratitis is expected to show complete healing of epithelial defect after receiving photodynamic therapy with green diode laser.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparing the Effectiveness and Safety of Intrathecal Dexmeditomidine and Fentanyl as an Adjuvant to Isobaric Ropivacaine.0.75 % In Lower Abdominal Surgeries: A Study Protocol

Haneesha Movva, Karuna Taksande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 170-176
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35273

Background: Spinal anaesthesia is a form of local anaesthesia, wherein conduction block of nerve roots is done with the aid of injecting a small dose of local anaesthesia into the subarachnoid space via a lumbar puncture in left lateral position in midline at L3 L4 interface. Drug is given after confirming free flow of CSF. Local anaesthetics work for a short duration and adjuvants are used for prolongation of postoperative analgesia. Ropivacaine, a brand new amide local anaesthetic, accepted via FDA IN 1997 and using it extensively in India since 2009. Ropivacaine due to its excessive Pka and decreased lipid solubility has received popularity. This study has been planned to compare the effects of injection Dexmedetomidine & injection Fentanyl as an Adjuvant to Intrathecal isobaric Ropivacaine 0.75% for lower abdominal surgeries.

Materials and Methods: This will be a Comparative Experimental Prospective Study conducted at Anesthesiology department of AVBRH, Wardha. 80 patients will be randomized into two groups. One group will receive 3 ml of 0.75 percent isobaric ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine 10 mcg (Group RD). Another group will receive 20 mcg of fentanyl (Group RF) intrathecally for lower abdominal surgeries. Data on block characteristics, hemodynamic changes, and side effects will be collected and compared for the two groups.

Expected Results: Clinically significant results are expected in terms of mean time needed and Mean of total sensory block length in Group RD compared to Group RF.

Conclusion: Addition of 10μg dose of dexmedetomidine to 3ml of 0.75 percent isobaric ropivacaine produces earlier sensory blockade, prolonged sensory and motor blockade and improved sedation and post-operative analgesia.

Open Access Study Protocol

Analysing the Role of Platelet Rich Plasma As Biological Stimulator for Cartilage Regeneration: An Experimental Study

Kuldeep Chhatbar, Sandeep Srivastava

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 177-183
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35274

Background: In articular cartilage defects and degenerative cartilage lesions, platelet-rich plasma(PRP) is increasingly used. PRP is an autologous concentration of platelets containing a high number of  factors which are responsible for growth. In the healing, recovery and acceleration of biochemical processes, these growth factors play a role in reducing the pain associated with joint injuries. The latest world research shows excellent results in reducing pain by using PRP and it has tremendous scope in reducing the knee pain as well as in  regeneration of the articular cartilage. This study aims to analyse the effectiveness of Autologous PRP as biologic stimulator for Cartilage Regeneration in Rabbit Model.

Method: This will be a prospective experimental study carried out on 10 rabbits at Animal House in JNMC, Wardha. Osteoarthritis will be induced in the rabbits by destruction of articular cartilage. Then  platelet rich plasma therapy. Will be given to induce the regeneration of the cartilage.

Expected Results: Evidence of regeneration of articular cartilage in rabbits with osteoarthritis  through Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy.

Open Access Study Protocol

Study Protocol for Process Evaluation of Health and Wellness Center Programme in Bhandara District of Maharashtra

Shrikant Madhukar Ambekar, S. Z. Quazi, Abhay Gaidhane, Prashant Uikey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 184-190
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35275

Background: Ayushman Bharat programme, which was started by Government of India in 2018-19, has two components. First component is up gradation of existing primary health centres and sub centres in to Health and Wellness centers (HWCs), which will deliver comprehensive primary health care services at government facility level in rural area within no more than 30 minutes. Non-Communicable disease services is the integral part of comprehensive primary care. This study aims to assess availability and readiness of Health and Wellness centres at sub centres for provision of Non communicable disease Services in rural area of Bhandara district and to assess utilization of Non communicable disease Services in rural area of Bhandara district.

Methodology: This implementation research will be conducted in Health and Wellness Sub centers from rural areas of Bhandara district. It will include the facility assessment of Sub centers. Household survey will be conducted by a stratified multi-stage sampling design using Digital questionnaire Standardized and validated Facility survey Tool, Service delivery Tool and Household survey Tools. Data will be analyzed using STATA-14 software.

Expected Results: Increase in coverage and utilization of Non communicable disease Services in Health and Wellness Centre Subcenters in rural area and reduction in out of pocket expenditure of villagers is expected.

Conclusion: The proposed component of NCD services matches well with health and wellness programme targets in district and is helpful in delivery of non-communicable disease services in rural areas.

Open Access Study Protocol

Analysis of the Bed-occupancy, Utilization and Turnover Rate of Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, India

Shivani Shahu, Vitthal Shinde, Vandana Gudhe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 218-223
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35279

Background: Hospital expenses in healthcare system are the key component of health care. For this reason, investment is the main objective of increased expenditure in healthcare sector, expertise. As a developing country, India has had in order to face many economic and political difficulties. For administrative department as well as policy makers of hospital there is a big question of improper exploitation of hospital assets. This improper utilization is mainly affected by three factors which are patients related, administration related and physician related problems. Social and financial position of patients is responsible for inappropriate utilization of beds and it is considered as patient related factor. This study aims to assess the Bed-Occupancy, Utilization and Turnover Rate, assess problems in utilization and recommend the measures to improve.

Methodology: This will be a Record based cross sectional retrospective study conducted at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Wardha. Data will be gathered from the AVBRH medical record section.

Results: Indices for Bed occupancy rate, average length of stay, Bed turnover rats will be obtained. Data will be analysed with appropriate statistical tests.

Conclusion: Causes for underutilization, low bed occupancy and turnover rate will be revealed and necessary improvement measures will be recommended.

Open Access Study Protocol

Evaluation of Relative Oral Bioavailability of Shankha bhasma Prepared by Two Different Methods in Healthy Volunteers: A Study Protocol

Pranjali Dukare, Bharat Rathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 241-248
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35282

Background: Rastarangini Shankha (Conch Shell) Bhasma is one of the traditional medicines reported to be used for centuries in the treatment of calcium deficiency disorders. It proves to be a good source of calcium. But reports on its bioavailability are hardly available. This study aims to assess the methods of preparation of Shankha Bhasma and assess its relative oral bioavailability in healthy volunteers.

Materials and Methods: This study will include preparation of Shankha Bhasma in Rasashastra department. The traditional method will be giving Putas. Another method includes heating Shudhha Shankha on gas flame. The products obtained with these procedures will undergo Bhasma Pariksha that includes organoleptic characteristics, physicochemical parameters,    microbial contamination and other relevant tests. This will be randomized single blind control study of 90 healthy volunteers (30 in each group). The data on oral bioavailability in healthy volunteers will be analyzed by using Pair and unpaired “t” Test, One way ANOVA and descriptive statistics.

Results: The relative oral bioavailability of Shankha Bhasma is expected to show all pharmaceutico analytical parameters within normal range and reflect significant effects on healthy volunteers.

Conclusion: Significant efficacy of this product directs a new gateway for the management of bioavailability of calcium drugs.

Open Access Study Protocol

Evaluation and Correlation of Pulpal Calcification in the Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases in Vidarbha Region, India

Parul Loya, Pradnya Nikhade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 249-253
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35283

Background: The dental pulp is soft tissue enclosed in the hard tissues of teeth. Calcification occurring in the body affects the dental pulp too. Pulp undergoes calcification as whole or in discrete masses known as denticles or pulp stones. Pulp stones are nodular, calcified masses seen more frequently in coronal pulp than radicular pulp. Pulp stones can vary from small structures embedded in pulp tissue to large masses.

Aim: To evaluate and correlate the pulpal calcification with cardiovascular diseases in the patients using radiograph in Vidarbha region.


  • To evaluate the presence of pulpal calcification in the patients with cardiovascular disease using Ortho-pantomogram images.
  • To co-relate the radiological findings with the cardiovascular disorders.

Methodology:   The present study comprises of 30 patients out of whom 15 patients will be in test group and 15 patients in control group. The test group will consist of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases and control group will consist of healthy patients with no significant medical history. Ortho-pantomogram will be taken of each participant and the anterior and posterior teeth will be assessed for any pulp calcification and obliteration of pulp chamber and root canals.

Expected Results: Positive correlation is expected between pulp calcification and cardiovascular diseases.

Conclusion: Positive correlation can be found between the occurrence of pulpal calcifications and cardiovascular disease. Hence the occurrence of pulpal calcifications can be used to predict the future chances of cardiovascular diseases in the otherwise normal person. Early detection of pulp calcification can be used as a tool to predict the disease and will help in taking possible steps to avoid the future episodes of heart diseases.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparison of Pre-determined Question Paper with Take Home Question Paper to Evaluate the Efficacy of Writing Skill in Final BDS Student

Khushboo Durge, Anuja Ikhar, Swanand Pathak, Pallavi Daigavane, Pavan Bajaj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 270-274
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35286

Background: Exams have always been a trigger point of stress and anxiety in a large population of students irrespective to their field of study. An effort should be put to make exams a source of learning rather than a mental trauma. Apart from just securing high scores, exams has a paramount advantages. Exams aid in strong memory confidence, practical implications competitive Spiritand time management. This would definitely contributes to the overall development of an individual’s personality. Therefore, with this hypothesis the current study will be conducted.

Study Design: Cross- sectional observational Study.

Methodology: A total of 100 Final BDS students will be randomly divided into two groups equally. Each group will be including 50 students. Group A will be given Take home   exam to write and Group B will be given pre-determined question paper. Students will be asked to solve the given paper in 3 hours. The answer papers will be then evaluated by subject expert. The writing skill would be analysed based on the check list created. At the end of every month feedback will collected by all the students. At the end of the academic year the performances of both the group will evaluated in final university exam. Soon after the writing the paper feedback will be collected

Expected Outcome: At the end of academic session pre-determined question paper (Group B) might be giving better outcome in terms of improved writing skills and feedback from students.

Conclusion: Pre-determined question paper (Group B) might be helpful for Final BDS students to improve writing exam skills.

Open Access Study Protocol

Estimation of Correlation between Quetelet’s Index and Nottingham Prognostic Index in Patients of Carcinoma Breast: A Study Protocol

Ketki Wajpeyi, Sunita Vagha, Samarth Shukla

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 283-290
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35288

Background: Carcinoma breast is the most prevalent neoplasm in women with the highest death rate associated with cancer worldwide. In Indian women, breast cancer ranks first, followed by cervical cancer, with its incidence increasing day by day. Obesity is an important modifiable causative factor of carcinoma breast, associated with a greater chance of contracting breast cancer, and with worse prognosis in women of all age groups. It exhibits a state of chronic-inflammation, adipokine-imbalance, insulin-resistance and increased oestrogen-signalling. This pro-tumorigenic environment stimulates cancer deveoplment through abnormal proliferation and survival of breast tissue. Quetelet’s Index is the most commonly used index to classify obesity, whereas the Nottingham Prognostic Index is the most widely used index for longevity assessment and prognosis of breast cancer patients. This study estimates the correlation between Quetelet’s index with Nottingham Prognostic Index.

Methods: This prospective observational study will be to be conducted in the Department of Pathology, JNMC, Wardha and AVBRH, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha in coordination with the Department of General Surgery. Total 35 cases of Carcinoma Breast undergoing Modified Radical Mastectomy will be included in the study. Clinicopathological and anthropometric data of patients will be collected. The Quetelet’s Index and the Nottingham Prognostic Index will be determined for each patient and data will be analyzed with appropriate statistical tests to estimate the correlation between them.

Results: Statistically significant correlation is expected between Quetelet’s Index and the Nottingham Prognostic Index.

Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn on positive/negative correlation of Quetelet’s Index with different parameters of Nottingham’s Prognostic Index.

Open Access Study Protocol

Protocol for Managing Antimicrobial Activity in the Patients with Maxillary Defect by Functionalization of Silicone Using Different Nanoparticles: A Randomized Control Trial

Tanvi Jaiswal, Sweta Kale (Pisulkar), Seema Sathe (Kambala)

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 368-373
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35666

Background: Patients with facial or intraoral defects are mostly reconstructed by prosthesis for which maxillofacial silicone considered as a material of choice for better aesthetics. Silicones are widely used medical materials. One of the major problems associated with the use of maxillofacial silicone material is microorganisms and fungal growth especially Candida albicans, which can result in chronic infection, inflammation and degradation of silicone material that's why the development of antimicrobial silicone elastomer became so important. So, a multiple study is performed trying to improve this property. Nanoparticle technology is rapidly advancing and is used for a wide range of applications in medicine. The potential of metal nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents is widely studied and is considered as an alternative approach to overcome the challenge posed by multidrug resistance in bacteria.

Objective: The present study aims at to evaluate compare the antimicrobial activity of different nanoparticles through functionalization of silicone in the patients with maxillary defect.

Methods: A prospective interventional study will be conducted for two years. The subjects in the study will be randomly selected comprising of 21 number of patients undergoing a surgical intervention of maxilla (developmental or acquired defect), after which obturators as a rehabilitation prosthesis is the treatment of choice. Relining of interim obturator incorporate with two different nanoparticles is planned and accordingly subjects will be divided in two interventional group and one control group. For control group, that means were prosthesis is fabricated in a conventional manner without any interventions, so in such patients swab will be taken from the intaglio surface of prosthesis after a specific intervals (after 2,6,12weeks). For interventional group in which prosthesis is relined with two different functionalized silicones, swab will be made again from defect site and from intaglio surface of obturator (after 2,6,12 weeks) with paper points to check microbial colonization growth after which comparative evaluation of antimicrobial activity will be performed.

Results: Descriptive and analytical statistics will be done. SPSS (Statistical package for social sciences) Version 20.1 will be used as statistical software. The statistical significance between control group and interventional group in particular intervals will be evaluated at p<0.05 as P value is considered as level of significance.

Conclusion: Functionalized silicone prosthesis which will thus be given to a patient of maxillary defects to prevent further adhesion of microbial growth on surgical site and which ultimately helps in wound healing. Hypothesis of present study is antimicrobial property of functionalized silicone using Hybrid nanoparticle may be more effective as compared to that of Chitosan nanoparticles in the interim obturators.

Open Access Short Communication

Management of Gout in Chronic Kidney Disease

Rohan Bhosale, Sandip Mohale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 465-470
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35910

The clinical symptoms and symptoms, and signs of monosodium urate crystal production, including chronic renal sickness, hyperuricemia, and gout, are usual (CKD). While having CKD makes controlling gout more challenging, most CKD patients can benefit from precise sufficient urate reduction. Initial urate-lowering drug dosages are reduced than in nonskid population with current dose titration guided by the mechanism of routine serum urate surveillance to meet the needs of non-CKD population # the purpose of masses a whole lot much less than 6 mg/dL (or an entire lot an awful lot much less than five mg/dL for tophi patients More fashionable treatment of gout flares with currently accessible pills can be complex because of the potential for nephrotoxicity and comorbidities be difficult. However, contemporary-day research shows that asymptomatic hyperuricemia may moreover have a renoprotective impact, its milesjustifystification for urate-decreasing medicine. A fifty-eight-year-old man with nokn-tophaceous gout presents to the emergency unit with acute pain inside the left knee and right first MTP joint due to arthritis. With an anticipated glomerular filtration charge of 32 mL/min, he is in degree 3b of persistent kidney sickness (CKD). His serum urate degree (SUA) is at 7.9 mg/dL. He is currently on an each-day dose of 100 mg of allopurinol; it’s determined by his creatinine Mortarce (CrCl). Mortar, he has coronary heart failure, excessive blood strain, and dyslipidemia. He avoids NSAIDs Due to his kidney condition, tries to keep his colchicine therapeutic dose to at least one tablet on p. particular date. Moreover, his cardiologist urged him to avoid prednisone because of the chance of fluid overload, which can cause his congestive heart failure to decompensate (CHF). In the very last yr, he's visited the emergency room three times for gout-related.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross Sectional Study on Prevalence of Postpartum Depression among Recently Delivered Women in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Chennai, India

V. K. Sita, . Meenakshi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35246

Background: Postpartum depression is a common type of depression most people are not much aware and the most important causes being poverty, unwanted child/gender, marital disharmony and lack of family support.

Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of postpartum depression among recently delivered women in a tertiary care hospital in an urban setup.

Methodology: It was a cross sectional type of study in urban population in a tertiary care hospital in Chennai. Data on postpartum depression was collected using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS).

Results: A total 165 postpartum women participated in the study. The prevalence of postpartum depression was found to be 19.23% (an EPDS score of 10 and above) and it was noted in our study that none of these women sort to any medical help.

Conclusion: The study shows prevalence of postpartum depression is quite high and none of those women seeked appropriate medical help. All health care professionals have to be trained to raise awareness, detect and treat postpartum depression among women promptly.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross Sectional Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Perception of Uterine Fibroids among Women with Fibroids Attending a Tertiary Health Care Centre in Chennai, India

V. K. Sowmithra, A. Jayarakkini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35247

Introduction: Fibroids are the most common benign neoplasms of the reproductive age group. Both hormonal and genetic factors contribute to the etiology. Only 20%-50% of women affected with fibroids, exhibit symptoms. The management strategies are usually individualized based on patient desires and presenting complaints. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and perception of uterine fibroids among women with fibroids.

Methodology: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among the patients of Saveetha Medical College and Hospital. Through convenient sampling, 164 patients were selected. The Data was compiled and analyzed in MS Excel.

Results: Although 95.73 percent of respondents lack knowledge about uterine fibroids, their attitude toward management is astounding. However, perception of 92.68% of women on fibroids is dissatisfactory.

Conclusion: Various counselling programs have to be imparted to create awareness among women on fibroids.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Clinicopathological Study of Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors- At a Tertiary Care Center

Danita G. S. Edwin, R. Lalith Akaash, Ganthimathy Sekhar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35248

Aim: To study the clinicopathological profile in Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNST).

Study Design:  A retrospective descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, Saveetha medical college and hospital, Chennai, between June 2016 and May 2021.

Methodology: A complete enumerative sampling of all the MPNSTs received at Saveetha Medical College and Hospital over a five-year period was done which included 9 cases (4 men, 5women; age range (19-66 years). The details were obtained from the records in the Department of Pathology. The demographic parameters, clinical and histomorphological data were tabulated and analysed.

Results: Nine cases of MPNSTs were received in our hospital during the study period.  In our study a female preponderance was noted, with late thirties being the median age of presentation. Extremities and trunk were the most common sites. Two rare lesions involving the pancreas and mesentery were reported. 4 cases had underlying Neurofibromatosis (NF1). The average tumour size was 8.8cm, with majority having a tumour size >5cm. Histomorphologically most cases showed hypo and hypercellular areas composed of spindle cells with wavy nuclei arranged in interlacing fascicles with increased mitotic activity and tumour necrosis. Two cases showed epithelioid differentiation and three had heterologous elements in the form of glandular differentiation or rhabdomyoblastic differentiation.

Conclusion: MPNSTs are very rare tumours accounting for 6% of soft tissue sarcomas and have a very aggressive course. Details of the clinical presentation and careful histomorphological typing of these tumours are essential for identifying and treating them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Desіgn anԁ Evаluаtіon of Olаnzаpіne anԁ Rіsperіԁone Trаnsԁermаl Pаtches Contаіnіng Vegetаble Oіls as Permeаtіon Enhаncers

Bharat Lal, Manoj Gadewar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35249

Objective: Desіgn anԁ Evаluаtіon of Olаnzаpіne anԁ Rіsperіԁone Trаnsԁermаl Pаtches

Methodology: Usіng blenԁs of two ԁіfferent polymerіc combіnаtіons, Euԁrаgіt RL 100 (ERL 100) аnԁ Euԁrаgіt (ERS 100). А totаl of twenty-two mаtrіx pаtches were prepаreԁ by usіng these polymers, surfаctаnts (cаtіonіc surfаctаnt, benzаlkonіum chlorіԁe (BC); аnіonіc surfаctаnt, soԁіum lаuryl sulphаte (SLS); non-іonіc surfаctаnt, spаn 20) аnԁ vegetаble oіls (olіve oіl, jojobа oіl аnԁ grounԁnut oіl) аs permeаtіon enhаncers іn іsopropаnol-ԁіchloromethаne (60:40) аs а solvent system. The formulаtіons were chаrаcterіzeԁіncluԁіng unіformіty of weіght, ԁrug content, moіsture content, moіsture uptаke, flаtness, folԁіng enԁurаnce аnԁ thіckness to stuԁy the stаbіlіty of the formulаtіons аnԁіn vіtro ԁіssolutіon of the experіmentаl formulаtіons were performeԁ to ԁetermіne the аmount of Olаnzаpіne аnԁ Rіsperіԁone present іn the pаtches аnԁ scаnnіng electron mіcroscopy (SEM) of the prepаreԁ TԁԁS were tаken to see the ԁrug ԁіstrіbutіon pаttern. ԁrug–excіpіent іnterаctіon stuԁіes were cаrrіeԁ out usіng Fourіer trаnsform іnfrаreԁ (FTІR) spectroscopіc technіque.

Results: Іn vіtro ԁіssolutіon stuԁіes showeԁ thаt the ԁrug ԁіstrіbutіon іn the mаtrіx wаs homogeneous аnԁ іt wаs founԁ thаt the mаxіmum ԁrug releаse аnԁ іn stаbіlіty stuԁy ԁrug content wаs founԁ to be 97.03%, 97.02% аnԁ 96.32% аfter 1, 2 аnԁ 3 months respectіvely wіth formulаtіon ROE3 (contаіnіng olіve oіl). Іn vіtro skіn permeаtіon stuԁy wаs аlso conԁucteԁ іn а moԁіfіeԁ Frаnz's ԁіffusіon cell whіch shows thаt the mаxіmum permeаtіon wаs wіth the formulаtіon ROE3 аnԁ іt wаs mаxіmum trаnsԁermаl flux 23.14 μg/cm2/h wаs obtаіneԁ wіth formulаtіon contаіnіng olіve oіl аs permeаtіon enhаncer respectіvely.

Conclusions: Optіmіzeԁ formulаtіons were founԁ to be suіtаble for formulаtіng іn terms of physіcochemіcаl chаrаcterіstіcs аnԁ there wаs no sіgnіfіcаnt іnterаctіon notіceԁ between the ԁrug аnԁ polymers useԁ.

Open Access Original Research Article

Subchorionic Haemaorrhage in First Trimester and Its Effects on Pregnancy Outcome

Snehal Deshmukh, Rashmi Prasad, Vivek Chakole

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-49
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35250

Background: Subchorionic haemorrhage which may or may not be associated with vaginal bleeding is definitely of concern as it predisposes to adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study is done with a aim to find how subchorionic haemorrhage affects pregnancy outcome.

Methodology: The study was carried out from January 2020 till July 2020. 57 antenatal women with singleton viable pregnancy from 6 weeks to 12 weeks gestation  having subchorionic haemorrhage on USG with or without bleeding were included in the study after informed consent. High risk pregnancies with any medical disorder were excluded. Size of Subchorionic haemorrhage was described as percentage involvement of gestational sac. Patient were closely followed for outcome as miscarriage, preterm delivery, abruption , intrauterine fetal death , IUGR or term delivery.

Conclusion: 52.63% of the patients were less than 30 years of age , 57.89% of the patients were primipara and 42.10 % were multipara. 24.56% of females had previous abortion, 14.03 %, suffered an abortion. Maximum 5 patients with miscarriage had large subchorionic haemarrhage  with  more than 50 % gestational sac. Intra uterine fetal demise occurred in only one patient with size of subchorionic haematoma between 26%-50%.  6 patients experienced preterm delivery before 37 weeks .Term delivery was seen in 42 patients and maximum 19 patients had SCH 11%-25% of Gsac. Though the outcome is variable , size of SCH definitely affects the outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Placental Chorangiosis in a Tertiary Care Centre

M. Vanishree, Sonti Sulochana, Martin M. S. Salin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 92-97
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35256

Background: Chorangiosis is a condition in which the number of vascular channels in the noninfarcted, nonischemic areas of the placenta increases dramatically. Chorangiosis rarely occurs in normal pregnancies.

Aims: To study the demography, maternal and fetal causes of chorangiosis.

Study Design: A retrospective descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: Total of 73 patients with chorangiosis were studied in Department of Pathology Saveetha Medical College,during the period ofAugust 2020 and February 2021.

Methodology: Study included 73 patients of placental chorangiosis.The clinical history and demographic data was obtained from the patient’s medical records.Thematernal and fetal causes were studied, and clinico-histopathological correlation was done.

Results: This study includes 73 postnatal women,of whichthe rate of cesarean section was noted to be 69.8% and the mean value were obtained showed mean gestational age of 37.5 weeks, 70 live births and 3 neonatal deaths; mean placental weight is 480 grams and birth weight 3970grams.The mean 1 minute and 5 minutes APGAR score is reduced indicatingdisturbance in fetal vitals immediately after birth.

Conclusion: Chorangiosis is a rare illness, which is associated with an increased risk of prenatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.So, it should be regarded as a key prognostic indicator of poor pregnancy outcomes and should be essentially reported in the histopathological evaluation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Profile of Scrub Typhus among Paediatric Age Group in a Tertiary Care Center

K. F. Fayaz Ahamed, T. Santhosh, . Kishore

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 98-104
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35257

Introduction: Scrub typhus, a dreaded disease in the pre-antibiotic era, was a serious military disease that killed thousands of people in the Far East during WWII. It is a zoonosis that is common throughout Asia and the Pacific Islands. Scrub typhus is a febrile illness characterized by a wide range of symptoms and indications. This disease has a wide spectrum of clinical symptoms, from subclinical through organ failure to death. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical profile of scrub typhus infection among children in a tertiary care hospital in south India.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study of the clinical profile of 50 paedriatric children, who were admitted in the Paediatric ward of a tertiary care hospital, during the study period of JAN 2020 to DEC 2020.

Results: All children presented with fever. Other common symptoms were vomiting (56%), facial swelling (52%), cough (35%), abdominal pain (33%), breathlessness (29%) and decreased urine output (29%). High grade fever (>101 oF) was recorded in 91% of children. Other common signs were hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, edema, tender lymphadenopathy and hypotension, observed in 82%, 59%, 39%, 38% and 36% of cases, respectively. An eschar and a maculopapular rash each were observed in 20% of patients. Within 48 hours of starting an appropriate antibiotic, 90% of the children became afebrile. Overall, there was a 7.5 percent mortality rate. Refractory shock, meningoencephalitis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopneumonia, acute renal damage, and myocarditis were among the causes of mortality.

Conclusion: In any febrile child with a maculopapular rash, hepatosplenomegaly, tender lymphadenopathy, thrombocytopenia, or symptoms indicative of capillary leak, paediatricians should have a high index of suspicion for scrub typhus. Pending serological confirmation, empirical therapy with doxycycline or azithromycin should be initiated immediately, since any delay in treatment could lead to life-threatening consequences.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation between Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Level and Various Prostatic Diseases on Biopsies: A Retrospective Study

B. S. Padmapriya, Volga Harikrishnan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 105-110
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35258

Introduction: The prostate is a pear-shaped glandular organ that adds part of fluid to semen. The prostate consists of stromal and glandular components. Prostate needle biopsy is performed either transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided or transurethral routes. PSA is a glycoprotein produced by secretory cells. Normally the PSA levels are less than 4.0ng/ml.

Aim: The main aim of the study is to find out the correlation between various pathological lesions occur in the prostate and serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) level.

Study Design: A retrospective study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology,Saveetha Medical college and Hospital, between January 2019 and December 2019.

Methodology: A retrospective study of 84 prostatic biopsies for a period of 1 year in the year 2019 was carried out. All specimens subjected for histopathological examination and the relevant clinical data and Serum PSA values correlation was done.

Results: Commonest age group being 61-70 years. Difficulty in micturition was the most common presentation .Most common lesion found was Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy(BPH) constituting 67 cases (71.42%) followed by BPH with prostatitis 17 cases (20.23%), adenocarcinoma 6 cases (7.14%) and 1 case of Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN) (1.19%). BPH patients, had S.PSA levels in the range of 4.1-15 ng/ml. Three cases of adenocarcinoma showed very high levels of S.PSA (>100 ng/ml) with the Gleason score of 9(5+4).

Conclusion: Both benign and malignant pathologies can cause an increase in serum PSA levels, but the chances of finding malignancy increases with rising values of PSA. But in the management of prostatic cancer the histopathological diagnosis and grading plays a definitive role.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mortality and Mechanical Ventilation among Critically Ill Patients of COVID-19 Infection: A Cross-Sectional Study

Muthu Chidambaram, Melachuru Sai Padma Charan, Haritha Sree

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 111-119
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35259

Background: Large number of patients are in need of critical care as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has swept all over the world, posing great pressure on critical care resources. Particularly, among those receiving mechanical ventilation, mortality of critically ill patients with COVID-19 is high. High demand of hospitalization and an increased number of intensive care units (ICUs) admission has been required in COVID-19 pandemic [1]. Therefore, to evaluate critical COVID-19 patients, it has become mandatory to develop prognostic models.

Objectives: To describe mortality and mechanical ventilation among critically ill patients of COVID-19 infection.

Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study done for a sample of 100 patients to evaluate COVID-19 infection requiring mechanical ventilation among critically ill patients. The study included all the people who were infected with COVID-19 infection irrespective of them being cured, improved or admitted in intensive care units. The study population almost involved all the patients who came in emergency being suspected for COVID-19 infection using RT-PCR tests.

Results: Among 100 patients included in the study, the mean age group seen to be 54.53 years (34 females, 66 males). Among males and females, mean age group of females affected with COVID include 53.08 and among males, 55.27. There were comorbidities present in some of the individuals infected with COVID-19, which presented as a risk factor for acquiring infection among them. The risk was high with diabetes mellitus (36%) followed by hypertension (31%) and heart diseases (1%). 28 patients died after ICU admission with infection and mean time of death of the patients from the time of Intensive Care Unit admission to death of the patient is 3.5 days. Some personal modalities also aided in easy acquiring of infection which included obesity, age, respiratory infections such as asthma, COPD, etc using qSOFA ( quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment) score for assessing sepsis associated with infection.

Conclusions: COVID-19 infection is easily acquired through droplets of infected person or contact with those infected with COVID and not all the patients do require mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit admission. The need of ICU admissions increase in those people who have comorbidities and respiratory problems; mechanical ventilation in those patients is required in those who have oxygen saturation (SpO2 < 90% on room air). With additional medications and appropriate timely management, the patient gets recovered but in some who are unable to tolerate with the ongoing treatment and where the complications get started, they are failing to thrive and hence mortality occurs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Benign and Malignant Lesions of Breast

V. Jyoshna, V. Shruthikamal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 120-125
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35260

Background: Breast carcinoma is the second most common carcinoma in India. Breast carcinoma can have a good prognosis when detected in an early stage, distinguishing and staging the disease can facilitate the opportunity of giving the best and appropriate treatment ultimately reducing morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the study is to analyze the incidence of the histopathological spectrum of breast lesions including both benign and malignant lesions of the breast.

Aim: This research is aimed to assess the incidence of histopathological features of benign and malignant lesions of the breast.

Method: It is a retrospective study of histopathological features of benign and malignant lesions of the breast over the past two years in Saveetha medical college. The specimens were received in the pathology department's histopathology section. Fixation, comprehensive sampling, and tissue processing were performed after a complete physical evaluation of the specimens. The different lesions were evaluated and analyzed. Neoplastic lesions were classified according to WHO categorization.

Results: In our analysis, unilateral lesions were far more common (98%) than bilateral lesions. 144 (43.07 percent) of the 334 cases we received throughout the study period were benign, with fibroadenoma accounting for 75 (22.4 percent) of all instances and fibrocystic lesion accounting for the remaining cases of 24 (7.18%). Invasive ductal carcinoma, which accounted for 140 instances of malignancy, was the most prevalent (41.9 percent). The range of age of cases is from 14 years to 77 years. The prevalence of benign lesions was highest in the 15–30 year age group. Among 334 cases, 315 were females and 19 were male.

Conclusion: Differentiating benign from malignant tumors relies heavily on histopathology. It is critical to conduct breast cancer awareness studies, screening programs, and basic training and incentive for women to seek medical attention as soon as a breast lump is palpated, as this can lower the morbidity and mortality associated with breast tumors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of POUR in Patients Having Undergone Elective Spinal Surgery

Milind Kashyap, Navin Balasubramaniam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 126-130
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35261

Purpose: To determine the incidence of POUR (post operative urine retention) in patients that have undergone elective spinal surgeries.

Methods: This was a retrospective study carried out in the Department of Orthopaedics and was done by reviewing the post operative records of 150 patients that had undergone elective spinal surgery in the past 8 months and prospectively checked for POUR afterward.

Results: The end results show that out of the total number of patients studied, which is 148, (excluding 2 according to the exclusion criteria), 14 developed POUR at the end of the 8-month study while 134 remained unaffected, making the total incidence to be 9.4% for this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs in Autistic and Non-Autistic Children

A. C. Vinod Kumar, Chandrasekaran Krithika, Chitathoor Sridhar, N. M. Praveena

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 138-144
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35263

Background: Dental treatment need is identified as the greatest neglected health need of children with developmental disabilities. The most commonly known developmental disorder is autism, and there is a recent increase in the diagnosis of autism cases. The aim of this study is to bring to light that providing quality dental care and inculcating dental education programmes can significantly improve the oral conditions of institutionalized autistic children, thereby improving their lifestyle.

Materials and Methods: The study conducted an institutionally based case-control study on 50 children with autism, selected from two special schools in Chennai, India. The total number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth was assessed for the institutionalized autistic group undergoing dental education programme and the non-autistic group selected from our general hospital. Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S) and the DMF score were also calculated for both groups.

Results: There was a statistically significant difference in OHI scores between institution trained autistic children and non-autistic controls, but we found no significant difference in decayed, missing, and filled teeth.

Conclusion: Autistic children exhibit good cooperation and good response to Dental education programmes, significantly improving their oral health conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Applicational Arsenic Poisoning among Dental Students: A Survey

Gayathri Karthikeyan, V. Rakshagan, M. Jeevitha, Selvaraj Jeyaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 153-162
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35265

Arsenic pollution of groundwater has far-reaching implications, including consumption through the food chain, which manifests as social problems, health dangers, and socioeconomic breakdown, as well as sprawling with mobility and groundwater mining. Food crops grown with arsenic-affected water are marketed to other locations, including uncontaminated areas where residents may be exposed to arsenic via the contaminated food. This could result in the emergence of a new threat. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Analysis of Gross Morphology of Placenta in Normal and Hypertensive Patients

Geetanjali U. Yadgire, Shobha S. Rawlani, Anupama Sawal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 224-235
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35280

Background: Placenta is an important organ and the growth and development of fetus is dependent on it. The different pregnancy complications as antepartum haemorrhage, postpartum haemorrhage, coagulopathy etc. in mothers and IUGR (intrauterine growth retardation), prematurity etc. in foetus are reflected in the placenta & are associated with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) . They form the major causes of maternal and fetal mortality & morbidity.

Objectives: Quantitative analysis of the changes in gross morphology of placenta in normal and hypertensive pregnancies.

To study the resultant effect on the foetal outcome.

Material & Methods: We had taken 100 placentas of normal & hypertensive group patients each for study .We collected them from the labour room & operation theatre of Dept. of Obstetrics & Gynaecology of our medical college. Gross morphological features of placentas like size, weight, no. of cotyledons , areas of infarction, retroplacental clot, calcification and insertion of umbilical cord etc. were noted and simultaneously the histological study was also done.

Observations & Results: The gross morphological parameters like diameter, size, surface area, number of cotyledons and weight were reduced in hypertensive placentas than normal placentas while areas of infarction, retroplacental clot, calcification were more in hypertensive placentas than normal placentas. (p<0.005) The observed differences were statistically significant.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Pattern of using Oral Rehydration Salts in the outpatient setting in Al-Kharj

Nehad J. Ahmed, Dina I. Fouda, Ahmed I. Foudah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 236-240
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35281

Aim: The present study aimed to describe the pattern of using oral rehydration salts in the outpatient setting in Al-Kharj.

Methodology: This retrospective study was carried out at outpatient department in Al-kharj. The study included all of the patients who received oral rehydration salts in the outpatient pharmacy between January and July 2018.

Results: From January/2018 to June/2018, 416 patients received oral rehydration salts (oral rehydration solution) from the outpatient pharmacy of the hospital. More than half of the patients who received oral rehydration salt were males (59.62%). Most of the patients were less than 10 years old (71.15%). Most of the prescriptions were prescribed by emergency department (99.28%) and most of the physicians who prescribed oral rehydration salts were residents (99.28%).

Conclusion: The present study showed that oral rehydration salts were commonly used in Al-kharj. Further studies are needed to explore the frequency of using oral rehydration salts in different settings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of the Use of Particulate Graft versus Block Bone Graft in Ridge Augmentation: A Hospital Based Retrospective Study

S. Tasleem Abitha, M. Jeevitha, Selvaraj Jayaraman, M. Naveen Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 254-262
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35284

Aim: To assess the prevalence of the use of particulate graft versus block bone graft in ridge augmentation.

Introduction: Ridge augmentation is a process of replacing the lost bone of residual ridge by grafting natural or synthetic material. Dimensional changes in the alveolar ridge after extraction often compromises on achieving optimal implant stability and placement of implants in the right prosthodontic positions. These situations demand augmentation of the residual ridge to achieve successful implant placement and long-term survival.

Materials and Methods: Case sheets of thirty-eight patients who had underwent ridge augmentation procedure were analysed for the study. The collected data was statistically analysed using chi square test and the results were obtained. SPSS software was used for obtaining the results.

Results and Discussion: Majority of the participants in the study were around the age 15-30 years. Around 74% of the participants have undergone particulate bone graft rather than block bone graft. From the study it is proven that around 81% of the augmentation type are for the hard tissue.

Conclusion: Hence from the study it is proven that particulate graft is more commonly opted than block bone graft.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimating the Correlation of Ankle Brachial Index with Vascular Risk Factors in Pre-diabetics

Neha Phate, Sunil Kumar, Sourya Acharya, Anil Wanjari, Sachin Agrawal, Shilpa Gaidhane

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 263-269
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35285

Background: Prediabetes is characterized by a long duration of insulin resistance and increased fasting plasma glucose. Among the various risk factors for cardiovascular atherosclerosis and prediabetes, insulin resistance is one of them. Glycemia has been recognized to affect microvascular damage as compared to macrovascular damage. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a simple, affordable and non-invasive test as compared to angiography and has been found to have a high sensitivity and accuracy for the diagnosis of PAD, the gold-standard diagnostic method. This index is based on the fact that in healthy people, systolic blood pressure in the legs is typically equal to or marginally greater than in the upper limbs. This study aims to assess the correlation of ABI with vascular risk factors among subjects with Prediabetes like anthropometric measurement like BMI, Waist hip ratio and neck circumference.

Methods: This will be a observational cross sectional study. The present research will involve a cluster of prediabetic subjects. ABI will be determined for all patients. Anthropometric measurements will be taken and blood investigations will be conducted. All data will be compiled and analyzed with appropriate statistical tests.

Expected Results: We expect a significant association between prevalence of low ABI in prediabetics and heart problems.

Conclusion: This research will highlight the adequate clinical and sociological assessment of pre-diabetes patients, including those who have been diagnosed for a long period of time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Biological Activities of (4Z)-2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-4-arylidene-5-methyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one Compounds

Vishal. S. More, Pranali A. Mishra, Nalanda T. Rangari, Bhaskar H. Vaidhun, Machindra J. Chavan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 275-282
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35287

Pyrazoles are reported to be well known pharmacophores. This has motivated the synthesize some of the pyrazole derivatives by using hydrazine hydrate as well as adding benzimidazole in pyrazoles. A series of (4Z)-2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl)-4-arylidene-5-methyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-ones (IIIa3 to IIIe3) was synthesized by conventional method by refluxing compounds (IIIa2-IIIe2) with  O-Phenylene diamine in absolute ethanol.  A series of compounds (IIIa2-IIIe2) was prepared by reacting compounds (IIIa1-IIIe1) with chloroacetic acid. A series of (4E)-4-arylidene-5-methyl-2,4–dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-ones (IIIa1-IIIe1) was prepared by the reaction between 5-methyl-2,4-dihydro- 3H-pyrazol-3-one (II) and  different aldehydes in presence of Sodium acetate. All of the compounds were synthesised with high yields (58-80%) and identified using IR, 1H NMR spectrum data, as well as C, H, and N elemental analyses. At varying MIC values, all of the produced compounds showed antibacterial and antifungal activity, as well as analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Anticonvulsant, CNS depressive, ulcerogenic, and anthelmintic properties are thought to be exhibited by the produced compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Transforming Growth Factor Beta as Salivary Biomarker in Periodontitis Patients with or without Diabetes Mellitus

B. Revathi, M. Jeevitha, N. D. Jayakumar, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 297-303
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35290

Aim: To estimate the salivary TGF-beta levels in periodontitis patients with or without diabetes mellitus

Materials and methods: Thirty patients [15 males and 15 females] were included in this study and divided into three groups. Group a included 10 participants with periodontal health. Group b included 10 participants with periodontitis and diabetes mellitus. Group c included 10 participants with periodontitis only. Saliva samples were collected and TGF-beta levels were compared between the groups using Sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay by commercially available human TGF-beta 96 well ELISA kit. The data were statistically analysed by One-Way- ANOVA. Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test was used to test the significance at the levels of P< 0.05.

Results: TGF- beta level was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in periodontitis with diabetes mellitus (108 ±7.1pg/ml) when compared with periodontitis only (77±3.5 pg/ml) and also when compared with healthy controls (66±5.6 pg/ml).

Conclusion: The results indicate that TGF beta level was found to be increased in the saliva of patients with periodontitis with diabetes mellitus than healthy controls, suggesting that diabetes mellitus and periodontitis show detrimental effects on each other through TGF beta pathway and thus estimation of salivary TGF beta levels may help to monitor the periodontal disease severity in diabetic patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxicity Activity of Green Tea and Mint Formulation

G. Pushpaanjali, Lakshmi Narayanan Arivarasu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 304-311
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35641

Background: Cytotoxicity refers to a substance or process which results in cell damage or cell death. The prefix ‘cyto’ refers to a cell and ‘toxic’ to poison. The  term is often used to describe chemotherapy drugs that kill cancer cells, but it may also be used to describe toxins, such as venom. Within our own immune system , we have cells that are considered cytotoxic, such as the T cell that kills bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells.

Materials and Methods:  100ml of distilled water, 1 gram of green tea leaf and 1 gram of powdered mint is added and the mixture is heated for 15 to 20 minutes and then filtered with the help of filtered paper. The mixture was again heated and concentrated from 70ml to 20ml.  2 grams of iodine free salt was weighed and dissolved in 200ml of distilled water. 6 well ELISA plates were taken and 10-12ml of saline water was filled. To that 10 nauplii were added to each well( 5μl, 10μl, 20μl, 40μl, 80μl). Then the nanoparticles were added according to the concentration level. The plates were incubated for 24 hours. After 24 hours, the elisa plates were observed and noted for the number of live nauplii’s present.

Results and Discussion: The cytotoxicity activity of green tea with mint formulation shows that all the introduced shrimps were alive in the control whereas it is shows that the lethality of 5μl is 60%, 10μl is 70%, 20μl is 70%, 40μl is 70% and 80μl is 100%.

Conclusion: Based on the result of the study it is finally concluded that cytotoxic activity of green tea and mint formulation has better effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Anti Inflammatory Activity of Abies webbiana Using Albumin Denaturation Assay

A. Shamaa Anjum, Sheeja S. Varghese, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 312-321
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35642

Background: In ayurveda, many natural plant components are used to treat inflammatory conditions for centuries with less side effects. Different parts of Abies webbiana plant are used in ayurveda for many diseases. However, very few studies have been conducted to evaluate pharmacological effects of Abies webbiana.

Aim: The objective of this in vitro study was to analyse and compare the anti-inflammatory properties of A. webbiana at various concentrations using albumin denaturation assay.

Methodology: A ready made powder of A. webbiana was mixed with 100 ml of distilled water and boiled for 10 mins the extract was obtained by filtration. The anti-inflammatory activity was done using albumin denaturation assay and Diclofenac sodium was used as a positive control. Serial dilution from 10 µL, 20 µL, 30 µL, 40 µL and 50 µL was performed for A. webbiana and the reference drug reaction mixture was prepared for albumin denaturation assay. All the data was analysed statistically using SPSS version 23 (IBM). Unpaired t test was used for comparison with the positive control and one-way Anova followed by Tukey’s post hoc test were used for the comparison between different concentrations.

Results: The current study revealed that A. webbiana extract had potent anti-inflammatory activity at all the tested concentrations but was significantly lesser when compared to the standard (p<0.05). It was also evident that the absorbance rate of A. webbiana significantly increased with the increase in concentration of the extract (p<0.05). However, the absorbance rate at 50 µL of both standard and A. webbiana were almost similar.

Conclusion: It can be concluded from the present findings that the leaves of A. webbiana possess concentration-dependent anti-inflammatory property but is comparatively lesser than Diclofenac sodium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Allergies Caused Due to Monomers and Modified Monomer Acrylic Knowledge among Dental Practitioners: A Survey

Gayathri Karthikeyan, V. Rakshagan, M. Jeevitha, Selvaraj Jeyaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 322-333
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35643

Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) has been the most extensively used denture base material over the past eight decades. Despite the availability of alternative polymers, this has remained the dominant denture base material. To solve the limitations of PMMA, new materials have been developed and introduced into dentistry. Several adjustments have been tried to improve the physicomechanical properties and biocompatibility of denture base acrylic resins. These modifications are divided into two categories: polymer and monomer alterations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti Inflammatory Activity of Herbal Formulation Prepared Using Mint and Green Tea

R. Pon Preeja, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, Rajesh Kumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 334-341
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35644

Aim: The aim of my study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of herbal formulation prepared using mint and green tea.

Introduction: Green tea is a ‘non-fermented’ tea, and contains more catechins than black tea or oolong tea. Green tea and epigallocatechin 3-gallate, suppress the gene and/or protein expression of inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related enzymes.Mint have a potent anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced mouse ear edema model.

Materials and Method: Preparation of herbal formulation:

To 100 ml of distilled water,1 g of tea leaves and 1 g of powdered mint is added .This mixture was heated for about 15-20 minutes and then filtered using filter paper.The mixture was again heated and concentrated from 70 ml to 20 ml.

Result: At 20 μl there is 59 percent of inhibition,at 50 μl there is 90 %of inhibition ,whereas in the standard there is only 40%of inhibition .Thus as the concentration increases the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract increases.

Conclusion: From this study we can conclude that green tea and mint have a great anti-inflammatory property.Anti-inhibitory zone ranging from 90 and is indicating that it is higher than the standard diclofenac sodium which has only 40% of inhibition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation of Mouthwash Using Blue Tea and Its Antioxidant Activity

Ritya Mary Jibu, Arvina Rajasekar, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 342-350
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35645

Introduction: Clitoria ternatea also known as the "blue pea," is a perennial twinning herbaceous plant in the Fabaceae family. The medicinal properties of this plant have been scientifically validated, especially at an international level, and it has been recorded to have a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective properties.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant property of blue tea extract based mouthwash.

Materials and Methods: The study was performed as an in vitro study under a laboratory setting. Synthesis of the mouthwash was performed using dried leaves of the butter pea plant subsequently the mouthwash was tested for its antioxidant activity and was assessed via the DPPH assay. The obtained values were compared with that of a known standard. The obtained data was sorted in Microsoft Excel and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Software, Version 23.0). Unpaired t test was done for the comparison of blue tea extract with the standard and one way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test was done to compare various concentrations with standard.

Results: The blue tea extract mouthwash was tested with 10µL initially and then was increased to 20µL, 30µL, 40µL and 50µL. Based on DPPH assay, as the concentration of the extract solution was increased by 10µL each time tested, their antioxidant activity also increased over a scale. It was seen that the blue tea extract mouthwash had significantly less antioxidant capacity when compared to the standard (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The blue tea extract mouthwash is found to be a potent antioxidant agent however the antioxidant property was less effective when compared to the standard.

Open Access Original Research Article

Blue Tea Mediated Synthesis and Characterisation of Copper Nanoparticles: An In-vitro Study

Rinki Susan George, Arvina Rajasekar, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 351-360
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35646

Background: Nanoparticles (NPs) are often regarded as essential components of nanotechnology. Butterfly-pea flower tea, often known as Blue Tea, is a caffeine-free or herbal tea produced from an infusion of the Clitoria ternatea plant's flower petals. In the creation of nanoparticles, plant extracts may act as reducing and stabilizing agents.

Aim: The study's goal was to evaluate the characterization of copper nanoparticles derived from blue tea.

Materials and Methods: The green synthesis approach was used to make the blue tea mediated copper nanoparticles. UV spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine morphological characteristics such as form and size of the green produced copper nanoparticles.

Results: The results revealed that the nanoparticles mediated by blue tea extract were eco-friendly, excellent, and non-toxic. Copper nanoparticles were well disseminated and crystalline in nature, according to TEM pictures. Copper nanoparticles were spherical in shape. The particles were 5-10 µl in size. The TEM image showed that nanoparticles were not mixed, but were separated by equal interspaces between them, as validated by microscope visualization at a greater resolution.

Conclusion: Using blue tea, a simple, biological, and low-cost method for the manufacture of copper nanoparticles was developed in this study. To determine the efficacy of these nanoparticles, the generated copper nanoparticles can be exposed to several biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic evaluation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameloglyphics Patterns of Primary and Permanent Dentition Using Staining Method: An Observational Study

Dinesh Yasothkumar, Abirami Arthanari, Pratibha Ramani, A. Melvin George

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 361-367
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35648

Background: Forensic Odontology is a branch of Odontology which in the interest of justice deals with the proper handling and examination of dental evidence and with the proper evaluation and presentation of dental findings. Various applications of forensic dentistry include age estimation, bite mark analysis, ameloglyphics, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy, photographic study, genetic material analysis, and PCR for pulp DNA analysis. The aim of this study is to find out the utility of Hematoxylin and Toluidine blue stains in studying enamel rod end patterns of various dentitions in forensic odontology.

Results: In our study, Mean and standard deviation value of Hematoxylin and Toluidine blue showed the surface score of 6.4±1.782 and 6.6±1.979 respectively. Both maxillary and mandibular Permanent central Incisors showed lowest scores when compared to remaining dentition included in the study.

Conclusion: To conclude, Ameloglyphics patterns can be studied by staining the tooth. The Ameloglyphics pattern can be analyzed using hematoxylin and toluidine blue stains. Ameloglyphics patterns can be used as a valuable tool in personal identification when stained correctly, and they have a bright future in forensic dentistry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Propolis against Streptococcus mutans Compare with Chlorhexidine

G. Preethi, N. P Murali Dharan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 374-380
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35667

Introduction: Propolis is a compound produced by bee’s which exerts antibacterial action against oral microorganisms especially streptococcus mutans. Propolis has different concentrations which exhibit different properties like antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and antioxidant.

Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity of propolis was first demonstrated through disk diffusion method and broth dilution method. In the disk diffusion method, 5 grams of propolis was diluted with 50ml of ethanol in an eppendorf tube. Different concentrations of propolis (ie) 50mm, 40mm, 30mm were added to sterile discs using a micropipette and were exposed to the bacteria and the results were observed. In the broth dilution method, different concentrations of propolis 1g, 1.25g, 1.5g were taken and dissolved in ethanol. Then 5ml of sterile distilled water was added to the propolis solution. The above solution was autoclaved for 1 and half hours. It was then exposed to the bacteria for half an hour and results were observed.

Results: This study was conducted to assess the antimicrobial activity of propolis against Streptococcus mutans in comparison with 0.2% chlorhexidine. When microorganisms were exposed to propolis for 24 hours, it affected the bacterial viability. There was a complete elimination of bacteria with propolis. Antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine was evaluated and a similar result was obtained. Thus when we compare the antimicrobial activity of propolis and chlorhexidine there was no significant difference with a p value of 0.01 which is statistically significant.

Conclusion: This study showed a positive inhibitory influence of propolis with respect to the Streptococcus mutans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Genetic Alterations in CDH (Cadherin) Family of Genes and their Putative Association with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Moulishree Ramesh, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini, A. S. Smiline Girija, P. Sankar Ganesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 381-390
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35668

Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is considered to be a common type of human cancer. It is highly invasive with limited therapeutic options outside surgery, chemotherapy and radiation.  Cadherin family genes comprises a family with more than 110 members which are calcium dependent transmembrane proteins which helps in cellular adhesion, signaling etc. There exist different functions of Cadherin genes in malignant cells. Uncontrolled mesenchymal- epithelial transition is seen in malignant situations where the cadherins serve as tumour suppressor genes but gets down regulated drastically to create tumour initiation and invasions. This study aims to study the association between genetic alterations in the cadherin family of genes and HNSCC patients.

Materials and Methods: The datas were collected from a promising database, cBioportal and the demographic details of the selected individuals(HNSCC patients) were tabulated and noted. The genetic variations in the genes were analysed using GnomAD analysis, oncoprint analysis and their various genetic alterations,frequency were tabulated and represented figuratively.

Results and Discussion: On analysing the various genetic alterations discovered in cadherin family genes of HNSCC patients, CDH2 gene showed maximum genetic alteration(%). The different genetic alterations documented were splicing, deep deletion, amplification, etc. the oncoprint data analysis shows the frequency of the types of different genetic alteration in the five genes considered, their combination with any other genetic alteration seen in the other genes along with their frequency. The graphical representation of Kaplan meier analysis, showing over expression of CDH2 genes helps understand the survival rate of HNSCC patients. These analysis and tabulated documents, figures prove the association between genetic alterations in the cadherin family of genes and HNSCC.

Conclusion: There exists a significant association between HNSCC and genetic alterations seen in the cadherin family of genes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Hemoglobin Levels among Oral Cancer Patients: An Institutional Study

Karishma Desai, Pratibha Ramani, Deepak Pandiar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 391-398
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35839

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide. It is estimated that approximately half of all the tumors affecting the head and neck region commonly affect the oral cavity. Premalignant lesions can manifest as leukoplakia, erythroplakia, keratosis or even oral candidiasis. Hemoglobin (Hb) is a protein contained in the red blood cells of the body and plays an important role in delivery of oxygen to the tissues. A sufficient level of Hemoglobin is required to maintain oxygenation of the tissues. Anemia is defined as a reduction in hemoglobin levels below the lower limit pertaining to a particular age group. Treating anemia by increasing the levels of hemoglobin has proven to increase the quality of life of cancer patients. The aim of the present study is to analyze the Hb level in OSCC patients attending our institution.

Materials and Methods: The present retrospective institutional study was conducted after obtaining ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethical Approval Board to access patient records and data. A total of 5, 00,000 case sheets were analyzed from June 2019 to February 2021. Suitable inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied and case sheets were shortlisted. The data were entered in MS Excel spreadsheet and further statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS. All results were displayed as graphs and pie charts.

Results: 64 cases of OSCC were included in the present study with a male predominance. 45% of the study population had a level between 9-11 mg/dl. 60.3% of the population belonged to the age group of 50 and above.

Conclusion: Anemia in cancer can be precipitated due to various factors. It can be caused or exacerbated by the cancer itself due to immunosuppression or due to chemotherapy. Anemia can also be pre existing due to underlying conditions. It was found that hemoglobin levels are found to be higher in males and higher in ages 50+ when compared to ages 30-40. Low levels of hemoglobin and anemic conditions in oral cancer patients can cause excessive fatigue and can significantly affect quality of life and hence, hemoglobin therapy is widely administered to oral cancer patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Chronic Pulpitis among 13 to 17 Year Old Pediatric Patients Visiting Private Dental Institution in Chennai : A Retrospective Study

J. Dhivyadharshini, Pratibha Ramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 399-406
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35840

Introduction: Pulpitis is a debilitating inflammation of the pulp of the tooth. Bacteria infiltrate the pulp of the tooth, causing it to swell. It may affect one or more teeth. Pulpitis comes in two varieties - acute and chronic. Chronic pulpitis is a long-term inflammation of the pulp tissue that results in permanent  damage to the reliability of the pulp tissue.

Aim: To assess the prevalence of chronic pulpitis among 13 to 17 year old pediatric patients visiting the private dental institution in Chennai.

Materials and Methods: Case sheets of patients were obtained from Record management system software for analysis. Patients with chronic pulpitis within the age group 13 to 17 were selected and the sample size was found to be n = 165 patients. The collected data was then tabulated for statistical analysis using SPSS.

Results: From the results obtained in our study , chronic pulpitis was most prevalent in females with age of 16 particularly in mandibular molars  (16.97% in 36 and 13.94% in 46).

Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study it can be concluded that mandibular molars were commonly affected due to chronic pulpitis and by knowing the prevalence and pathophysiology of chronic pulpitis, dental clinicians can prevent the progression of this condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Caries Risk Assessment and Detection of Streptococcus Mutans Count in Plaque and Saliva Using Mutans-Sanguis Agar

Vineet Tyagi, Karthikeyan Ramalingam, Ridhima Tyagi, Manish Kumar, Mamta Tanwar, Suddhasatva Bose, Amisha Kakkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 407-432
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35852

Assessment of the caries risk of individual patients is a critical component in determining an appropriate management strategy.

A total of 160 samples were taken from the outpatients of dental clinics in Surendera Dental College, Sriganganagar, Rajasthan. The age group of the participants ranged from 16-60 years.

We have used the ADA caries risk assessment form among our study samples to ascertain their caries risk and compared it with their Streptococcus mutans levels in saliva and plaque using mutans-sanguis agar. The colonies were counted after 18 hours of incubation at 37oC. The S.mutans colonies were greyish-yellow in colour and those of S.sanguis were colourless. The colonies were counted with a digital colony counter.

The tabulated data were subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA and t-test with SPSS.

The findings of the present study indicated the Streptococcus mutans counts among high risk and moderate risk group were statistically insignificant when compared to low risk and control group even though the mean value showed an increase. We observed that the CFU yield was higher in unstimulated saliva than the plaque samples in contrast to reported literature.

Moreover, Dental caries risk assessment should become a routine component in dental practice. Estimation of the caries risk will help to establish the periodicity and intensity of caries management protocol.

Our data suggest that the MS count in oral microflora are influenced by age and various other factors such as diet, time and host response. As dental caries is multifactorial disease further clinical studies are needed to identify the actual pathogenesis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Review on COVID-19: A Pandemic Situation

Prithvi Singh Thakur, Sameer Adwani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 471-477
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35911

COVID-19 is a pandemic, a global health disaster, and the most significant concern humanity has encountered in the 21st century. The new coronavirus illness COVID-19 has become the latest pandemic, first identified in Wuhan, China, and progressively spreading worldwide. This virus evolved from an animal virus and subsequently adapted the capacity to pass from person - to – person. This infection has propagated to every corner of the earth, wreaking devastation and generating panic among the population. The outbreak has hampered various aspects of human life, be it livelihood, financial, health status, and mental and physical health. Therefore, every country has made significant efforts to halt the transmission of novel coronaviruses. The first thing to look for is an equilibrium amongst health protection and limiting socioeconomic damage resulting from this catastrophe. Governments, scientists, biochemists, researchers, and others have worked day in and day out to find robust solutions to control the pandemic. Effective treatments, reliable and sensible diagnostic tools, and prophylactic measures are being developed. In the spirit of partnership, we must all contribute to protecting this situation. The study aims at evaluating various articles related to covid-19 and its impacts on various aspects of human development and recent advancements in strategies to tackle and prevent the further rise in covid-19 cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Studies on the Aerial Parts Extracts of Crinum latifolium L. (Amaryllidaceae)

Neeraj Kumar, Manoj Kumar Mishra, O.P. Agrawal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 485-490
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B36024

The present study was undertaken to find the antimicrobial activities, phytochemical presence in various aerial parts extract of Crinum latifolium (C. latifolium). Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical constituents and quantitative analysis of total phenolics, flavonoids and alkaloids was determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. Quantitative analysis of phenolic, flavonoids and alkaloids was carried out by Folins Ciocalteau reagent, aluminium chloride and bromocresol green method respectively. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was done by well diffusion assay method against S. mutans and S. bongori using standard ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin (10-30μg/ml). The antimicrobial activity was determined by measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition in term of millimeter (mm). The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of tannins, glycosides, flavonoids and alkaloids ect. The antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts against all microorganisms was concentration dependent manner but less than standard drug. It is concluded that the antimicrobial activity showed by the plant is due to the presence of these phytochemicals. For future studies, phytochemcials responsible for these activities can be isolated and modified for pharmacological purpose.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation of Active Molecules from the Stems of Passion Vine

N. Michael Antony, Jennifer Fernandes, Jane Mathew

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 491-497
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B36031

Plants contain large number of phytochemical components which are bioactive and useful in the treatment of various disease conditions. But there is a need to investigate the constituents present in medicinal plants responsible for their pharmacological action. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides and steroids in the stems of Passiflora foetida L commonly known as Passion fruit. The present work aims at extraction, isolation & characterization of active constituents present in the stems of Passiflora foetida L. The ethanolic extract of stems was subjected to preliminary phytochemical tests. Extraction was carried by a Soxhlet extractor and the following compounds were isolated from different solvents. Three constituents were isolated, Kaempferol is a polyphenol isolated from from n- butanol extract. A flavonoid, Apigenin from ethyl acetate extract and Beta- Sitosterol a phytosterol was isolated from petroleum ether extract. All the components isolated were characterized by IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and mass spectroscopical data.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Glut 2 in Islets of Langerhans Treated with Gymnema Sylvestre and Metformin in Streptozotocin-induced Animals

Arumugam Rajalakshmi, Elumalai Prithiviraj, Govindarajan Sumathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 498-510
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B36037

Diabetes mellitus is a generally known metabolic disorder affecting individuals, not only the elderly population, but all age groups. Among the etiologies of diabetes, reduction of glucose transporter GLUT-2 is accompanied by a loss in glucose-mediated insulin secretion, causing diabetes. To treat diabetes, the present scenario is the demand for time to use herbal drugs with minimal detrimental effects. Considering the benefits of Gymnema sylvestre, an anti-diabetic herbal drug, our current study is designed to expose the plausible relationship between the anti-diabetic activity and GLUT-2 expression, and the efficacy is evaluated in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic model.

Materials and Methods: Wistar albino adult rats (n=36) weighing about 140–160 g. Each group consisted of 6 animals and was divided into six groups based on the high fat diet (42 days), the streptozotocin-induced diabetic model (5 days) and treated for 22 days using ethanolic extract of Gymnema sylvestre at low (200mg) and high dosage (400mg) and metformin (25mg). During the experimental period, blood glucose levels and the animal weight were carefully monitored. 

Results: Decreased body weight, pancreatic weight, and increased blood glucose were observed in Group III along with a reduced level of GLUT-2 expression, indicating the manifestation of diabetes. In diabetic rats, however, these abnormalities are significantly restored after treatment with Gymnema sylvestre, albeit at a higher dosage.The Gymnema sylvestre displays the antidiabetic activity through the regeneration of pancreatic β-cells, maintaining GLUT-2 expression in diabetic induced animal model and Our histological study of pancreatic tissue also confirms the regeneration of beta cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histological Changes in Testis of Adult Wistar Albino Rats - Nicotine-Induced Testicular Damages and the Protective Effects of Methanolic Extract of Sphaeranthus Amaranthoides

S. Kanimozhi, Govindarajan Sumathy, Elumalai Prithiviraj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 511-516
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B36038

Nicotine which is the most dynamic substance present in tobacco is the vital cause of damaging the tissues and oxidative stress that in turn is the principal cause of numerous diseases. The succession and severity of nicotine toxicity which may be adjourned by the natural antioxidants may cause serious health, knock. We have scrutinized the consequences of methanolic extract of Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (SAE) on nicotine-induced reproductive toxicity, oxidative damage, and hepatotoxicity in adult Wistar male albino rats. In four groups 24 rats were contingently split up. Control,  Nicotine N (0.4 mg/kg. i.p) methanolic extract of Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (SAE) and (N+ SAE) group. In order to compute the levels of testosterone and to measure the hematological and oxidative stress parameters, blood samples were collected after 48 days. The reproductive organs were weighed and taken for semen analysis and histopathology study.  We could see decrease in the levels of testosterone, weights of reproductive organs, and even in the morphological features of sperms due to reproductive toxicity of Nicotine. On histological examination, testis showed atrophy, degenerative alterations of spermatogenesis in numerous seminiferous tubules together with increased interstitial spaces and a decrease in the number of Leydig cells. SAE played a defensive role against nicotine which persuaded the reproductive effects by enhancing the spermatogenesis, semen quality, and testicular histological damage.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Medicinal Properties of Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy)-The Magic Herb

. Sushma, . Reena, . Shivali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 65-72
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35253

Since the advent of human civilization, plants have been rich sources of medications. A survey of constituent compounds present in Tinospora cordifolia and their pharmacological activities is discussed in this paper, since there has been a developing interest for plant based drugs, wellbeing items,drugs, foods supplements, makeup and so on in the present era. Tinospora cordifolia is a standard restorative plant which is used in a couple of standard meds to fix various contaminations. It is regularly known by the names Amrita and Guduchi and falls in the group Menispermaceae. It has been used in the treatment of a lot of illnesses like skin sickness infection, diabetes, fever, urinary issue, and diarrhea and is viewed as one of the most fundamental herbal plant in the Indian system of medicines(ISM).An attempt is made in the current review to explore the pharmacological & phytochemistry effectiveness of T.cordifolia.

Open Access Review Article

Obesity Management via Herbal Approach: A Review

Lakhwinder Singh, Manisha Bhatti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 204-217
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35278

Obesity is a one of the metabolic disorders which mainly occur due to the variation in balance between energy consumption and energy usage and furthermore, this disease associated with various other pathological states in obese person such as problems associated with CVS, CNS, Hormonal disorder like diabetes etc. So, it has become essential to monitor the overweight in reliable manner. There are different ways of obesity management but masses are eager to those standard ways which are cost effective with minimum side effects. In present era the plant-based approach is most widely famous for the control of obesity as this therapy consider with less side effects and efficient to reduce the weight of the obese people. This present review emphasised on plant-based approach to manage obesity.

Open Access Review Article

Aromatic Profiling and Bioactive Potential of Lavendula angustifolia: A Review

. Nishtha, Ravneet Kaur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 291-296
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35289

Plants are the vital source around which human life revolves. Starting from our food to medicine we obtain, all such valuable resources come from resilience creatures called plants. Plants are gifted with certain properties that make them precious in all aspects of life. They produce bioactive substances that make them medicinally important for pharmaceutical use. The aromatic plants which are important as industrial raw material are used as essence material in various baking and brewing industries because of their pleasant aroma. These plants undergo distillation processes to extract the essential oils from oil secreting glands. The present review deals with review on aromatic profiling and bioactive potential of Lavendula angustifolia plant and its commercial importance as a plant material.

Open Access Review Article

Helicobacter pylori Infection and Circulating Ghrelin Levels- A Review

Sakshi Bhutda, Yeshwant Lamture, Meenakshi Yeola, Pankaj Garde, Tushar Nagtode

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 433-442
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35906

The correlation amidst Helicobacter pylori contamination &ghrelin levels flowing in the body is still an arguable subject. The enteric enteroendocrine system produces ghrelin, which is then octanoylated by, as of late, found ghrelin o-acyltransferase (GOAT) before being emitted into the circulatory system. Since ghrelin ties to the ghrelin neuroreceptor only after its acylation, this octanoylation is needed for a long time for ghrelin's natural components, like hunger incitement and calming characteristics (GHS-R). Given the site of ghrelin manufacture in the gut, it is expected that gastric mucosal injury impacts the flow of ghrelin levels among humans. H. pylori bacterium can contaminate > 50%of the world's citizens & can live for a lifetime once got rooted within the gastric mucosa. Chronic gastritis, stomach shrinkage, and ulceration, decreased appetite, and a decreased BMI are all connected to infection (BMI). The vast majority of research looking at flowing hunger hormone & ghrelin expression in the gut among patients with the contamination show that the bacteria inhibit ghrelin production and secretion. Ghrelin is restored once infection is eradicated, improving appetite and raising BMI. However, a causal association amidstH. pylori-related serum ghrelin reduction & edible consumption & fatness, and adiposity has yet to be shown in specific investigations. The majority of research looks at total ghrelin in the blood; however, the proportion of acyl/total hunger hormone may give a clear picture of how the acylated hunger hormone changes under the course of contamination & deterioration.

Open Access Review Article

Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of Belimumab in Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus- A Mini-review

Ruturaj Chavan, Rahul Apet, Swapnil Pomade, Bhushan Madke, Sankalp Khanke

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 443-449
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35907

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a fairly common and widespread condition. Currently, it is clinically relevant in most healthcare facilities and is discussed in both the medical and scientific literature. There is a wealth of data from both clinicians and researchers studying the problems and treatment options associated with SLE. Systemic lupus erythematosus is characterized by clinical variability, irregular course, and relapses (SLE). Although SLE is primarily a systemic autoimmune disease, it can sometimes be organ-specific, creating diagnostic difficulties. B-cell activating factor (BAFF) is attacked by belimumab (a monoclonal antibody), which reduces the level of BLys (B-lymphocyte stimulating cell), which is a chief cytokine in the pathophysiology of SLE. In our review of the literature, we tried to determine the efficacy and safety of the drug belimumab in the context of patients with SLE and how it affects their recovery and management. We have reviewed the two studies which were conducted regarding the role of this drug which was found to be promising and beneficial for seeking a new treatment route for the clinicians. Also, we have described different domains of the study and their mathematical results regarding the efficacy of the drug henceforth. We seek to describe the safest use and the best possible results that clinicians can achieve when treating patients with SLE, and we provide high levels of clinical care at the highest level. We advise physicians to monitor all areas of the drug's activity and to make educated and informed judgments, which are principally discussed in our article.

Open Access Review Article

A Systematic Review on Metformin

Benumadhab Ghosh, Tanishq Kumar, Sarju Zilate

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 450-458
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35908

Metformin is the primary pharmacologic treatment of type II Diabetes also the most recommended drug around the world, either alone or in blend with insulin or other glucose-lowering treatments. Metformin is a biguanide. Metformin was likewise removed because of worries over lactic acidosis, but it consequently brought down glucose levels and was once again introduced in 1995.

Diabetes mellitus is a gathering of issues related to a metabolism where the glucose concentration of blood is higher than usual because of low discharge of insulin or inappropriate reactivity to insulin, bringing about hypertension. Therefore low glucose, results in cutting off intricacies. Metformin has been indicated to forestall diabetes for individuals who pose a greater danger and reduce the majority of diabetic confusion. Late responses to metformin indicated many more ramifications; for example, metformin has kidney protective characteristics.
With an expanding worldwide weight of CAD, early identification and convenient administration of hazard factors are pivotal to decreasing dismalness and mortality in such patients. DM is viewed as a free danger factor for the improvement of CAD. Metformin, a drug for diabetic medication, has a role in pre-clinical and clinical examinations to lower cardiovascular occasions in DM patients. Metformin protectively affects coronary veins past its hypoglycemic impacts. Given its worldwide accessibility, course of organization, and cost, metformin gives a different restorative choice for essential and optional anticipation of CAD in DM and non-diabetics.

Metformin has also shown remarkable improvements in patients with Polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Open Access Review Article

A review on Management of Obesity

Deepal Gupta, Hitaansh Dhingra, Akshay Dahiwele

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 459-464
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35909

Obesity is one of the most challenging conditions that primary care physicians face in their profession. Despite the efforts of both patients and professionals, the condition is becoming more common. A multimodal strategy that includes food, physical exercise, and behavioral disorders is required for treatment. Dugs and surgery are also performed to receive desired results. This study summarises the data for each strategy, discusses how primary care physicians might best assist obese patients, and offers weight-loss advice.

New weight-loss techniques to treat obesity appear to have a bright future. Current medications have had limited weight reduction impacts in the overall obese population, but customized medicine will substantially impact smaller homogenous subpopulations of obese people. Multiple, complementary route drug combinations can produce double-digit weight loss in a larger, varied patient group. Furthermore, the advancement of sophisticated subcutaneous delivery technologies has paved the way for the creation of ground-breaking peptide and biologic medicines to treat obesity.

Obesity is a chronic condition that needs lifetime therapy. The BMI, waist circumference, and  other risk variables are all measured in the obesity evaluation process. Diet and exercise should be part of the management plan. Only sibutramine and orlistat are FDA-approved for long-term usage so that they can be administered to selected individuals. The only alternative that  produces persistent and considerable weight loss is bariatric surgery, provided to very obese individuals.

Open Access Review Article

Tracheobronchial Foreign Bodies Aspiration

Samiksha Gupta, Shraddha Jain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 478-484
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i63B35912

A foreign body aspiration occurs when a foreign object becomes lodged in the airway, causing breathing difficulties or choking. Objects can enter the respiratory and digestive tracts through the mouth and nose, but when an object enters the respiratory tract, it causes aspiration. The foreign bodies can then lodge in the trachea or further down the respiratory tract, such as in a bronchus. Regardless of the type of item, any aspiration can be a life-threatening situation that demands immediate evaluation and response to reduce the risk of negative outcomes. Despite significant improvements in clinical outcomes as a result of enhanced care, there were still 2,700 fatalities. The literature on tracheobronchial foreign bodies aspiration was retrieved using the Cochrane Database of systematic reviews, Pubmed, and Google scholar. Keywords and phrases used during the search included “tracheobronchial,” “bronchial,” and “aspiration.” This review aims to reflect on the pattern of tracheobronchial tree foreign-body aspiration and the rate of success for rigid bronchoscopy in children admitted to a single center and the correlation between the type of foreign bodies and the age of the patients, presentation of the patient, and comorbidities.