Open Access Case Report

Renal Cell Carcinoma Clear Cell Variant with Chromophobe Differentiation -A Rare Case Presentation

Tanvi Bhardwaj, K. M. Hiwale, Sunita Vagha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 479-485
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35896

Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) is a diverse growth of various histological cell forms, as well as genetic, biological, and behavioral variations, accounting for around 2%-4% of all genitourinary cancers worldwide and having the highest mortality rate. RCC is a rare symptom that occurs from the lower pole of the left kidney. Histopathological testing is critical for diagnosis, staging, and treatment evaluation. As a consequence, proper surgical and pathological correlation is critical for the diagnosis of such an unusually presented RCC. As a result, various RCC variants should be considered for proper diagnosis. We are here presenting a case of a woman aged44-year-old, complaining for two months about a lump in her abdomen. Pain in the left lumbar area was noticed, which was progressive and accompanied by hematuria. The post-nephrectomy specimen was sent for histopathological analysis, and RCC was found (Clear Cell variant with chromophobe differentiation). RCC (a Clear cell variant with Chromophobe differentiation) is an unusual manifestation that arises from the left kidney's lower pole. In terms of diagnosis, staging, and treatment assessment, histopathological testing is crucial. As a result, for the diagnosis of such an unusually presented RCC, proper surgical and pathological correlation is essential. It's critical to acknowledge the presence of this clinical entity, which, though uncommon, may offer yet another reason to pursue surgical or immunological treatment for metastatic renal cancer. The finding will inspire & motivate researchers to pursue immunologic and other disease-related research.

Open Access Case Study

Chemotherapy Induced Secondary Spontaneous Pneumothorax in a Female with Endometrial Cancer- A Case Report

Srinivas Naik, Shazia Mohammad, Sourya Acharya, Neema Acharya, Anuj Varma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35168

Endometrial cancer is one of the leading causes of death in post- menopausal women. It has significant impact on mortality and morbidity of women in the post-menopausal age group often requiring Hysterectomy along with Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy can be used to treat endometrial cancer with hematogenous metastases. Chemotherapy induced secondary pneumothorax is a rare complication. We present a case of a 68-year-old female patient with endometrial cancer who had pulmonary metastasis and was subjected to carboplatin, paclitaxel-based chemotherapy. During the fourth cycle she developed tension pneumothorax. This case highlights the importance of knowledge of life-threatening complications of chemotherapy regimens, so that the treating of physician/oncologists are ready to tackle these anticipated conditions.

Open Access Case Study

Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Breast and Leukemoid Reaction in an Immunocompetent Female: An Unforeseen Misadventure of LONG COVID Syndrome?

Nidhi Popat, Swarali Kale, Dhruv Talwar, Vinay Verma, Sunil Kumar, Samarth Shukla, Sunita Vagha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 217-222
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35189

Necrotizing fasciitis is infrequently encountered but highly fatal group of infections. It is a infection of any of the three layers of soft tissue compartments which includes the dermis, subcutaneous tissue, superficial fascia,deep fascia or the muscle along with necrotising changes. During the initial stages it might be tricky to differentiate cellulitis and other infections of the superficial skin from necrotising fasciitis leading to an delay in the diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis and management can reduce mortality .This case report highlights a previously unreported presentation of necrotising fasciitis of breast in the form of leukemoid reaction encountered in the rural central India following COVID-19 infection.

Open Access Case Study

Osteopetrosis a Significant Bone Disease: A Case Study

Sumit Vinod Gajbhiye, Suhas Tivaskar, Anurag Luharia, Ravi Christian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 290-294
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35577

Background: Osteopetrosis is a genetic condition that affects just a few people. illness characterised by osteosclerosis, Due to inadequate osteoclast resorption, there is destruction of the medullary canal, calcified cartilage, and hard bone. Patients with osteopetrosis are more likely to develop osteoarthritis. Only a few studies have documented a patient who underwent both a complete Arthroplasty of the hip and knee (TKA). In this article, a patient with osteopetrosis describes a case of left and right hip osteoarthritis.

Clinical Findings: Walking problems, Calcium deficiency, the optic nerve in the brain is under pressure. Hearing loss, as well as distress, can lead to neurological issues.

Diagnostic Evaluation: CBC Investigation, blood test, Hb-12.9%, Total RBC count-4.84million/cumm, RDW-13.2%, HCT-36.7%, Total WBC Count-26200 cu mm, Monocytes- 01%, Granulocytes- 30%, Lymphocytes- 65%, Total platelet count-3.5 Lacs/cu mm, ALT(SGPT)-17 U/L, AST (SGOT)-44 U/L.

Peripheral Smear: RBCs-Normocytic Normochromic Platelets-Adequate on smear, No Hemiparasite seen, WBCs-Neutrophilic leucocytosis.

Therapeutic Intervention: Calcium 1200mg, D3 8000IU, vitamin D supplements calcitriol 0.25mcg/ml, hormone replacement therapy, Bone marrow transplantation (BMT), Alendronate70mg, (Fosamax), Risedronate35mg OD (Actonel), Inj Boniva 3mg OD, Inj Zoledronic acid 4mg BD (Recast), various medications, and/or surgery.

Outcome: After therapy, the child's behaviour improves. Osteoporosis is a condition in which excessive bone resorption causes decreased bone mass and skeletal fragility, with the most serious clinical consequence being increased fracture risk.

Conclusion:  The patient was hospitalised to AVBRH with a known case of Osteopetrosis illness and complained of difficulties awakening, discomfort, and neurological issues. After receiving appropriate therapy and surgery, his condition improved. According to this case study, in patients with osteopetrosis, total joint arthroplasty is an effective therapy for painful hip and knee osteoarthritis.

Open Access Study Protocol

m-NUTRIC Score for Assessment of Nutritional Status and Treatment Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

Prerna Verma, Sunil Kumar, Sourya Acharya, Shilpa Bawankule, A. K. Wanjari, Sachin Agrawal, Anand Bakre

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 250-257
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35564

Background: Malnutrition entails insufficiency arising of protein, vitamin, and trace elements related to inadequate and unstable diet which may cause poor quality of life and sometimes even lead to death. Undernourishment is the leading reason having a greater impact on outcomes following treatment, which lengthens patient stay and impacts mortality and morbidity. Protein deficiency is commonly reported among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Lack of proper nutrition affects the quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease. Nutritional problems among CKD subjects needs to be detected earlier. This study aims to  assess the nutritional risk of patients with CKD by m-Nutric score and compare the  m-Nutric scores among patients with and without haemodialysis.

Materials and Methods: This will be a cross-sectional study in the Dept. of Medicine, at AVBRH, Wardha. Total 150 patients with CKD reporting to Medicine Department, AVBRH, Wardha  will be enrolled in the study. The m-NUTRIC score will be calculated as per the criteria. APACHE II at admittance and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score will be assessed .  NUTRIC points will be calculated without interleukin (IL)-6. Morbidity data, duration of stay of patients and mortality will be recorded.

Expected Results: Subjects having m-NUTRIC scores more than or equal to five will be graded in the high risk category of undernourishment whereas scores less than  or equal to four will be categorised as low risk. We expect a significant correlation of m-NUTRIC scores ≥5 to duration of hospitalisation and risk of death.

Conclusion: The m-NUTRIC scores would be directly correlated with mean ICU duration of stay and mortality for patients with hospitalised CKD.

Open Access Study Protocol

Diastolic Dysfunction of the Left Ventricle in a Prediabetic Population from Rural Central India

Kshitij Bajpai, Shilpa Gaidhane, Sanket Vispute

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 457-471
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35894

According to a growing body of research, in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality. Many studies have sought to understand the many pathways that may play a role in CVD in diabetics in a significant way. According to research, pat had a much higher overall morbidity and mortality rate. The culprits are hyperglycemia-induced macrovascular diseases, autonomic neuropathy, and generally diabetic cardiomyopathy, which is quite significant. Diabetic people might be diagnosed with cardiomyopathy even if they generally are initially asymptomatic and show no clinical indications of the disease, or so they essentially thought. Echocardiography provides the opportunity to measure systolic and diastolic function, which is explicitly fairly significant. A significant risk factor for developing diabetes appears to be prediabetes with the risk of conversion is approximately 70% in the next ten years, with similar microvascular and cardiovascular consequences to diabetes. Immunological factors, Cytokines, advanced glycosylation end-product accumulation and oxidative stress, a standard processes involved. Diastolic dysfunction alters diastolic filling and increases isovolumetric relaxation time in diabetic patients. One of the independent markers for assessing the propensity of developing Cardiovascular disease in a diabetic population is Insulin Resistance. On the other hand, normotensive patients have been linked to left ventricular dysfunction, even when omitting those with coronary artery disease (CAD), which is quite significant for all intents and purposes. According to experts at the Indian Institute of Cardiology (ICC) in Bangalore, even people with normal blood pressure and prediabetes exhibit asymptomatic diastolic dysregulation.

Open Access Study Protocol

Toxic Effects of Formalin on Ist Year M.B.B.S. Students: A Cohort Study

Kirti B. Chaudhary, Amey A. Dhatrak, Seema S. Chawhan, Vilas K. Chimurkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 493-499
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35898

Background: Formalin can lead to allergy, toxicity, and carcinomas. In the anatomy department, students get exposed to formalin either by inhaling it or by the skin as fluids containing formaldehyde may be absorbed. Formalin interacts with molecules on the cell membrane producing changes in the nuclei, changes in proteins, vacuolation of cytoplasm, and changes in DNA.

Objective: To estimate the toxic effects of formalin on Ist year medical students.

Methodology: The participants for this prospective cohort study will be Ist year M.B.B.S. students at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi (meghe), Wardha. The self-administered questionnaire will be given, and complete blood count and thyroid function tests will be done before the study. After cadaveric dissection, a repeat blood sample will be collected to estimate the complete blood count and thyroid function tests.

Expected Results: Exposure to formalin may lead to abnormal values of complete blood count(CBC) and thyroid function tests (TFT).

Conclusion: The study can focus on the toxic effects of formalin on Ist year M.B.B.S. students, which may necessitate reconsidering the formalin volume and ventilation issue in the dissecting halls. There should be regular assessment of working practices to control the effects of formalin at the department of Anatomy.

Open Access Short Research Article

Preparation and Antimicrobial Activity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (Abies webbiana) Based Mouthwash

Prabhav Kumar Iyer, M. Jeevitha, S. Rajeshkumar, Selvaraj Jeyaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35167

Introduction: Nanotechnology has been taking the scientific community by storm as they have been showing promising results due to their antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activity. Multiple studies have found various plant species to be a rich source of these nanoparticles. Abies webbiana is one of these plants, however, it has not been studied enough. The aim of this study is to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles from a. Webbiana plant extract and to test its antimicrobial activity against certain microorganisms.

Materials and Methods: 1 g of a. Webbiana was mixed with 100 ml of distilled water and boiled for 15 minutes to 60°c in a heating mantle. The solution was filtered using whatman no. 1 filter paper. 20 millimolar(0.574 g) of zinc oxide was dissolved in 60 ml of distilled water. 60 ml of this solution was mixed with 40 ml of a. Webbiana filtrate in a beaker, which was then kept on a stirrer. A mouthwash was prepared using the extracted nanoparticles and was used for antimicrobial testing.

Results: The plasmon resonance band of zinc oxide nanoparticles showed absorbance peak at 450 nm. Maximum zone of inhibition was obtained at 100 μl against s. Aureus, 25 μl against e.faecalis, 50 μl against C. albicans and 100 μl against s. Mutans.

Conclusion: The mouthwash shows effective activity against c.albicans and s.mutans. Zinc oxide nanoparticles extracted from a. Webbianahave a potent antimicrobial activity and can be used for the treatment of orofacial infections.

Open Access Short Research Article

Development and Validation of UV-Visible Spectrophotometric Method for Estimation of Tacrolimus in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Nanoparticles

Snehal Patel, Chintan Aundhia, Avinash Seth, Nirmal Shah, Dipti Gohil, Ghanshyam Parmar, Sapna Desai, Kartik Pandya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 238-242
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35192

A UV-visible spectrophotometric method for quantifying tacrolimus in nanoparticles has been developed and validated, and it is accurate, simple, reproducible, and affordable. For drug analysis, optimal conditions have been identified. 291 nm was discovered to be the maximum wavelength (max). In the range of 0.2-1.8 mg/ml, the response was linear (r2 = 0.9989). The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations for precision studies were found to be less than 2%, indicating that the procedure is precise.

Open Access Short Research Article

Prevalence of Caries Secondary to the Orthodontic Treatment in Patients Visiting a Private Dental Hospital-A Retrospective Study

M. Ashritha, Pratibha Ramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 386-400
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35626

Introduction: Orthodontic treatment involving fixed appliance is a long term process. This treatment has a maximum risk of development of caries as proper oral hygiene maintenance would not be noticed. This increases the number of streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus which would form a biofilm. The armamentarium used in this treatment like molar band, brackets etc. are plaque stagnant areas, which over a period of time leads to caries, gingivitis etc. Thus, proper oral hygiene should be maintained by patients.

Aim: The main objective of the study is to assess the prevalence of caries secondary to the orthodontic treatment in patients visiting a private dental hospital.

Materials and Methods: A descriptive study which was performed under a university setting where all the patients reported to Private Dental college and hospital, Chennai. The data was collected by reviewing patients records and analysed the data of 140 patients who underwent orthodontic appliance treatment between May 2019- December 2020. The population size of the study was found to be n=80. Data was collected, tabulated, statistical analysis was done using SPSS-          IBM.

Results and Discussion: From the statistical analysis, it is observed that the total number of caries that could be seen after the orthodontic appliance treatment was more in males (58.23% ) when compared to females and the most commonly affected age is between 18-25 years with 49.37%. Moreover, the common tooth that affected were molars with 49.37%.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it is found that molars are the most commonly affected teeth and the age group which is affected the most is between 18-25 years. Thus, it is the imperative for dentists to provide preventive resin restorations, fluoride varnish and also proper instructions for maintenance of oral hygiene during the orthodontic treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measurement of Salivary Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha (TNF- α) in Periodontitis Patients with or without Diabetes Mellitus

A. Swetaa, M. Jeevitha, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35163

Introduction: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory mediator considered to be a soluble mediator released from immunocompetent cells. It exercises a wide range of proinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in different cell populations, such as stimulating prostaglandin synthesis, promoting tumors in a variety of cancers, producing proteases, and activating osteoclastic function and therefore bone resorption. Its myriad functions suggest that TNF-α plays an important role in mediating the immune-inflammatory responses initiated by infection or other types of damage.

Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the concentrations of Tumour Necrosis Factor- alpha (TNF- α) in the saliva of periodontitis patients with or without diabetes mellitus.

Materials and methods: A total of 30 participants were taken and divided into 3 groups with each group consisting of 10 saliva samples from patients with clinically healthy gingiva and patients with chronic periodontitis with diabetes mellitus and periodontitis patients only. Saliva sample was collected and salivary TNF- α was done using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Statistically analyses was done by one way ANOVA test

Results: Salivary TNF- α concentration in periodontal health, periodontitis with diabetes mellitus (P+DM), Periodontitis only (P) were analysed.  Salivary TNF- α concentration was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in periodontitis with diabetes mellitus (49±3.5 pg/ml) when compared with periodontitis only (29±3.6 pg/ml) and also when compared with healthy controls (17±1.4 pg/ml).

Conclusion: The present study showed elevated TNF- α in periodontitis patients with diabetes mellitus when compared to patients with periodontitis only and normal healthy patients. Further studies are required in a large scale to substantiate the role of TNF-α in the progression of periodontal diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of 8-Hydroxy 2-Deoxyguanosine as Salivary Biomarker for Periodontitis Patients with or without Diabetes Mellitus

M. Ashwin Shravan Kumar, M. Jeevitha, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35164

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the levels of 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine as a salivary biomarker for periodontitis with or without diabetes mellitus.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study

Materials and Methods: 30 patients were included in the study and were categorised into three groups: periodontal health (Group a), patients with periodontitis without diabetes mellitus (Group b) and patients with periodontitis only (Group c). Unstimulated salivary samples were taken. The OHdG concentration was evaluated using Sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay by commercially available human OHdG 96 well ELISA kit. The data were statistically analysed by One-Way -ANOVA. The Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test was used to test the significance at the levels of p<0.05.

Results: Salivary OHdG concentration in periodontal health, periodontitis with diabetes mellitus (P+DM), Periodontitis only (P) were analysed.  Salivary OHdG concentration was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in periodontitis with diabetes mellitus (38±2.82 ng/L) when compared with periodontitis only (20.5±2.12 ng/L) and also when compared with healthy controls (11.5±2.12 ng/L).

Conclusion: Diabetic patients with periodontitis have increased 8 hydroxy 2 deoxyguanosine than non-diabetic counterparts. Thus salivary 8 hydroxy 2 deoxyguanosine is an effective non-invasive biomarker to assess periodontitis among patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Effect of use of Antifungal (Clotrimazole) Drug in Preventing and Reducing the Severity of Oral Discomforts Like Mucositis, Burning Sensation, Xerostomia and Loss of Taste Sensation in Cervicofacial Radiotherapy

Ashish Lanjekar, P. N. Joshi, Pranada Deshmukh, Romita Gaikwad, Monal Kukde, Isha Madne, Komal Deotale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 16-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35165

Aims: To evaluate the effect of Topical antifungal Clotrimazole in Radiotherapy induced mucositis, burning sensation, xerostomia and loss of taste sensation.

Study Design:  Randomised Controlled Trial.

Methodology: 64 patients (52 males and 12 females) undergoing Co60 teletherapy for cervicofacial malignancies. Patients who received a total 60 Gray radiation dose over a period of 6 weeks, with a daily dose of 2 Gray, were included in this study. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups out of which one group was given topical 1% clotrimazole ointment and the other was control group. During the radiotherapy and 6 weeks after the completion of radiotherapy, patients were examined every week for possible oral changes such as mucositis, xerostomia, burning sensation, candidiasis and effect on taste.

Results: There were considerable decrease in patients with severe mucositis and burning sensation in study group compared with control group whereas there was not any significant effect on xerostomia and loss of taste sensation.

Conclusion: Simple topical application of antifungal Clotrimazole can be very effective in reducing the oral discomforts such as mucositis and burning sensation and improved the patient compliance to the treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Analysis of Tannerella Forsythia Level in Periodontitis Patients with or without Diabetes Mellitus

A. Baalavignesh, M. Jeevitha, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35166

Introduction: Periodontitis is a systemic chronic inflammatory disease resulting from a complex polymicrobial infection causing tissue destruction as a consequence of perturbation of the homeostasis between sub gingival microflora. T.forsythia has been strongly implicated in the onset of periodontitis. The level of glycemic control is the key to determining increased risk. In adults, HbA1C levels >9% have a higher prevalence rate for periodontitis than those without diabetes. In adults, random blood sugar levels >200mg/dl have higher susceptibility to periodontitis.

Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in a university setting at Saveetha dental college. Total of 8 samples were collected from November 2020 to February 2021. The subgingival plaque samples containing bacterial cells were pelleted by centrifugation at room temperature. Following centrifugation with all buffer solutions, quantitative RT-PCR was performed with stratagene MX3000P and the relative gene count was calculated using relative CT method. The purified DNA molecules were identified by agarose gel electrophoresis and T. forsythia was identified using this method.

Results: The assessment of mRNA expression of T.forsythia assessed by RT-PCR showed that T.forsythia was seen with more prevalence in patients with periodontitis with diabetes mellitus (n=1.388), than in patients with periodontitis without diabetes mellitus (n=1) ( P=0.0028 < 0.005). The study was statistically significant.

Conclusion: This study shows that T.forsythia is seen with more prevalence in patients with periodontitis with diabetes mellitus when compared to periodontitis without diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Applicational use of Modified Monomer Acrylic Denture Base Resin among Dental Practitioners: A Survey

Varusha Sharon Christopher, Rakshagan V. Reader, M. Jeevitha, Selvaraj Jeyaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-56
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35170

Several modifications to the denture base PMMA resins have been tried in recent years to improve the physico-mechanical and biological qualities. Polymer and monomer alterations are two types of modifications that can be found. Advances in polymer science have resulted in innovative polymers with higher impact strength and fatigue resistance, high-impact polymers and fiber-reinforced polymers, for example. This survey tries to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on the applications of these modified monomers in acrylic denture base resin among dental practitioners.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Descriptive Study to Measure the Reliability of Braden Scale Score Calculated by Clinical Nurses and Evaluate Its Predictive Value for Pressure Ulcer Risk among ICU Patients

Shruti Madhukar Gawade, Rita Lakhani, Yamini Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 57-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35171

The research study was done to measure the Reliability of Braden Scale Score Calculated by Clinical Nurses and evaluate its Predictive Value for PU Risk among ICU Patients. A descriptive research study design was adopted. The study was conducted at the ICUs of DY Patil Hospital, Navi Mumbai. Non probability purposive sampling technique was used. In this study samples were ICU patients (N=75) and clinical staff (N=36). The data was collected using observation and interview techniques. The data was tabulated and analyzed in terms of the study objectives. The data collection was done from ICU Patients and clinical staff. The study result shows the overall Interrater reliability conveyed by intra class correlation coefficient was 0.865 with 95% confidence interval (0.787, 0.915).

Interrater reliability expressed by intra class correlation coefficient for individual item ranged from 0.013 that is 13.00% with 95% confidence interval (-0.090, 0.140) to 0.643 with 95% confidence interval (0.176, 0.821) with the lowest value being measure from ‘sensory perception’ and ‘moisture.’ 

Although the calculated Interrater reliability coefficients for total Braden score were moderate or high in some cases several clinical differences occurred between the two groups. Due to Interrater, reliability being very low in some cases like “sensory perception” and “moisture” it is doubtful that their assessments contribute to any valid results. The calculation of intra class correlation coefficients is the most appropriate Interrater reliability estimates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation of Anti-tuberculosis Drug Loaded Starch Propionate Microparticles for Controllable Drug Delivery

Gaurang Rami, Tanvi Nayak, J. J. Vora

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-75
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35172

The goal of this study was to use an emulsification solvent evaporation approach to formulate anti-tuberculosis drug (isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide) loaded starch propionate microparticles (ATD-SPMPs). Fourier transform infrared spectrometry revealed that starch propionate (SP) exhibited new bands at 1749cm-1 and 1236cm-1, whereas SPMPs had identical peaks. The A-type pattern of native starch was entirely changed into the V-type pattern of SP by X-ray diffraction, while SPMPs showed a similar type pattern with SP having reduced crystallinity. Propionylation improved the thermal stability of native starch by reducing the number of hydroxyl groups in the modified starch molecule. SPMPs have superior thermal stability than SPMPs due to their semi-crystalline structure. In the optimized formulation, the highest percentage encapsulation efficiency of isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide was determined to be 37.6%, 45.2%, and 43.1%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that propionylation partially disturbed the granule morphology of native starches, and the imperfections and porosity structures of SP granules were completely changed into the uniform-sized spherical shape of SPMPs. The geometric particle sizes of the blank SPMPs, isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide loaded SPMPs were 1.243 ± 0.3 μm, 1.65 ± 0.2 μm, 2.73 ± 0.7 μm, and 2.69 ± 0.5 μm, respectively. The dialysis bag method was used to study drug release from ATD-SPMPs and in-vitro drug release data was also analyzed using several kinetic models. The in-vitro drug release investigation revealed that drug release from SPMPs was controlled in comparison to pure ATD using the Korsmeyer-Peppas model, indicating drug release by anomalous diffusion, i.e., non-Fickian diffusion. Overall, the formulated ATD-SPMPs may be regarded as a potential anti-tuberculosis micro-drug, offers a path forward for tuberculosis clinics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantification of Caspase 3 Levels in Patients with Periodontitis with or without Diabetes Mellitus

S. M. Azima Hanin, M. Jeevitha, N. D. Jayakumar, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 76-84
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35173

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a debilitating systemic disease with several major complications affecting the quality and length of life. Periodontal disease has been considered another diabetic complication in addition to cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease. Caspase-3 plays an important role in intracellular signaling pathways that regulate apoptosis. High levels of glucose could induce human periodontal ligament fibroblast apoptosis.

Aim: The aim of the study is to compare caspase 3 levels in periodontitis patients with or without diabetes mellitus.

Materials and Methods: 30 patients were included in the study and they are divided into 3 groups: Group a- Periodontal health; Group b- Periodontitis with diabetes mellitus and Group c- Periodontitis patients without diabetes mellitus. Whole unstimulated saliva was collected from 30 patients using expectoration into sterile bulbs. Caspase 3 levels in saliva samples were measured in duplicate using a commercially available Human Caspase-3 (CASP3) enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Kit. Results were analyzed statistically by a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significant differences between the mean values were measured using Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test using Graph Pad Prism version 5. The results with the p < 0.05 level were considered to be statistically significant.

Results: From this study, it was observed that there was a significant increase of caspase 3 levels in periodontitis patients with diabetes mellitus (86.29±24.25 pmol/L) when compared to periodontitis patients without diabetes (55.06±12.90 pmol/L). The results showed a positive correlation and high level of significance when compared between periodontally healthy patients and periodontitis patients along with diabetes mellitus (86.29±24.25 pmol/L). Also, relatively significant results were observed in comparison between periodontally healthy patients (43.37±15.35 pmol/L) and patients with periodontitis without diabetes mellitus (55.06±12.90 pmol/L). Please add the most important statistical values.

Conclusion: The present study showed that caspase-3 concentrations in saliva increases in patients with periodontitis complicated along with diabetes mellitus. Moreover, saliva concentrations of caspase-3 increase with periodontal disease and caspase-3 plays a role as a biomarker of periodontal disease and its progression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Abies webbiana Mediated Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Its Anti-inflammatory Activity

S. Priyadharshini, M. Jeevitha, S. Rajeshkumar, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 85-93
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35174

Introduction: Green nanoparticle synthesis provides a number of advantages, including being environmentally friendly, taking less time, being less expensive, being more stable, and, most significantly, not requiring the use of harmful chemicals.

Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of zinc oxide [ZnO] nanoparticles prepared using Abies webbiana extract.

Materials and Methods: In this study, ZnO nanoparticles were characterised using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and inhibition of albumin denaturation assay using A. webbiana extract.

Results: The biosynthesised ZnO particles exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity to inhibit COX activity. ZnO nanoparticles can be developed as a novel medicine and can be used as an alternative to commercially available anti-inflammatory agents, thus reducing the major health problems.

Conclusion: Using A.webbiana extract, the findings suggest a cost-effective and environmentally friendly production of ZnO nanoparticles. ZnO nanoparticles mediated by A. webbiana showed promising properties. More investigations are required to understand the properties of these nanoparticles, which have a wide range of medical and dental applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Green Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Ficus benghalensis

Amit Kumar Singh, M. Jeevitha, S. Rajeshkumar, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 114-123
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35177

Background: Nanoparticles are materials with overall dimensions in the nanoscale, ie, under 100 nm. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have shown excellent bactericidal properties against a wide range of microorganisms. Ficus benghalensis is a very large tree and had been considered as effective, economical and safe treatments for curing various diseases.

Aim: The present study is aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of AgNPs synthesized using F. benghalensis.

Materials and Methods: Bio-mediated synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles using F. benghalensis is a promising alternative to traditional chemical synthesis. The antioxidant activity of AgNPs was synthesized using DPPH radical scavenging assay. 1 gm of F. benghalensis mixed with 100 mL of distilled water and boiled in 60-70 degree celsius in the heating mantle for 10-15 minutes. Add filtered using Whatman no. 1 filter paper. 20 milli molar (0.574g) of silver was dissolved in 60mL of distilled water. 40 mL of filtered F. benghalensis extract is mixed with 60 mL of silver nanoparticles.

Results: ​ The activity of F. benghalensis extract was compared with standard ascorbic acid by measuring absorption intensity in the spectrophotometer at the wavelength of 517 nm. While increasing the concentration (10 µL, 20 µL, 30 µL, 40 µL, 50 µL) of F. benghalensis extracts, the percentage of inhibition of DPPH also increased.

Conclusion: ​In this study, a simple, biological and low-cost approach was done for the preparation of silver nanoparticles using F. benghalensis. Thus the synthesized F. benghalensis mediated silver nanoparticles can be subjected to the various other biological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic evaluation to know the efficiency of these nanoparticles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-diabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Pterocarpus santalinus and Stevia Herbal Formulation

V. M. Nivedha, R. Priyadarshini, S. Rajeshkumar, Palati Sinduja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 124-134
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35178

Introduction: Pterocarpus santalinus have their application in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agricultural, and food industries. Stevia​ (​Stevia rebaudiana​) is a natural, non-caloric sugar substitute that is a rich source of a pharmacologically significant glycoside. Proper diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions contribute to overcoming diabetes.

Aim: The present study aims to assess the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of Pterocarpus santalinus and Stevia herbal formulation.

Materials and Methods: Preparation of plant extract followed by antidiabetic and antioxidant activity.

Results: Results were tabulated and graphically analyzed using SPSS software. As the concentration increased the percentage of inhibition also increased in both antidiabetic and antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: The present study concluded that Pterocarpus santalinus and Stevia herbal formulation has antidiabetic and antioxidant activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity of Abies webbiana Mediated Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

T. Vinaya Swetha, M. Jeevitha, S. Rajeshkumar, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 135-143
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35179

Background: Biological methods for nanoparticle (NP) synthesis using microorganisms, enzymes, and plants or plant extracts have been suggested as possible eco-friendly alternatives to chemical and physical methods.

Aim: The aim of the current study is to synthesize Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) mediated by Abies webbiana and to evaluate its antioxidant activity. 

Materials and Methods: Bio-mediated synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles using A. webbiana is a promising alternative to traditional chemical synthesis. The antioxidant activity of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs was synthesised using DPPH radical scavenging assay.

Results: The ZnO NPs were  identified by  dark brown  color  and  the  surface  plasmon resonance  was  positioned at a peak  at  290  nm. Finally, the current study has clearly demonstrated that the ZnO NPs are responsible for significant high antioxidant activities.

Conclusion: Therefore, the study reveals an efficient, eco-friendly, and simple method for the green synthesis of ZnO NPs using a green synthetic approach.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of the Development Coordination Disorder of caregivers and Teachers in India

U. Ganapathy Sankar, R. Monisha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 144-149
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35180

For the early diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder, there is a need to understand the salient features of the disorder among the children. There are few researchers tat evaluate the awareness of developmental coordination disorder among caregivers, teachers, medical professionals as well as allied health professional in Indian context. Online survey was completed by 100 participants, 20 caregivers, 30 school teachers, 30 allied health professionals and 20 medical professionals were completed the survey. Results of the study suggest that developmental coordination disorder is the least known disorder among majority of the caregivers and allied health professionals. However half of the sample was familiar with the term developmental coordination disorder but every participant were familiar with the term dyspraxia. Among all the participants, it has been documented that allied health professionals were more familiar with the characteristic features of developmental coordination disorder children. They were familiar with the motor coordination difficulty. Every participant demonstrates poor recognition of psychological effects in developmental coordination disorder. Low percentage of medical professionals reported that they were exposed to diagnose the children with developmental coordination disorder. Teachers play a vital role in evaluating the warning signs of the disorder and they believe that 80% of children in primary schools were lazy and have motor skill impairment. The study concludes that there is a need for appropriate service delivery and timely evaluation to prevent the development of co-morbidities associated with developmental coordination disorder.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Effect of Annona Squamosa Linn. (AS) Leaves on Isoniazid & Rifampin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Samba Siva Raju Derangula, N. S. Muthiah, H. S. Somashekar, E. Sukumar, K. Prabhu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 150-156
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35181

The goal of this investigation was to examine if an ethanolic extract of Annona squamosa has any hepatoprotective benefits in rats suffering from isoniazid-rifampin induced hepatotoxicity.

Methodology: The rats were separated in five groups (n=6): group 1, a control; group 2 administered isoniazid (100 mg/kg, I.P.) & rifampin (100 mg/kg, I.P.) in sterile water; group 3 as a control & traditional silymarin, 2.5 mg/kg, B.W., P.O.; groups 4 & 5 are treated & received 200 & 400 mg/kg, B.W., P.O., ethanolic extract of AS. All of the treatment procedures were monitored for a total of 21 days after the rats were slaughtered & Biochemical & histological investigations were performed on the blood & liver respectively.

Results: Rats (Group - 2) treated with Rifampin (RIF) & Isoniazid (INH) elevated their blood Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transferase (SGOT), Serum Glutamate pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) & Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) levels during a variety of ways. The consumption of ethanolic extracts of Annona squamosa considerably reduced Rifampin & Isoniazid induced elevations in serum diagnostic liver marker enzymes. SGOT, SGPT & ALP are the three involved enzymes. Furthermore, the medical care groups had significantly larger total macromolecule & total albumen levels. The extract result was compared thereto of Silymarin, a standard medication. The histological profile backed up the changes in biochemical markers. An ethanolic extract of Annona squamosa has been discovered to protect rats from oxidative liver injury caused by rifampin & isoniazid.

Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of AS protects rats from isoniazid & rifampin induced oxidative liver injury.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Sleep Deprivation on the Students of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai

Chandan Panigrahi, A. Jothipriya, R. Gayatri Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 164-172
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35183

Introduction: Adequate sleep plays a vital role in optimizing, stabilizing, and enhancing memory, cognition, attention, and attention to things, instances, situations that a person may come across on a day-to-day basis. Consequently, a lack of proper sleep can lead to the absence of the information qualities of an individual.

Aim: To study the effects of Sleep Deprivation among the students of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted using a questionnaire-based survey, which was activated among the students ranging from the first year to the fourth year of dentistry. The survey contains questions concerning the sleep timing of individuals and accessory methods that may or may not be used to battle insomnia in students.

Results: The results from the survey shows a majority of the people did not have any previously diagnosed medical ailments (60%), and did not use any pharmacological aids to combat sleep-related issues (36%). A p-value of 0.03 showed statistical significance.

Conclusion: The results concluded that sleep deprivation did hamper the overall quality of life and academic performance of individuals. It can be said that sleep is an essential factor to determine the quality of overall life an individual leads.

Open Access Original Research Article

Induction of Bax and Activation of Caspases by Hydro Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Citrullus colocynthis (L)-mediated Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cell Line (MCF-7)

R. Bharath, A. Jothi Priya, Selvaraj Jayaraman, R. Gayatri Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 173-180
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35184

Cancer is the most deadly disease that causes death among the world. It is caused by genome and epigenome abnormalities. Herbal plants are used for treatment of cancer. Citrullus colocynthis is valuable medicinal plants used for treatment of cancer. The plant as antidiabetic, anticancer activity, and antioxidant activity.The aim of the study is to find induction of bax and activation of caspases by hydro ethanolic leaf extract of Citrullus colocynthis (L)-in Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Materials and methods, Human breast cancer cell was purchased from the national centre for cell sciences. Cell line and cell culture were performed and cell viability was done by MTT assay. Total RNA isolation, cDNA conversion and gene expression analysis by real time PCR. This study clearly indicates that plant extract has a significant role in modulation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling in human breast cancer cells which might be due to the presence of cucurbitacin present in Citrullus colocynthis. It is conducted that Citrullus colocynthis extract inhibits the growth of the human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) by regulating the expression of pro apoptotic (Bax) and caspases -3 genes. Hence Citrullus colocynthis may be served as a potential drug for treatment of human breast cancer cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vivo Antidiabetic Activity of Saccharum Spontaneum on STZ- Induced Diabetic Mice

Hage Assung, Manuj Kr. Bharali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 192-200
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35186

Objectives: Saccharum spontaneum is traditionally used in Arunachal Pradesh, India for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Review of existing literature, found no scientific investigation on this claim. Therefore, this study was aim to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of S. spontaneum on STZ induced diabetic mice.

Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in male albino mice by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (100mgkg-1 BW). Initially Starch tolerance test, blood glucose level and area under the curve (AUC) were evaluated after S. spontaneum treatment in diabetic mice. The test extract was administered for three weeks and the antidiabetic activity was evaluated by means of monitoring the change in blood glucose level, body weight and biochemical parameters.

Results: The extract showed a significant decrease in the blood glucose level, slight enhancement of body weight after the treatment. Daily oral treatment of extract also showed a significant reduction in the Serum ALT, creatinine and triglyceride when compared to the diabetic control.

Conclusion: The results provide supports to the traditional claim made on Saccharum spontaneumand provide evidence that this plant might be a potential source of antidiabetic agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Hematological and Serum Electrolytes Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Mice

David Chibuike Ikwuka, Bond Ugochukwu Anyaehie, Eghosa E. Iyare, Princewill Ugwu, Amechi Uchenna Katchy, Gabriel Ejike Igbokwe, Jide Uzowulu Uzoigwe, Emmanuel Nonso Ezeokafor, Kelechi Love Ezeudensi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 207-216
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35188

Introduction: There is growing interest on trying to explore the importance of fasting to health as it has been practiced as religious exercises for centuries. This study assessed the haematological and serum electrolytes effects of intermittent fasting (IF) on mice.

Methods: Fifty (50) male mice were randomly assigned into five (5) groups A, B, C, D and E (n=10). Group A (control) was fed normal chow ad libitum, experimental groups B,C,D and E were fasted seven weeks intermittently for 12, 18, 24 and 48 hours respectively. Blood samples were collected and analysed for haematological and electrolyte indices. Data obtained were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 25.

Results: Our findings revealed no significant differences in the RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC between the different fasting groups and the control. There was increase significantly in group C for Red density width-coefficient of variance (RDW-CV) and group C and E for Red density width-standard deviation (RDW-SD). Platelet count decreased, plateletcrit increased significantly in group C. There were no significant differences in the mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), platelet-large cell count (P-LCC) and Platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR). Sodium ion decreased significantly in group C and chloride ion decreased significantly in group B, C and E. There were no significant differences in serum potassium ion and bicarbonate ion.

Conclusion: 12, 24 and 48 hours IF are safe and do not negatively influence hematological indices and electrolyte levels but 18 hours IF could have a slight negative effect on platelet count, plateletcrit and sodium ion levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Factors of Heart Failure among the Patients Suffering from Hypertension Attending a Hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan

Akhtar Ali Bandeshah, Imran Ali, Aftab Anwar, Fahad Amir Khan, Usama Makhdoom, Muhammad Javed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 223-228
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35190

Objective: To determine the risk factors of heart failure (HF) in the hypertensive cases attending the cardiology unit of tertiary care Hospital.

Methods: This Case-Control study was conducted from April 2020 to May 2021 at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. One hundred (100) patients of sex - and age -matched pairs were included in the study. Adults clinically diagnosed as cases of Hypertensive heart failure (HF) and individuals having systemic hypertension but no HF (controls) were included in the study. Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed by the questioner. Assessment of the study variables was done and the data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 26.

Results: A total of one hundred (100) cases and 100 cases as controls were studied. The average age of the study subjects (cases) was 38.4±9.28 years and 38.35±9.04 years of controls. Males were in majority in both groups. Obesity, renal impairment and hypertension in the first degree relative were higher in the hypertensive heart failure in contrast to controls. Average proteinuria and serum creatinine level were higher among study subjects compared to controls (p-<0.05). Medication adherences were considerably higher among the subjects in the control group than in the subjects of case group. Hypertension control group members were more inclined to eat vegetables and fruits on a daily basis, whereas no significant difference was found in the consumption of the salt between the cases and controls. History of anti-hypertensive drugs intake, lower intake of vegetables and fruits, and medication adherence represented the highest levels amongst the risk factors.

Conclusion: In the conclusion of current study, the particular lifestyle, poor dietary habits, medication adherence, and lack of exercise were observed to be the commonest risk factors of heart failure. Awareness programs should be expanded in general and specialty health care settings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Antiurolithiatic Activity of the Extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb in Rats

Sujata Kushwaha, Chandra Kishore Tyagi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 243-249
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35556

In rats' urinary bladders, the antiurolithiatic action of a methanolic extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb (root) was examined on the development of calculi on calcium oxalate crystal implants or zinc disc implants. The plant is a member of the Burseraceous family, and it has long been used as a folk remedy for urinary issues and stone removal. When a foreign body was present in the urinary bladder of adult rats, it caused urinary stones and smooth muscle hypertrophy. After 4 weeks after surgery, oral therapy with Boswellia serrata Roxb extract (0.25 and 0.5 g/kg per day) decreased calculi development but did not prevent smooth muscle growth. In the presence and absence of the extract (0.3–3 mg/ml) or atropine (0.3–3 nM), the contractile responses of isolated urinary bladder preparations to the muscarinic agonist bethanecol were not different among the experimental groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of COVID and Mental Health on Adolescents

Satya Kumar, Jothi Priya, R. Gayatri Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 269-277
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35566

Introduction: The outbreak of coronavirus causes considerable risk to public health and also might cause an impact on adolescents mental health. COVID-19 has brought about a sense of fear and anxiety around the world. During lockdown, mental health of adolescents through online class and work from home makes it more stressful among adolescents. The aim of the study is to explore the pathway among the different variables in order to better understand how these factors play a part in impacting adolescents' mental health conditions.

Materials and Methods: The sample size used for the study is 124. Questionnaire based survey is conducted in google forms among adolescents. This standard questionnaire in Google forms is being circulated among the sample study population and at the end of the survey, all the data is been analysed by using chi square analysis. The chi square analysis was done using the software IBM SPSS (Version 23).The data were analysed from the survey and the values were tabulated in the form of pie and bar charts.

Results: In this study males feel more stress than females and the p value is 0.814 and it is not significant. During COVID period, study stress is caused more among the males than in females and the p value is 0.514 and it is not significant. Mental health was more affected among the males than in females and the p value is 0.261 and it is not significant.In our study population most of them feel stressful during COVID period.

Conclusion: This study creates awareness among the people about the mental health of adolescents affected during lockdown. The containment measures like school and activity centre's closures for long periods together expose the children and youth to effects on educational, developmental, psychological and attainment as they experience loneliness, anxiety and uncertainty. Using the internet and social media will put them at higher risk. The focal point of the healthcare system and policymaking should be prevention, promotion and inter- ventions corresponding to the public mental health system to meet the mental health needs of the population at large by taking the regional contextual parameters into account.

Open Access Original Research Article

Virtual Screening to Identify Protein Targets of Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans Interacting with Emodin

R. Preety, M. Jeevitha, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 295-302
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35579

Aim: The aim of the study is to identify protein targets of aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans interacting with emodin.

Introduction: Aggregatibacter mycetemcomitans is a gram negative bacteria that is associated with localized chronic periodontitis and other systemic diseases. The organism produces a number of virulence factors which provides some benefits to the bacterium. In this study, protein targets of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans interacting with emodin were identified.

Methodology: The present study follows an observational study design wherein we employed computational tools used to identify the targets, assess its functional role and virulence property. The protein targets in the bacteria were identified by virtual screening by using emodin as the compound.

Results: Peptide epitopes present in the virulence factors were identified using the BepiPred tool. The subcellular location of the protein targets were elucidated using emodin as the phytocompound. The 3 - Deoxy - D - manno octulosonic acid, ArcB, hypothetical protein and Arabinose - 5 - phosphate isomerase were found to be virulent.

Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it provides substantial evidence on the protein targets acting against emodin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxic Effect of Coriander Oleoresin against Lung Cancer Cell Line A549

Hemaanhini Tamilmani, Anitha Roy, S. Raghunandhakumar, P. Elumalai, T. Lakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 303-311
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35584

Aim: The main aim of present study was to assess the cytotoxic effect of coriander oleoresin against lung cancer cell line A549.

Introduction: Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), family Umbelliferae. Coriander contains mainly essential oil and has antioxidant, diuretic, anti-diabetic anticonvulsant, hypnotic sedative, anti-mutagenic, antimicrobial, anthelmintic activity.

Materials and Methods: Coriander oleoresin (product number: 4010000243) was obtained from Synthite Industries Private Limited, Kerala. In the present study, lung cancer cell line A549 was treated with coriander oleoresin at different concentrations and later evaluated for its cytotoxic activity using MTT assay.

Results: The cytotoxic effect of coriander oleoresin on lung cancer cell line was proved; the drug concentration increased, the percentage of cell viability decreased proving its cytotoxic effect. The coriander oleoresin has shown a dose dependent cytotoxic effect on lung cancer cell lines. As the drug concentration increased, the percentage of cell viability decreased proving its cytotoxic effect. The IC50 value was 80 μg/ml.

Conclusion: In the present study, coriander oleoresin showed a good cytotoxic effect on lung cancer cell lines which may be helpful in treatment of lung cancer. However more research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms of the cytotoxicity property of the plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activity of White Pepper Oleoresin Mediated Selenium Nanoparticles

S. Saivarshine, Anitha Roy, S. Rajeshkumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 312-320
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35585

Introduction: Indian spices such as turmeric, ginger, and mint bring color and flavor to food and cure many ailments too.

Aim: To study the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of white pepper oleoresin-mediated selenium nanoparticles.

Materials and Methods: The white pepper oleoresin extract was collected from Synthite Industries Pvt Limited, with a product code - 4010000835. Selenium nanoparticles were initially prepared using white pepper oleoresin and DPPH assay was performed on the different concentrations of white pepper oleoresin (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 μg/ml) for antioxidant activity, and anti-inflammatory activity was tested by the following method proposed by Muzushima and Kabayashi with specific alterations.

Results: White pepper has shown a very good anti-inflammatory effect and antioxidant activity when compared to the standard used at higher concentrations. Selenium nanoparticles appeared to have 90 percent inhibition in 50μL, which was also higher than the standard. Selenium nanoparticles seemed to have 85 percent inhibition in 50μL, which was also lower than the standard.

Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated an eco-friendly and cost-effective synthesis of Selenium nanoparticles using White pepper oleoresin. White pepper oleoresin mediated Selenium nanoparticles were with good anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity which may be utilized include for its use in inflammatory and other conditions where there is a requirement for antioxidant activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploration of Antioxidant Effects of Crude Extract of Mangrove Plant - Avicennia marina

P. S. Thana Lakshme, Anitha Roy, Pitchiah Sivaperumal, T. Lakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 321-329
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35586

Introduction: Antioxidants are efficient in the prevention of human diseases. Mangroves are high bioactive compounds with good holistic bioactivities including insecticides. Avicennia marina, a mangrove plant which has its origin in South Africa included in the family Acanthaceae.

Aim: To explore the antioxidant potential of methanolic extract of mangrove plants, Avicennia marina.

Materials and Methods: The fresh leaves of Avicennia marina were collected from Pichavaram mangrove forest area. The leaves were washed and then shade dried for 2-3weeks and turned into a fine powder. ​Crude methanolic extract of Avicenna marina was prepared. Total antioxidant activity, DPPH Assay and scavenging activity of hydrogen peroxide were performed and antioxidant potential was assessed using ascorbic acid as standard.

Results: The scavenging activity increased with increase in concentration of the extract and thus antioxidant activity was dose dependent. The total antioxidant activity was more close to the ascorbic acid equivalence.

Conclusion: This study concludes that the methanolic extract of Avicenna marina is capable of scavenging a wide range  of  free radicals for which it can be exploited for the treatment of various free radical mediated diseases. It is evident that mangrove species as a collective are rich sources of antioxidants, phenolics and antimicrobial compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anticariogenic Activity of Copper Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Blue Tea

S. Kamala Devi, Arvina Rajasekar, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 278-289
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35600

Background: Nanotechnology is rapidly growing in various fields of science like medicinal, agricultural and physical and material sciences. Copper nanoparticles are particularly attractive because of copper’s high natural abundance and low cost and the practical and straightforward multiple ways of preparing copper based nanomaterials.

Aim: To assess the anticariogenic activity of copper nanoparticles synthesized using blue tea.

Materials and Methods: The blue tea powder was acquired. An aqueous extract was prepared and mixed with copper sulphate for copper nanoparticles formation and centrifuged for 10 minutes. The extract was then placed in the well cultured agar plates against C. albicans, S. mutans, S. aureus and E. faecalis and incubated for 24 hours. The zones of inhibition were then calculated.

Results: Against S. aureus, 25μl showed 10 mm of zone of inhibition, 50μl showed 10 mm of zone of inhibition and 100μl showed 12 mm of zone of inhibition. 21 mm of zone of inhibition were noted against the antibiotic. Against C. albicans, 25 μl showed 25 mm of zone of inhibition, 50 μl showed 26 mm of zone of inhibition and 100 μl showed 30 mm of zone of inhibition. 12 mm of zone of inhibition were noted against the antibiotic. Against S. mutans, 25 μl showed 10 mm of zone of inhibition, 50 μl showed 10 mm of zone of inhibition and 100 μl showed 25 mm of zone of inhibition. 21 mm of zone of inhibition were noted against the antibiotic. Against E. faecalis, 25 μl showed 10 mm of zone of inhibition, 50 μl showed 13 mm of zone of inhibition and 100 μl showed 14 mm of zone of inhibition. 37 mm of zone of inhibition were noted against the antibiotic.

Conclusion: The blue tea mediated copper nanoparticles showed anticariogenic activity against S. mutans, C. albicans, E. faecalis and S. aureus and therefore can be used for clinical application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Cancer Effects of Saraca asoca Flower Extract on Prostate Cancer Cell Line

Apurva Choudhary, P. Elumalai, S. Raghunandhakumar, T. Lakshmi, Anitha Roy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 330-338
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35621

Background: Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths for men. The role of plants in the prevention and treatment of disease has been known from the dawn of civilization. Plants maintain the health and vitality of individuals and also cure diseases, including cancer without causing toxicity. More than 50% of all modern drugs in clinical use are of natural products, many of which have the ability to control cancer cells. Saraca Asoca (Roxb.), De. Wild or Saraca indica is one of the most ancient trees of India

Aim: Aim of this study is to investigate the anti-cancer effects of Saraca Asoca flower extract on prostate cancer cell line.

Materials and Methods: The anti-cancer effects of Saraca Asoca extract on prostate cancer cell lines was assessed by cell viability assay, cell and nuclear morphological studies. The multiple concentration of Saraca Asoca extract (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 µg/ml) was used and IC50 doses were calculated.

Results: The MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay results showed the percentage of cell viability significantly decreased in treated cells compared to control groups without any treatment was represented as 100% and we observed inhibitory concentration was 60µg/ml. Morphologic changes observed showed cell shrinkage, and cytoplasmic membrane blebbing, were observed under phase-contrast microscope. The apoptotic nuclei (intensely stained, fragmented nuclei, and condensed chromatin) were viewed under a fluorescent microscope.

Conclusion: Overall, the present study results demonstrated the cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects of Saraca Asoca flower extract on prostate cancer cell line. However, more research is needed to understand the active prinsciple compounds present in the extract and molecular mechanisms of its anti-cancer effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Terminalia chebula Mediated Silver Nanoparticles and Its Antibacterial Activity against Oral Pathogens

K. Sathvika, Sheeja S. Varghese, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 339-350
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35622

Background: Dental infections cause chronic disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, and dental caries when left untreated, resulting in irreversible tooth loss. However, solid preventive methods, such as employing promising herbs with well-documented health advantages like Terminalia chebula, can help to reduce the excessive expansion of dangerous oral flora like Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis.

Aim: The goal of this study is to see how effective silver nanoparticles made from Terminalia chebula are against oral pathogens including Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis at various doses.

Materials and Methodology: The plant extract was made from Terminalia chebula, followed by the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The antibacterial efficacy of Ag-NPs in varied concentrations, namely 25, 50, and 100 L, was determined using the agar-well diffusion method, with amoxicillin acting as a positive control. For each plate, the zone of inhibition was recorded, and the findings were statistically analysed using one way anova and post hoc analysis using IBM SPSS software (Version 20.0)

Results: Following the synthesis of Ag-NPs, a colour shift was noticed. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to characterise the synthesized particles, which revealed a peak at 440nm. With a rise in Ag-NP concentration, the antibacterial activity indicated an increase in zone of inhibition. The zone of inhibition for S. aureus was substantially higher than Amoxicillin at all doses of Ag-NPs (p< 0.05), whereas it was significantly lower for E. faecalis (p<0.05). The zone of inhibition for S. mutans was substantially lower than amoxicillin at 25µL  concentration (p< 0.05), but there was no significant difference at higher concentrations (p>0.05).

Conclusion: Antibacterial activity of Ag-NPs derived from Terminalia chebula against dental pathogens, particularly Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stevia and Peppermint Herbal Formulation Based Mouthwash and Its Efficacy in Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities

C. S. Yuvashree, Sheeja S. Varghese, Rajesh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 351-361
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35623

Background: Dental caries is a condition induced by the microbial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates in the biofilm that is connected to the teeth, which results in the disintegration of local chemical surfaces of the teeth. The predominant microbial pathogen in the aetiology of caries is Streptococcus mutans. Caries can be avoided by brushing and flossing regularly, as well as using antimicrobial mouthwash.

Aim: The aim of the study is to prepare the Stevia and Peppermint formulation mouthwash and evaluate the antimicrobial property and cytotoxic effect of the formulated mouthwash at varying concentrations.

Materials and Methods: A herbal mouthwash consisting of Stevia and Peppermint as the chief ingredients was prepared in the laboratory and its antimicrobial activity of various concentrations (25 µL, 50 µL,100 µL) against S. mutans, S. aureus, E. faecalis, C. albicans were tested by the agar well diffusion method.  The cytotoxic activity of the prepared herbal mouthwash was checked using lethality of the nauplii which hatched from brine shrimp eggs, which was inoculated for over 24 hours. The results obtained were statistically analysed using IBM SPSS software and the results interpreted in graphs and tables.

Results: The  antimicrobial activity of prepared mouthwash against different microorganisms at 25 µL was significantly lesser than the standard but there was a concentration  dependent  increase in the antimicrobial property. The cytotoxic effect of formulated mouthwash was found to be within limits at all concentrations. At low concentration the cytotoxic effect was found to be negligible and the cytotoxic effect also had a concentration dependent increase.

Conclusion: The formulated Stevia and Peppermint mouthwash was ound to have effective antimicrobial properties and negligible cytotoxic effect. The antimicrobial property against different microorganisms at 25 µL is significantly less than the standard but the antimicrobial property increases as the concentration increases

Open Access Original Research Article

Green Synthesis and Characterisation of Mucuna Pruriens Mediated Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Transmission Electron Microscope

V. Vamshi Ram, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 362-370
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35624

Introduction: Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the investigation and utilization of minuscule things and can be used over the different science fields, for instance, biology, chemistry, physical science, material science, and designing. In spite of the fact that advanced innovation requests the improvement of nanotechnologies in multidisciplinary science, including the creation of nanoparticles (NPs), it goes back from the Before-Christ time. Nanoparticles can be combined utilizing numerous techniques like physical, substance or organic, otherwise called green synthesis. Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) semiconductor nanoparticles are one sort of significant and promising photocatalysts in photocatalysis as a result of their extraordinary optical and electronic properties. Mucuna pruriens, broadly known as velvet bean or cowhage is a leguminous plant that has been utilized for quite a long time in Ayurvedic medication.

Aim: The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the green synthesis and characterisation of Mucuna pruriens mediated titanium dioxide nanoparticles using transmission electron microscope.

Materials and Methods: The titanium dioxide was synthesised using the seed extract of Mucuna pruriens. Analytical tools like UV-Visible spectrophotometer and Transmission Electron microscope were used to understand the surface chemistry of the TiO₂ nanoparticles.

Results: UV-vis spectroscopic analysis of TiO₂ nanoparticles synthesized using Mucuna pruriens showed the peak at 280 nm and confirms the TiO₂ nanoparticles formation. Under transmission electron microscopes, the nanoparticles were spherical and some were in undefined shapes. The average size of the nanoparticles was 25-76 nm.

Conclusion: The present study concludes that the TiO₂ nanoparticles synthesised showed spherical shape.

Open Access Original Research Article

Abies webbiana Ethanolic Extract Based Mouthwash and Its Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Effect

Chris Noel Timothy, J. S. Thaslima Nandhini, Sheeja S. Varghese, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 371-385
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35625

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and cytotoxic effect of Abies webbiana ethanolic extract based preparation of mouthwash and to compare these effects between different concentrations.

Background: Abies webbiana leaves have been used in traditional siddha and ayurveda systems of medicine for common ailments such as cough, loss of appetite, indigestion, mental disorders, rheumatism, bronchitis, pulmonary infection, asthma, antiseptic and decongestant. Abies webbiana commonly known as talispatra belongs to family Pinaceae. The plant is distributed throughout India, mostly in the Himalayan region from Kashmir to Assam states.

Materials and Methods: The preparation of Abies webbiana extract was done and antimicrobial activity of Abies webbiana were tested with Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus through agar well diffusion method. Each bacterial culture was spread on the Luria-Bertani agar plates. Dried extract of Abies webbiana, dissolved in autoclave distilled water to make 25mg/mL, 50mg/mL, 100mg/mL. Incubated for 24 hours at 37o C and diameter of zone of inhibition were recorded in millimeter and compared with standard amoxicillin. Cytotoxic activity of Abies webbiana was assessed using brine shrimp lethality assay. A total of 10 nauplii were added into the three replicates of each concentration of the prepared extract. After the period of 24 hours the remaining brine shrimp were counted.

Results: The results of the study revealed that the the Abies webbiana formulation based mouthwash is having significantly higher antimicrobial activity than the antibiotic against S. aureus at all the tested concentrations whereas against E. faecalis the antimicrobial effect was significantly lower than the antibiotic. Against S. mutans, higher concentrations of the mouthwash had the antimicrobial effect comparable to that of the antibiotic. The antimicrobial effect against C. albicans was very less for all the tested concentrations of the mouthwash and the antibiotic. This mouthwash also possessed cytotoxic effects on nauplii which were within normal limits and it was found that the nauplii alive was directly proportional to the concentrations except in the concentration of 40μl.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, ethanolic extract of Abies webbiana based preparation of mouthwash shows the antimicrobial activity almost comparable to amoxicillin. It was also revealed that it possesses less cytotoxic effect against brine shrimp which are within normal limits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Chlorhexidine, Ozonated Olive Oil and Olive Oil Mouthwash on Oral Health Status of Patients with Gingivitis: A Randomised Controlled Trial

N. Akash, Arvina Rajasekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 401-410
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35627

Background: Effective plaque control is important to prevent gingival and periodontal diseases. In recent years, Olive oil and Ozonated olive oil are gaining paramount importance in dentistry because of its minimal side effects as compared to chemical agents.

Aim: To assess the effect of olive oil, ozonated olive oil, and chlorhexidine mouthwash on oral health status of patients with gingivitis.

Materials and Methods: The present double blinded, parallel designed, randomized clinical trial was carried out among 66 gingivitis patients in the Department of Periodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, India. Participants were assigned to three groups: 22 participants in each group [Group A (CHX mouthwash), Group B (OOO - Ozonated olive oil) and Group C (OO - olive oil)]. Complete ultrasonic scaling was done and subjects were asked not to use any oral hygiene aids and recalled after three days and the gingival index and OHI(S) were noted (baseline). Then subjects were provided with respective mouthwash and instructed to use them for 15 days. Again, gingival index and OHI(S) were noted after 15 days. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Software, Version 23.0). One-way ANOVA was used to compare the mean values of gingival index between the groups. Tukey’s HSD post hoc test was done to find means that are significantly different from each other.Also, student’s paired t-test was used to compare the mean values of gingival index within the groups.

Results: A statistically significant difference was obtained between group A and C (p=0.000) and between Group B and C (p=0.000). However, there was a non-significant difference between mouthwash A and B (p>0.05) showing that OOO and chlorhexidine mouthwashes were equally effective in reducing gingivitis.

Conclusion: The present study suggests that efficacy of OOO was equally effective in reducing plaque and gingivitis as compared to chlorhexidine mouthwash. Therefore, oil pulling using OOO can be a better alternative to chlorhexidine mouthwash.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anticancer Potential from Rhizophora mucronata Plant Leaf Associated Streptomyces Species against the Breast Cancer Cell Line

Akansha Kishen, P. Sivaperumal, Anitha Roy, T. Lakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 411-419
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35628

Introduction: Rhizophora mucronata is small to a medium-sized evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 meters (approximately 66 to 82 feet), on the banks of the river. These mangroves have anticancer, antioxidant, antifungal, and viral activities which enhance their existence. Streptomyces species are the largest genus of Actinobacteria. They are gram-positive and are found in soil, decaying vegetation, and mangrove leaves. The breast cancer cell lines are used to test the anticancer potential.

Aim: Aim of the study was to assess the antibacterial activity from Rhizophora mucronata, against breast cancer cell lines.

Materials and Methods: Rhizophora mucronata leaf samples were collected and Streptomyces sp was isolated from the mangrove leaf. Further, extraction metabolites from Streptomyces were done and an MTT assay was checked against the cancer cell line.

Results and Discussion: The Rhizophora mucronata associated Streptomyces sp was identified by colour of aerial mycelium, soluble pigments, and Spore chain morphology. Further, the secondary metabolites production was done. The potential anticancer activity from the Streptomyces metabolites was done.

Conclusion: Rhizophora mucronata mangrove plant leaf associated with Marine Streptomyces showed good anti-cancer activity. Further, an in-vivo study using the metabolites is possible in the future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pro-Apoptotic Effect of Lippia nodiflora Leaf Extract against the Skin Cancer Cell Line

E. Thariny, P. Elumalai, S. Raghunandhakumar, T. Lakshmi, Anitha Roy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 420-430
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35629

Background: Skin cancers are cancers that develop on the surface of the skin. They occur as a result of the formation of irregular cells with the potential to infiltrate or migrate to other areas of the body. Natural medicinal resources, such as the traditional herbal remedy Lippia nodiflora, have long been used to treat dermatological disorders including skin inflammation and melanogenesis. Apoptosis serves as a promising pathway in controlling cancer. However there are minimal amounts of studies exploring its proapoptotic activity of Lippia nodiflora in skin cancer  cells.

Aim: The aim of this present study was to evaluate the pro-apoptotic effect of Lippia nodiflora leaf extract against the skin cancer cell line.

Materials and Methods: MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays were used to determine the cytotoxic effect of Lippia nodiflora leaf extract against skin cancer cells (B16-F10). The skin cancer cells were treated with different concentration Lippia nodiflora leaf extract for 24h. We calculated the optimum (IC-50; 20µg/ml) using the MTT assay, which was then used for further analysis. A phase-contrast microscope is used to analyse changes in cell morphology. AO/EtBr dual staining under a fluorescence microscope was used to determine the effect of Lippia nodiflora on B16-F10 cell death.

Results: In our research, the cell viability of the B16-F10 skin cancer cell line was dramatically decreased after treatment with different concentrations (5-60 µg/ml) of Lippia nodiflora for 24 hours. 50% inhibition was detected at a concentration of 20 µg/ml, which was determined to be an inhibitory concentration (IC-50) value and used in subsequent studies. The viable cell will possess a uniform bright green nucleus. Early apoptotic cells will have bright orange areas of condensed or fragmented chromatin in the nucleus. Late apoptotic cells will have uniform bright red nucleus.

Conclusion: The findings of this analysis revealed that Lippia nodiflora leaf extract inhibits the cell viability and indces apoptosis of skin cancer cells. Thus, Lippia nodiflora exhibits anti-cancer effects against skin cancer cells, therefore it raises new hope for anti-cancer therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anticancer effect of Digera muricata Leaf Extract against Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

S. Vidyashri, P. Elumalai, S. Raghunandhakumar, T. Lakshmi, Anitha Roy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 431-438
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35630

Background: Prostate cancer has become a major health problem globally during the last few decades. It is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men worldwide and the fifth most common cancer overall. Chemotherapy or other cancer treatments including androgen depletion therapy, show high toxicity and cause serious side effects in cancer patients. Thus, there have been many studies conducted to find various natural products as potential anticancer drug candidates with low toxicity and fewer side effects for the treatment and prevention of prostate cancer. The Digera muricata of the genus Digera Forssk and family Amaranthaceae Juss. is a wild edible plant. The  presence  of  phenol,  flavonoids, alkaloids,  terpenes,  sterols,  tannins,  glycosides  and  lignins is seen in Digera muricata leaf extract, which are reported to have cytotoxic activities.

Aim of the Study: The aim of this study is to assess the cytotoxic effects of Digera muricata leaf extract on prostate cancer cell line.

Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic potency of Digera muricata leaf extract was carried out by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay against the prostate cancer (PC-3) cell line. PC-3 cells were treated with different concentrations of Digera muricata leaf extract (25-150μg/ml) for 24h. Furthermore, the morphological changes were analysed using phase contrast microscopy and nuclear morphological changes examined using DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining under the fluorescence microscopy

Results: The MTT assay showed decreased cell vitality with increased concentration of Digera muricata leaf extract. The morphological study showed that the number of cells decreased after treatment and the cells exhibited cell shrinkage and cytoplasmic membrane blebbing. The treated cells also showed condensed chromatin and nuclear fragmentation

Conclusion: Within the limits of this study it can be demonstrated that the leaf extract of Digera muricata were cytotoxic and induced apoptosis to the cancer cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predictors of Health-related Quality of Life among Warfarin Patients

Salah-ud-Din Khan, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 439-444
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35715

Objective: Warfarin is amongst the most frequently used oral anticoagulant, that is often prescribed to control and prevent various thromboembolic diseases like venous thromboembolism, stroke, atrial fibrillation, and valvular heart disease. This study aimed to determine various predictors and their impact on overall HRQoL among warfarin patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study using WHOQOL-BREF research tool was conducted among warfarin patients. Data was collected by convenience sampling method. Descriptive, comparative, and inferential statistics were used by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) ver. 24 to determine the predictors of HRQoL among warfarin patients.

Results: The majority of the studied warfarin patients were females than males (n=221, 69.3%, and n=98, 30.7% respectively). In univariate analysis, statistically non-significant differences (p >0.05) were observed in gender, age, marital status and work. In multivariate analysis, significant differences (p <0.05) were observed in education, warfarin usage, and warfarin therapy duration.

Conclusion: These results indicated that education, warfarin usage, and warfarin therapy duration were the pure predictors of HRQoL among the studied cohort of the warfarin patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sociodemographic Correlates of Warfarin Knowledge in Warfarin Patients

Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Salah-ud-Din Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 445-450
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35750

Objective: This study aimed to determine sociodemographic correlates of warfarin knowledge in warfarin patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study using a newly developed and validated research tool was conducted in warfarin patients. Data was collected by convenience sampling method. Descriptive, comparative, and inferential statistics were used by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) ver. 24 to determine the sociodemographic correlates of warfarin knowledge in warfarin patients.

Results: From total 295 participants, the majority of the studied warfarin patients were females than males (n=184, 62.4%, and n=111, 37.6% respectively). In univariate analysis, statistically non-significant differences (p >0.05) were observed in gender, age, marital status and work. In multivariate analysis, significant differences (p <0.05) were observed in education, comorbidities, warfarin usage, and warfarin therapy duration.

Conclusion: These results confirmed that education and warfarin therapy duration were the sociodemographic correlates of warfarin knowledge in the warfarin patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predictors of Bleeding Risks and Episodes in Heart Patients

Muhammad Zahid Iqbal, Yaman W. Kassab, Ahmed Abdelrahman Gadelseed Salih, Winsthon Carpo Matias, H. Jaasminerjiit Kaur, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 451-456
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35756

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine predictors of bleeding risks and episodes in heart patients. This study also determined the effect of demographic characteristics and comorbidities on the bleeding episodes in heart patients.

Methods: A retrospective and observational study was done on a data collection form to obtain the required data. After adjusting confounders in logistic regression analysis model, (predicting likelihood of reporting bleeding risks and episodes), pure predictors of bleeding risks and episodes were determined. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Overall, 220 patients’ data on data collection forms were collected in the study. Out of the total studied patients, around 56 were on warfarin, 47 on dabigatran, 67 on rivaroxaban and 50 on apixaban. In addition, age and presence of comorbidity were observed as the pure and strong predictors of bleeding risks and episodes among the studied patients.

Conclusion: Age and presence of comorbidity were the pure and strong predictors of bleeding risks and episodes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Postoperative Outcomes of Pterygium Excision Surgery with Autograft Using Autologous Blood Versus Conventional Sutures

Ashka Patel, Aneri Shah, Vaishali Prajapati, Hasti Lo, Farheen Laliwala, Deepika Singhal, Abhay Gaidhane

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 486-492
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35897

Introduction: Pterygium is an extremely common ocular condition believed to be occurring due to proliferation and overgrowth of abnormal epithelial and fibrovascular tissue onto the cornea. They are characterized by cellular proliferation, neovascularization, and inflammation. Ultraviolet rays (UVR) induced elastoid degeneration of subepithelial connective tissue, genetic alteration associated altered cytokine expression plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pterygium. The recent treatment entities include conjunctival autograft with good results. The most commonly used means of fixating conjunctival autografts is by sutures or fibrin glue.

Aim: This study aimed at comparative assessment of postoperative outcomes of pterygium excision surgery with autograft using autologous blood versus conventional sutures.

Methods: Forty post-operative cases of pterygium excision surgery with conjunctival autograft were enrolled in the study and serially followed up. The study included two groups of 20 patients each. Group-A included cases of pterygium excision with autograft using autologous blood, and Group-B included cases of pterygium excision with autograft and sutures. Post-operatively, patients were examined on the 1st, 7th and 30th day to document the graft loss.  Graft stability was also assessed on day 1 in both groups.  Final comparisons were documented in terms of graft edema, stability and recurrence.  Also suture related complications like foreign body sensation, watering, discomfort, granuloma formation and suture abscess were assessed in follow-up.

Results: Group-B (suture group) revealed better graft stability whereas displacement of graft was documented in six cases of Group-A.  Graft edema was reported in 10 cases from Group A and 7 cases from Group B. On the 30th day, all patients of both groups presented with similar findings.  However, subjective discomfort was reported to be more in group-B as compared to group-A during each follow-up.

Conclusion: Issue of graft displacement was a critical challenge with autologous blood group (Group A) patients compared to suture-related complications in group B. Looking towards the evidence of less remarkable complications and almost similar outcomes,  the surgeons dilemma on pterygium management still persists.

Open Access Original Research Article

Functional Analysis of Fracture Patella Managed with Tension Band Wiring

Ulhas Dudhekar, Abhiram Awasthi, Shiv Jadhav, Kiran Saoji, Shounak Taywade, Aditya Kekatpure, Ankur Salwan, Suyash Ambatkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 500-507
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35899

Background: Fracture patella accounts for around 1% of all skeletal fractures. It is basically of 2 types: displaced fracture and un displaced fracture. It mainly occurs due to direct blows to the knee joint such as car accidents, injuries, or direct falls on the ground with bent knees. Management of these fractures varies from cylindrical cast application to surgical management for displaced fractures. This study focuses on the functional evaluation of fracture patella managed with tension band wiring.

Materials and Methods: 17 patients with displaced transverse patella fracture managed with tension band wiring were included in the study. An interventional study was performed in AVBRH hospital Wardha between 2017-2019. Operated patients were followed up at one month, two months, and three months for functional assessment. On every follow-up, x-ray was taken to assess the union and implant positioning.

Observations and Results: 41.47 were the mean age (in years) of patients participating in the study. In the study, 17 patients participated, 13 were males (76.47%) and 4 were females (23.53%). Comminuted and oblique fractures were excluded from the study. Out of 17 patients at final follow up, 70.58% patients had excellent results, 29.42 percent had good results, and no patient had a poor functional outcome.

Conclusion: Tension band wiring of fracture patella yields better fun outcomes outcome and an inexpensive method of managing fractured patella. Early knee mobilization and knee range of motion exercises should be started to avoid quadriceps muscle wasting.

Open Access Review Article

Effect of Yoga in Stress Management in Patients with Epilepsy- A Literature Review

Jeekshitha Kulal, A. P. Rashmitha, K. U. Dhanesh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 41-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35169

Objective: The major goal of this research evaluation was to see if yoga therapy may help people with epilepsy manage stress.

Introduction: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that has a high psychological and physical toll. Self-reported seizures are frequently caused by stress, individual and many patients with epilepsy believe that reducing stress improves seizure management.

Methodology: An electronic search of published research publications was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and other databases, and the results were analysed to determine the effectiveness of yoga in the treatment of stress in epileptic patients." Based on inclusion criteria, few papers were included in the literature review like randomised controlled trials, systematic literature reviews, systematic reviews, Cochrane review, and pilot study.

Results: This review looked at how yoga affects stress through multiple mechanisms and found that it helps epileptic patients reduce stress and improve their quality of life.

Conclusion: This study found that yoga can be one of the alternative methods for reducing stress in epileptics. Yoga should be practised by epileptics to reduce stress and seizure frequency, as well as increase overall well-being. It doesn't have any negative side effects.

Open Access Review Article

A Scoping Review of the Genotypic Diversity of Streprococcus mutans

K. Kunguma Supraja, Saravanan Poorni, . Nivedhitha, Manali Ramakrishnan Srinivasan, M. Jeevitha, Selvaraj Jeyaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 94-103
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35175

Aim: This paper reviews the literature on the pathogenic genotypes of S. mutans that may be more virulent colonizers and the phenotypic variability of its main virulence factors.

Methods: A thorough literature search on S. mutans was performed and the relevant datas supporting its association to dental caries were extracted.

Results: Dental caries is a microbial disease caused by frequent intake of dietary sugars. Fermentation of sugars by biofilm microbiota produces acids that disrupt microbial homeostasis and cause dissolution of tooth minerals. Identifying S. mutans as the most important cariogenic microorganism has led to the design of target specific preventive measures that intend to reduce its presence in oral cavity.

Conclusion: Due to environmental changes and selective pressure in the oral cavity, Streptococcus mutans endure extensive genotypic diversity thereby exhibiting new physiological and metabolic properties. However, the role of the variants are poorly understood.

Open Access Review Article

Stereolithography (SLA) 3D Printing Technology in Microneedles

Simarpreet Kaur, Rajeev Garg, Bhupinder Kaur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 104-113
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35176

Many of the drugs show enzymatic degradation in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or they show difficulty in permeation. In these cases, microneedles (MN) based transdermal drug delivery system offers attractive alternative to conventional needle-based and oral drug delivery systems. Microneedle drug delivery system consists of an arrangement of micrometric arrays which can be formulated with the use of different polymers and technologies. This present review is related to manufacturing of biocompatible microneedles” formulated with an aid of stereolithography (SLA) - a 3D printing technique in which microneedle patches of different shapes are constructed in the form of layers. The MN patches could be coated using inkjet printing. An SLA printer could be employed to print pyramid needle-based arrays. X-ray computer micro tomography (CT) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) could be used to assess the standard of the formed microneedles and subsequent coatings. In vitro studies using Franz diffusion cells could be done further to analyze drug permeation rate and calculation of flux. Microneedles could be constructed by using a 3D printing stereolithographic technology, and combining it with a highly appropriate coating method like inkjet printing, which can lead to a high-paced drug delivery microneedle systems via skin.

Open Access Review Article

Exfoliative Cytology- Need of the Hour

Bhavana Hirani, Priyanka Paul

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 157-163
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35182

Oral cancer is becoming more common over the world. Oral cancer patients have a low survival rate when compared to other types of cancer. This is primarily due to a delay in diagnosis, which causes tumour metastasis and, as a result, secondary cancers. Diagnosing oral precancer or oral cancer, especially when the disease is in its early stages, is extremely difficult and crucial for the dental profession. Early detection and treatment planning for patients with oral cancer rely heavily on early screening and improved diagnostic tools. The analysis in microscope of exfoliated cells from surface of epithelium is known as oral exfoliative cytology (OEC). It is an easy, non-intrusive, and sensitive technique of staining that is utilised as an alternative to biopsy or when biopsy is not possible, also for mass screening [1].

Cytopathology is a technique for examining diseases that affect a wide range of bodily sites, and it is frequently used to aid in the diagnosis of cancer, as well as some viral diseases and other inflammatory ailments. The Pap smear, for example, is a typical cytopathology application                    that is used to detect precancerous cervical lesions that may lead to cervical cancer. This approach is only used to analyse surface cells and must be confirmed with additional cytological investigation. Smears can be taken from the buccal mucosa, the dorsum of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, the hard and soft palate junction, and the lower labial region. Because the materials are smeared across a glass microscope slide for staining and microscopic analysis, cytopathologic tests are also known as smear tests. They help in prevention of the disease from turning into severe one.

Open Access Review Article

Critical Review on Vrushya basti: A Therapeutic Approach

Gautami Bhisikar, Shweta Parwe, Milind Nisargandha, Swati Tikale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 181-191
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35185

Background: Vrushya chikitsa is one of the eight principal branches of the Ashtanga Ayurveda. The Rasayana and Vajikarana therapy promotes longevity and imparts the healthy individual's strength, complexion, and overall well-being. It deals with infertility and problems involving the body's vital reproductive fluids of Shukra dhatu. Vrushya chikitsa is also known as Vajikarana, which translates to "medication or therapy that allows a male to copulate with a woman." Vrushya chikitsa also aids in the nourishment of a person's physique. Vrushya chikitsa also helps in nourishing the body of the person. In six different Samhitas, including the Brihatrayee, Bhela Samhita, Vangasena Samhita and Bhavprakash Samhita, numerous Vrushya Basti are mentioned.

Aim: To study the vrushya basti in different Samhita.

Results: There is various vrushya basti mentioned in different Samhita, but some of studied practically, there is some unavailability of contents of vrushya basti. Due to some unavailability of contents like the meat of titir, peacock etc. vrushya basti is not possible to study.

Conclusion: There should have to check the efficacy for every vrushya basti to generate scientific evidence.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Imaging in Dental Implantology: A Review

Shreyash Chandak, Vidya Lohe, Ravikant Sune, Swapnil Mohod, Mrunal Meshram

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 201-206
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35187

Dental radiography has long been a fascinating and useful diagnostic tool in the field of dentistry with the ever-increasing number of imaging modalities this has never been more true. The only sort of (non-surgical) bone examination necessary for implant therapy is radiography. The decision to image and which imaging modalities to utilize is dependent on several variables, including identifying the quality and amount of bone in order to decide the optimal position for implant placement, detecting  the presence or absence of pathosis, and patient availability at a reasonable expense. Furthermore, while selecting radiographic examinations, it is critical to reduce patient exposure to radiation to a minimum. This article reviews current implant planning concepts utilizing various radiographic modalities, as well as their application to enhance the clinician's role in efficient implant placement. The importance of pre-surgical treatment planning for successful implant therapy cannot be overstated. In this case, diagnostic imaging is critical. Various imaging techniques are accessible to help in the placement of the implant in the correct position with respective facility and predictability. Among the modalities referenced are intraoral radiography, panoramic radiography, computed tomography and cone beam CT. The use of CBCT is utilized by the specialist to outline the method of the course of nerves in the jawbone and to decide the legitimate insert length. Inserts ought not be embedded into the sinuses. The vicinity of maxillary sinus may be accurately seen with CBCT. The surgeon can take exact measurements and pick the optimal implant length to prevent puncturing the maxillary sinus. For the optimal support, the right implant size can be chosen. The surgeon can use CBCT to analyze the accessible bone and select the dimensions that are suitable for the region. The CBCT programming produces improved picture, oblique and curved planar reorganization. Furthermore, minimizing the patient's radiation dosage during radiographic testing should always be a primary priority.

Open Access Review Article

Phytochemical and Biological Activities of the Genus Terminalia, Emphasizing on Terminalia paniculata L.: A Review

Sai Manohar Valsa, K. Parimala, K. Revathi, G. Komali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 229-237
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35191

Terminalia is the second major genus belonging of family Combretaceae. Species from this genus have been used in outmoded popular medicine globally. But then, a little study was stated on Terminalia paniculata L. (TP). This is a complete literature review of various Terminalia plants highlighting on TP, about its biological and isolated constituents. The objective of this study is to fascinate the attention of unfamiliar activities of TP, thus conducive to the growth of novel therapeutics which might benefit health of individuals suffering from illnesses. Existing data on Terminalia was sourced from electronic databases like Scopus, Goggle Scholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Chemical Abstract earth and Springer Link. Plant based studies have led to extraction of various categories of phytochemicals like, tannins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, triterpenes, triterpenoid glycosides, lignan and ligan derivatives in Terminalia plants. Extracts and their isolated constituents of various Terminalia plants reported a good spectrum of activities. TP consist of polyphenols such as ellagic acid, 3,3’-di-O-methyyl ellagic acid and 3,4,3’-O-trimethyl flavellagic acid. Studies on Terminalia genus has opened a diverse active chemical component. Many biochemical potentials have authenticated use of Terminalia in therapy of different ailments in plant-based medicine. Future studies desired to discover bioactive constituents’ accountable pharmacological mechanisms. Terminalia paniculata is a tree native to southwest India (including the Western Ghats and Karnataka). Known in the timber trade as kindal. Though it has been used in the ancient system of medicine for menstrual problems, cough, bronchitis, cardiac debility, hepatitis, diabetes and in obesity, very little literature support is available on these biological activities, except for its few like acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity. This review is an attempt to emphasize on the phytochemical and biological activities of terminalia genus and the species Terminalia paniculata.

Open Access Review Article

Overview of Emulgel as Emergent Topical Delivery: Recent Applications and Advancement

Yogesh Amgaonkar, Nitin Kochar, Anil Chandewar, Shrikant Bute, Kamlesh Wadher, Milind Umekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 258-268
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35565

Emulgel is an emerging delivery system with added advantages over other topical delivery systems which is proven to be boon for cosmetics and dermatology. Emulgels are emulsion which is converted to Gel, which will make it a non greasy and enhances patient compliance. The amalgamation of the two systems would be advantages in term of high drug loading capacity and low skin irritation, site specific targeting avoiding first-pass metabolism and increase in bioavailability. Work carried out by researchers proved that, Emulgel/ Nanoemulgel loaded with drugs has been found effective in many topical disorders and it is emerging as potential drug delivery system in area of dermatology. In the present review current research works that carried out on Emulgel and nano emulgels are discussed and also highlighted the recent applications of Emulgel in transdermal as well as dental, ocular, vaginal, and other delivery system.

Open Access Review Article

Effect on Neurotransmitters in Alcoholic People

Yash Vardhan Lath, Ajay Meshram

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 472-478
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i62B35895

It has become easier to study different neurotransducers and their functions with advancements in technology. We can also study the impact of alcohol on these neurotransducers that disrupt the body’s normal functioning. As a result, there seems to be a tendency to have adverse effects on the body due to their malfunctioning. The body has several different pathways for functioning these neurotransducers like glutamate, GABA, serotonin, and dopamine. Some are excitant neurotransducers, and some are interdictory. Both have different reactions when exposed to alcohol for a long or short period. This review paper will briefly introduce what alcoholism is, what it curtails, and the different pathways and how they get blocked by the presence of alcohol in the body. Humans rely on our brain for almost all the activities we carry out daily, whether vital or non-vital. The human body works as an intricate machine. The introduction of a foreign object like alcohol causes the harmony of the machinery to bend out of place and throw everything out of balance. The article explains how our brain acts in the presence of alcohol, not even for a long time but short as well, and is helpful to find a corrective methodic treatment for alcoholism.