Open Access Case Report

A Report of Two Rare Cases of Palatal Tremors

T. Gnanadeepan, V. Vrinda, K. Mayilananthi, Durga Krishnan, V. S. Gaurav Narayan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 137-141
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35271

Palatal tremor (PT), also known as palatal myoclonus (PM) is a very rare neurological phenomenon, manifesting as rhythmic movements of the soft palate which is hypothesized to occur either due to a lesion in the inferior olivary nucleus, or in an idiopathic manner. Prevalence data of the disease are lacking. Only a few hundred cases have been reported so far. Here we present two cases of palatal tremor, who presented to our tertiary care centre for unrelated symptoms. The first case was a 56 year old gentleman, who was incidentally found to have palatal tremor. Further investigation revealed a posterior circulation stroke involving the left cerebellar hemisphere and cerebellar peduncle. The second case, a 35 year old female, presented with an upper respiratory tract infection, and was discovered to have palatal tremor on routine examination. The cause was attributed to her history of surgical removal of a left cerebellar cyst five years ago.

Open Access Case Report

Ellis Van Creveld Syndrome: A Case Report

Sarath Kumar, S. Padmavathi, G. Anuradha, A. Kannan, C. L. Krithika

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 246-250
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35526

Ellis Van Creveld Syndrome (EVC) is a infrequent inborn genetic disorder with an x-linked recessive pattern of inheritance. This is recognized by bilateral accessory little finger in upper extremity, short limbs, ectodermal dysplasia affecting teeth and nails, and congenital cardiac defect. The overall prevalence of this disease is 7 in 1000000. In this current case, a 9year old female patient reported with typical general and oral manifestations, which were key diagnostic features of EVC syndrome.

Open Access Case Report

Case report on the Management of Thrombosis in Popliteal Artery, Arterial Embolization and Thrombosis of Left Limb

Dipali S. Deshkari, Vaishali Taksande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 504-509
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35887

Introduction: Arterial vascular occlusion can be caused by an embolus or acute thrombosis. Acute arterial occlusion can be induced by iatrogenic damage, such as that produced by the insertion of invasive catheters used for arteriography. It can occur as a result of PTA or stent implantation, the use of an intraaortic balloon pump, or IV drug addiction. Other causes include fractures, crush injuries, and penetrating wounds that change the intima of the artery. Reliable identification of an arterial blockage as embolic or thrombotic in origin is necessary to begin appropriate therapy.

Clinical Findings: On examination vitals was heart rate is 80 beats/min respiration 22beats/min blood pressures 120/80 mmHg temperature 97oF the chest was clear, patient is oriented on local examination gangrene over left lower limb, RTPCR test was done and patient was put in isolation ward and on day 3 the RTPCR report is negative.

Diagnostic Evaluation: Coagulation profile APTT-31.5, PT-16.5, INR-1.28, UREA-16, SODIUM-128, POTASSIUM-4.3, RTPCR-NEGATIVE, HBSAG-NON-REACTIVE, HCV-NONREACTIVE.

Therapeutic Intervention:  The patient was taken to the catheterization lab and local anesthesia is given and balloonplasty was done using ARMADA 4MM X 120cm with that Inj. Urokinase 1.5 Lac IU is given stat by infusion the

Conclusion: My patient aged 24 years male was admitted to Cardiac unit in AVBRH hospital Sawangi (M) Wardha on date 25/03/2021 for visit in hospital OPD with complaints of leg pain with redness and swelling over the leg.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Narrative Review Article on Serum Markers in Pcos

Shatakshi Arun Sharma, Surekha Tayade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 467-474
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35882

PCOD is a heterogeneous illness characterized by clinically or biochemically excess androgen, dysfunction in ovulation, and polycystic ovaries that is caused by a complicated hereditary disease.

Poly-cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), affecting 10 to 20% of premenopausal females, is a common heterogeneous disorder depending on diagnostic criteria of high serum levels of androgen concentrations, and infertility, irregular menstruation, provided that precise diagnosis such as hyperprolactinemia and inbred adrenal hyperplasia have been debarred. In recent years, the international agreement has favored the adoption of the Rotterdam criteria for mature women's diagnosis. During pubertal development, non-uniform menses, chronic anovulatory cycles, multi-follicular ovary shape, and moderately increased blood androgen concentrations are common.

It's difficult to establish a diagnosis in adolescent females since there's a lot of overlap between typical pubertal milestones and PCOS clinical characteristics. Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and obesity are all typical symptoms of PCOS, however, they aren't diagnostic.

Impaired glucose tolerance, which leads to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, increased blood pressure, endometrial cancer, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, alcoholic independent fatty liver, and sleep apnea are among the comorbidities linked with PCOS. Depression and poor conditions of life are also prevalent problems. Preliminary detection of PCOS in teenage females is critical.

The goal of this article is to offer a summary of serum indicators and evidence for several serum markers used to diagnose PCOS.

Open Access Case Study

Fenestration of the Mandibular Buccal Cortex by the Inferior Alveolar Bundle: A Case Report

Shallu Bansal, Siddhesh Latke, Siddhant Tiwari, Neetu Jindal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 240-245
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35523

A precise knowledge of the anatomy of the Mandibular Canal is essential while performing oral surgical procedures in order to avoid any risk of injury to the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. The presence of anatomical variations associated with the mandibular canal has great clinical implications during such surgical procedures.

Various anatomical variations may not be well appreciated entirely in two-dimensional images like Orthopantomograph (OPG). In such cases, Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) plays a crucial role in facilitating the localization of anatomic structures, their significant variations and provides data concerning bone morphology.

In this case report, A 27 year old male patient reported with the chief complaint of intermittent pain in left lower back region of the mouth. Clinical and radiographic examination (OPG) revealed impacted lower third molar in the left back region of the jaw. While raising a full thickness mucoperiosteal flap, we encountered fenestration of the left mandibular buccal cortex by the inferior alveolar nerve which is a 6th reported case without pathology.

The aim of this article is to add on a rare anatomical variation in the existing literature i.e. fenestration of the mandibular buccal cortex by the inferior alveolar bundle, encountered accidently during exposing mandibular third molar and confirmed by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Open Access Case Study

Kwashiorkor is a Six-year-old, Presenting as Acrodermatitis Enteropathica

Maithili Joshi, Bhavana Lakhkar, Sachin Damke, Richa Chaudhary

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 482-486
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35884

Background: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is commonly seen in developing countries, especially in infants and young children up to 5 years of age. Edema is one of the characteristic features which occurs due to excessive protein loss or decreased protein intake. It is one of the rising concerns of parents and leads to mortality if untreated.

Case Presentation: A 6-year-old male child was brought with complaints of excessive skin lesions and loss of appetite for four months. He sustained burns on his legs four months back, and his general condition worsened at home.  Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is common among children 6-59 months. The age of presentation in our patients is unusual.  We stepped up his nutritive intake, added micronutrients and trace elements, and he recovered with our efforts.

Conclusion: We recognized the child’s underlying condition well and started the apt treatment. The child responded well to the nutritional intervention and showed signs of recovery. The age of presentation was rare, which has made us report the case. The parents were counseled well to step up the child’s protein and calorie intake and ensure a tender and stress-free environment at home, enhancing the child’s recovery.

Open Access Study Protocol

Suicidal Behaviours in First Episode Psychoses

Shruti R. Agrawal, Pradeep S. Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35133

Background: Psychotic disorders severely affect the quality of life of many patients. Mortality is very high in such patients. Suicide risk is 12 times more in patients with psychoses than in the general population. First episode psychosis has no agreed-upon definition, but the initial years are crucial for a better prognosis of the illness. Early intervention and timely management prove beneficial in improving quality of life and reducing mortality, mainly due to suicide. Suicide risk is about 1.5 times higher in the first year of treatment.

Aims and Objectives: We aim to find out the presence of suicidal ideas and attempts in FEP and find out risk factors for suicidal ideas and attempts in FEP. The study also assesses the nature of clinical manifestations, depression, and insight with suicidal ideas, suicidal attempts, and non-suicidal self-harm in FEP.

Methods: It is a cross-sectional observational study. Seventy-five indoor or outdoor patients aged 18 to 50yrs will be assessed. Tools used are sociodemographic proforma, PANSS, Addington Depression scale, Suicidality Module of MINI, and Birchwood Insight Scale.

Results and Discussion: This study’s result will help ascertain suicidal behaviors in first-episode psychosis. The study will also help identify risk factors and their role in suicide in these patients.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assessing the Utility of Actual Proliferation Index Measured by Expression of ‘Agnor and Ki-67’ in Histopathologically Negative Surgical Margins of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma as a Modality for Prediction of Recurrence

Madhuri Gawande, Minal Chaudhary

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 111-116
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35267

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is most common malignancy of head and neck which is the major cause of death. Recurrence is the major important prognostic factor in the survival of patients and tumor stage, degree of differentiation of neoplastic cells, pN stage resected margins, and lymphovascular invasion are the factors for recurrence. The rate of recurrence varies from 18 to76% for patients who underwent standard treatment. Histological assessment of surgical margins has a major role to predict the recurrence. But in spite of negative histological surgical margins recurrence rate is high, as there are genetic alterations in these margins which are not detected by routine histopathlogy. Even when surgical margins are free histopathologically the local recurrence rate is 10 to 30 percent.

That’s why molecular evaluation of these margins should be done. Many immunohistochemical studies are done to assess surgical margins of OSCC but no study is carried out to assess the proliferative index in surgical margins. Therefore this study will help to improve management and predict the recurrence of OSCC.

Objectives: In this study we aim to assess the utility of “actual proliferation index” measured by expression of “Agnor” and “Ki-67” in histopathologically negative “surgical margins” of “oral sqaumous cell carcinoma” as a modality for prediction of recurrence. 

Methodology: The resected surgical margins of the oral squamous cell carcinoma cases which are operated in Sharad Pawar dental college will be selected as samples. The anterior, posterior, inferior and superior margin of resected specimens will be stained by H&E staining.  Immunohistochemical staining by ki-67 antibody will be done in the negative histopathological surgical margins. The same sections will be stained with  AgNOR staining. Both sections will be evaluated. Actual proliferative index will be calculated with the given formula

Ki67 Labeling Index: Ki67 L1= “Number of Ki67 positive cells” x 100

Total number of tumor cells observed

“Actual Proliferative Index (PI) = “ Ki-67” or MIB-1 LI × AgNOR count ’

Recurrence of tumor will be observed during first two years period after surgical procedure.

Expected Results: The “actual proliferative index” calculated by “Ki-67 labelling index” and “AgNOR count expression in histopathologically” negative surgical margins of OSCC will be more in recurrence patients as compared to patients who do not have recurrence.

Conclusion: The API values measured by assessing the Agnor and Ki67 expression, in histopathological negative surgical margins of OSCC will be compared between with values of patient with recurrence.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assessment of Serum Biomarkers in Oral Submucous Fibrosis for Prescription of Planned Diet: A Study Protocol

Ravikant V, Sune, Rahul R. Bhowate, Vidya K. Lohe, Mrunal G. Meshram

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 117-124
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35268

Background: Oral submucous fibrosis is common and aptly a chronic condition affecting oropharyngeal structure. Characteristically it shows burning mouth sensation, mucosal stiffness with reduced mouth opening and difficulty to eat. There are many treatment options but no single treatment has proven effective. Impairment of genomic structure by ROS may initiate and promote carcinogenesis. Physiologic antioxidants work together with exogenous antioxidants to curtail effects of ROS. Vitamins E and C are especially important among the external antioxidants. OSMF is premalignant condition and is consistently associated with betel nut and tobacco like carcinogens, so may have connotation with ROS.

Objective: To determine levels of iron, zinc, copper, vitamin A, C, E within serum of oral submucous fibrosis patients to conceptualize diet plan for different grades of OSMF according to need of the patient.

Method: The present study will be conducted in 50 cases of OSMF. Five milliliters of venous blood will be obtained of each participant from the antecubital vein using 24-gauge needle. The blood samples will be centrifuged and stored. Analysis of serum for iron, copper, zinc, and vitamins A, C and E will be done subsequently with ELISA diagnostic kits for these biomarkers respectively.

Results: Serum analysis will show low levels of iron, copper, zinc, vitamin A, C and E which may act as contributing factor in the etiology of OSMF. Depending on the deficient element, diet plan will be prepared according to the need of the patient.

Conclusion: Incidence of mouth cancer is expected to rise in near future because of increase in prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis. Altered nutritional status may be an important factor in causation of OSMF. Assessing biochemical changes will help in determining the nutritional status of patient. This will help in prescribing nutritional diet for patients suffering from OSMF.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Evaluation of the Forces Produced by Tongue on Circummaxillary Sutures in Skeletal Class-III Malocclusion with Maxillary Hypoplasia Using Tongue Crib with that of Facemask Therapy: A FEM Study

Jeni Ann Mathew, Ranjit H. Kamble, Sunita S. Shrivastava, Sumukh Nerurkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 125-129
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35269

Introduction: The tongue exerts its force during swallowing, while it rests behind the crib. Magnitude of forces tongue exerts through tongue crib at various sutures, its implication in various grades of maxillary hypoplasia in Class III malocclusion is not provided in literature. The rationale of this study is to investigate stress distributions in the sutures of craniofacial region produced by forces applied by tongue through tongue crib in comparison with facemask therapy in Class III malocclusion with maxillary hypoplasia in maxillary protraction.

Objectives: The rationale of this study was to compare forces generated by tongue through tongue crib and facemask therapy in Class III malocclusion with maxillary hypoplasia in child of pubertal age group.

Methodology: Finite element model of skull would be generated and simulation of tongue crib and facemask therapy would be done and stresses would be studied at various sutures. Quantitative analysis is done by elucidating values of finite element analysis.

Expected Results: The forces produced by tongue on circummaxillary sutures in skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary hypoplasia using tongue crib with that of facemask therapy would be substantial.

Conclusion: Stress distribution produced by protraction forces exerted by tongue through tongue crib in comparison with facemask therapy in Class III malocclusion with maxillary hypoplasia would be studied through finite element analysis to promote growth in maxilla.

Open Access Study Protocol

Evaluation of Effect of Incorporating 0.5% Chloramine-T as Disinfectant in Type III Gypsum Product on its Setting Time and Abrasion Resistance

Smruti Gujjelwar, Mithilesh Dhamande, Seema Sathe (Kambala)

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 130-136
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35270

Background: Disinfection of dental cast is very important because it can cause cross-infection from patients to clinicians and lab personnel. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of addition of 0.5% of chloramine-T as disinfectant in type III gypsum product on its setting time and abrasion resistance. 

Objectives: 1. To evaluate the effect of Chloramine-T on setting time of type III gypsum product. 2.To evaluate the effect of Chloramine-T on abrasion resistance of type III gypsum product. 3. To compare the mentioned properties with control group of type III gypsum product without Chloramine-T.

Methodology: This is an invitro study, sample size is 140. We will be testing for setting time with the help of Vicat needle apparatus and abrasion resistance will be tested with the help of two body wear testing apparatus. This study will be conducted under 4 groups: Group1- Control group for setting time, Group2- Experimental group for setting time, Group3- Control group for abrasion resistance, Group 4- Experimental group for abrasion resistance.

Expected Result: It is expected that this study would result in forming a type III gypsum product incorporated with Chloramine-T, thus eliminating the need for any additional steps for disinfecting casts and ultimately preventing cross-infection.

Conclusion: Incorporating Chloramine-T can be an efficient method of disinfecting gypsum without adversely affecting the product's mechanical and physical properties.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Study of Optimal Utilization of Radio-diagnostics at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Wardha, India

Ankita Chavhan, Ahmindra Jain, Vandana Gudhe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 147-153
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35488

Background:  Radiology has its own role in day to day healthcare services especially in diagnosis, patient management and treatments. Current advances in technology allows for exploring every tissue, organ and problem in details. The radio diagnostic imaging modalities include ultrasonography, X-ray, CT, MRI etc. Diagnosis is influenced by proper utilization of imaging equipment and techniques. These modern amenities need a huge investment and maintenance cost. This study insisted on assessment of working condition, level of utilization, and barriers in the utilization of the radiological facilities in AVBRH, India.

Methodology: This cross sectional study will be conducted at AVBRH, Wardha. A structured questionnaire will be used for data collection through interviews of selected professionals and health care workers. It will assess the utilization of radiodiagnostic equipment’s in radiology department of AVBRH, breakdown occurrences and cost of repair, turn-around time, repair and maintenance contract.

Expected Results: Data on radio diagnostic equipment’s in radiology department of AVBRH, breakdown occurrences and cost of repair, turn-around time, repair and maintenance contract will be generated and gaps in service delivery will be outlined.

Conclusion: Kay critical gaps in efficient equipment use and service delivery will be outlined.

Open Access Study Protocol

‘Menstruation Awareness Activities’ for Improving the Knowledge, Awareness and Practices Regarding Menstrual Hygiene among Adolescent Girls: A Study Protocol

Neha Jhadi, Sarika Dakhode, Sonali Choudhari, Abhay Gaidhane

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 154-160
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35490

Background: Menstruation is a normal physiological process that indicates the start of reproductive life. But sometimes it’s considered as an impure phenomenon within the Indian society thanks to cultural taboos and insufficient and half-truths and causes unnecessary restrictions within the day to day normal activities of the menstruating girls. During a girl's life cycle, it is recognized as a special time that requires special consideration. During the life of a woman, Menarche may be a crucial biological milestone because it marks the beginning of her life's reproductive process. Usually, the average age at menarche is consistent across cultures, that is, between the ages of 12 and 13. Unfortunately, for women it gets worse because of lack of menstrual preparedness and management skills or because of shyness and embarrassment. This study aims to assess the knowledge and practices of menstrual hygiene management among adolescent girls from rural region of Wardha district.

Methods:  This will be a randomized controlled trial that will be conducted in adopted villages of field practice area of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha. Quantitative data will be collected using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Qualitative data will be collected through focused group discussions (FGD). Pre and post intervention data will be collected and analyzed using SPSS, Appropriate tables and graphs will be prepared, and inferences will be drawn using the Chi-square test and t-test.

Results: Significant improvement in knowledge, awareness and practices of maintaining menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in Wardha district.

Conclusion: Proper training and awareness can improve menstrual hygiene related practices in rural areas and assist in improving environmental health as well.

Open Access Study Protocol

Pharmaceutical (Nutraceutical) Development, Quality Control Assessment and Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of a Polyherbal Compound for Muscle Gain in Gym Going Healthy Volunteers: A Study Protocol

Aditi R. Shinde, Bharat Rathi, Anita Wanjari, Renu Rathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 265-272
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35530

Introduction: Protein powders are of great benefits for theyoungsterswho are gym freakand  show an interest in bodybuildingneed some external supplementation for weight gain, in muscle growth.In Ayurveda several herbs are described which are useful in muscle gain.Large number of protein supplements are available in market, but in present times research based Ayurvedic herbal supplement which is having dual property like muscle strengthening and other side as a protein source is not yet available in market.

Objective: Pharmaceutical Development, Quality Control Assessment and Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of a Polyherbal Compound for Muscle Gain in Gym Going Healthy Volunteers.

Methodology: Polyherbal compounds will be prepared with selected drugs like Ashwagandha, Vidarikanda, Arjuna, Gokshur, Sitaand it will be converted into churna form. Analytical study for standardization of Polyherbal compound will be done. Clinical evaluations for efficacy will bedonein gym going healthy volunteers.

Observations and Results: Observation will be done on the basis of physical examination (assessment criteria) evaluation of the pre and post condition. Results will be drawn on the basis of observations and applying suitable tests. It will be noted and presented in form of table, charts, graphsetc.

Conclusion: If this Pharmaceutical preparation of Herbal Compound shows expected and significant outcome in muscle growth and then it will be boon to the youngsters, bodybuilders who are in search of such Ayurvedicmuscle gain formulation.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assessment of Waiting Time and Recommend the Strategies for Reduction of Waiting Time in Outpatient Department at AVBRH, Wardha, India

Dhanshree Ram Deorankar, Vitthal Shinde, Vandana Gudhe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 326-331
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35605

Background: Prolonged waiting period for patients usually observed in outpatient service and this trouble come up with number of public health problems, weaken access to care interference of hospital work system and patient dissatisfaction. It is habitual to detect patient care being delay as prolonged waiting time, and patient many time expend more time in waiting than consultation. This study aims to reduce waiting time at outpatient department for total time management at AVBRH, Wardha.

Objectives: 1.  To determine average waiting period in outpatient department and factor related for prolonged waiting. 2. Provide recommendations on utilization of waiting period .

Methodology: It will be an observational cross sectional stud conducted at AVBRH Wardha. OPD patients at AVBRH will be included in the study. Data will be collected over a period of 2 months by direct field observation and will be appropriately analyzed.

Expected Results:  Reduction of waiting period by total time management  helps to increase the level of satisfaction of patients.  Judicious utilization of time and human resources will be helpful in increasing hospital efficiency and make positive impression of hospital.

Conclusion: Hospital efficiency can be improved by appropriate intervention  and reducing waiting period.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparison of Microwave Treatment and Pressure Cooker Methods for Antigen Retrieval Techniques in Immunohistochemistry

Miheer Jagtap, Shivani J. Dehankar, Sunita Vagha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 395-401
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35682

Background: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a method which is capable of detecting antigens or antibodies on the cells. The antigen antibody complex formed as a result of this reaction can be visualized at a light microscopic level. The main procedure involves application of a primary antibody which is targeted against a selected tissue antigen. Immunohistochemistry implements various polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies which help to identify the tissue location of the disease. Antigen retrieval (AR) is a key step in IHC which can be done by two methods: 1] Pressure cooker treatment  2] Microwave treatment method.  This study aims to compare antigen retrieval efficacy and quality of immunohistochemical sections obtained by these two methods.

Methodology: This prospective analytical study will be conducted in the histopathology and immunohistochemistry divisions of department of Pathology, J.N.M.C. Wardha. The study will evaluate immunohistochemical sections during which antigen retrieval would be done either by microwave treatment method or autoclave method in 30 cases. All the cases will be divided in two groups. For Group 1 - antigen retrieval will be performed by microwave treatment method. For Group 2 - antigen retrieval will be done by autoclave method. Qualitative evaluation and comparison of the sections obtained by these 2 methods will be done. Statistical evaluation will be done by SPSS software version 22.0, Prism 6.0 analysis software. Chi square test will be used for comparison.

Results: A significant difference is expected in the between the efficacy of antigen retrieval by pressure cooker method and microwave treatment.

Conclusion: Conclusions will be drawn on careful analysis of results.

Open Access Minireview Article

Antidiabetic Activity of Clitoria ternatea Linn

K. Kalaiselvi, U. Vidhya Rekha, Ponnulakshmi Rajagopal, Durairaj Sekar, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 283-288
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35537

In recent years, interest in plant study has expanded all over the world and a substantial body of evidence has been collected to illustrate the great potential of medicinal plants utilized in diverse traditional systems. Plant-based medications and chemicals have been used to treat various diseases and for personal adornment since the beginning of human civilization. Clitoria ternatea Linn, (butterfly pea) Fabaceae family. Clitoria ternatea is used to treat a variety of ailments and symptoms. It possesses antidepressant, anticonvulsant,anticancer, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic qualities, as well aslocal anesthetic, purgative, and anti-diabetic effects.It's also used to treat snake bites and scorpion stings in India.

Open Access Original Research Article

Establishment of Correlation of Ki-67 Proliferative Index Expression in the Peritumoral Tissue with Tumor Mass in ER (Estrogen Receptor) Positive Breast Carcinoma

. Sukanya, Pratibha Dawande, Arvind Bhake, Sunita Vagha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35141

Background: Breast carcinoma is the second most frequently occurring malignant tumor. It usually arises in a multistep fashion from intermediary lesions to invasive cancer. Identifying such predominantly occurring lesions adjacent to malignancy and studying of Proliferative Ki-67 index and (ER) status in such lesions and substantiate their possible identity as a premalignant lesion. The study tries to establish the lesions which have the potential for progression to overt malignancy, thereby indicating early identification and appropriate treatment.

Aim: To establish a correlation in the expression of Ki-67 proliferative index in the peritumoral tissue with tumor mass of ER-positive breast carcinomas.

Objectives: 1.To study the expression of ER in breast tumor mass. 2. To study expression of Ki-67 proliferative index in breast tumor mass and peritumoral tissue. 3. To assess the expression of Ki-67 proliferative index in breast tumor mass and peritumoral tissue. Study design: Observational prospective study.

Materials and Methods: 32 mastectomy specimens of diagnosed cases of breast carcinoma sent to the Histopathology Section are studied. Gross features are described and the histopathological section stained by (H & E) stain and immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody to (ER) and proliferation-associated antigen (Ki-67) are studied. Statistics: Chi-square test, Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficient, and software used in the analysis were SPSS 22.0 version and Graph Pad Prism 6.0 version and p<0.05 is considered as the level of significance.

Results: In this study out of 32 ER-positive cases, 24 showed positivity for Ki-67 in tumor mass and 22 cases showed high Ki-67 in peritumoral tissue. Maximum lesions were proliferative lesions with atypia like ADH and DCIS.

Conclusion: Ki-67 is an accurate nuclear proliferative marker to assess cell proliferation status. In breast carcinoma adjacent peritumoral lesions show a high proliferative index which suggests a link and a trail of generation of premalignant lesions converting to invasive carcinoma. Proliferative lesions with and without atypia, moderate epithelioid, atypical ductal hyperplasia, and DCIS more or else equals IDC for Ki-67 proliferative index. Such cases should be regularly followed up for progression of these lesions to malignancy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphometric Computed Tomography-Based Analysis of Cervical Pedicle and Facet Joints in South Indian Population

Abhinav Gandra, S. Pavithra, P. S. Arun Vignesh, S. Vishnu Raj, Nitesh Kumar Rathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 104-110
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35266

Title: Morphometric CT based analysis of cervical pedicle and facet joints in South Indian population.

Aim: To evaluate individual morphometric variations of the cervical spine pedicles and facet joints by computed tomography among patients attending a tertiary care centre.

Methodology: A retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out among 25 patients undergoing CT study of the cervical spine at Saveetha Medical College and Hospitals, Thandalam. Various measurements of the cervical pedicles and cervical facet joints were obtained and analysed as mean, standard deviation, and range using Statistical Package for the Social Sciencessoftware.

Results: Among the 25 subjects, 56% were males and 44% were females with mean age of 59.9 and 55.2 respectively. Pedicle length (PL) and Pedicle height (PH) was comparatively smaller in women than in men. Pedicle isthmus (PI) and Lateral pedicle distance (LPD) of C7 was the greatest in both genders. Pedicle axial length (PAL) was equal in both genders with left side being more than the right. Maximum Superior Pedicle distance (SPD) was found to be at C5 level in both genders. Sagittal angulation showed lesser values in females and the Transverse angulation was the lowest at C7 level in both genders. Facet tropism showed a decreasing pattern from C3 to C7 in both genders.

Conclusion: This study helps the surgeon to understand variations in the morphometrics of the study population and will be useful in the determination of a safe treatment modality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Age Estimation through Root Maturation of Right Mandibular 3rd Molar by Using Improved Gleiser and Hunt Technique

L. Casilda Sushanthi, Abirami Arthanari, Pratibha Ramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 142-146
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35487

Background: Determination of sex, age, race, and stature are the first steps in firmly identifying a cadaver. As a result, assessing age is important, and the estimation should be as authentic as possible. Age determination is also crucial at this stage of human remains discovered during archaeology because it enables us to evaluate ancient population mortality rates. The dental age of an individual is crucial in determining one's age. It is often combined with skeletal age to enhance the accuracy of age estimation. Dental radiological imaging has been commonly used in age estimation as a noninvasive technology. On radiographs, determining age-related changes such as crown and root growth.

Materials and methods: The study samples were retrieved from DIAS of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals between the retrospective months from November  2020 to February 2021. The study included 200 OPGs (100 females and 100 boys)  ranging in age from 10 to 19.9 years old. They were evaluated by using Modified Gleiser and Hunt method.

Results: The study reveals that the standard estimate error is low for the selected population which implies that the selected OPGs for the study and scoring of root maturation is proper, though there is no statistical significance.

Conclusion: By using this parameter involving the root maturation of 48 by radiographic view, the Forensic Odontologist can determine age which is the backbone of medicolegal cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Estimation of Metformin, Saxagliptin and Dapagliflozin in Marketed Formulations

Shweta Shivshankar Suman, Ruchi Chaubey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 167-173
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35495

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by insulin resistance and/or decreased production, resulting in elevated blood sugar levels. It is rapidly spreading around the world and has become a leading cause of mortality in recent years. The basic goal of T2DM treatment is to maintain a healthy blood sugar level. It is a difficult undertaking to develop a single analytical method for estimating individual drugs from a multidrug combination. A novel, simple, precise, accurate, repeatable, and effective UV spectrophotometric approach is developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of a ternary combination of metformin (MET), saxagliptin (SXG), and dapagliflozin (DAG) (DGF). The FDA recently authorised bulk forms and mixed in tablet dosage forms for use in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus using the simultaneous equation approach. Methanol: water (80:20 v/v) was used to make the standard and sample solutions. MET, SXG, and DGF had maximum values of 232.0, 212.0, and 272.0nm, respectively. The calibration curves for MET, SXG, and DGF are linear in the concentration ranges of 10-50g/mL, 1-5g/mL, and 5-25g/mL, respectively. According to ICH rules, the results of the simultaneous equation technique analysis were examined and validated for various parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties of Cayratia trifolia

Bianca Princeton, R. Gayathri, J. Selvaraj, V. Vishnu Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 174-180
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35496

Introduction: Cayratia trifolia is a plant belonging to the family Vitaceae and genus Cayratia. Anti-inflammatory activity is the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling. Antioxidants are defined as substances that delay or inhibit oxidative damage to a target molecule and its principal function is its ability to trap free radicals. The alcoholic leaf extract of Cayratia trifolia has anti-inflammatory as well as antioxidant properties against inflammations and swelling and DPPH free radicals respectively and can be evaluated using both in vitro and in vivo assays. The principal aim of the study is to employ in-vitro assays to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Cayratia trifolia.

Materials and Methods: Plant extract of Cayratia trifolia was purchased and tested for anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In case of evaluating the antioxidant activity, the methanolic extract of the plant was utilised. The examination of the anti-inflammatory properties of Cayratia trifolia involves acetyl salicylic acid as a positive control and aspirin and aspirin was employed as a standard anti-inflammatory drug.

Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of Cayratia trifolia extract was examined and it was observed that the plant extract showed an increased percentage of inhibition of trypsin with increasing concentration. Similarly, the antioxidant activity was compared to Vitamin C and the percentage of inhibition of DPPH free radicals increased with the increase in concentration of the extract.

Conclusion: Within the limits of the study, the plant extract of Cayratia trifolia was observed to possess both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence of Tourette Syndrome and Other Tic Disorders in Saudi Arabia

Hussein Al-Dossary, Rowaida Talal Fadhel, Shatha Shafiq Badhduoh, Nouf Abdulaziz Alatawi, Rafaa Algethmi, Abdulmajeed Hisham Alwabel, Khames Alzahrani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 181-192
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35500

Background: Tic disorders (TD), including Tourette syndrome, are considered as one of the prevalent neurological conditions across the world which affects pediatric population. Tourette syndrome (TS), also called Gilles de la Tourette syndrome or Tourette disorder, a clinical subtype of TD with the most severe and persistent symptoms, is a complex multifaceted neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor and at least one phonic tic starting before the age of 18 and lasting for at least 1 year.

Objectives: Our study is designed to assess the prevalence of Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders among Saudi population and examine the sociodemographic factors including age, sex, education, and birthplace.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey study conducted in Saudi population. An online questionnaire utilized to collect information from the population via various social media applications. The required minimum sample size is determined to be 384 participants. For statistical analyzation, the Statistical Package of Social Science Software (SPSS) program, version 20 (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.) was used.

Results: The study sample consisted of 2793 participants, 73% of them were females and 27% were males. 43.6% aged between 20- 30 years old and 33.4% aged less than 20 years old. 9.7% of participants suffer from Tourette syndrome while 5.7% of participants have a child who suffer from Tourette syndrome. Regarding co-morbid diseases, 23.7% suffer from anxiety disorder, 16.7% have sleeping disorder, 16.2% have depression, 10.8% eating disorder and 9.9% have obsessive-compulsive disorder. As for children with Tourette syndrome, 20.3% suffer from anxiety disorder, 19.5% have sleeping disorder, 18% have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 13.5% eating disorder and 7.9% have obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Conclusion: Prevalence of TS among adults and children is higher than reported in previous figures. TS is associated with psychological and neurological diseases especially among children. TS should no longer be considered merely a motor disorder and, most importantly, that TS is no longer a unitary condition, as it was previously thought. Clinical assessment of children with chronic tic disorders warrants examination of other problems such as ADHD, disruptive behavior and anxiety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Cancer Effect of Novel Hydroxy Flavons on Human Cancer Cell In vitro and In silico

K. Vijay Kumar, Reena Verma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 193-199
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35501

Anti-cancer effect of 7 hydroxy Favone and its derivatives were tested against human cancer cell lines such MCF-7 cell line using the in vitro by MTT assay in cancer cell lines. All the favones showed significant activity against all pathogens. 7-HF showed a maximum zone of inhibition against cancer cell lines. 7-try hydroxy flavones showed the lowest anti-cancer activity. And docking results shown as  7-HF has shown maximum docking -7.9, 7,8,3’-THF  has -7.5 and 7,3’,4’ has -7.7. as per the results, 7 hydroxy flavone could be a possible source to obtain new and effective compounds to treat cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Herbal formuLation of Azadirachta indica and Stevia rebaudiana and Its Anti-inflammatory and Anti-Diabetic Activity

. Thirukumaran, R. Priyadharshini, S. Rajesh Kumar, Palati Sinduja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 200-207
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35506

Introduction: Azadirachta indica, a natural herb also called Neem, and its seed extract has various medicinal uses. Neem also possesses notable insecticidal and pesticide activities. On the other hand, Stevia rebaudiana extract has alpha amylase glycosidase inhibitory activity, which contrasts with traditional wheat bread. This last plant can also regulate blood glucose levels, and prevent hypertension and caries.

Aim: This study aimed to analyse the anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activities of Azadirachta indica and stevia rebaudiana.

Materials and Methods: 2.5 g from Azadirachta indica and Stevia rebaudiana plants mixed with 100 mL of distilled water were boiled. The final extract was then filtered using Whatman filter paper. Spearman correlation analysis was done by SPSS. Positive correlation analysis level of significance was set as r=1.

Results: The anti-diabetic activity and anti-inflammatory activities of Azadirachta indica and Stevia rebaudiana extracts showed positive spearman correlations (r = 1). Both activities happen in a dose-dependent manner, being higher with the increasing of the concentration and of the absorbance values.

Conclusion: Through this study, it was possible to conclude that Azadirachta indica and Stevia rebaudiana have great anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities and can be used as a possible alternative drug for attenuating inflammation and preventing diabetic complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Effectiveness of Chitosan Encapsulated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

M. Hebzi Emalda Rani, S. Mary Helen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 208-213
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35507

The magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by using co-precipitation approach. Chitosan coated nanoparticles compare the effect of surface coating on the stability and toxicity of nanoparticles. Invitro cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles are evaluated by three-(four-5) dimethyl thiazole-2-yl and -two,5, diphenyl thiazoniam bromide (MTT assay) along with glide cytometry examine for cell viability. Does dependent reduction was observed in SKMEL cancer cells administered with different concentration of the sample. I50 value obtained for the Iron nanoparticle is 217.75µg/Ml. The fluorescence primarily based   real time opposite transcription PCR(RT-PCR) is widely used for the quantification of constant state mRNA ranges and is a crucial device for primary research molecular medicine and biotechnology. FTIR amino companies were acted as capping sites for the iron nanoparticles stabilization. In antibacterial studies Gentamycin 80mcg showed the higher activity of Iron nanoparticles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Three Novel Hydroxy Flavones

K. Vijay Kumar, Reena Verma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 220-226
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35511

Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of three 7-hydroxy flavone derivatives; 7-HF, 7,3’,4’-THF, and 7,8,3’-THF,

Materials and Methods: The acute anti-inflammatory effect of 7-hydroxy flavones was the effect of 7-hydroxy flavones on certain mediators of pain and inflammation like cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1b and TNF- were investigated by using in vitro tests.

Results: The investigated 7hydroxy flavones produced a significant, the test compounds inhibited both the isoforms of cyclooxygenase, a higher degree of inhibition on COX-2 was evident. Concentration-dependent inhibition of other inflammatory cytokines like tumour necrosis factor-a and interleukin-1b was identified in the present study

Conclusion: conclusion of the present study reveal the pain and anti-inflammatory action of the investigated 7hydroxy flavones. The inhibitory effects of 7hydroxy flavone on various pro-inflammatory cytokines provide evidence for the mechanism of action of these compounds against pain and inflammation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge And Awareness on Oral Care Among Mothers of Children Less Than Five Years Old: A Survey

Naz Fathima Raj Mohamed, R. Gayathri, V. Vishnu Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 227-239
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35499

Introduction: Health-related behaviors are influenced by knowledge and awareness, with oral health being no exception. It is well-known that oral diseases are influenced by social determinants. Children depend on their parents and caretakers for maintenance of their oral health so oral health knowledge of mothers could be associated with the status of their children’s oral health.

Aim: The aim of this survey was to evaluate and create awareness on oral care among mothers of children less than 5 years old.

Materials and Methods: An online survey was conducted among mothers of children less than five years old using a questionnaire in google forms. The Questionnaire was framed which mainly targeted awareness on dental attitude, knowledge and practice of mothers regarding their children’s oral health. The survey was done in January 2021. The results were obtained and statistically analysed through SPSS software, chi square test was done and represented as pie-chart and bar graphs.

Results: Out of 100 mothers who participated in the study, 66.09% have studied up to primary/high school level and 33.91% have qualified university level. About 54.78% of the participants agreed that the importance of oral health to general health, 28.70% disagreed. The association of mothers' education and their opinion on children's age on brushing their teeth shows that the majority of primary/high school mothers agreed that children should brush their teeth older than 5 years than other participants and it was statistically significant p value=0.04(>0.05))

Conclusion: Mothers who are graduates are more aware of the importance of oral health in children, treatment of dental caries, and brushing technique than mothers who qualified with school education.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Salivary Leptin Levels in Healthy and Chronic Periodontitis Patients with or without Diabetes Mellitus

V. Sharon Keziah, Selvaraj Jeyaraman, M. Jeevitha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 251-256
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35527

Introduction: Leptin is a hormone-like protein, or some call it as an acute phase inflammatory protein, which recently has gained attention due to its role in regulating metabolism of the human body as well as affecting the body’s defense mechanisms, including macrophages.

Materials and Methods: Patients visiting Saveetha Dental College from July to November 2020 were examined. Thirty patients (15 males and 15 females) were included in this study and subdivided into three groups. Group A has participants with healthy periodontium. Group B, periodontitis and diabetes mellitus. Group C has periodontitis patients only.

Results: Salivary leptin was observed to be the highest in periodontitis patients with diabetes mellitus followed by patients with periodontitis only and minimal levels in periodontal health patients.

Conclusion: The results indicate that salivary leptin levels are raised in the saliva of patients with periodontitis with diabetes mellitus than healthy controls and hence can be an important biomarker for periodontal therapeutic purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Evaluation of the Measurement of Interleukin-1β as Salivary Biomarker in Periodontitis Patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus

A. Divya Dharshini, M. Jeevitha, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 257-264
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35528

Introduction: Periodontitis is characterized by inflammatory destruction of connective tissue, loss of periodontal attachment, and resorption of the alveolar bone. Because of its activity as an inflammatory mediator as well as a modulator of the extracellular matrix and bone, the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β.

Aim: The study aimed to evaluate Interleukin-1β as a salivary biomarker in periodontitis patients with and without diabetes mellitus.

Materials and methods: The study included 30 patients, 15 males and 15 females, ranging in age from 30 to 60 years old. Group A: Clinically healthy, Group B: Periodontitis with diabetes mellitus, and Group C: Periodontitis without diabetes mellitus were the three groups of patients under this investigation. Expectoration into sterile bulbs was used to collect whole unstimulated saliva from all patients. Following that, collected samples are sent to the laboratory, where the amount of IL-1β,  as a periodontal disease marker was determined using the ELISA sandwich technique. The data were statistically analysed using One-Way ANOVA. The Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test was used to test the significance at the levels of p<0.05.

Results: IL-1β level was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in periodontitis with diabetes mellitus (75 ±7 pg/L) when compared with patients with periodontitis only (45.06±7 pg/L) compared with healthy controls (36.37±5.6 pg/L).

Conclusion: From the study, it was concluded that IL-1β level was significantly increased with periodontitis patients, and patients with periodontitis and diabetes mellitus, when compared to patients with clinically healthy group. In summary, diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases are closely associated with each other. Salivary IL-1β level can be used as a biomarker in early diagnosis of chronic periodontitis in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide NPS Using Boerhavia diffusa and Its Anticariogenic Activity

C. Jayadharani, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 289-298
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35601

Introduction: Boerhavia diffusa (BD) is a plant of rasayana category as per ayurvedic claims. It is reported to possess anticariogenic activity, disease prevention, and life strengthening activities which hold enormous influence in disease burden and affordability/availability of healthcare in the world.

Materials and Methods: 1g of Boerhavia diffusa is mixed 100 ml of distilled water and  2.5(0.514)g of (20 micromolar boerhavia diffusa) was dissolved in 60ml of distilled water  to that 40 ml of filtered plant extract was added and  was kept in an orbital shaker for approximately 72 hours. The formation of nanoparticles were confirmed both visually and by UV visible spectrophotometer. The nanoparticles were then centrifuged with the aid of a lark refrigerator centrifuge for 10 minutes at 8000 rpm.

Results and Discussion: Anticariogenic activity of respective nanoparticles against the strain staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans was utilized for this activity to determine the zone of inhibition. Muller hinton agar  was prepared and sterilized for 45 min at 120Ibs. The media was poured into the sterilized playesa d was let to stabilize for solidification. The wells were cut using the well cutter and the test organism was swabbed.

Conclusion: Anticariogenic activity of respective nanoparticles against the strain staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus mutans was utilized for this activity to determine the zone of inhibition. Muller hinton agar  was prepared and sterilized for 45 min at 120Ibs. The media poured into the sterilized plates was let to stabilize for solidification. The wells were cut using the well cutter and the test organism was swabbed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti Proliferative Potential of Solanum virginianum Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line

S. Selvapriya, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Raghunandhakumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 299-308
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35602

Introduction: Solanum virginianum commonly known as wild eggplant or nightshade plant, is a prickly herb found in most of the parts of Asia and Australia of the world. It is used by the local people as folk medicines in treating throat infections and other inflammatory problems. Various phytoconstituents have been found, the major constituent is alkaloid. It has a vital role in various traditional as well as medicinal uses for curing internal and external physiological disorders. To determine the evaluation of anti proliferation potential of Solanum virginianum human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

Materials and Methods: The effect of solanum virginianum hepG2 cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Briefly, the cells (1 × 104 cells per mL) were seeded in a 96 well microtiter plate (100 per well) with replications. Treatment was conducted for 24 hr with different concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 μM) of solanum virginianum. Cell morphological changes were observed in phase contrast microscopy.

Results: Cells were treated with solanum virginianum at higher concentration (50, 75, 100, 200, 300 and 400 μM) for 24 h, and cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Data are shown as means ± SD (n = 3). * compared with the control-blank group, p < 0.001.

Conclusion: From the results, the extracts were cytotoxic to the hepG2 cells at (60μg/mL) concentration and incubation period. However more research is needed to understand the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of the plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity from Cymodocea serrulata Seagrass Crude Extract

S. Divyashri, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, Pitchiah Sivaperumal, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 309-317
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35603

Introduction: Cymodocea can be found in clear water and in the high intertidal areas.The antioxidant study of the extract of C. serrulata  shows the highest free radical scavenging property on ethanol extract. This may be due to the presence of high phenolic compounds. The study brings out the medicinal value of C. serrulata which can be used as a nutraceutical compound in various food and pharmaceutical industries.Antioxidants are defending your body cell from damage caused by free radicals when they accumulated may cause oxidative stress. The synthetic antioxidants are producing more side effects, while natural antioxidants play a major role in scavenging free radicals without side-effects.

Aim: To analyse the  antioxidant activity from cymodocea serrulata sea grass from crude extract.

Materials and Methodology: The fresh leaves of Cymodocea serrulata were collected from parangipettai coastal area, Tamil Nadu. The seagrass are washed thoroughly with tap water then shade dried on table tissue paper for 2-3 weeks and turn into a fine power. And 10g of dried powdered seagrass samples were mixed with 100ml of methanol/Ethanol.

Using DPPH assay, to extract 0.1ml  add equal volume of DPPH 0.1 ml . After 20 min, absorb at 517 nm. Ascorbic acid is used as a standard concentration and DPPH was calculated.

Results:  The result concludes that Cymodocea serrulata showed good antioxidant activity. when concentration increases the percentage of the zone of inhibition is also increased, which shows that it shows a good antioxidant activity.

Conclusion:  In this study antioxidant activity was checked by using Cymodocea serrulata. Using DPPH assay, it has concluded that it has strong antioxidant activity from crude extract. In the future it can be used for medication and further studies can be done by using individual components for various particles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pterocarpus Santa Mediated Synthesis of Selenium Nanoparticles and Its Cytotoxic Effect

T. Sarvasri, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 318-325
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35604

Introduction: Selenium is an important trace element in the human body that plays a role in nutrition and medicine. Selenium research is gaining traction, not only because of its technical applications, but also because of its novel position in life sciences. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay is widely used in the evaluation of toxicity of heavy metals, pesticides, medicines especially natural plant extracts etc. Pterocarpus santalinus, with the common names red sanders, red saunders, red sandalwood, Rakt Chandan, and saunders wood, is a species of pterocarpus endemic to the southern Eastern ghats mountain range of south india. This tree is valued for the rich red colour of its wood. The aim of the present study is to find out the pterocarpus santa mediated synthesis of selenium nanoparticles and its cytotoxic effect.

Materials and methods: Selenium nanoparticles were synthesized using pterocarpus santa and its cytotoxic effect were done in brine shrimp and its lethality is checked.

Results: cytotoxic activity and the number of nauplii were all alive on the first day. After 24 hrs the number of nauplii were dead in all wells except in the 5μl well. The percentage of lethality increased from 50%,100%,100%,100%,100% in the 5µL to 80µL  respectively.

Conclusion: pterocarpus Santa mediated synthesis of selenium nanoparticles showed better cytotoxic effect in brine shrimp lethality assay showing emergence of a drug candidate for future research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Cytotoxic Effect of Pterocarpus santalinus Selenium Based Mouthwash

V. M. Nivedha, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 332-342
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35606

Introduction: A mouthwash or rinse cannot replace the regular oral hygiene routine of twice-daily tooth brushing and daily flossing.A mouthwash or rinse freshen breath, and control the bad breath.A mouthwash is a medicated liquid which is held in the mouth and swished by the action of perioral musculature to eliminate the oral pathogens.The medicinal plants have their application in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, agricultural and food industries.Medicinal plants act as a natural source for bioactive medicinal compounds.Selenium is a vita micronutrient that has excellent antimicrobial, anti cancerous, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties.The biological method of synthesis of Selenium nanoparticles has extensive application in the field of biomedicine due to low toxicity, targeted delivery of Nano drugs and stability.

Materials and Methods: Pterocarpus santalinus plant extract and mouthwash was prepared and cytotoxicity activity was performed.

Results: On day 1 all the 10 nauplii were alive in all the concentrations. On day 2 when the concentration was 5, 10, 20, 40,80, control the number of live nauplii was 10,8,8,8,7,10 respectively.Results were tabulated and graphically analyzed in SPSS software. Correlation analysis was done using SPSS software.

Conclusion: Increased concentration of selenium nanoparticles was not toxic to living nauplii as it did not cause the death of it.But the Pterocarpus santalinus extraction based selenium nanoparticles have less to no cytotoxicity.This study shows that mouth rinses from medicinal plants as a source of an excellent alternative with less common side-effects to chemical-based oral antimicrobial products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Boerhavia diffusa Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle

R. Shradha Jalan, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 343-353
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35607

Introduction: Boerhaavia diffusa is a species of flowering plant in the four o'clock family which is commonly known as punarnava, red spiderling, spreading hogweed, or tarvine. It is taken in herbal medicine for pain relief and other uses.  Zinc oxide is used to treat or prevent minor skin irritations such as burns, cuts, and diaper rash. Some products may be used as sunscreen.

Materials and Methods: Bovine serum albumin was used for the assay. 2ml of bovine albumin was mixed with 400micro microliter of hyaluronic acid mediated zinc nanoparticles in different concentrations. Diclofenac sodium in different concentrations was used as standard and then incubated for 55 c for 20 min and then the result was analysed spectrometrically.

Results: According to the results, at 10μl, 20μl ,30μl , 40μl and 50μl concentration the percentage of inhibition  is 25%, 50%, 75%, 85%, 90%, when compared to standard concentration and its percentage of inhibition is 95% . As the concentration increases, the percentage of inhibition also increases.

Conclusion: From the above study, it is evident that zinc sulphate nanoparticles synthesised by Boerhevia diffusa based showed a potent anti-inflammatory effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biogenesis of Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles by Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) Leaf Extract: Characterization and their Antimicrobial Activities

P. Subramanian, S. Alwin David

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 354-362
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35608

Aims: To determine the antimicrobial activity of zirconium oxide nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) synthesized by Justicia Adhatoda leaf extract.

Study Design: Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity determination of ZrO2 NPs.

Place and Duration of Study: PG and Research Department of Chemistry, V.O.Chidambaram College, Tuticorin, Tamilnadu, India, between April 2020 and April 2021.

Methodology: Justicia adhatoda leaf extract was used to synthesize ZrO2 NPs. UV-Visible spectroscopy was used to characterize ZrO2 NPs. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the function of biomolecules in plant extract in the synthesis of ZrO2 NPs was identified. XRD was used to determine the particle size of nanparticles. ZrO2 NPs were evaluated for antimicrobial activity.

Results: The synthesis of ZrO2 NPs was clearly visible in an absorbance band at 321 nm in the UV–visible spectrum. The absorption peak of ZrO2 NPs in the FTIR was 880 cm-1, confirming the Zr–O vibrational mode in ZrO2 NPs. As evidenced by XRD measurements, the average crystallite size of ZrO2 NPs was found to be 40 nm. The biosynthesized ZrO2 NPs were found to have potent antibacterial action against Escherichia coli bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

Conclusion: ZrO2 NPs mediated by Justicia adhatoda leaf extract have demonstrated substantial antibacterial activity

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Selenium Nanoparticles Synthesised Using Pterocarpus santalinus

A. Shivapriya Raje Bhonsle, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 363-371
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35609

Introduction: Inflammation is a biochemical response of the immune system that can be caused by a wide range of factors, including bacteria, infected cells and toxic substances.Pterocarpus Santalinus L. f. (Fabaceae) is most commonly referred to as red sandalwood in English, but it also has several common names in many languages , The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti inflammatory activity of Pterocarpus Santalinus.

Materials and Methods:  The plant extract was prepared and then the selenium nanoparticles were further synthesized. This has been regularly found in UV-vis spectrophotometers. This assay has the potential to calculate extracts by adding hydrogen to DPPH radicals. Pterocarpus Santalinus at different concentrations measured by the inhibition of albumin denaturation assay. In recent times, attention has continued to be paid to natural products and drugs as anti-inflammatory, based on reactions with free radicals and other reactive species. Further, increase in the concentration in turn increases the percentage of inhibition.

Results: In the present study, it was found that the biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles had potent anti-inflammatory activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Selenium Nanoparticles and Pterocarpus santalinus Based Mouthwash

Malavika Pradeep, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 372-383
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35610

Introduction: Their unique size-dependent properties make these materials superior and indispensable in many areas of human activity. Selenium possesses excellent photo electrical and semiconductor properties which make it extensively used in duplicate, photography, cells and rectifiers. Selenium is also one of essential trace elements in the human body and has great importance in nourishment and medicine. In India, medicinal plants are widely used by all sections of people either directly as folk remedies or in different indigenous systems of medicine or indirectly in the pharmaceutical preparations of modern medicines. The aim of the present study is to determine antimicrobial activity of selenium nanoparticles and Pterocarpus santalinus based mouthwash.

Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity of respective nanoparticles against the strain staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus and E Coli. MH Aagar was utilized for this activity to determine the zone of inhibition. Muller hinton agar was prepared and sterilized for 45  minutes at 120 lbs. Media poured into the sterilized plates and let them stabilize for solidification. The wells were cut using the well cutter and the test organisms were swabbed. The nanoparticles with different concentrations were loaded and the plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37 degree celsius. After the incubation the zones of inhibition were measured. 

Results: The highest zones of inhibition were exhibited against two bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus mutans proving that it acts as a good antibacterial against S.aureus and S.mutans infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reliability and Validity of PSS-10 among Warfarin Patients

Salah-ud-Din Khan, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 384-388
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35654

Objective: The objective of the current study was to assess the reliability and validity of Perceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS-10) among warfarin patients.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was performed among warfarin patients using the                      PSS-10. Sociodemographic and patients reported clinical data were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: There were more female patients (n=238, 65.9%) than the male patients (n=123, 34.1%) in total of 361 studied patients. No major issues regarding internal consistency, factorial validity, convergent validity and floor and ceiling effect were observed.

Conclusion: The present study confirmed the reliability and validity of PSS-10 among warfarin patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Usage Pattern and Practices of Antibiotics’ Self-Medication among Healthcare Practitioners

Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Salah-ud-Din Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 389-394
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35657

Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the usage pattern and current practices of antibiotics’ self-medication among HCPs.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using a validated research tool to obtain the required data. Data was obtained using different questions regarding self-medication and usage pattern of antibiotics among HCPs. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Different demographic characteristics were studied from the selected cohort of the HCPs. Around 153 (52.9%) of the studied HCPs were females and 136 (47.1%) were males. The studied HCPs were of different professions, whereby 53 (18.3%) from medicine, 103 (35.6%) from pharmacy, 13 (4.45%) from dentistry, 98 (33.9%) from nursing, and 22 (7.6%) from others allied professions.

Conclusion: From the obtained results, it was concluded that all of the studied HCPs had diverse usage pattern and practices towards antibiotics’ usage pattern but still there is a greater need to strictly adhere with and follow the recommended and concerned guidelines regarding antibiotics usage to avoid any unwanted side effects, adverse drug reactions and antibiotic resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychometric Characteristics of Perceived Stress Scale – 10 (PSS-10) in Cardiovascular Patients

Muhammad Zahid Iqbal, Bushra Jabeen, Yaman W. Kassab, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 402-406
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35683

Objective: The objective of the current study was to assess the psychometric characteristics of Perceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS-10) in cardiovascular patients.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was performed in cardiovascular patients using the PSS-10. Sociodemographic and patients reported clinical data were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: There were more male patients (n=212) than the female patients (n=150) in total of 362 studied patients. No major problems regarding internal consistency, factorial validity, convergent validity and floor and ceiling effect were observed.

Conclusion: The present study confirmed the psychometric characteristics of PSS-10 in cardiovascular patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Lung Function Test on Street Vendors of Chennai Region, India

D. Khushi Jain, S. Preetha, G. Sridevi, Lavanya Pratap

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 407-415
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35700

Introduction: Street vendors are the most dominant occupation in urban and rural areas. Street vendors are exposed to several environmental pollution. They inhale toxic compounds such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and other volatile organic chemicals. This is due to emission from vehicles and traffic. The aim of the study is to assess lung function on street vendors of the Chennai region.

Materials and Methods: The study is done among street vendors in chennai region.  The study included 50 people where 25 people are from the exposed group and 25 people are from the normal group. It was conducted by using a computerised spirometer. The total air capacity of the lung. The data was collected and entered in SPSS software. The results were obtained by doing an independent sample T test.

Result and Discussion: Parameters like FVC, FEV1, PEF, FEV1/FVC were used to assess the lung function. It was observed that there is a decline in pulmonary functions parameters of the street vendors and  it was not statistically significant .

Conclusion: Thus the effect of pollution by the vehicles may be responsible for the pulmonary function impairment on street vendors affecting their lungs and other organs. This can be prevented by using face masks, lifestyle modification etc.

Open Access Original Research Article

Green Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Using Stem Extract of Musa sapientum and Its Characterisation: an in vitro Study

S. M. Sowbaraniya, S. Balaji Ganesh, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 416-425
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35701

Introduction: Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted great interest because of their unique physical and chemical properties and among which copper nanoparticles are used for its low cost, better efficacy and environmentally friendly. Musa sapientum has been considered as one of the best medicinal value plants and can be used for the treatment of various periodontal diseases.

The aim of the study is to synthesize and characterize Musa sapientum mediated copper nanoparticles.

Materials and Methods: The Copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were synthesized using Musa sapientum extract and characterization was done by UV-Visible Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM).

Results: The results confirmed that the synthesized Musa sapientum mediated nanoparticle was eco-friendly and non-toxic. The peak value has been centered at 75 nm, which has been mainly associated with absorbance of CuNPs. Absorbance rate increases with increase in wavelength. The formation of CuNPs as well as their morphological dimensions in the TEM study demonstrate that the average size is from 5.67 – 9.10 nm. The shapes of the CuNPs are proved to be spherical. TEM analysis reveals that the copper nanoparticles are predominantly spherical. The overall morphology of the copper nanoparticles produced by reduction of cu2+ ions with 2Mm CUSO4 is composed of almost uniform nanoparticles.

Conclusion: In this study, a simple, biological and low-cost approach was done for the preparation of copper nanoparticles using stem extract of Musa sapientum. Thus Musa sapientum mediated copper nanoparticles can be subjected to the various other biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxic evaluation to know the efficiency of these nanoparticles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti Microbial Activity of Musa sapientum Mediated Copper Nanoparticle against Oral Pathogens: An In-vitro Study

P. Yazhlini, S. Balaji Ganesh, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 426-435
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35702

Background: Musa sapientum is a useful medicinal plant from the Musaceae family. Copper nanoparticles with a high surface to volume ratio can also be used as antifungal and antibacterial agents. The aim of the study is to access the antimicrobial activity of musa sapientum mediated copper nanoparticle against oral pathogens

Materials and Methods: Plant extract was prepared by 1g of musa, was weighed aseptically and then dissolved in 100 ml of distilled water. Then the solution is boiled for about 5 minutes at a temperature of about 60-80 degree Celsius and then allowed to cool down followed by filtration of extract. The copper solution was prepared by dissolving 20 millimolar of copper sulphate in 80 ml of distilled water followed by 20 ml of plant extract and then the mixture is placed in the shaker for the synthesis and then allowed to mix for about 1 hour then the first reading was taken using UV spectrum and noted down. Antimicrobial activity was done against the strain of S. aureus, S. mutans, E. faecalis. Muller Hinton agar was utilised for this activity to determine the zone of inhibition different concentrations were loaded in the plates and incubated for 24 hrs 37 degree celsius after the incubation time the zone of inhibition was measured. Antifungal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles was done against the strain Candida Albicans.

Results: For the study, descriptive statistics was used. For 100 μL concentration 11 mm zone of inhibition was seen when compared to the standard drug Amoxyrite which had a zone of inhibition of 36mm, which means that the antimicrobial activity was low in case of E. Faecalis. In C. Albicans, at 100μL concentration 14mm zone of inhibition was seen, but the standard fluconazole had only a zone of inhibition of 10mm, which means antimicrobial activity was good in case of C. albicans which showed more zone of inhibition. For S. aureus, at 100μL 13mm zone of inhibition was seen, the standard value showed 28mm zone of inhibition which means there is less zone of inhibition when compared to standard drug. For S. mutans, at 100μL concentration 18mm zone of inhibition was seen and when compared to the standard value which was 23mm which showed poor antimicrobial activity.

Conclusion: The research concludes that musa sapientum mediated copper nanoparticles showed a moderate antimicrobial activity against the pathogens Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Proapoptotic Potential of Saraca asoca Flower Extract on Skin Cancer Cell Line

K. Sarojini, P. Elumalai, S. Raghunandhakumar, T. Lakshmi, Anitha Roy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 436-446
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35708

Background: Cancer persists as a major health issue globally due to its high rate of morbidity and mortality. Skin cancer is the most common cancer and accounts for at least 40% of cancer cases worldwide. Search for tumour-selective and novel anticancer compounds with lesser side effects remains a major focus of cancer research. Saraca asoca is a traditional Indian medicinal plant, known to have anti-cancer, anti-menorrhagic, anti-oxidant, anti-oxytocic and anti-microbial activities. Though phytoconstituents of the Saraca asoca leaves, bark, and flowers have been reported in few studies, the cytotoxic potential of Saraca asoca flowers has not been evaluated.

Aim: To evaluate the proapoptotic potential of Saraca asoca flower extract on skin cancer cell line.

Materials and Methods: In this present study, the cytotoxic potential of Saraca asoca flower extract (10 to 60μg/ml) was evaluated by MTT assays in B16-F10 skin cancer cells. According to the MTT assay, we determined the optimal doses (IC-50: 30µg/ml) which were used for further analyses. Analysis of changes in cell morphology is examined by a phase-contrast microscope. The impacts of Saraca asoca in B16-F10 cell death were also determined by AO/EtBr dual staining under a fluorescence microscope.

Results: In our study, the cell viability assay results showed that 50% of growth inhibition was observed at 30 μg/ml concentration of Saraca asoca flower extract treated B16-F10 cells, which has been taken as an inhibitory concentration (IC-50) dose value and fixed for further experiments. The morphological changes in B16-F10 skin cancer cell line with the treatment of Saraca asoca at 30 μg/mL for 24hrs has significantly altered  the morphology of B16-F10 cell lines. AO/EtBr dual staining results showed the early apoptotic cells having bright orange areas of condensed or fragmented chromatin in the nucleus after Saraca asoca flower extract treated skin cancer cells.

Conclusion: The results of this present study showed that the flower extracts of Saraca asoca were cytotoxic and induced apoptosis to the cancer cells at a concentration of 30µg/ml at the 24th-time point.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Potential of Extra Polymeric Substances From Marine Actinobacteria Streptomyces Species

Lasya Ganta, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, P. Sivaperumal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 447-455
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35709

Introduction: The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria. They can be terrestrial or aquatic. They are of great economic importance to humans because agriculture and forests depend on their contributions to soil systems. They are more abundant in soils than other media, especially in alkaline soils and soils rich in organic matter, where they constitute an important part of the microbial population.

Material and Methods: The sediment sample was collected from the Gulf of Mannar, Tamilnadu. The collected sample was sun dried for 48 hrs and turned into fine powder by mortar and pestle. The colour of the mature sporulating aerial mycelium was recorded in naked eye.

Results: The antioxidant potential of actinobacterial EPS was determined on the basis of their scavenging activity of the stable 1,1- diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. Different concentrations (0.5-3mg/ml) of samples were mixed with 2.9ml diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) solution (120µM) in methanol and incubated in darkness at 37°c for 30 minutes. The absorbance was recorded at 517 nm. Data were implied as mean ± SEM.

Conclusion: The produced melanin pigment from the Actinobacteria of streptomyces species was found to have potent antioxidant potential activity. Further characterisation and bio active properties should be done in the further studies, and more articles in future are yet to come in various properties of melanin pigment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxic Effect and Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Cassia auriculata

Manoj Aravindan, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, Rajesh Kumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 456-461
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35710

Introduction: Cassia auriculata, also known as tanner's cassia, belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae is a drug used by Ayurvedic practitioners. The root, bark and leaves of this plant is traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea, leprosy, uterine and liver disorders. This study aimed to find the Antibacterial activity of Cassia auriculata ethanolic extract preparation.

Materials and Methods: Cassia auriculata in 5g of 50ml of ethanol then it kept in the orbital shaker for 72 hours. After 72 hrs it was bold using heating Mantle at 60-70 C for 10mins .Then it was filtered. Using whatman - No / filter paper .The filter extract was again concentrated using heating Mantle.

Results: The extract shows very good Antibacterial activity of Cassia auriculata ethanolic extract preparation was effective.

Conclusion: The Antibacterial activity of Cassia auriculata ethanolic extract preparation was effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychometric Properties of Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale - A Study among Atrial Fibrillation Patients

Bushra Jabeen, Amra Salahuddin, Yaman W. Kassab, Krupavaram Bethala, Ahmed Abdelrahman Gadelseed Salih, Ganesh Sritheran Paneerselvam, Winsthon Carpo Matias, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 462-466
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35749

Objective: This study aimed to perform the psychometric properties of Perceived Stress Scale 10 among AF patients.

Methodology: A study was performed among AF patients using the Perceived Stress Scale 10. Sociodemographic and patients reported clinical data were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Out of total 310 study participants, there were more female patients 185 (59.7%) than the male patients 125 (40.3%). No major issues regarding internal consistency, factorial validity, and convergent validity were observed.

Conclusion: The present study confirmed the reliability and validity of Perceived Stress Scale 10 among the studied cohort of the AF patients.

Open Access Review Article

Complications of Cataract Surgeries and Implantation of Intraocular Lens

Vivekanand Khandre, Sohan Lohiya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35128

A cataract is described as the opacification of the lens. A cataract is the clouding of the lens.  A cataract is also described as any opacification in the lens. Because of this, there's lower withinside the imaginative and prescient. Cataract surgical procedure is the maximum conventional surgery in evolved countries. Cataract  maximum not unusual place motive of blindness in growing countries. In the presence of suitable capsular aid, cataract surgical procedure with phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) insertion withinside the capsular bag is the gold standard. Cataract surgical treatment is one of the most customarily carried out surgical procedures withinside the globe. It's additionally one of the maximum historic. Improvements in intraocular lens alternative technology have followed breakthroughs in cataract surgical techniques.  Cataract surgical treatment is one of the best remedies in medicine. Cataract surgical operation has an extended record courting returned lots of years. Initially, the surgical procedure changed into done with crude running skills, resulting in a lack of a huge range of eyeballs. With the development of running tactics and devices throughout the mid-20th century, numerous intracapsular cataract extraction remedies have become used. From the second 1/2 of the 20th century, artificial intraocular lenses' advent and significant utilization caused the rediscovery and refinement of the extracapsular cataract extraction method. Modern cataract surgical procedure has stepped forward to refractive cataract surgical procedure, which lets the doctorate alter the final refractive results for every patient. Postoperative refractive mistakes have reduced dramatically due to advances in optical biometry and contemporary intraocular lens (IOL) calculation algorithms, but residual astigmatism is difficult for each surgeon and sufferer and might bring about symptomatic impaired visual performance.  Cataracts are not typically because of aging. The signs of cataracts range primarily based on the kind of cataracts and the patient's way of life and visible needs. In the industrialized global, cataract surgical procedure is accomplished while the advantage of putting off signs and symptoms overcomes the little dangers related to a modern-day surgical operation. After the surgical procedure, 85-ninety percent of sufferers have to see simply sufficient to conform with maximum riding necessities in maximum nations. Cataracts usually expand over time, resulting in innovative, imaginative, and prescient loss that cannot be corrected with glasses. Blurry imaginative and prescient, issue studying in low mild, night time imaginative and prescient impairment, glare and halos round lights, or even double imaginative and prescient are all symptoms to appear out for. Other symptoms and symptoms of cataracts in adults over fifty-five are common modifications in eyeglass prescriptions and the capacity to study without analyzing glasses.

Open Access Review Article

A Rare Entity of Desmoid Tumour: A Review

Yash Bhagwat, Anup Kediya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35129

Desmoid tumors are a rare monoclonal, fibrotic boom characterized by a variable and conventional scientific course. Desmoids are invasive and related to a high clot recurrence rate and no longer have cancerous activity. Desmoids are identified with the valuable resource of changes in the β-catenin gene  A.P.C.

There are many troubles regarding the appropriate cure for victims with desmoid tumors. Rema the debate still; the surgical cure is the clinical way, without multiplying and related with significant attribute loss.

Therefore, the software of a multifunctional examination with multimodality therapy sorts the foundation of care for these patients. Waiting possibly be the most fabulous administration in some asymptomatic patients

Patients with desmoids positioned at the mesentery or head and neck should showcase life-threatening troubles and choose more excellent aggressive therapy. This evaluation article describes cure preferences and administration techniques for sufferers with desmoid tumors with a middle of interest on advanced disease.

Postoperative radiotherapy reduces the nearby recurrence rate in situations of worried surgical margins. Because of the heterogeneity of the biological behavior of desmoids, including prolonged periods of constant ailment or spontaneous regression, therapy desires to be individualized to optimize nearby tumors to manipulate and retain patients' exceptional of life.

Desmoids are hence an amazing uncommon tumor thing. Desmoids manifest between the age of 15 and 60 years. Still, in unique at some factor of late puberty, along with the maximum age of 30 yrs. 2 different kinds of desmoid tumors are shown. Except for spreading desmoid tumor oocarnce, there is a high-quality relation of desmoids...It can be related to the potential of persistent liver tissue damage and contamination accompanied by the beneficial aid of liver resuscitation. Meiotically lively liver cells, covered thru another environment, is most probable susceptible to hereditary stability is lost, and most cancers development.

Open Access Review Article

Epistaxis: Pathophysiology and Its Management

Yuktam Goswami, Sagar Gaurkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 17-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35130

Epistaxis means bleeding from the nose and is the most common emergency complaint. It is reported in all groups of age. It may generally be spontaneous or be induced by either nose picking or trauma to the inner tissue lining of the nose.  It may also be benign and self-limiting, whereas some can recur time. Epistaxis is a minor problem and can be treated easily, but sometimes it can lead to a life-threatening hemorrhage. Environmental factors can affect the frequency of epistaxis. That is, it increases in the winters as compared to other seasons. It is because of decreased humidity during the winters, which ultimately leads to reduced humidification of the nose.

Based on origin, epistaxis can be of two types- Anterior epistaxis and Posterior epistaxis. Anterior epistaxis originates from the Kiesselbach plexus in the frontal part of the nose, whereas the posterior epistaxis originates from the Woodruff plexus lying in the posterior or superior nasal cavity. Various local and systemic factors can cause it. Local factors contributing to nose bleeding are either localized trauma (nose picking) or facial trauma, anatomical abnormalities, inflammatory causes, etc. Systemic conditions that increase epistaxis risk are high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, and vascular and bleeding disorders. Epistaxis can often be managed at home or by a primary care general physician. But in cases where it is recurrent, or the bleeding is non-stop, the patient should immediately go to the hospital and take proper treatment.

Open Access Review Article

Transvaginal Sonoelastography on Benign Masses of Cervix

Suhasini Pattabiraman, Rajasbala Pradeep Dhande, Amruta Dinesh Varma, Gaurav Mishra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35131

Cervix is the lowermost portion of the uterus. Benign pathologies of the uterus mostly occur in women falling under the conceptive age profile. Frequently exhibited symptoms are excessive bleeding, menorrhagia and pain during menstruation or coitus. Sonoelastography in comparison to the sonography alone is a rather recent development and is easily affordable and available. This makes it ideal for use as a first – look diagnostic tool to determine the nature of the cervical mass without unnecessary invasive or expensive examinations. There is an urgent need for early differentiation of benign masses from malignant ones as it impacts the type of treatment administered, its efficacy, prognosis, and lifestyle post-treatment. This review aims to evaluate the accuracy of transvaginal sonography in correctly diagnosing benign masses of cervix from malignancy, and thus gives an overview of the evolution of its application in routine clinical practice. As seen in the review, only studies performing strain elastography have been taken into consideration with strain ratio being a focal point as this is a quantifiable unit, used for measurement of tissue elasticity. This gives us comparable results regarding the diagnostic precision of transvaginal elastography in cervical masses. Gold standard is used is histopathological diagnosis.

Open Access Review Article

Doppler Indıces Evaluatıon In Malıgnant Breast Lesıons: A Revıew

Soumya Jain, Suresh Vasant Phatak, Rajasbala Dhande, Gaurav Mishra, Rishabh Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35132

The incidence of breast malignancy has displayed a rapid rise in recent times. It is one of the most common malignancies found in women. Women should be educated and made aware about self breast examination in order to detect malignancies at an early stage so that the prognosis can be improved. Breast pathologies can be classified into malignant and benign ones on the basis of signs and symptoms and by ultrasonography but can be confirmed on histopathology which remains the gold standard. Breast ultrasonography is the most common non ionizing radiological investigation used to assess breast lesions especially in women with dense or painful breasts. Breast carcinomas appear irregularly shaped hypoechoic lesions with non-circumscribed margins, but these features can rarely be manifested by benign lesions as well. Recent introduction of doppler ultrasound has led to an increase in the sensitivity of detecting breast carcinoma since most of the breast malignancies are hyper vascular and they show high resistivity index on spectral analysis. Angiogenesis in malignant lesions lead to formation of structurally abnormal and tortuous vessels with increased resistive index. Several studies on doppler analysis of breast malignancies have shown Doppler ultrasound to be a safe and effective modality showing acceptable diagnostic accuracy for non-invasive characterization of malignant breast lesions. Therefore, it can be employed as an alternative to histopathology in patients who present with breast lesions.

Open Access Review Article

Pharmacological Features, Therapeutic Efficacy and Side Effects of Nalbuphine: A Review

P. Shiras, Sanjot Ninave, Sudhir Ninave

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35134

Introduction: Opioids can provide effective analgesia and routinely utilized to treat mild severe pain. Problems related with mu- agonist opioids like nausea, emesis, bowel and bladder disturbances, respiratory depression, pruritus and developing tolerance and dependence. This article will review about the utilization of Nalbuphine, which is a mixed opioid agonist- antagonist that FDA has indicated in moderate to severe pain treatment when an opioid drug is essential and alternative treatment methods have failed. The incidence of the common opioid side effects are low in case of Nalbuphine. Non-FDA approved uses of nalbuphine are in labor analgesia, pruritus associated with opioid, opioid-induced urinary retention and respiratory depression. It can be administered with the regularly utilized mu- opioid agonists like morphine, fentanyl etc. as a combination, giving better analgesia along with abating the incidence as well as the severity of side effects caused by mu-agonist.

Methodology: This review article was prepared after a thorough study of the literature using data search engines such as ‘Scopus’,’ PubMed’, ‘Web of Science’, and ‘Google Scholar’. This article referred to prior Nalbuphine observational studies and case reports.

Review Findings: After learning the pharmacology, uses, contraindications of Nalbuphine and reviewing the previous observational studies and case reports about Nalbuphine, the drug can be used for treating moderate to severe pain when an opioid drug is essential and reserve treatment methods have failed. Nalbuphine finds its use also in labor analgesia. The incidence of the usual side effects due to opioids are low in case of Nalbuphine. It can be administered with the regularly utilized mu- opioid agonists like morphine, fentanyl etc. as a combination , giving better analgesia along with abating the incidence as well as the severity of side effects caused by mu-agonist.

Conclusion: Nalbuphine can be utilized for treating moderate to severe pain, as an adjuvant to balanced anesthesia for pre-operative / post-operative pain relief, for labor analgesia and to treat/ reduce the opioid induced side effects.

Open Access Review Article

Effectiveness and Safety in the Postoperative Period after the Epidural Insertion with Local Anesthetics and Steroids

Nitin R. Alaspurkar, Vijay Chandak, Vivek Chakole

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-72
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35135

Introduction: Postoperative analgesia is one of the major concerns to significant patients posted for major surgeries. One of the gold standard techniques to control postoperative pain in significant surgeries like lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries is epidural analgesia administration with local anesthetic and opioids. The difficulty in developing a realistic risk/benefit analysis of epidural analgesia has led clinicians to frequently wonder if epidurals are beneficial for post-operative pain management and whether the procedure is safe, which has limited the adoption of the technique. The effectiveness and safety in the postoperative period after the epidural insertion with local anesthetics and steroids in persons posted for surgery are discussed in this review.

Methodology: This review article was written with a systemic literature review with the help of a data search machine-like Pub Med, Scopus, web of sciences, and Google scholar. In this article, observational studies and case reports were included.

Review Findings: The administration of substantial dosages of opioid and LA medications in the intensive care environment can achieve total dynamic pain alleviation, i.e., complete lack of discomfort while moving and coughing, after extensive upper abdominal surgery was achieved. A more practical method is to assess discomfort while movement or sneezing, to have a patient who can move, breathe deeply, and cough successfully while scoring three or less on a VAS scale recorded during moving.

Conclusions: Continuing thoracic epidural anesthesia with a lower dose Local Anesthetics–opioids combo or single-shot epidural injections seems to have the potential to provide good dynamic pain management for several persons, particularly patients undergoing significant abdominal and thoracic operations. Timely mobilization, as well as speedy recovery, require this level of pain alleviation.

Open Access Review Article

Stigma Associated with Mental Health Problems: A Review

Pooja R. Kasturkar, Jaya Gawai, Sr. Tessy Sebastian, Kavita Gomase, Manoj Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 73-77
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35136

Stigma is the negative attitude towards a distinguishing  negative trait or personal feature. Although there have been inflow of efficient and feasible mental health therapies and programs and medical advances, nothing could be effective to reduce stigma. Stigma results in negative outcomes including difficulties with employment, poor social life and a decreased quality of life and self-esteem. Health care professionals and community people have to raise voices against stigma. Effective way of tackling mental illness stigmas are speaking out freely about mental disorders, avoid self-stigma, avoid labeling and discrimination, avoiding   use of insolent language for mentally ill and  get proper treatment. Poor mental health literacy and stigmatizing attitudes towards mental illness is more among community members so there is need to prevent the mental illness stigma in community and educate the people regarding mental health and measures to tackle mental illness stigma.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGFR) in Oral Cancer

Akhilesh G. Agrawal, Alka H. Hande, Anand Bansod, Yash Goenka, Arati Panchabhai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 78-84
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35137

Oral cancer is a pronounced disease and has the sixth-highest incidence among all the cancers occurring worldwide. Epidermal Growth Factor (EGFR) is of most prognostic significance among various markers found in oral squamous cell carcinoma. But no established criterion is universally used to evaluate EGFR expression. EGFR is known to perform a significant role in oral cancer development, and its overexpression dictates the poor clinical course of cancer. It is considered to be not only a valuable prognostic biomarker but also a promising therapeutic target in cancer treatment. Stimulation of EGFR enhances cancer processes, including increased cell division, neovascularization, invasion/metastasis, and escape from apoptosis. Increased EGFR levels are also observed in other cancers of the body. EGFR detection in OSCC can fulfill multiple roles in cancer diagnostics, such as early-stage, prognosis assessment, and treatment plan. The EGFR is a proto-oncogene activated at the cell membrane surface by transforming growth factor-α serves to advance cellular proliferation in cancer tissue.  The literature demonstrates that EGFR is an important target for anti-cancer drugs in an advanced stage of head and neck cancers. Hence, understanding EGFR is essential to learning the development cascade of cancer.

Open Access Review Article

COVID-19 in Cancer Patients

Adwait H. Joat, Anup Kedia, Pawan D. Dhotre

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 85-90
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35138

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) spread in whole of the world and was declared as pandemic by the WHO [world health organization]. SARS-CoV-2 has been responsible to cause more severe symptoms in immunocompromised patients. Much effort is currently being put into researching COVID-19's pathophysiology and treatment, although there are various parameters which are not very well known to us; reasons are still unknown. The purpose of the review is to encourage research into prognoses of COVID-19 infections in cancer patients, allowing for better clinical management of these patients. These researches will further help professionals to get the exact prognosis and help treat patients. These all features which will be mentioned in the article will show impact of covid on patients with various type of cancer. There are various risks associated with cancer during corona as these people are having very less immunity. Diseases which are very communicable easily infect people with cancer. There is no difference in symptoms seen in normal person and immunocompromised patients. The main motive is to help doctors in assessing prognosis and treatment.

Open Access Review Article

Anti-VEGF Therapy in Ophthalmology

Aanchal Sharma, Shashank Banait

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 91-97
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35139

Angiogenesis is when the growth of new blood vessels occurs from the pre-existing vasculature, occurring in both healthy and pathological conditions.Usually, there is a balance maintained between angiogenesis regulators (angiogenesis promoting factors and angiogenesis inhibiting factors), but when this balance is lost, there is either too much or too little angiogenesis.
VEGF (Vascular endothelial growth factor) and its receptor (VEGFR) are critical regulators of angiogenesis that promote it.It has been seen that it plays a significant role in the regeneration mechanism of blood vessels,  inflammation of body tissues, cancer states, and wound healing.
Various pathological conditions show increased VEGF activity.Nowadays, there has been increased use of anti-VEGF drugs, which target the vascular endothelial growth factor and slow down its action. The application of this therapy in ophthalmology is also becoming wider and wider.
The implications of anti-VEGF dungs are cancers, rheumatological disorders,  macular edema, various retinopathies, glaucoma, etc. 

Anti-VEGF treatment comprises of three main drugs, namely-Avastin, Lucentis, and Eylea. Their efficiency has been proven to be equal with varying manufacturing costs, packaging, and associated risks.These are the brand names for bevacizumab, ranibizumab, aflibercept, respectively, which have helped us achieve different milestones in treating all kinds of retinal diseases.
Several other diseases like iris neovascularization, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), corneal diseases also have been treated using anti-VEGF drugs. Like all drugs,  anti-VEGF drugs also have some limitations and side effects, including short half-life, systemic side effects; therefore, the development of new drugs still goes on.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Adult Immunization in rural India to Reduce the Burden of Preventable Infectious Disease: Changing Scenario

Pratyush Singh, Tushar Sontakke, Sunil Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 98-103
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35140

Adult vaccination reporting in India is small despite immense enhancements in childhood vaccination reporting. Therefore, creating awareness regarding the importance of adult protection is extremely important. Grownups are notably vulnerable throughout outbreaks due to associated absence of protection, diminishing immunity, age-associated issues (e.g., chronic conditions and immunosenescence), medication shift,  the severity of a load of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) among Indian adults are unidentified. There don't seem to be any national adult protection pointers in the country, and the several medical societies that have discovered adult protection pointers, are variable, making it unclear for the World Health Organization to be compelled to receive those vaccines (based on age, underlying conditions, etc.). Different barricades to adult protection embody immunogen hesitancy, lost chances, and cost. Various stages to help increase adult vaccination in the country may comprise acceptance of national pointers, the teaching of care suppliers and conjointly the general public, and advancement of life-course protection. Notably, among older adults, the increased adult immunogen coverage may facilitate to reduce the burden of VPDs, whereas, it's evident that CHWs build numerous contributions toward strengthening immunization programs, but the restricted variety and quality of obtainable studies build it tough to directly compare CHW interventions to different methods for increasing the immunization coverage. Incorporation of evidence-based methods for CHW choice, retention, and coaching is essential for the fulfillment of India's immunisation program.  . In addition, there's a growing ought to develop economic mechanisms for observation of children's vaccination standing to come up with unjust feedback and determine efficient methods. People in rural India have developed faith in vaccines which the increase can see in the demand for COVID vaccine jabs.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of COVID 19 Lockdown on Ophthalmic Practices in India

Harsha Dhok, Sana Beg

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 161-166
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35491

Introduction: The WHO (World Health Organization) declared COVID-19, a worldwide pandemic caused by a novel variant of the corona virus 2019-nCoV, as a worldwide pandemic in 2020. As a preventative step, the Indian government imposed a countrywide lockout for 21 days, restricting people's movement. During the shutdown, a study was devised and completed to analyze the impact on eye care and patient care in India. Methods: Through various social media platforms, an online survey was sent to the practice of Indian ophthalmologists. We arranged and analyzed all of the validated responses.

Summary: The poll received responses from 1260 ophthalmologists. 61.5 percent of respondents worked in a private clinic, whereas 14.8 percent worked in an eye institute. Due to the lockdown of those who were still evaluating patients at the time of the poll, 72.5 percent of respondents did not perceive any patients, and 82.9 percent (287/347) were only looking at emergency cases, based on their own clinical judgement. The percentage of ophthalmologists who were still examining patients in eye facilities, municipal and government hospitals (49.8%) was significantly higher (p0.0001) than in private clinics. Other procedures that were still being performed included intravitral injections, in addition to causes such as trauma, retinal detachment, and endophthalmities (81.8 percent) (9.1 percent) and cataract surgery (5.9%). Since the lockdown began, around 77.5 percent of respondents have begun telephone, e-mail, video call, or social media application counseling. Furthermore, 59.1% said that when examining patients, ophthalmologists were at a larger risk of getting COVID-19 than other disciplines. When asked when they would resume practice when once restrictions were relaxed 57.8% of respondents said they were unsure when they would resume elective surgery In addition, 62.8% percent said they were unsure of the preferred screening strategy or precautionary approach before beginning surgery and were awaiting guidelines.

Conclusion: According to our research, most ophthalmologists in India were unable to assess patients during the COVID-19 lockdown, and many of them had to undergo elective surgery. 27.5 percent of those who responded to the emergency room were ophthalmologists. To aid patients, ophthalmologists had shifted to telephonic guidance or other forms of telemedicine. Whether the COVID-19 reduced regulations, most responding ophthalmologists were unsure when and how to resume operations. Regulatory agencies should be aware of this and give appropriate guidelines.

Open Access Review Article

TMPRSS6- Mutation in Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Review

T. M. Ngoubinah Pretty, Palati Sinduja, R. Priyadharshini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 214-219
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35510

Introduction: Iron is one of the metals involved in a variety of physiological reactions, including the construction of haemoglobin, which transports oxygen to the tissues. Chronic blood loss or insufficient food intake are the most common causes of iron insufficiency.. A germline mutation in TMPRSS6, which encodes type two transmembrane serine protease generated by the liver and helps regulate the expression of systemic iron, can induce anaemia that is resistant to oral iron treatment.

Structure: The plasma membrane is cleaved by TMPRSS6 in vitro. The signalling mechanism required for iron-dependent hepcidin transcription regulation is thought to be downregulated by TMPRSS6. They also investigated whether the robust physiologic inducer of hepcidin, iron, can affect TMPRSS6 mRNA levels in vivo, as one of the most important activators of hepcidin expression in vitro and in vivo.

Role of TMPRSS6: Overexpression of normal TMPRSS6 protein reduces Hamp promoter activity, and the TMPRSS6 cytoplasmic domain mediates Hamp suppression via the proximal promoter element. TMPRSS6 polymorphisms are more common than mutations and have been linked to variations in iron and hematologic markers.

Conclusion: Because TMPRSS6 is linked to haematological factors, it is essential for maintaining iron homeostasis and proper erythropoiesis. Overproduction of hepcidin is caused by the TMPRSS6 mutation, which contributes to poor iron absorption and utilisation. Patients with poor transferrin saturation, normal ferritin levels, high amounts of hepcidin molecules, and a family history of iron deficiency anemia should be aware of TMPRSS6 gene mutations.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Chitosan Intake and Enhancement in Fecal Excretion of Endocrine Disruptors

Bhuvaneswari Ponnusamy, U. Vidhya Rekha, Ponnulakshmi Rajagopal, Durairaj Sekar, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 273-282
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35536

Chitin is most abundantly found non-digestible carbohydrate similar to cellulose. It has gained a lot of interest in last few years due to its wide range of applications. They are used as an alternative, dietary supplement. Chitin on deacetylation forms chitosan, an active component of chitin. The degree of deacetylation and molecular weight are the factors that elucidate varying degree of biological property of chitosan.  The ability of chitosan in fat and lipid excretion has obtained keen eye among various researchers. This property of chitosan is made use in enhancing the elimination of various harmful environmental lipophilic xenobiotics. Endocrine disruptors are a group of environmental pollutants causing various hazardous effects in living system. They are highly lipophilic, persistent and can accumulate in various tissues. Thus correlating the ability of chitosan to increase excretion of fats and lipophilic xenobiotics showed a promising positive outcome.

Open Access Review Article

Study about Medico-Legal Cases: A More Professional Approach

Sameer Kokulwar, Swapnil Patond

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 475-481
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35883

Background: Law is a natural science, similar to medicine. Most of the time, the outcome of a case cannot be predicted with certainty. It depends on the facts and circumstances of the case and the judge who adheres to his own beliefs. The aphorism that “learns from your mistakes” is undermined in the healthcare industry. Preventing medical and legal problems is the best way to deal with them, and this article tries to put together a list of preventive actions that can protect a physician from negligent prosecution.

Summary: Many of us have seen official medical examinations and certificates made and signed by any MBBS physician, gynecologist, dermatologist, or non-medical professional who is not trained in medical and legal practice. According to statistics, non-forensic physicians perform approximately 80% of the work in the medical profession, with second and professional opinions flooding the doors of hospitals teaching Forensic Medicine and Toxicology due to a shortage of specialized doctors with specialized medical, legal expertise. He is qualified to give opinions, report, or give evidence in a court of law where a Forensic Medicine specialist is found to perform the primary function in which they work to an informal physician who is unfamiliar with many of the medical fields that authorize their work by giving opinions, reporting, or giving evidence in a court of law where a Forensic Medicine specialist is found to perform the primary function in which they work. As a result, physiatrists should license all legal, medical services in the region or district hospitals.

Conclusion: One of the best jobs in the world is medical. Medicine can provide a fantastic service to humanity if doctors practice it with care, reliability, efficiency, and professional expertise. However, modern patient-doctor interactions have lost your great environment, becoming more professional and constructive. Doctors are no longer respected as infallible and unknown. The integration of health care has turned the business around, and the medical profession is increasingly driven by profit rather than service.

Open Access Review Article

Effect of Coronaviruses on Diabetic Patient

Samiksha Lokhande, Kirti Chaudhary

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 487-495
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35885

Coronavirus is a very infectious brought about by the Coronavirusid Severe Acute Respiratory Corona Virus-2 (Severe Acute Syndrome Corona infection 2), presently moving quite two hundred countries worldwide. Severe Acute Respiratory Corona Virus-2 will be distinguished from different virus because of its rapid transmission, along with an expanded danger of death from intense respiratory disorder, makes it a dangerous blend (ARDS). Diabetes is related to stringent CORONAVIRUS-19 and fatality. 120,476 (16%) of CORONAVIRUS-19patients (outpatients and inpatients) had diabetes, and 616 died; 88,235 (10.0%) of CORONAVIRUS-19patients had diabetes, and 20,134 died. There was no link between diabetes and CORONAVIRUSID-19-related fatality in hospitalized individuals aged eighty or more. Finally, the risk of diabetes-related fatality decreased with age in adult CORONAVIRUS-19patients. There was no link between diabetes and death in persons above the age of eighty. Coronavirus puts you at a higher chance of dying and is prevailing for patients having DM, severe fleshiness, vessel diseases, cardiovascular disease , or a lot of probably to urge doctored. Disabled inborn and versatile immunologic reaction, which is described by dynamic and second-rate irritation and can prompt sudden general metabolic changes, may be a potential issue that adds to the danger in people with diabetes and weight. A few coronavirus examinations have detailed sickness to be identified with serious illness and fatality. However, the data is clashing. To work out whether or not ailment could be a dangerous issue impacting the movement and guess of 2019 novel Coronavirusid illness (CORONAVIRUSID-19). Working the same to find the relation between coronavirus and diabetic patients.

Open Access Review Article

Potential Long-term Health Consequences of COVID-19

Satwik Namdeo, Tripti Waghmare

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 496-503
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61B35886

The Covid 2019 (COVID19) problem is the causal factor for very harsh symptoms of the breathing apparatus of the human body disorders Covid 2 (SARCoV2). Despite the fact that lung problems are the most severe, additional respiratory signs of COVID19 are plentiful. Confirmed cases of COVID19 have now exceeded 64 lakhs worldwide as of the month of nov of last year .  With the expected rate of decline (the number of COVID19 transmissions broken down into an extended category of COVID19) varies between 1 and 7%, c It is possible that a large number of individuals have recovered from COVID19 which can accumulate a large number of long-term benefits. Despite the fact that multi-organism COVID19 outbreaks have been widely archived, the drawing ramifications of such waves continue to be revealed. MERSCoV]) all had distinct ramifications for SARSCoV2 infection status to predict limited COVID19 survival outcomes, combined respiratory, cardiovascular, hematologic, renal, essential neurologic, and emerging gastrointestinal and psychosocial utility, although well-known post-mortem care conditions. Show people with post-release COVID19 that they are aware of the extent and seriousness of the results. This can be done by reusing or starting to centralize a large number of companions who have so far focused not only on the effects learned from SARSCoV2, but also on the attributes of invulnerability due to ethnicity and imbalances wages. COVID19 and during hospitalizations. The ultimate fate of COVID19 survivors remains unsettled or undeterrmined, and if this infection persists in us for a long time, the results could increase dramatically as well. Covid 2019 has affected vital organs adversely specially in long term and mental health.