Open Access Systematic Review Article

A Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Assessment Risk Model

Vikas Raghuwanshi, Tanvi Guru, Pankaj Gharde

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35112

Breast carcinoma is a carcinoma that develops inside the tissues of the mammary glands. Breast carcinoma is more common in females than in males. A mass inside the breast, bleeding flow from inside nipples, including alterations inside the form or structure of the nipple and breast are all signs of mammary carcinoma. The disease's phase determines the management. Chemotherapeutic, radiotherapy, hormonal treatment, and surgical could all be used. Mammary malignancy comes in numerous forms, the most frequent of which are ductile cancers in situ (DCIS) and aggressive malignancy. Other, such as phyllodes tumors & angiosarcoma, are rare. After the biopsy, breast carcinoma tissues are examined for estrogen receptor progesterone receptors, including HER2. The tumor tissues are usutumorxamined extensively inside the laboratory to determine the grading. Therapeutic choices can be influenced by the particular proteins discovered and the tumor grading. Two primary questions must be answered when evaluating females for therapies to lower their risk of getting breast cancer. How likely is it that they carry a sudden change in a high-risk gene like BRCA1 or BRCA2? What are their chances of getting breast carcinoma if they have this mutation or not? The intervention's suitability would primarily only be determined by the mix of various dangers, including overall threats and advantages of the overall treatment. A multitude of algorithms for calculating potential risks had been developed, having varying levels of success. We are sure that with more advances in the understanding of how to include threatening variables and, ultimately, more Racial variations into these models, we will be capable of identifying accompanied by substantially pronounced precision which females could get carcinoma of the breast.

Open Access Case Study

A Rare Case of Anaplastic Astrocytoma

Joseph Shankar Durgam, Deepali Ghungrud, Indu Alwadkar, Ashish Bhagat, Rajkumar Chadge

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35109

Introduction: In adult’s glioblastoma is the most common malignant tumor, which occurs due to the abnormal growth of astrocytes cells. Slightly it is more common in men than females. Standard and quality of care and advanced treatment make a positive impact on patients’ quality of life. However, glioblastoma cannot be cured completely, but treatment approaches such as radiation and chemotherapy may improve the clinical course, but these treatments often takes a heavy toll.

Case Presentation: Here we are reporting about a 45 -years-old male who is admitted to Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital. With the complaints of headache, for 1 year, history of seizure 2 episodes 3 months before then patient is on antiepileptic medication. Patient was conscious with altered mental status. By radiological investigation, it was revealed that there was a right occipital region glioma tradition necrosis was present. In his family, there was no history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus. On physical examination, s1 and s2 sounds were present and it was normal. The tumor was invading the parenchyma of the right transverse sinus. Dura opened in a cruciate manner, the tumor decompress internally which was vascular, and suck able tumor base interface found. Then patient underwent malignant glioma excision i.e., gross total resection of the tumor was done under general anesthesia. After that, he managed with antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptic, and anti-edema, now the patient was neurologically stable and he was shifted toward. His histopathology report shows anaplastic astrocytoma. Now patient was in stable condition. Hence being discharged with follow-up after 15 days in Neuro OPD.

Conclusion: Glioma is a brain tumor that affects the human body. There is a poor prognosis of this disease and survival time, therapy is limited. But early diagnosis and treatment patients can spend quality of life.

Open Access Case Study

Deviated Nasal Septum in Left Side Nose: A Case Report

Sunny Rushidas Mandhare, Priyanka S. Meshram, Ashish Bhagat, Lalit B. Damahe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35110

Introduction: When the thin wall that separates your right and left nasal passageways, your nasal septum, is moved to one side, you have a deviated septum. A disorder that is present at birth can create a deviated septum. A deviated septum can form during prenatal development and become visible at birth in some situations.

Main Symptoms and Important Clinical Findings: One or both nostrils are blocked. This obstruction (blockage) can make breathing via the nose or nostrils difficult. Nosebleeds. Pain in the face. During sleep, there is a lot of noise. The nasal cycle is something to be aware of. A preference for sleeping on one side over the other.

Patient Information: A patient is 45year old, having chief complete is shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue, coughing, and weakness. Patient admitted to the hospital on date 12-7-21.

Clinical Findings: The Patient appeared to be awake and oriented with an individual on general inspection. Nasal bleeding, congestion, loss of smell, runny lose or post-nasal drip headache patients with clinical symptoms that are very similar to those of our case have lately been described.

Medical Management: Decongestants are drugs that assist keep the airways on both sides of your nose open by reducing nasal tissue swelling. Antihistamines are antihistamines, which assist to avoid allergy symptoms such as a stuffy or runny nose—steroid nasal spray.

Nursing Management: Administered fluid replacement (DNS and RL), maintained intake and output charts, and monitored hourly vital signs.

Conclusion: Nasal obstruction is a prevalent complaint among patients when the septum has deviated, stressing the need for more effective procedures to aid physicians in recommending surgical therapy when a patient has a nasal septum deviation.

Open Access Case Study

Airway Management: A Case of Desmoplastic Ameloblastoma of Right Mandibular Body

Deepjit Bhuyan, Aruna V. Chandak, Vijay Chandak, Sanjot Ninave, Neeta Verma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 441-445
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35762

Background- Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA) is an uncommon variety of ameloblastoma that accounts for 4–13% of all cases, with notable differences in anatomical location, imaging, and histologic appearance. It is classified as a variety of ameloblastoma in the WHO classification of head and neck tumours (WHO-2005). Because it commonly occurs in the anterior region of the jaws as a mixed radio-opaque-radiolucent lesion, the tumour resembles a benign fibro-osseous lesion.

Case report- We present a case of desmoplastic ameloblastoma in a 51-year-old female with a painless swelling in the lower right region of mandible. Fine needle aspiration revealed no fluid. Both panoramic radiographs and a computed tomography scan revealed a mixed lesion with a multilocular appearance. Desmoplastic ameloblastoma was confirmed after an incisional biopsy. From teeth 41 to the angle of the jaw, a composite resection of the lesion was performed with segmental mandibulectomy. With a peek implant, it was repaired. The possibility for a problematic airway is emphasised in this case, with great surgical results.

Conclusion: Desmoplastic ameloblastoma is a kind of ameloblastoma with unique clinic radiographic and histologic characteristics. Despite its rarity, the tumour necessitates a thorough examination due to the challenges it poses with airway ventilation and intubation.

Open Access Study Protocol

Effectiveness of Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine for Labour Analgesia: A Study Protocol

Monika Sharma, Aruna Chandak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 158-164
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35445

Background: The most commonly used labour analgesia is epidural. Another alternative method is intrathecal low dose analgesic, given for providing labour analgesia in the areas where the epidural kit, multiparameter monitors, staff members scarcity is present. Fentanyl has been used widely to decrease motor block effect of local anaesthetics during labour, presence of these opioids along with local anaesthetics can cause pruritus and respiratory depression. Selective α2- agonist Dexmedetomidine (DMT) helps in providing stable haemodynamic parameters, and an effective intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of an intrathecal analgesia during labor, using bupivacaine in combination with dexmedetomidine and fentanyl in terms of quality and duration of analgesia.

Materials and Methods: This will be a prospective comparative observational study. Total 80 patients will be included in the study and assigned to two groups by computerized randomization method. GROUP BD (n=40) will receive an intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine dose 2.5 mg along with dexmedetomidine dose 2.5 μg .GROUP BF (n=40) will receive an intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 2.5mg with fentanyl 25mcg. Data will be analysed and Quality and duration of analgesia will be compared for both groups.

Expected Results: Significant difference is expected in labor analgesia and safety profile with the combination of intrathecal bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine compared to combination of bupivacaine and fentanyl.

Open Access Study Protocol

The Psychological Impact of Acne Vulgaris on Patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital

Sunil Petkar, Pratima Waghmare, Aparna Rana, Pravin Maheshawari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 165-170
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35446

Acne vulgaris is multifactorial in origin where Propionibacterium acnes and altered keratinisation are some of the factors which contribute to the inflammation and obstruction of the pilosebaceous unit. Acne causes the formation of pleomorphic lesions like comedones, papules, pustules, nodules and cysts which may lead to scarring. Lesions of acne are predominantly seen on the face, chest, back, shoulders and upper arms. The aim of the study is to understand the psychological impact that acne vulgaris has on patients in a tertiary care hospital. The study will be carried out over a period of two years from May 21 to May 23 in Terna Speciality Hospital and Research Centre in Nerul, Navi Mumbai, in the Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy in collaboration with the Department of Psychiatry in Terna Speciality Hospital and Research Centre in Nerul, Navi Mumbai. This study is done to get a deeper look at the psyche of the people suffering from it and what can be done to manage it better.

Open Access Study Protocol

Correlation of Mandibular Angle and Malocclusion with Hand Grip Strength in Vertical, Horizontal and Average Grower

Akshata Awachat, Vikrant Jadhav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 186-191
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35454

Background: An orthodontic treatment focuses on improving an individual's facial esthetics and functional occlusion via improved chewing patterns, muscular power, increased force, and occlusal contact area through a more efficient masticatory function. Every decision made during orthodontics treatment will be influenced by the patient’s growth pattern and /or muscle strength.

Objectives: To evaluate the gonial Angle in vertical, horizontal and average grower, to evaluate the hand grip strength in vertical, horizontal and average grower and to correlate between gonial angle with hand grip strength in vertical, horizontal and average growth pattern.

Methodology: We will study a patient group undergoing orthodontics treatment with vertical, horizontal, and average growth patterns in the Orthodontics Department at Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital in Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha District. The calculated sample size of the study will be 196, under criteria 49 for vertical, 49 for horizontal, and 98 for the average growth pattern. Both male and female norms for the value are to be evaluated based on the value.

Expected Results: Hand grip strength is to be compared between average, horizontal and vertical growers. Hand grip strength would be inferior in the large gonial angle group compared to the small gonial angle group. Gonial angle is the most conspicuous determining factor of Hand grip strength. Assessment of growth pattern has a vital role in diagnosis and treatment planning.

Conclusion: In the present study it will be an attempt to analyze effectiveness of gonial angle in vertical, horizontal and average growth pattern patients compared with hand grip strength. Subject with large and small gonial angle groups using cephalometric radiograph shall be assessed with hand grip strength. A major finding of this study is that gonial angle is one of the key factors for the strength of Hand grips.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Cross Sectional Study on Awareness Level of Family Planning Methods in Primigravida in Rural India

Arpita Jaiswal, Sparsh Madaan, Tanvi Banait

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 192-195
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35455

Background: Family planning suggests the capacity of population to envision and accomplish their ideal number of children by spacing and timing their births which can be accomplished using distinctive contraceptive techniques. The accessibility of family planning limits the family size as well as protects individual well being and rights. Family planning is the most significant determinant of fertility. This study aimed to study the level of awareness of family planning methods among Primigravida in central rural India.

Methodology: The study investigator will collect all the required details on a structured pretested questionnaire - demographic details (hospital number, age, education level, occupation, place of residence (urban or rural), socio economic status (Modified Kuppuswamy scale)etc. As per modified Kuppuswamy scale, the socio economic status will be defined as Upper Class (26-29), Upper middle (16-25), Lower Middle (11-15), Upper lower (5-10),  Lower(Below 5) for present study. The study investigator will also collect data regarding knowledge of primigravida towards population problems, their attitude towards population problems and practice of family planning methods by them.

Results: We expect lack of awareness about family planning methods in Primigravida in central rural India.

Conclusion: This study is likely to highlight the awareness levels of family planning methods amongst primigravida presenting to our tertiary care teaching hospital in central rural India.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Study Protocol for Assessing the Correlation of USG Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Histopathology of Intra-abdominal Masses

Pankaj P. Sonone, Jayant S. Makrande, Sunita Vagha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 196-202
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35456

Background: Deeply situated, solitary or nonpalpable lesions of abdomen are a common problem in surgical practice  and are generally hard to evaluate.  impair the quality of life and may have poor prognosis leading to higher mortalities. By using imaging technique difference between malignant and non-malignant lesions is generally done.  USG guided FNAC of intra-abdominal masses is a good diagnostic modality to facilitate treatment planning. Histopathological correlation aids in sensitivity and specificity of Ultra sound guided FNAC thereby making it first investigation of choice for evaluation of intra-abdominal masses. This study attempts to assess the utility of Ultra sound guided fine needle aspiration cytology of intra-abdominal masses and their histopathological correlation.

Methodology: This Prospective study will be conducted in Cyto-histopathology division of Department of Pathology, JNMC, Wardha. Total 30 patients with abdominal masses will be enrolled in the study. Fine needle aspiration of the abdominal lump will be done in the Department of Radiology, using real time USG. The data will be analysed using appropriate statistical programmes.

Expected Results: A significant correlation is expected between histopathology and ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology of intra-abdominal masses.

Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn from on the basis of results obtained from this study.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Study Protocol to Assess the Effects of Storage on Blood Components and Packed Red Blood Cells in Blood Bank

Obaid Noman, Dipali S. Pawar, Sunita Vagha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 211-215
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35458

Background: For preservation of Packed Red blood cells (PRBCs), the recommended optimum conditions includes storage at 2-60 C in specialised blood storage refrigerators. PRBCs are required for blood transfusions in some life-saving situations and can be stored for 42 days. But during this storage period, continuous degradation of RBCs occurs and oxygen carrying capacity gets reduced. These changes inadvertently affect the lifespan of stored RBCs. Therefore during this storage period, routine evaluation is recommended. This study aimed to assess the storage effects on Blood Component and internal quality control of packed red cells.

Methodology: This Prospective Cohort study includes analysis of 50 Packed Red blood cells bags for RBC count, Haemoglobin and RBC indices. The analysis will be done on Day 1, Day 21 and Day 42 from the date of blood collection. The study will be carried in Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College Blood Centre and Department of Pathology, JNMC, AVBRH, Sawangi Meghe, Wardha. The data collected will be analysed using appropriate statistical tools.

Expected Results: Haemoglobin and Red cell indices with the help of cell counter will be analysed. Effects of storage on packed red blood cells will be drawn from the analysis.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Evaluation of Macintosh and Airtraq Laryngoscopes for Laryngeal View during Endotracheal Intubation: A Study Protocol

Yatharth Bhardwaj, Amol Singam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 216-222
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35459

Background: Intubating trachea is a routine procedure for anaesthesiologists, but during surgeries, protecting the airway remains a challenge. Intubation failure in anaesthetic and emergency cases remains a big cause of mortality and morbidity. The Macintosh laryngoscope remains most widely used of various inventions and numerous advancements in the airway used for endotracheal intubation. Airtraq laryngoscope is a novel video laryngoscope which aids the procedure for intubation of patients with difficult or normal airways. Airtraq blade curvature and the precise internal arrangement of the optical components are made in such a way that enables visualization of the glottic field with minimal manipulation of the pharyngeal, oral and tracheal axis. This study aims to compare Airtraq and Macintosh Laryngoscope for Laryngeal view.

Methods: This will be a prospective comparative randomised study that will include total 80 patients. Patients posted for surgery under general anaesthesia will be randomized into two groups (i.e. 40 in each groups): Group M-E patients will be intubated with Macintosh Endotracheal Intubation whereas Group A-E patients will be intubated with Airtraq Endotracheal Intubation. Patients will be evaluated for Ease of intubation, duration of induction, successful number of attempts and hemodynamic parameters. Data will be compiled and analysed with appropriate statistical programme.

Expected Results: Significant results are expected to support that, Airtraq can be secured easily and with lesser number of attempts compared to Macintosh and duration of insertion is less.

Conclusion: Intubation with Airtraq is easier in relation to intubation ease and duration compared to Macintosh with less post-operative complications.

Open Access Study Protocol

Protocol for Establishing the Norms of Total Tooth Material for Central Indian Population

Sakshi Agrawal, Pallavi Daigavane, Ranjit H. Kamble, Bhagyashri Chimote

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 223-227
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35460

Background: Appealing profile is dependent on constructive interrelation of craniofacial structure so as to establish systemic equilibrium . An esthetic profile may also be associated with single tooth or inter-arch malocclusion. To correct these malocclusions, the corresponding link of tooth material of upper and lower arch is the prerequisite to achieve functional stability of occlusion, structural balance and esthetic harmony.

Objectives: To determine tooth size ratios for maxillary and mandibular dentition in Central Indian population.

Methodology: The study sample comprised of 500 subjects (250 males and 250 females) aged between 12-20 years with all permanent first molar erupted will be obtained from the department. The mesio–distal width of all teeth anterior to first molar of maxillary and mandibular teeth from right to left side will be calculated

Expected Results: Proof of sexual dimorphism was seen among Indian male subjects have greater mean values as compared to females. Statistically considerable differences were establish between Indian samples and Bolton Caucasian standards.

Conclusion: The research presents, evidence that size of teeth are population specific. Mean values specific to peculiar population samples should be obtained in order to make treatment regime more precise as well as predictable.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Shatavari Ghanavati & Bramhi Ghanvati in Jarajanya smritibramsha (Senile Dementia)

Mayuri Amol Deshpande, Vaishali Kuchewar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 232-239
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35462

Background: Memory is the important physiological process which is required to live normal life. Good and bad memories helps living being in stay protected from harms. In old age, these aspect of normal human physiology get deteriorated. This occurs due to increase in Vata dosha. As age progresses there is increase in vata causing diminished memory. There are various drugs which are prescribed by doctors for age associated memory disorder. Bramhi, Shankhpushpi, Mandukparni are the well-known drugs as memory booster. But in Bhavprakash Samhita and Kashyap samhita, Shatavari is described for its nootropic property.

Aim: Comparative evaluation of Shatavari ghanavati and Bramhi ghanavati in Jarajanya smritibhramsha (Senile Dementia).

Objectives:

  1. To confirm the most safest and effective dose of Shatavari in senile dementia by reverse pharmacology approach.
  2. To evaluate the efficacy of Shatavari ghanavati on cognitive function in Senile dementia.
  3. To evaluate the efficacy of Bramhi ghanavati on cognitive function in Senile dementia.
  4. To evaluate the efficacy of Shatavari ghanavati as an Antioxidant.
  5. To evaluate the efficacy of Bramhi ghanavati as an Antioxidant.
  6. To evaluate the comparative efficacy of Bramhi ghanavati and Shatavari ghanavati on cognitive function in Senile dementia.

Methodology: In this study there will be two parts, to define safest and most effective dose in Senile dementia by reverse pharmacology and main study. In reverse pharmacology, 10 patients will be selected in each group. After this, 30 patients will be selected in control arm of bhramhi ghanavati and 30 in Shatavari ghanavati, experimental group. Patients will be assessed with MMSE scale.

Results: Shatavari is well known rasayan drug. Along with this, its has medhya (nootropic properties). It will work on memory as it acts as an antioxidant. The property will be studied by assessing SOD and MDA.

Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn according to results.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Evaluation of Syndicate with Conventional Method of Case Discussion by the Post Graduates from Dept. of Orthodontics

Pallavi Daigavane, Suwarna Dangore, Abhishek Ingole, Swanand Pathak, Khushboo Durge, Priyanka Niranjane

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 240-244
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35463

Background: Basics of every aspect must be know thoroughly to JR1 with active participation during the discussion to understand any case. Active participation is must irrespective of the syllabus distributed for the PG in the syllabus as per the DCI guidelines. The cognitive knowledge, clinically for any case should not be year specific based on the syllabus, but, a collective and collaborative foundation of understanding. So to reframe the methodology of and to make the case discussion more effective, a study was planned.

Study design: Cross- sectional observational

Methodology:  the following study will be conducted with the JR of dept of orthodontics SPDC, For comparison between the conventional and syndicate case discussion, the conventional case discussion will be entitled as Group I; while syndicate case discussion will be entitles as group II. They will be asked to present the case as per the suggested syllabus recommended by the DCI for each academic year respectively. Pre-test and post-test feedback will be taken after each presentation. Also, perception form the faulty as well as the post graduates will be taken after each presentation.

Expected Outcome: the detailed case discussion from the etiology and treatment modality to the retention phase can help the JRI to understand the basics of any case. The feedback and posttest of the syndicate format might be a better way to present as compared to the conventional method.

Conclusion: The syndicate case discussion is a better way to understand any case from the initial stage to the last stage of retention with inclusion of all the JR in the presentation of a case.

Open Access Study Protocol

Study of Platelet Indices as a Prognostic Marker in COVID-19 Patients

Vivek Lahane, Sourya Acharya, Sunil Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 245-251
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35464

Background: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel corona virus responsible for the dreadful  COVID-19 pandemic. In more severely ill COVID-19 patients, clotting complications, such as microvascular thrombi in the arteries and veins, are also shown. Although uncommon in the entire population of COVID-19 patients, DIC is present in more than 70 percent of dying patients and is therefore a critical feature of the final events that drive the vicious cycle culminating in death. SARS-CoV-2 is known to penetrate endothelial cells, and platelet recruitment to the sites of infection may be caused by the resulting endothelial injury. In the course of the disease, the subsequent activation and degranulation of platelets can exacerbate conditions. Prognosis of these patients is directly related to worsening of certain hematological indices. Total Platelet Count and other dynamic platelet related  parameters in COVID-19 patients are currently at concern. This study aims to assess the platelet indices as a prognostic markers in COVID-19 infection.

Materials and Methods:  This Cross sectional study will be conducted in COVID-19 centre of AVBRH Wardha. Total 150 confirmed COVID-19 patients will be selected, and divided into two groups based on oxygen saturation. Blood samples will be collected. They will be analysed for complete blood count, platelet indices, C-reactive protein (CRP) and for other biochemical tests. Patients with complains of shortness of breath will also be evaluated for lung computed tomography (CT). Chi square test for continuous variable and Students paired t test for numerical variable will be applied.  Multiple regression analysis will be applied wherever needed. SPSS 24.0 version will be used in analysis where p< 0.05 will be considered significant.

Results:  We expect to find a significant correlation between mortality and different platelet indices.

Conclusion:  Platelets play a vital role in prognosis of COVID-19 patients. Surveillance of platelet indices have a great prognostic value in patients with COVID-19.

Open Access Study Protocol

Evaluation of Oral Health and Associated Factors in Patients with Various Psychiatric Disorders in Indian Population

Kadambari Vivek Kakde, Trupti Madhav Dahane, Anjali Bhoyar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 252-257
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35465

Background: In addition to physically healthy living, mental health is equally important. It affects people from all walks of life and occurs at all socioeconomic levels. The number of people suffering from mental disorders worldwide is estimated to be approximately 450 million. Every individual should understand that poor oral health affects general health regardless of the cause.

Objectives: This study is designed to assess the oral health status of patients with a range of psychiatric problems in the Indian population and to find out the correlation of oral health and related constituents in these patients.

Methodology: Patients visiting the outpatient department of the hospital (AVBRH,Wardha) diagnosed with any of the psychiatric disorders will be evaluated. Extra oral and intraoral assessments will be performed and information will be recorded. Statistics will be analysed using the ANOVA test.

Results: There might be correlation between oral health and associated factors in the various psychiatric disorders.

Conclusion: A non-discriminatory guideline which addresses the needs of these patients irrespective of their illness, financial state, and other restrictions is required. Provisions can be made so that oral health need assessment of these patients is included in general health assessment. Health promotion programs could be created in collaboration with health, social and voluntary organizations. Early attention with a multidisciplinary team is the goal.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Comparative Study to Assess the Effectiveness of WhatsApp Based Self-care Information with the Manual Mode of Self-care Information among Asthmatic Patients on Quality of Life

Rokade Sarika Vijay, Singh Seema

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 264-270
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35485

Background: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory reaction that causes hypersensitivity in airways resulting in constant mucus production. As a result of this the typical symptoms associated with Asthma can be seen.

WhatsApp is a popular app available in almost all android phones; this app is popular for sending and receiving messages along with additional features of sending images videos and links. Information can be shared at a time to a large number of people by creating groups in this app.

The use of WhatsApp messaging for self-care information among asthma patients has yet to be researched. So research question which is framed is, “Is WhatsApp based self-care information effective than manual mode of self-care information on quality of life of asthma patients?”.

The study aim is to compare an effectiveness of WhatsApp based self-care information and manual mode of information among asthmatic patients on quality of life.

Methodology: Study Design: Experimental factorial research design Population: Adult asthma patients between 18-55 years of age Sample Size: 200. Material: Standard Quality of Life scale for Asthma patient.

Expected Results: WhatsApp mode of self-care information may be more effective than the manual mode of self-care information.  Quality of life of asthma patients will be improved.

Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn after statistical analysis of the collected data.

Open Access Study Protocol

Cardiac Manifestation of COVID-19 Patients and Their Outcome

Pallavi Yelne, Shilpa Gaidhane, Chetan Rathi, Abhijit Wadekar, Shubham Nimkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 271-278
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35486

COVID-19, the novel corona virus disease of 2019 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has imminently threatened all of us having significant morbidity and mortality all around the world. Upper respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan failure or even death can be the manifestation of COVID-19.  However, ‘n’ number of cardiac complications including acute myocardial injury, myocarditis, arrhythmia, pericarditis, decompensated heart failure and cardiogenic shock has been described so far. We report the first systematic and comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation of patients requiring hospitalization for COVID-19 infection. It was found that 32% of patients with COVID-19 have normal echocardiography. Out of all unavoidable cardiac complications in covid-19, due to pulmonary parenchymal and vascular disease, Right Ventricular (RV) dilation with or without dysfunction is the most frequent abnormality in patients who earlier had normal heart function. So, one of predictor of mortality in COVID-19 patients might be a RV function evaluation. The right ventricle dysfunction is at high risk in COVID-19 patients just because of its pathophysiological relevance. RV dysfunction is potentially resulting due to cytokines with its negative inotropic effects, directly angiotensin converting enzyme 2-mediated cardiac injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome and pulmonary embolism. They all are increasing preload and provoking RV failure. So, decrease in mortality and improvement in patient outcomes in COVID-19 patients can be achieved by early detection and management of right ventricle dysfunction. There is lack of data from the central India, so the study is being conducted.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Study of Etiopathogenesis of Different Vertigo Syndromes

Vaidehi Hande, Shraddha Jain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 327-333
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35592

Background: Dizziness or disturbed postural awareness is common presentation in varying age groups. Dizziness can be classified into various types like Rotatory Vertigo, Imbalance/disequilibrium, Pre syncope/Light headedness and Psychogenic. Classically, there are four vertigo syndromes which are most commonly accepted among Otolaryngologists. However, cervicogenic vertigo is missing from the list of these vertigo syndromes. This study aims to assess the etiological factors for vestibular and central vertigo and other non-vestibular forms of vertigo and dizziness.

Methodology: This will be a prospective observational study conducted in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha. About 75 patients presenting with symptoms of dizziness, tinnitus with associated nausea vomiting in the out-patient department will be included in this study. Patients will undergo clinical examination including Special Clinical Tests for vertigo like Dix-Hall pike Manoeuvre, Tandem walking and Dysdiadokokinesis. Collected data will be fed to appropriate statistical programme and analysed.

Expected Results: Relevant data on different etiopathogenic causes of vertigo will be obtained.

Conclusion: Better understanding of the various etiologies of various vertigo syndromes, their associations in various age groups and systemic diseases help better treatment outcomes.

Open Access Short Research Article

Caries Status among Leprosy Patients: A KAP Survey

Varusha Sharon Christopher, Dhanraj Ganapathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 228-231
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35461

Leprosy is a chronic granulamatous dreadful disease affecting the body causing severe disfigurement and loss of function. The patients infected with this disease are ostracised in the society and their oral health status is often neglected. The study was conducted on 30 patients treated in St. John leprosy colony, Chengalpet. Of these 30% were female patients and 70% were male patients. Age ranges between 40 and 70 with the mean age being 52. Subjects diagnosed as leprotic (tuberculoid, borderline, and lepromatous) and under multidrug resistance therapy were included in the study.  Dental caries was diagnosed using mouth mirror and explorer. The data was analysed and has been charged. The cumulative DMFT score for the surveyed population was 197. Out of 197 carious teeth 73 belonged to class I, 21 belonged to class II and class III, 22 belonged to class IV, 43 belonged to class V, 17 belonged to class VI. The caries status in patients with leprosy is active and significant. Hence rigorous awareness and treatment measures should be undertaken to address this.

Open Access Short Communication

Diabetes Mellitus and Periodontitis: Bidirectional Relationship

U. Vidhya Rekha, Jayamathi Govindaraj, Keerthidaa Govindaraj, S. Bhuminathan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 258-263
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35484

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis hold a close relationship that has been the focus of many researches. Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease characterised by destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth. Evidences stated that diabetes is a major risk factor for periodontitis; susceptibility to periodontitis is increased by approximately threefold in people with diabetes. There is a clear relationship between degree of hyperglycaemia and severity of periodontitis. The mechanisms that underpin the links between these two conditions are not completely understood, but involve aspects of immune functioning, neutrophil activity, and cytokine biology. There is emerging evidence to support the existence of a two-way relationship between diabetes and periodontitis, with diabetes increasing the risk for periodontitis, and periodontal inflammation negatively affecting glycaemic control. Oral and periodontal health should be promoted as integral components of diabetes management.

Open Access Original Research Article

C-Reactive Protein Prognosis During COVID 19: Symptomatic Transmission and Clinical Manifestation

Aditya Bhad, Arvind Bhake

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 18-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35111

Background: C –Reactive Elevation occurs in various diseases but, in the case of the corona, I observed that crop protein was raised and it is raised above the average value .patient died because of the C-Reactive protein Raised It is para particular type of protein that is produced by the liver; when the micro-organism enters the body and the central organ of the body, which is the liver produces the CRP protein to fight against the microorganism c reactive protein also increases when the liver is inflamed in chronic jaundice or the patient who is taking alcohol c reactive protein increases not only depends upon the microorganism that is buttered to the body but on the age it depends on creactive protein also we can find that it increases with age and we usually can find that with age it increases in the CRP protein adult commonly have raised CRP protein.C reactive is is typically an annular pentameric protein found in the blood plasma, whose circulating concentration rise in response to the inflammation. It is an acute-phase protein of hepatic origin that increases following interleukin-6 secretion by macrophages and t cells.c reactive protein’s mainly physiological role is to bind to the lysophosphatidylcholine expressed on the surface of dead or dying cells to activate the complement system. C reactive protein top expressed in the right lobe of a liver, liver, organ system, islet of Langerhans, gall bladder, duodenum, the body of pancreas, multicellular organism, increase primary function Crp protein is calcium-binding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Long Bone Length and Number of Nutrient Foramina – Importance in Everyday Clinical Practice

Lejla Dervišević, Amela Dervišević, Zurifa Ajanović, Ilvana Hasanbegović, Aida Sarač Hadžihalilović, Eldan Kapur, Emina Dervišević

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35113

Aims: Nutrient artery is the principal source of nutrition to the long bones. The topography of nutrient foramina on long bones is well known, but it has not yet been established whether the number of nutritive foramina (NF) is related to total bone length. The objective of the present study was to study the correlation of total number of nutrient foramina and long bone length of upper and lower limb to provide detailed data on such features.

Study Design: A cross-sectional, descriptive study

Place and Duration of Study: Department of anatomy, Medical Faculty University of Sarajevo. Study duration was 3 months.

Methodology: In the present study, 300 adult human long bones of the upper (50 humeri, 50 radii, 50 ulnae) and lower (50 femora, 50 tibiae, 50 fibulae) limbs were investigated to determine the number of their nutrient foramina. The nutrient foramina were identified analysed macroscopically and total number of nutrient foramina for each bone was recorded. Total length of each bone within a group was recorded. Statistical analysis was performed to determine correlation between total bone length and number of nutrient foramina, by using SPSS version 17.0 for Windows.

Results: A statistically significant negative correlations between the left humerus length and the number of NF was found. A positive correlations between the length of the right radius and the number of NF, the left ulna length and the number of NF, the right ulna length and the number of NF were found. A negative correlations between the length of the left radius and the number of NF and between right humerus length and number of NF were found. A positive correlation between the length of the right and left femur and the number of NF were found. A negative correlation between the length of left tibia and the number of NF was found, as well as negative correlation between the length of right and left fibula and number of NF.

Conclusion: Total bone length is not related to the number of nutrient foramina. The number of nutrient foramina does not depend on the total length of the bone, which is important when assessing the success of grafts for transplantation on long bones in taller people.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) by Shear-wave Elastoraphy in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome

Shivamsh R. Kasireddy, Virendra C. Patil, Avanti J. Damle

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 148-157
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35444

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is well known to have a strong association with metabolic syndrome. The degree of liver fibrosis is related to the clinical course and prognosis. Shear-wave elastography (SWE) provides a precise non-invasive staging of the degree of liver fibrosis in NAFLD. 

Aims and objectives: To study Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by Shear-Wave Elastography (SWE) in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Material and methods: This was a single centre, retrospective, comparative study done on patients with MetS in 100 in a tertiary care hospital over period of 18 months from October 2019 to March 2021. Enrolled patients underwent conventional ultrasonography (USG), point SWE (pSWE), fasting blood sugar, post-prandial blood sugar, glycosylated HbA1c, lipid profile, LFTs. Appropriate statistical tests were applied using SPSS v21 for analysis and p-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Mean age was 55.8 (SD±15.34). Majority belonged to age group 51-65 years (33%). Grade 3 fatty liver (steatosis) on USG had 3.39 times independently (OR:3.39,p=0.043) more chance of having significant fibrosis or cirrhosis(F3-F4) by SWE over those who do not have fatty liver (steatosis) on USG. Those with 4 components of MetS had 6 times (OR:6.04,p=0.003) and those with 5 components had 13.7 (OR:13.768,p=0.001) times more chance of having significant fibrosis or cirrhosis(F3-F4) by SWE over those who have 3 components independently.

Conclusion: Increasing number of components of MetS and steatosis (fatty liver grade) on USG were independently associated with higher grades of fibrosis by SWE.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Pippali Rasayana as an Adjuvant Therapy on Pulmonary Function in Patients of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Shubham Shinde, Vaishali Kuchewar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 171-176
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35447

Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic, recurrent condition, prevalent in the general population. In modern medicine, treatment modalities are aimed to diminish the incidence and extreme aggravation of clinical features. Nowadays, pippali rasayana being considered as a promising treatment approach for COPD. However, due to methodological limitations, there is no strong evidence to support pippali rasayana. 

Aim: The goal of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of Pippali Rasayana on pulmonary function in COPD patients

Materials and Methods: It is double arm randomized placebo controlled single blind clinical trial. Total 60 patients of COPD will be randomly divided into two groups (each group contain 30). In both groups, standard treatment of modern medicine will be continued. With this, in Group A (Intervention), pippali rasayana 5 gm (25 gm twice a day after meal ) with honey will be given for 45 days and Group B (placebo group) will be given placebo (250 mg twice a day after meal ) with water for 45 days. Assessment will be done on 15th, 30th and 45st day.

Results: Result will be declared on the basis of effect of pippali rasayana with pulmonary function test as well as frequency of Dyspnea, Chronic cough, Excessive sputum production.

Conclusion: This trial may provide evidence on the efficacy of pippali rasayanaon pulmonary function in COPD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Glyphosate Caused Detrimental Changes in Enzymatic Antioxidants in Rats

R. Prenetha, S. Kavitha, V. Vishnupriya, J. Selvaraj, R. Gayathri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 177-185
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35453

Background: Glyphosate is the most enormously used broad spectrum herbicide in the world. Current assessment of carcinogenic capability of glyphosate-based herbicides by various regional, national, and international agencies have endangered the controversy. Antioxidant enzymes are often used as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Among the biomarkers superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were essential in conservation of homeostasis of cell to function as normal being.

Aim: To investigate glyphosate induced detrimental changes in the enzymatic antioxidants in experimental rats.

Materials and Methods: Adult male wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 6 animals. Group 1 consists of Normal control rats, Group 2 consists of Glyphosate treated at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight/day. Group 3 consists of Glyphosate treated at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight/day. Group 4 consists of Glyphosate treated at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight/day. The experimental period was 16 weeks. All chemicals and reagents used in this study were purchased from sigma chemical company, USA. Adult male albino rats weighing 180-200g were used for the study. Parameters analyzed were assay of Superoxide Dismutase Catalase, Glutathione Peroxidase. The data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance followed by Duncan’s multiple range test, and it was used to see the statistical significance among the groups. The results with the p<0.05 level was considered to be statistically significant.

Results: The results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants in all the Glyphosate induced rats, and it decreases with increase in dose of Glyphosate.

Conclusion: Glyphosate has induced oxidative stress in experimental animals by decreasing the expression of Enzymatic Antioxidants.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Analysis on the Anti-Cholesterol Activities of Allium cepa and Allium sativum

M. Preethi Raj, S. Kavitha, V. Vishnupriya, R. Gayathri, J. Selvaraj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 203-210
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35457

Background: Genus Allium produces compounds of sulfur which is an important component for medical use. Studies have The Allium species and their extracts have the effect on cardiovascular disease risk factor. Both Allium cepa and Allium sativum are used as one of the spices in food preparation. Allium sativum or garlic is employed in the treatment of many diseases like blood pressure, atherosclerosis, high cholesterol, heart attack and coronary heart disease. Many biological properties like antioxidant, antimicrobial and antidiabetic are attributed to the abundance of Allium cepa.

Aim: The study aimed to compare the in vitro anti-cholesterol activities of Allium sativum and Allium cepa.

Methods: The phytochemical analysis, in vitro antioxidant activity and anti-cholesterol activity of both the extracts Allium cepa and Allium sativum were analysed using standard protocols. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using one – way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s multiple range test to assess the significance of individual variations between the groups. In Duncan’s test, significance was considered at the level of p<0.05.

Results: Phytochemical screening showed that both the plant extracts are rich in phytochemicals like phlobatannin, carbohydrate, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, proteins and steroids and detection of saponin was done. DPPH radical scavenging activity showed the potent antioxidant activity of both the plant extracts. A comparative analysis on the anti-cholesterol activities of Allium cepa and Allium sativum revealed that Allium cepa showed more anti-cholesterol activity compared to Allium sativum.

Conclusion: The study revealed the potent antioxidant and anticholesterol activity of Allium cepa compared to Allium sativum.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Methanolic Extract of Avicennia marina Leaf Extract against Staphylococcus aureus

Swetha Ramasubramanian, Anitha Roy, Pitchiah Sivaperumal, T. Lakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 279-286
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35587

Introduction: Mangrove are widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions of Indo-West-Pacific area. Avicennia marina possesses vast medicinal values. The pharmacological activity of the plant is attributed to the presence of several phytochemicals.

Aim: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Avicennia marina leaf extract against Staphylococcus aureus.

Methods and Materials: Plant extract prepared by adding 20g of dried powdered mangrove leaf sample to 100 ml of methanol. MDRSA, MRSA & VRSA were cultured in Muller –Hinton Broth for 24 hr at room temperature. From this prepared bacterial suspension, 1ml of was spread over Muller Hinton agar plate and incubated for 24hrs at ambient temperature. Antibacterial activity carried out through the disc diffusion method. Whatman filter paper discs (5mm) were impregnated with various concentrations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250 & 300 µg/ml) of leaf extract. After incubating the plates for 24hr at room temperature the zone of inhibition was measured. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was determined in 5 concentrations (50 -300 µg/ml) with blank (extract in Muller Hinton broth). The inoculated bacteria in test tubes are incubated for 24hr in ambient temperature. The results are noted as well growth (+) and inhibited (-). Tetracycline (1µg/ml) was used as standard and DMSO as negative control.

Results: The zone of inhibition was  greater at 300µg/ml of the extract  for MDRSA  ( 13±1.2) , MRSA ( ( 13±1.4) )& VRSA ( 9±1.2). MIC for MDRSA, MRSA and VRSA was 250µg/ml,  200µg/ml  150µg/ml respectively.

Conclusion: The present study showed effective antibacterial activity of Avicennia marina against MDRSA, MRSA, VRSA. Hence, this extract may be used for infections against resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation of Mouthwash Using Red Tea and Its Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity

Jagadheeswari Ramamoorthy, Arvina Rajasekar, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 287-296
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35588

Background: Poor oral hygiene provides an optimum environment for bacterial biofilms formation leading to the development of periodontal diseases. Currently, researchers focus on developing oral hygiene products such as mouthwash that contain available natural products with superior biocompatibility and a low cost.

Aim: The aim of the study was to prepare mouthwash using red tea and to evaluate its antimicrobial and antioxidant properties.

Materials and Methods: This study was performed as an in vitro study under a laboratory setting. Mouthwash was prepared using red tea in the lab. Subsequently the formulation was tested for its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Antimicrobial activity was conducted through agar well diffusion method. Antioxidant activity of the herbal mouthwash was tested using the DPPH assay at various concentrations. The obtained values were compared with that of the standard. The data was tabulated represented by the means of bar graphs.

Results: There was an increase in the zone of inhibition of bacteria with an increase in concentration of mouthwash. DPPH assay for antioxidant activity revealed that at all concentrations the standard had more antioxidant activity compared to the herbal mouthwash. Throughout from 10 μl to 50 μl the antioxidant activity of the standard was greater than the prepared red tea mouthwash.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, Red tea mediated mouthwash was found to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties at varied concentrations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anticariogenic Activity of Copper Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Red Tea: An In vitro Study

M. Sagana, Arvina Rajasekar, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 297-307
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35589

Background: Nanotechnology is rapidly growing in various fields of science like medicinal, agricultural and physical and material sciences. Copper nanoparticles are particularly attractive because of copper’s high natural abundance and low cost and the practical and straightforward multiple ways of preparing copper based nanomaterials.

Aim: To assess the anticariogenic activity of copper nanoparticles synthesized using red tea.

Materials and Methods: The red tea powder was acquired. An aqueous extract was prepared and mixed with copper sulphate for copper nanoparticles formation and centrifuged for 10 minutes. The extract was then placed in the well cultured agar plates against Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, S. aureus and E. faecalis and incubated for 24 hours. The zones of inhibition were then calculated.

Results: Against S. aureus, 50 μl showed 20 mm of zone of inhibition, 100 μl showed 16 mm of zone of inhibition and 150 μl showed 20 mm of zone of inhibition. 19 mm of zone of inhibition were noted against the antibiotic. Against C. albicans, 50 μl showed 12 mm of zone of inhibition, 100 μl showed 13 mm of zone of inhibition and 150 μl showed 12 mm of zone of inhibition. 10 mm of zone of inhibition were noted against the antibiotic. Against S. mutans, 50 μl showed 17 mm of zone of inhibition, 100 μl showed 14 mm of zone of inhibition and 150 μl showed 19 mm of zone of inhibition. 35 mm of zone of inhibition were noted against the antibiotic. Against E. faecalis, 50 μl showed 12 mm of zone of inhibition, 100 μl showed 15 mm of zone of inhibition and 150 μl showed 19 mm of zone of inhibition. 35 mm of zone of inhibition were noted against the antibiotic.

Conclusion: The anticariogenic activity of copper nanoparticles synthesized using red tea were studied and their wider zones of inhibition were suggestive of good anticariogenic activity. We conclude that copper nanoparticles synthesized using red tea can be used against S. aureus, S. mutans, C. albicans and E. faecalis as an anticariogenic agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trachyspermum ammi Seed Ethanolic Extract Inhibits Cell Proliferation on A549 Lung Cancer Cell: An In-vitro Analysis

A. Akshaya, S. Raghunandhakumar, D. Ezhilarasan, T. Lakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 308-317
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35590

Introduction: Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer, accounting for one in every five male cancers and one in every nine female cancers. Lung cancer treatment is dictated by the cell type of the illness, the amount to which it has spread, and the patient's general condition. It is well understood that tumours confer resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs or radiation in part due to apoptotic pathway malfunction in cancer cells.

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro anti proliferative activity of the ethanolic extract of Trachyspermum ammi (T.ammi) seeds against A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells.

Materials and Methods: The cytotoxicity and anti-cancer effects of ethanolic extract of Trachyspermum ammi (T.ammi) seeds against A549 cells were analyzed using MTT assay and morphological analysis by inverted phase contrast microscopy.

Results: The MTT assay results showed that 50% of the cell proliferation (IC50) has been inhibited upon T.ammi seed extract treatment for 24hrs incubation. The Dose-dependent studies revealed cytotoxic dose level IC50 of 50μg/ml for T.ammi seed extract on lung cancer cells. It clearly showed that the dose dependent treatments significantly (p<0.001) reduces the cell viability thereby inhibiting the cancer cell proliferation when compared and it was further confirmed with morphological evaluation with microscopic study.

Conclusion: From this study we concluded that the ethanol extract of T.ammi significantly inhibits cancer cell proliferation against A549 cells and it might be a potent anti-proliferative value for further evaluation to determine the therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Green Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Using Ginger Oleoresin and Evaluation of its Anticancer Activity against Liver Cancer Cell Line

Raja Kumar, Anitha Roy, S. Rajeshkumar, S. Raghunandhakumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 318-326
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35591

Introduction: Nanotechnology is getting used in developing countries to assist, treat disease, and stop health issues. Nanotechnology in addition to nanomedicine is being applied to or developed for application to a spread of commercial and purification processes. Ginger, scientifically known as Zingiber officinale, belongs to the family Zingiberaceae.

Aim: The aim of the study was to green synthesis copper nanoparticles using ginger oleoresin and to evaluate its cytotoxic activity against liver cancer cells.

Materials and Methods: The Ginger oleoresin was obtained from Synthite Industries Private Limited, Kerala with a product code: 4010000370 was used for the study. Copper nanoparticles were prepared from oleoresin and confirmed using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The prepared copper nanoparticles were then evaluated for the anticancer effect on liver cancer cells using the method of  Mosmann. The cells (1 × 105 cells per ml) were seeded in a 96 well microtiter plate (100 μl per well) with replications. Different concentration  (control, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 μg/ml) of ginger oleoresins mediated copper nanoparticles were tested for the anticancer activity. The percentage of cell viability was calculated.

Results: Dose-dependent anticancer activity was observed with ginger oleoresins mediated copper Nanoparticles. The IC 50 value  was 30 mg / ml

Conclusion: In the present study, ginger oleoresin showed a good activity cytotoxic effect on liver cancer cell lines. However, more research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms of the cytotoxic property of the ginger plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activity of Stevia and Peppermint Herbal Formulation

G. Ramya, Sheeja. S. Varghese, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 334-343
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35593

Introduction: It is important to counteract the oxidative stress and inflammatory burden occurring in the body. The use of herbal components obtained via green synthesis, such as Stevia and peppermint which are alcohol-free and comprise relatively of less chemical components and have been therapeutically found effective for antidiabetic properties can prove to be more efficient and biocompatible to tackle the same.

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of a herbal formulation of stevia rebaudiana and peppermint at varying concentrations.

Materials and Methods: The study was performed as an in vitro study under a laboratory setting. Synthesis of the herbal formulation was performed using stevia and peppermint in the lab. Subsequently the formulation was tested for its anti-inflammatory activity using the protein denaturation assay and antioxidant activity using the DPPH Assay method at various concentrations. The obtained values were compared with that of the known standard. The statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS software analysis version 23.

Results: Anti inflammatory property of the Steviaa and peppermint herbal formulation was significantly less at 10μL concentration but at higher concentrations it was comparable to the standard. Regaling the antioxidant property, the herbal formulation showed a concentration dependent increase from lower concentration to higher concentration but at all levels it was significantly lesser than the standard.

(p<0.05)

Conclusion: The herbal formulation of Stevia and peppermint is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. It possesses antioxidant properties, however which are not as effective as the standard.

Open Access Original Research Article

Controlling Wound Pathogen Using Stevia and Peppermint Based Mouth Gel

N. Shivani, Sheeja S. Varghese, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 344-353
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35594

Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Stevia and peppermint based gel on Streptococcus aureus, E. coli and Pseudomonas.

Background: In recent years, the research concerning the use of herbal products has been vastly analyzed to assess their antimicrobial properties. It has been found that these herbs have certain phytochemicals which contributes to its antimicrobial property. The common oral wound pathogens are Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Pseudomonas and Stevia-peppermint based mouth gel was formulated to check its antibacterial property.

Materials and Methods:  Stevia and Peppermint powder was bought from a local supermarket near Poonamallee. 1g of each stevia and peppermint was measured and dissolved in 100mL of distilled water. The mixture was boiled using heating mantle at 70oC for 15 minutes. Then the extract was filtered using Whatmann No.1 filter paper. The filtered extract was further condensed from 80mL to 10mL. 0.5 g of carbopol was added to the 10mL extract to make it in a gel consistency. This gel was focussed to act against the three wound pathogens, S. aureus, Pseudomonas, E. coli. Through agar well diffusion method, the antimicrobial property of various concentrations of the gel was tested and compared with known antibiotic amoxicillin.

Results: The current study revealed that Stevia- Peppermint based mouth gel had antimicrobial activity at all concentrations but was significantly less when compared with the standard and there was no significant difference in the antimicrobial activity between different concentrations of the gel used.

Conclusion: From the present study, it may be concluded that Stevia- Peppermint based mouth gel have potent antimicrobial properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Efficacy of 20% Nigella sativa on Gingival Health

Swetha Ilangovan, Arvina Rajasekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 354-363
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35595

Background: Gingivitis is a reversible inflammation of the gingiva. If it is left untreated it will progress to irreversible damage to the tissues like mobility and tooth loss. Previous studies have found that use of an antibacterial agent along with scaling and root planing is ideal for treating periodontal diseases. Nigella sativa is a herb with excellent antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antibacterial properties and hence was used in this study.

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of 20% Nigella sativa mouthwash on gingival health in comparison to 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash.

Materials and Methods: The study was performed as a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial research study. A total of 30 patients were selected randomly, comprising two groups, 15 in each, aged between 18 and 28 years with gingivitis. The first group was advised to oral rinse with 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash and the second group with new formulated Nigella sativa herbal mouthwash for 1 week. The plaque index and gingival index scores were calculated before administering them the mouthwashes. Then subsequently after one week the plaque and gingival index scores were taken for the 30 patients. The final data was sorted in excel and statistically analysed using IBM SPSS software analysis, unpaired t-test. The results were interpreted as graphs and tabulations.

 Results: The group 1 patients were found to have a mean plaque index value of 2.6±0.49 before mouthwash usage and post 1 week usage of chlorhexidine the plaque index was 1.53±0.51. The mean plaque index was 2.53±0.51 prior to usage of mouthwash in group 2 and 1.27±0.45 post usage of Nigella sativa mouthwash. The difference in plaque index between both the groups was found to be statistically non-significant (p=0.067). The mean gingival index of patients who used chlorhexidine was 2.53±0.51 before the mouthwash usage and 1.33±0.45 after mouthwash usage. In group 2 the gingival index before the mouthwash usage was 2.47±0.51 and after the mouthwash was 1.47±0.51. However the difference in gingival index between both the groups was not statistically significant (p=0.393)

Conclusion: The present study reveals that the Nigella sativa mouthwash was more effective in plaque control when compared to the standard chlorhexidine mouthwash. Herbal mouthwash shows promising results to be used as an alternative for chlorhexidine mouthwash for management of gingivitis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anticancer Effect of Lippia nodiflora Leaf Extract on Lung Cancer Cells

M. Ashritha, P. Elumalai, S. Raghunandhakumar, T. Lakshmi, Anitha Roy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 364-371
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35596

Background: Lung cancer, also known as bronchogenic carcinoma, is a kind of cancer that begins in the lung parenchyma or inside the bronchi. In the United States, it is one of the top causes of cancer-related fatalities. Lippia nodiflora is a flowering, broadleaf plant native to South America. Lippia nodiflora has been used as a natural medicine for a number of disorders due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-tumor characteristics.

Aim of the Study: To evaluate the anticancer effect of Lippia nodiflora leaf extract on lung cancer.

Materials and methods: The cytotoxic effect of Lippia nodiflora leaf extract was assessed by an MTT assay. The A-549 cells were treated with different concentrations of Lippia nodiflora leaf extract (10-120 μg) for 24h. Analysis of changes in the cell morphology is examined by phase contrast microscope. For the nuclear morphological changes analysis, DAPI staining was used in lung cancer cells. The apoptotic nuclei were viewed under a fluorescent microscope.

Results: In our study, Lippia nodiflora leaf extract treated cells showed significant reduction of cell viability in lung cancer cells. 50% of the inhibition was observed in a 20 μg/ml concentration, which has been taken as the inhibitory concentration (IC-50) which was used for further analyses. The pro-apoptotic effect of Lippia nodiflora leaf extract in A549 cell line was determined by DAPI staining under a fluorescence microscope. Lippia nodiflora leaf extract treatment alters the nuclear morphology and condensed nuclei in lung cancer cells at 20μg/ml concentration.

Conclusion: Overall, it can be concluded that Lippia nodiflora presents anticancer activity at 20μg/ml concentration at 24 hrs againstthe lung cancer cell line. However, further research is warrented to find out the molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity of effect this plant extract against lung cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Behavior and Attitude of Healthcare Practitioners about Antibiotics’ Self-medication

Salah-ud-Din Khan, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 372-377
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35655

Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the attitude and behavior of HCPs about self-medication of antibiotics.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using a validated research tool to obtain the required data. Data was obtained using different questions regarding the behavior and attitude towards antibiotics usage among HCPs about antibiotics’ self-medication. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Different demographic characteristics were studied from the selected cohort of the HCPs. Around 153 (52.9%) of the studied HCPs were the females and 136 (47.1%) were males. The studied HCPs were of different professions, whereby 53 (18.3%) from medicine, 103 (35.6%) from pharmacy, 13 (4.45%) from dentistry, 98 (33.9%) from nursing, and 22 (7.6%) from others allied professions.

Conclusion: From the obtained results, it was concluded that all of the studied HCPs had varied level of attitude and behavior towards antibiotics’ usage pattern but still there is a greater need to strictly adhere with and follow the recommended and concerned guidelines regarding antibiotics usage to avoid any unwanted side effects, adverse drug reactions and antibiotics resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiotics’ Self-medication and Its Knowledge among Healthcare Practitioners

Salah-ud-Din Khan, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 378-383
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35656

Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and usage pattern of antibiotics among HCPs.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using a validated research tool to obtain the required data. Data was obtained using different questions regarding the knowledge and usage pattern of antibiotics among HCPs practicing antibiotics’ self-medication. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Different demographic characteristics were studied from the selected cohort of the HCPs. Around 153 (52.9%) of the studied HCPs were the females and 136 (47.1%) were males. The studied HCPs were of different professions, whereby 53 (18.3%) from medicine, 103 (35.6%) from pharmacy, 13 (4.45%) from dentistry, 98 (33.9%) from nursing, and 22 (7.6%) from others allied professions.

Conclusion: From the obtained results, it was concluded that all of the studied HCPs had varied level of antibiotics’ knowledge but still there is a greater need to strictly adhere with and follow the recommended and concerned guidelines regarding antibiotics usage to avoid any unwanted side effects, adverse drug reactions and antibiotics resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Coenzyme Q10 Supplements’ Knowledge among Cardiac Patients

Yaman W. Kassab, Muhammad Zahid Iqbal, Amra Salahuddin, Muhammad Umer Abdul Moiz, Haroon Khalid Syed, Abdullah Ehsan, Abdul Haseeb, Abdullah Mohammed Alghamdi, Ganesh Sritheran Paneerselvam, Krupavaram Bethala, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 384-390
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35660

Background: Most studies showed fair evidence on the benefits of Coenzyme Q10 supplements in improving cardiac functions and preventing cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to assess knowledge of Coenzyme Q10 supplements among cardiac patients.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and 134 patients were conveniently enrolled based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. This study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire, derived from extensive literature reviews.

Results: Study subjects were found to have not appropriate knowledge about Coenzyme Q10 supplements (mean knowledge score=1.8, SD=3.131). This study found strong positive correlation between the knowledge score and attitude score (r=0.776, p<0.05). Elderly and those earning higher incomes had statistically higher knowledge scores compared to others.

Conclusion: The obtained knowledge towards Coenzyme Q10 supplements reflected the low pattern of use among cardiac patients. It also emphasized the role of healthcare providers to increase awareness about the benefits of Coenzyme Q10 supplements among cardiac patients as well as to educate them about its interaction with some drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Kabasura Kudineer Extract on Inhibitory Kappa B Kinase Beta and m TOR mRNA Complex Expression in Lung Cancer Cells (A549 Cell)

S. P. Ashwin, S. Preetha, J. Selvaraj, G. Sridevi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 391-398
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35675

Background: Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate and highest rate of metastasis. Kabasura kudineer was used widely during the Covid period. The aim of the study is to find the effect of kabasura kudineer extract on inhibitory kappa B kinase beta and mTOR mRNA complex expression in lung cancer cells.

Materials and Methods: Cell viability test was done using MTT assay. mRNA expression of inhibitory kappa B Kinase and mTOR was done by real-time PCR. The data was analysed statistically by one way analysis of variance and Duncan multiple range test with graph prism version 5. p<0.05 was considered significant.

Results: Kabasura kudineer caused a marked increase in cell death in dose dependent manner. At the end of 48 hours, maximum inhibition was at 300 and 400 µg/ml. Kabasura kudineer has inhibited the mRNA expression of inhibitory kappa B Kinase and mTOR in lung cancer cell lines (A549 cell).

Conclusion: The study indicates that kabasura kudineer extract has anti cancer activity on the lung cancer cell line (A549 cell).

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychometric Properties of PSS-10 among Atrial Fibrillation Patients

Muhammad Zahid Iqbal, Bushra Jabeen, Yaman W. Kassab, Muhammad Shahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 399-403
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35676

Objective: The objective of the current study was to assess the psychometric properties of Perceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS-10) among atrial fibrillation (AF) patients.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was performed among AF patients using the PSS-10. Sociodemographic and patients reported clinical data were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: There were more male patients (n=165) than the female patients (n=111) in total of 276 studied patients. No major issues regarding internal consistency, factorial validity, convergent validity and floor and ceiling effect were observed.

Conclusion: The present study confirmed the psychometric properties validation of PSS-10 among AF patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant Properties of Various Extracts of Andrographis Echioides

Reenu Joshy, G. Sridevi, J. Selvaraj, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 404-411
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35677

Background: Andrographis  echioides is a medicinal herb, used in the treatment of various diseases.  It has potential antioxidant properties.  The  present study plan is to find a novel herbal antidote for oxidative stress from Andrographis echioides.

Objective: The aim of the current study is to analyse the in vitro antioxidant property of aqueous, ethanolic and chloroformic extracts of Andrographis echioides.

Materials and Methods: DPPH free radical scavenging assay was performed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Andrographis echioides. Experiments were carried out in triplicates and percentage inhibition of DPPH radical scavenging activity was calculated. The data was analysed statistically and the level of significance was considered at the level of p<0.05.

Results: There is a dose dependent increase in the percentage of inhibition of DPPH free radical by the extracts. All the three extracts (aqueous, ethanolic and chloroformic extracts) of Andrographis  echioides showed significant increase in the antioxidant property with  concentration ranging from 100-500 µg.   

Conclusion: The study concluded that different extracts of Andrographis echioides showed effective antioxidant properties and it could protect the biological system against oxidative stress including ageing, cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chances of Getting Breast Cancer in Women Who Start Smoking as Teenagers

Rahul H. Raddi, Rakesh Kumar Jha, Dhruba Hari Chandi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 412-415
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35678

Introduction: Yes it is a fact that even young people can get breast cancer, even if it is rare but its reality and case is much neglected, so it should not be underestimated. Breast cancer is so prevalent among young people that most organizations do not keep track of the disease at this age. Adolescents, however, may be concerned that changes in their breasts during puberty are a sign of breast cancer. They should check their breasts for improvement and get confirmation from their doctor if they have any questions.

Aim: The purpose of this study is to see how smoking affects the risk of breast cancer in a wide number of women, many of whom started smoking as teenagers.

Material and Methods: From November 2019 to April 2021, we tracked 150 women aged 30 to 50 who completed a mailed questionnaire as part of the Datta Meghe Medical college Cohort Study in Datta Meghe Medical College and Shalinitai Meghe Hospital and Research Center, Nagpur in collaboration with JNMC & ABVRH (Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed To Be University), Sawangi, Wardha, Maharashtra. We looked at the entire sample population, as well as women who had smoked for at least 20 years, nondrinkers, and each country separately.

Results: The distribution of these traits depends depending on whether or not you smoke. Except for alcohol intake of breast cancer (P0.0001), smokers and non-smokers vary insignificantly on all of the variables mentioned in the graph.

Conclusion: Our study found that women who started smoking at an early age and continued to smoke for at least 20 years had a higher risk of breast cancer. The fact that today's smokers started smoking at an early age than in previous generations may be a good way to prevent breast cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Red Sandal Mediated Silver Nanoparticles: An In-vitro Study

M. Gajapriya, S. Balaji Ganesh, S. Rajesh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 416-424
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35703

Background: Nanoparticles, or matter ranging between 1 and 100 nm size, are of immense value in nowadays technological ventures, in all fields. Besides, if made of biodegradable materials, the preparation supports sustained drug release for a long time. Green chemistry is thus incorporated in nanotechnology. Red Sandalwood, commonly known as Raktachandan, is a tree that is native and endemic to India. The aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of red sandal mediated silver nanoparticles (AgNP).

Materials and Methods: This study involves the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) incorporating red sandal. Here the preparation of red sandal incorporated AgNP was followed by a test for its antioxidant activity using DPPH assay by incubating the red sandal mediated silver nanoparticles solution for 30 mins, later the reduction in the quantity of DPPH free radicals was assessed dependent on the absorbance at 517 MN. BHT was employed as control and the percentage of inhibition was determined and cytotoxicity using brine shrimps. To that 10 nauplii were added slowly to each concentration. Then the red sandal mediated silver nanoparticles were added according to the concentration level. The plates were incubated for 24 hours. After 24hrs, noted for the number of live nauplii’s present.

Results: The red sandal mediated silver nanoparticle has considerably efficient antioxidant activity at high concentrations (50 μL). The red sandal mediated silver nanoparticle has considerably efficient cytotoxic activity at low concentrations (5 μL).

Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that red sandal mediated silver nanoparticles have a considerably moderate cytotoxic and antioxidant activity at high concentrations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pterocarpus santalinus Ethanolic Extract Preparation and Its Free Radical Scavenging Activity

Dhivya E. Sri, Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu, S. Rajeshkumar, Lakshmi Thangavelu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 425-432
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35704

Introduction: Pterocarpus santalinus commonly known as Red sanders, is a member of the Fabaceae family. It is endemic to India and is classified as internationally endangered, with illegal harvesting posing a significant concern. The plant is known for its distinctive wood, which has great colour, beauty, and technical features. The red wood produces santalin, a natural dye that is used to colour pharmaceuticals and foodstuffs. The decoction made from the heartwood is said to have a variety of therapeutic characteristics in traditional medicine. It's been used to induce vomiting as well as treat eye illnesses, mental disorders, and ulcers.

Aim: This study aimed to find the free radical scavenging activity of Pterocarpus santalinus ethanolic extract preparation.

Materials and Methods: DPPH and H202 Assay was used to test the antioxidant activity of plant extract. Pterocarpus santalinus were purchased commercially from an herbal health centre,in Chennai. The obtained powder Pterocarpus santalinus stored in an airtight container. 5 gram of powder is mixed with 50 ml of ethanol and kept in the orbital shaker for 72 hours, after it has boiled in a heating mantle at 62-70℃ for 5-10 min. The extract is filtered using whatman filter paper 1.The filter extract again contracted using heating mantle.

Results: The extract shows very good antioxidant activity for the P.santalinus extract by using DPPH and H202 Assay.

Conclusion: The free radical scavenging activity of Pterocarpus santalinus ethanolic extract preparation was effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxic Effect of Red Sandal Mediated Silver Nanoparticles Mouthwash Using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay: An In-vitro Study

B. Amrithaa, S. Balaji Ganesh, S. Rajesh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 433-440
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35705

Background: Silver Nanoparticles (AgNP) plays a crucial role in nanoscience, nanotechnology and nanomedicine. AgNP has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-antigenic, anticancer and cytotoxic properties. Cytotoxic effects of mouthwashes on the gingival tissue have always been a priority. Pterocarpus santalinus, with the common name of red sandalwood. The aim of the study is to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of red sandal mediated silver nanoparticles mouthwash using brine shrimp lethality assay.

Materials and Methods: The mouthwash was prepared using red sandal mediated silver nanoparticles, ethanol, distilled water, sucrose, sodium benzoate, clove oil, sodium dodecyl phosphate with 0.1% in concentration. The methodology includes green synthesis of Red sanders mediated Silver Nanoparticles synthesis followed by tests for Cytotoxic effect using mouthwash.

Results: Red sanders mediated silver nanoparticles have high potent cytotoxic potential, it has been proved with the help of brine shrimps. LD50 concentration was obtained to be 80µL, with half the population of nauplii in the respective well surviving post incubation. 

Conclusion: From the observed result, it has been concluded that Pterocarpus santalinus/red sandal mediated silver nanoparticles mouthwash has a considerably moderate cytotoxic effect. It is a rich source of various potential phytochemicals and is a simple, rapid, stable and cost effective method for nano based medical applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Two Different Disinfectant Solutions Used for Pin Site Care in Patients with Ilizarov Ring Fixation

Shraddha Sawhney, Naman Mishra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 466-472
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35879

The Ilizarov ring fixation system is used to treat fracture, osteomyelitis, and bone lengthening. Wires and pins are used in order to fix the Ilizarov frame to the affected bone. In patients with Ilizarov ring fixators, pin site infections (PSI) are the most prevalent problem seen by orthopaedic surgeons. Pin sites are prone to infection because the skin barrier is lost or broken, disrupting the body's natural defense against bacterial infection.

This was a cross sectional study and 30 patients divided in 2 equal groups, each contained 15 patients were taken under study. The present study included patients treated with Ilizarov external fixators post-injury and followed-up at Orthopedic OPD by history, clinical examination and radiological evidence. 235 pin sites were examined -in all the 30 patients. Demographic information, socioeconomic status, and health status were asked and recorded in the patient identification forms. It was found that, Only 19 of the 125 pins cleaned with chlorhexidine showed evidence of infection, but 32 of the 110 pins cleaned with povidone iodine solution showed infection (p value 0.05This was found to be statistically significant. In the participating groups, the location of infection was not important. The povidone iodine group had the first-degree infections, followed by second- and third-degree infections. According to the Checketts otterburn classification scale, the chlorhexidine group did not report any third-degree infections.

Open Access Review Article

The Systemic Review of COVID-19 Complications Pulmonary and Cutaneous

Abhishek Salunkhe, Anupama Sawal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35108

In this text one-of-a-kind medical manifestations of COVID-19 are protected, extra in particular the pulmonary and cutaneous manifestation. There are unique signs and symptoms now no longer best associated with pores and skin or lunges however furthermore liver, kidney, git additionally display a few involvement, and however the pulmonary involvement is not unusual place. So all of the specific breathing worry were protected in this text. The pores and skin suggests very much less or negligible involvement in COVID-19 however in later segment of COVID-19 wave cutaneous signs have been additionally visible extra profusely so analyzing them is likewise crucial as well. There is much less records to be had at the cutaneous involvement however the findings are astonishing. The cutaneous manifestations have additionally been reviewed in this newsletter. The COVID-19 is a deadly situation and could be very unpredictable. The COVID-19 is essentially an ailment greater than a sickness. The virus is mutating with time and so the signs and symptoms also are converting because the time handed physicians have observed special signs associated with distinct structures. Since that is a current disease there isn’t always a whole lot statistics to be had at the manifestations. The pulmonary signs and symptoms are very normal. The lung involvement bring about minor to main harm to the lungs and once in a while irreversible lung harm that is everlasting and the affected person may also enjoy those signs publish COVID-19 too. The cutaneous signs and symptoms on different aspect are much less risky and it can subside after the contamination. Cardiac involvement have additionally been there which could be very risky. It is visible that affected person might also additionally expand disease like emergency which have to de handled quickly or the affected person may also die.

Open Access Review Article

Effect of Smoking on Diabetes Mellitus

Parth Chawla, Meghali Kaple

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35114

As a genetic and environmental influences, environmental, and behavioral variable, diabetes has become one of the most frequent metabolic diseases in modern society. As a result of this study, It is possible that smoking's impact on vascular disease and diabetes predisposition might be better understood. Numerous studies (not only those including people with diabetes) smoking has been demonstrated to have significant health consequences, and it seems that the health risks faced by those with diabetes are at least on par with those faced by the general population. Several studies have unequivocally shown that people with diabetes who smoke are more likely to have macrovascular problems and are more likely to die early. Microvascular problems and type 2 diabetes are both linked to smoking, which may have an impact on the onset of both conditions. Cigarettes have been found to be a risk factor for both the shift from normal blood glucose levels to impaired glucose tolerance and for acquiring type 2 diabetes. Although many possibilities have been advanced, the processes underlying the link between smoking and the development of diabetes remain unclear. Preventing macrovascular complications and reducing microvascular disease in diabetes are two of the most significant benefits of smoking cessation, according to the most recent research. Nicotine and Smoking exposure have been related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in population-based research, and clinical and preclinical investigations have shed light on how these factors affect composition of the body, insulin sensitivity, and beta cell activity. In order to reduce one's risk of diabetes, smoking cessation is recommended as a preventative measure. The aim of the current review is to describe the adverse effects of smoking on diabetes.

Open Access Review Article

Review of Medical and Surgical Management of Chronic Anal Fissure

Nandini Madankar, Saood Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35115

To determine which treatment modality has the best outcome for chronic anal fissures in terms of pain relief, fissure healing, and recurrence. The main symptoms are pain while the passage of stools is acute in primary fissures but often persists in case of longstanding fissures causing significant discomfort to the patient. The management of anal fissure has progressed immensely in the last decade due to a better understanding of its pathophysiology. The main aim of the treatment is to reduce the spasm of the internal anal sphincter, thereby reducing the anal canal pressure. The Conservative approach consists of topical nitrates, calcium channel blockers, and calcium channel blockers. It is often preferred over surgical alternatives as it is not invasive. Surgeries for chronic anal fissures include anal dilatation, posterior mid-line sphincterotomy, lateral internal sphincterotomy, fistulectomy, sphincterolysis, and advancement flap repair. This narrative review article aims to review all the existing and newer complex modalities available for the management of chronic anal fissures. Currently the initial management of fissures is pharmacological therapy with topical nitroglycerin or diltiazem or botulinum toxin A injection. The following line of treatment is surgical, which is lateral internal sphincterotomy. Non-surgical therapy often proves ineffective in providing relief and healing, frequently culminating in the recurrence of fissures. On the other hand, surgical therapy has postoperative drawbacks like intestinal incontinence, commonly gas, loose stool or rarely hard stool. There is inadequate data on the latest treatment modalities like fistulotomy, sphincterolysis, flap procedures, etc. They may be considered only when conventional therapy fails to provide relief.

Open Access Review Article

Mucormycosis: A Co-infection Associated with - COVID-19 and Diabetes

Krishna Kela, Mona Sune, Yusuf Osmani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-65
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35116

Background:  Rhino-orbital mucormycosis cases in patients with coronavirus disease are on the rise, particularly in India. In severe Mucormycosis and COVID-19, Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor on its own. The use of steroids and different immunosuppressive drugs to handle significantly ill sufferers has broadly spread because the COVID-19 pandemic has advanced, which has probably contributed to a boom in subordinate infections and uncontrolled blood glucose levels. Initial symptoms include fever, headache, nausea, and widespread weakness. With the start of sinusitis, purulent discharge with or without epistaxis and congestion and reduced feeling within the nose may be present. Mucormycosis is an uncommon, difficult to identify condition with high morbidity and mortality rates. Patient survival depends on early detection, rapid treatment , and consideration of the limitations of continually updating COVID-19 therapeutic recommendations.

Objective: ‘The purpose of the study was to conduct a systemic review of the literature’ for determining the severity and co-relation of diabetes with mucormycosis.

Methodology: Keywords were used to search the articles from the electronic databases of PubMed, Cochrane and Google Scholar upto August, 2021. All details of case reports/articles of mucormycosis in COVID-19 were utilized for this review article.

Study Design:  Systemic Review article

Conclusions: 1. Using a literature review of all documented cases, we can comment on the correlation of diabetes with Mucormycosis in covid-19 patients.

  1.  Based on the observations gained from the literature examined in this study, we are able to decide the clinical diagnostic strategy for mucormycosis in diabetic patients affected by covid-19.

Study Implication: This review article ensured the clinical diagnostic strategy and management in such cases affected by covid-19.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on the Incidence of Conjunctivitis Seen in COVID-19 Disease

Isha Agarwal, Neha Bajpayee

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 66-72
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35117

Conjunctivitis is a pathological problem of the eye. It can be defined as an inflammatory condition consisting of membranes and conjunctiva. It can be caused by several organisms and has several possible causes. It may be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungus, or protozoa and may also occur due to infection. Conjunctivitis is a prevalent issue in developing and developed countries. In layman's language, it can also progress to red-eye very commonly and, therefore, the red disease. The treatment of conjunctivitis includes no such medications since some of them are self-healing. However, some require topical steroids to relieve the inflammation—moreover, antihistaminics, mast cell stabilizers, and NSAIDs. In bacterial conjunctivitis, antibiotics are given according to the causative organisms.

Since the virus outbreak started in India and the people of our country underwent several restrictions, including strict lockdowns, we people are bound to use electronic gadgets and online learning platforms, which has exceeded our screen time to several folds. This has increased the prevalence of different eye disorders causing refractive errors, vision loss, dry eye, eyes watering, etc. Even the toddlers who should ideally be put into a playschool and be physically active and kept away from any screen are bound to sit in front of their laptops for hours to learn something. Also, sometimes a patient may present with conjunctivitis as the only symptom. Therefore, this review article will shed light on the above sentences and discuss the severity.

Open Access Review Article

The Relationship between Oral Microbiome and SARS-CoV-2

Samar Alghamdi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 73-87
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35118

The oral microbiome represents an important part of the human microbiome. It has an important function to protect against the colonization of extrinsic bacteria, affecting systemic health. On the other hand, the most common oral diseases such as caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis, are based on microorganisms. After the gut microbiome, the oral microbiome is the second largest microbial population in the body. It has the potential to affect the onset and progression of a variety of localized and systemic disorders, including viral infections, especially those that enter the body through the oropharynx. Pandemics like SARS and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have impacted negatively on economies and people around the world in recent years, making viral infection one of the most common and dangerous health problems. Despite being one of many respiratory viruses that use the oropharynx as their primary replication site, the novel pandemic human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19 disease has yet to be determined. PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were among the search engines used up to December 1, 2021. For published data, search terms included 'Microbiome', 'COVID-19,' ' Oral Microbiome changes in COVID-19,' dysbiosis in COVID-19', or 'SARS-CoV-2'. This concise review aimed to see if there was a link between the oral microbiome and SARS-CoV-2. 

Open Access Review Article

Occurrence of Retinal Detachment after Cataract Surgery in High Myopics: A Review

Shreya Parashar, Dipanshu Kesharwani, Jerin Varghese, Pradeep Sune

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 88-93
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35119

Introduction: Retinal detachment may be defined as the parting of the retina from its sensory layer. It is a medical emergency that needs immediate consultation from an expert ophthalmologist. If untreated in the long term, it can lead to bleeding, total blindness, cataract formation, glaucoma of the affected eye, etc. An increased prevalence of retina detachment is seen after cataract surgery, especially in great myopia patients. There are two types of cataract surgery ECCE and ICCE. These two then again decide further. Phacoemulsification has the most chances of RD in the operated eye. According to some recent studies, there is a 2.3 times more increased risk of RD after cataract surgery due to the vitreous loss during surgery and the undue traction on the peripheral retina or if the pieces of capsule accumulate in the vitreous.

Summary: Retinal detachment is a medical emergency. Retinal detachment is very common after cataract surgery in high myopics—symptoms include-Flashes of light, black-colored floaters, painless sudden diminution of vision.

The surgical management of choice is scleral buckling, usually done under general anesthesia.

Conclusion: This review article is made to make sure that the reader is aware of the high threat that the high myopic population possesses about retinal detachment and the further complications and other risk factors, along with the diagnosis and treatment of choice. It also explains different types of surgery available for the condition, and it depends on the severity of the patient which type of surgery to perform.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Granulomatous Anterior Uveitis: Clinical Presentation and Management

Shivangi Mishra, Pradeep G. Sune

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 94-100
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35120

Background: Inflammation of the uvea is called uveitis. Iris, ciliary body, and choroid are parts of the uvea. It is anatomically classified into Anterior, Posterior, Intermediate, and Pan-uveitis. Prevalence of Anterior uveitis is more common when compared to another type of inflammations, with varied rates of occurrence within the broader population of different countries. The severe implications of untreated or recurring anterior uveitis are often underestimated. Anterior uveitis is characterized by Iritis, which is inflammation of the iris, the anterior region of the ciliary body pars plicata (anterior cyclitis), or both components (iridocyclitis); it is the most common cause of uveitis. Also, based on its cause, Uveitis is classified into Granulomatous and No granulomatous uveitis. Non-infectious and infectious causes may cause it. INFECTIOUS: Tuberculosis, Syphilis, Leprosy, Herpes viruses, Cytomegalovirus, Trematodes, Toxoplasmosis, Post-streptococcal infections. NON-INFECTIOUS: Sarcoidosis, Multiple sclerosis, Lymphoma, Lens-induced. Pain, impaired vision, redness, watering, and photophobia are common symptoms of anterior uveitis. The treatment of uveitis should be evaluated according to the disease's signs and symptoms.

Objective: The purpose is to review the articles related to clinical features and management of granulomatous anterior uveitis.

Methodology: The data were collected from various electronic databases like google scholar, PubMed, etc.

Results: After reviewing the patient from OPD and given articles, granulomatous anterior uveitis can be managed by the given treatment and also reduces further diminution of vision

Conclusion: After reviewing the articles, we conclude that a given treatment can manage the signs and symptoms of granulomatous anterior uveitis.

Open Access Review Article

Post-COVID- 19 Mucormycosis: A Review

Hemant Patil, Mamidipalli Sai Spoorthy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 101-108
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35121

Background and Aims: After being affected by a severe second wave of COVID-19 with numerous cases and deaths, India is now facing new challenges due to the disease. One of these is the feared complication of rhino-orbital mucormycosis in post-infectious individuals. Case reports and research studies on this association are on the rise. Our goal is to conduct a comprehensive literature review to evaluate the distinctiveness of individuals with mucormycosis and COVID-19.

Methods: A literature search was done on the following databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library using the following keywords like COVID 19, Mucormycosis, Mucor, Novel coronavirus, and SARS CoV-2, a systematic.

Results: Studies have shown that history of diabetes mellitus and steroid treatments were the common possible factors for the increased post-covid-19 mucormycosis.  Hyperglycemia secondary to uncontrolled hyperglycemic states like DM and immunosuppression secondary to covid-19 infection, steroid use form a vicious cycle causing mucormycosis.

Conclusion: Increased incidence of mucormycosis in India post-COVID infection appears to be due to a triad of diabetes, irrational steroid use, and COVID-19 itself. To decrease the frequency of deadly mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19, all attempts should be made to preserve optimal sugar levels in the body, and the use of corticosteroids should be restricted and should be given as per recommended by ICMR.

Open Access Review Article

Relationship between Acne and Diet: A Trial Review

Sagarika Bodas, Sugat Jawade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 109-114
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35122

This paper reviews evidence presented by A Randomized, Controlled trial called a Low glycaemic load diet is shown to be effective in treating acne vulgaris in Korean patients, both clinically and histologically, suggesting that dietary variables, such as dietary variables, such as glycaemic load, is involved in the pathophysiology of acne. According to this article, investigation has proposed that dietary, especially Glycaemic load, have a role in the evolution of Acne Vulgaris. The study's goal was to see how a low glycaemic load diet influenced acne vulgaris lesions clinically and histologically. In a ten-week dietary intervention research, Participants with varying degrees of acne were randomly assigned to either a low GI load diet or a control group diet cohort. The outcomes indicate that the glycaemic load was successfully reduced. In the low-GI cohort, the percentage of non-inflammatory and inflammatory acne vulgaris lesions reduced substantially. Histopathological findings indicate that the low glycaemic load group had small pilosebaceous glands, less redness, and lower levels of Sterol Binding Protein -1and Interleukin -1 in skin samples. Acne had improved after reducing the glycaemic amount of the diet for ten weeks.

Open Access Review Article

Consequences of Organ Transplant in Donors and Recipients

Soumi Saha, Shashank Banait

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 115-121
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35123

Organ Transplant has developed marvelously at a rapid pace and has become a major lifeguard. It has increased the survival rate of patients but certain complications are worth not ignorance .They should be treated as soon as possible for betterment of lifestyle, which otherwise may land up in life threatening conditions. A combined multiorgan transplant may offer a lower rate of graft rejection and lesser dependence on immunosuppressants. After transplant course can be followed by a few complications that can be early, late, and severe. Nevertheless, keeping a watch , regular follow ups and managing can determine the post operative cause of graft rejection. However, there has been a major increase in the demand for potential organs which is unable to met with the limited supply of donors. This hassle has left more patients in the country helpless. The shortage of existing organ crisis has deprived a lot of people from leading a better life and that gave rise to life time dependence on costly medical procedures like dialysis. Implementation of certain procedures of awareness and educational approach to people, about donating more organs on their consent, rewarding a gift of life to the people in need. This review has jotted down a few complications , that can arise post operative from the donor and recipient point of view, alongside the benefits associated with it . There’s no doubt Organ Transplant is a boon and a curse, but it has increased the life style of patients, family and friends.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Interventional Cardiology to Understand the Basic Mechanisms Related to Coronary Atherosclerosis

Shruti Agrawal, Anupama Sawal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 122-127
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35124

Interventional cardiology has aided us in recognizing coronary atherosclerosis. It has allowed establishing a connection amongst the image of the Clinique of atherosclerosis of coronary arteries with underlined science of pathology that aids to set up, in reality, the evolution of plaques of atherosclerosis. Further studies that elaborated Coronary Atherosclerosis with a better understanding have assisted us in saving from coronary atherosclerosis in the following couple of decades. In this assessment, held in a miniature spectrum, diverse and exceptional contributions made by the technology of cardiology that is interventional has permitted us the expertise of the mechanisms of pathophysiology which are better and associated with coronary atherosclerotic disease of coronary arteries has been elaborated. In addition, keep in mind the upcoming scenarios might be primarily based on present-day projections of certain aspects. Interventional strategies are also utilized to shut defects of sepsis and affected person's ducts of arteries, stent and balloon the vessels those are stenosis that artificial valves can be implanted into ducts or to aberrant pathways of conduction can be ablated. Anesthesia suppliers require intensive information on pediatric cardiac pathology and the pathophysiology it would produce responses to the agents of anesthesia and intervention that has been prepared. Victory in these ground calls for numerous evaluations, loads of plotting, and assessment with precision and high-quality crew work—coronary artery ailment. Heart disease, which is considered the most common of its types, is Coronary Artery ailments, which happen as arteries, which are answerable for providing blood to the coronary heart muscle, harden and constrict.

The peripheral disease of vessels: Peripheral disease occurs when vessels of the blood located out of the heart narrow, block, or spasm. This condition can occur in the veins or arteries. Narrowed blood vessels can occur in multiple sites in the neck, arms, abdomen, kidneys, and legs.

Heart valve disease:  Heart valve disease occurs when blood flow controlled by the valves into the heart's chambers cannot work correctly.

Open Access Review Article

Hepatic Encephalopathy and Challenges in Elderly –An Updated Review

Shricha Bhutda, Sakshi Bhutda, Ritika Sharma, Sunil Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 128-133
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35125

Hepatic encephalopathy, a type of brain disorder induced by hepatic dysfunction and portal system blood starvation. HE is the serious consequence of chronic liver disease that causes changes in individual behaviour, awareness, perception, activity performed. Depending on the severity, this split in two types: covert hepatic encephalopathy and overt hepatic encephalopathy. Most often utilised criteria for rating HE are the West Haven criteria (WHC). Septicaemia, GI hemorrhage, diuretic overdose, and dehydration, these risk factors are for the hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnosis is primarily clinical, but there are other possible causes for the altered state of mind. These patients have the poorer results, drop standard of living, and elevated hospital care utilization, inflicting financial and emotional load on caregivers. Other possible causes for the change in behavior consciousness should be ruled out, therefore the diagnosis is mainly clinical. Other possible causes for the altered mental state have been ruled out therefore the diagnosis is mainly clinical. The three major HE types are as follows: Acute liver failure leads to type A HE. Portosystemic bypass/shunting causes Type B HE. Cirrhosis-related HE of type C. Ammonia cannot be removed effectively due to liver dysfunction portosystemic collaterals. As a result, increased the level of NH3 in blood plasma & breaches the BBB, resulting in brain damage edema. The patient's mental state, musculoskeletal system, and mood/behavior are all affected by the symptoms of HE. These symptoms might range in severity, but they can start highly light.

Open Access Review Article

Risk Factors for Nearsightedness during early Life, Childhood and Adolescence

Prachi Sharma, Praveena Kher

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 134-140
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35126

Nearsightedness is an essential public health issue that affects people worldwide. Nearsightedness is becoming more common, posing a significant socioeconomic burden. High nearsightedness that worsens over time might result in sight-threatening ocular problems. As a result, it's critical to avoid early-onset nearsightedness from escalating to high pathological nearsightedness. According to recent epidemiological studies, increased outside time is a significant modifiable environmental component that prevents young children against nearsightedness: outdoor light intensity, chromaticity during the day, and Vit. D levels may all play a role in this protective effect. This article summarises the possible protective relation between outdoor duration and nearsightedness. In light of new research, various environmental risk factors like near-work activities, the season of birth, smoking habits in parents, and birth order are also explored. This will allow for the implementation of preventative measures such as health education. Nearsightedness has grown significantly more widespread in recent decades, with certain highly educated groups, like students of law and medical fraternity, having nearsightedness rates of up to 80%. An increase in the number of instances of a high level of nearsightedness has been seen, which corresponds to the growth in nearsightedness. Myopia is said to be caused by multiple etiologies , High nearsightedness in early life is associated with high nearsightedness prevalence later in adulthood. Environmental variables such as greater academic pressure, more desk vocations, and urbanisation may be major drivers in current school nearsightedness trends, as seen by the rapid growth in nearsightedness prevalence observed in several parts of the world.

Open Access Review Article

Otosclerosis: Etiology and Prognostic Factors

Shreya Venurkar, Nachiket Rahate, Souradip Saha, Sagar Gaurkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 141-147
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35127

Otosclerosis is a temporal bone osseous dyscrasia that causes auditory impairment over time. Aberrant growth of a new bone in the middle ear eventually immobilizes and stops the stapes from oscillating in reaction to sound vibrations, resulting in gradual and persistent hearing impairment. Both ears are generally affected by the disease. Otosclerosis is a rapid occurrence of unexplained facial nerve palsy. With just an estimated prevalence of 15-30 per 100,000, it would be the most prevalent reason for lower motor neuron facial nerve paralysis. There are broadly two types of Otosclerosis, namely histological and clinical Otosclerosis.  A minor incidence of Bell's palsy usually goes away in about a fortnight. It takes to recover from a more severe instance of complete paralysis varies. Among the potential complications are. Multiple sclerosis, Miller-Fisher syndrome, Guillain–Barré syndrome, and autoimmune encephalitis are autoimmune diseases. In patients with otitis media, malignant otitis externa damage to your facial nerve is irreversible.

Nerve fiber regrowth is abnormal. When you try to move others, specific muscles may contract involuntarily (synkinesis) – for example, when you grin, the eye on the afflicted side may shut.

Due to prolonged dryness and scratching of the transparent protective coating of the eye (cornea), the eye becomes wholly or partially blind.

Patients report fast and increasing symptoms over a day to a week, with a 72-hour maximum severity. One-half of the face will be weak, resulting in eyebrows, forehead, and mouth angle instability. The incapacity to shut the afflicted eyelid or lip on the affected side is a common symptom. A partial or total weakening of the forehead is the most apparent physical exam finding. If the integrity of the forehead is preserved, a significant reason should be looked into.  Most of the cases of Otosclerosis have idiopathic or unknown causative agents. In some patients with Otosclerosis, a sponge-like bone grows abnormally in the middle ear chamber. Because of this expansion, the ear bones cannot vibrate in response to acoustic pressure.

Open Access Review Article

The Effectiveness of Yoga Asanas in Alcohol De-Addiction

Sakshi Jajoo, Ajay Meshram

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 446-451
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35876

Background: Alcoholism is an addiction to alcohol that has a multitude of psychophysiological effects on a person. According to the WHO, about 30% of Indians consume alcohol, of which 413% are daily consumers and up to 50% comprises into the toxic drinker category. Another worrying trend in India is that the average age to start drinking has increased from 28 years in the 1980s to 17 years in 2007. These statistics are alarming and we all need to learn.

Methodology: How to overcome alcohol addiction? While professional advice and treatments are always available, you can also try yoga and meditation to control your cravings. Alcohol abuse, addiction, and the resulting health consequences are worldwide issues. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), hazardous alcohol consumption is the world's third greatest cause of early mortality and disability, accounting for roughly 2.5 million fatalities per year (corresponding to 3.8 percent of all deaths). This manuscript included different forms of yogas known as “yoga therapy” and meditation to overcome alcohol addiction.

Results: Addiction has the potential to impair our bodily and spiritual wellbeing, as well as those we love. When an alcoholic stops drinking, grief sets in, and it sets in with increased vigor. The goal of life is to live in consciousness rather than lose it. It is essential to be attentive to be able to overcome sadness. As a result, those who battle with addictions are finding fresh hope in Yoga and meditation.

Conclusion: The positive role of Yoga therapy in reducing craving, thus enhancing the management of alcohol dependence. Yoga has proved to be effective in alcohol de-addiction.

Open Access Review Article

Acute Retinal Arterial Infraction

Sainath Ingole, Vilas Chimurkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 452-457
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35877

Severe retinal arteriolar infarction, also known as transitory one eye vision loss, branch obstruction of retinal artery (BRAO), obstruction of main artery of retina, and ophthalmologic artery obstruction (OAO), is induced by an embolic event from the ipsilateral carotid artery, heart, or aortic arch, occluding the central retinal artery partially or completely Drastic retinal artery infraction, like drastic neuronal injury, is a medicinal and visual problem. Drastic retinal artery infraction puts patients at a high threat for cardiovascular diseases including strokes and infarctions. As a result, prompt diagnostic and referring to relevant specialists and tools are necessary for assigning (like brain MRI accompanied by diffuse gated scanning, arterial image analysis, and ecgs and electron microscopy) and possibly treatments of an emergency issue (for e.g dissection of carotid artery). Since its been not proved, efficient medications exist to improvise format after persistent ocular vascular infarction, additional preventative techniques should be adopted to limit the possibility of future ischemic events. CRAO, BRAO, cotton balls spots, and primary and secondary levels fugax are the four distinct kinds of amaurosis fugax. There are several therapeutic domains for both CRAO and BRAO. CRAO is categorized into 4 diagnostic categories, contrary to popular opinion: non-arteritis' CRAO, non-arteritis' CRAO with cilioretinal vascular avoidance, must CRAO accompanied with hyperplastic arteritis (GCA), and transient non-arterititic CRAO. The physiological phenomena that accommodate BRAO are persistent BRAO, temporary BRAO, and cilioretinal arterial obstruction (CLRAO). The different medical categories that constitute up BRAO are non-arteritic CLRAO alone accompanied with central visual vein obstruction, and arteritic CLRAO accompanied with GCA. It's crucial to define these categories in order to properly appreciate the complexities of these diseases. The pathogeneses, dispensary features, and management of the various types of central retinal infarcts (CRAO) are thoroughly discussed.

Open Access Review Article

Vaccination for Viral Diseases

Anish Goyal, Vaishali Paunikar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 458-465
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35878

The past year has seen unprecedented happenings, bringing life to a halt. The unable things happened. The humans were stopped right in their tracks, and everyone felt powerless. The COVID 19 pandemic not only has resulted in financial losses worldwide, but it had also led to the death of about 51 lakh people worlds Though it had happened in the past when viral infections caused widespread death, in the modern era, no one even imagined that a virus could bring humanity to a halt.

Viruses cause many diseases, some of which can cause death, while others can cause severe debility. The majority of diseases caused by viruses attack infants and young children, but it affects people of all ages. One of the most effective methods for preventing death and disability from several viral illnesses is vaccination.

Conclusion: There are a variety of vaccines that are both effective and safe, which help prevent diseases caused by viruses that can cause deaths, hospital admissions, and further consequences.

Edward Jenner was the first person in modern-day history to have used cowpox material to induce immunity to smallpox way back in 1796. However, some evidence does exist that the Chinese employed smallpox vaccination as early as 1000 CE. It was also practiced later in Turkey and Africa.

Open Access Review Article

Review of Nasolabial Island Flap as a Useful Option for Reconstruction of Intraoral Defects in Patients with Buccal Mucosa Carcinoma

Aditi Asia, Chandra Veer Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 473-479
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35880

Oral carcinoma patients who have undergone tumor excision need tissue reconstruction. Literature reports of Nasolabial flaps as being one of the ways for such reconstruction. The Nasolabial Island flap surgery is known to be a simple, yet efficient method with a very reliable blood supply. Therefore, its advantage over some of the routine conventional techniques needs to be highlighted. A search was done in PubMed and other search engines, keywords were used for collecting information about research articles which cited Nasolabial flap usage for intra oral cavity reconstructive purposes for residual defects occurring after tumor resection in patients suffering from buccal mucosa carcinoma. The type of Patient selected, their details, flap surgery procedure details, reconstructed area , donor area and the surgical outcome in the relevant articles was noted. After the surgery good functional outcome was seen especially for swallowing, talking and tongue movement and reported in all articles. Patients were reported to be satisfied with the cosmetic appearance postoperatively. Nasolabial Island flap provides a practical and feasible option for buccal mucosa defects if they are smaller or moderate in size in early stages of cancers of the oral cavity. Nasolabial flap approach has been used since long in literature for repairing mucosal defects. Now with advances made in microsurgery, this technique has been modified into various types to cover a wide range of defects especially mild and moderate defects. Being relatively easier ,associated with fewer complications ,less time consuming ,it can be recommended for comorbid patients of buccal mucosa malignancy in the early stage who are unable to undergo long duration complex surgeries. It is also suitable for economically backward population of India as it is less costly.

Open Access Review Article

Changes in Eyes in a Diabetic Patient

Akshat Dubey, Sohan Lohiya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 480-485
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i61A35881

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) (i.e., diabetes), a set of metabolic illnesses defined by chronically increased blood sucrose levels, is becoming more common worldwide. As a result of a pancreatic beta-cell failure, inadequate insulin is formed. Type 1 insulin is generated to efficiently apparent blood sucrose; type 2 insulin is formed to effectively clear blood glucose; type 3 insulin is produced (T2DM), characterized by insulin resistance. When the hormone fails to affect the target cells, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) arises while pregnant. Insulin resistance develops in pregnant women. Diabetes is the leading cause of visual defects in adults in the world. Diabetes causes problems in maximum parts of the eye, like in retina it causes retinopathy, in the lens it causes cataract, in lids- lashes the xanthelasma is more common, in conjunctiva the bacterial infections are more common as in diabetes they receive more nutrition and easy to increase, in cornea it causes keratopathy, and it is more severe it is also linked to tear function abnormality. Diabetes is a well-known significant factor for visual impairment as there are 12000 to 24000 new cases of visual loss every year. By 2030, it is expected that more than 342 million individuals worldwide will have diabetes, with the degree of diabetic consequences in various organs determining the total health burden.