Open Access Case Study

Effect of Physiotherapy on Hand Rehabilitation in Acute Ischemic Stroke Survivor: A Case Report

Prajyot Ankar, Snehal Samal, . Vikrant, Rakesh Krishna Kovela, Ragini Dagal, Rebecca Thimoty

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i1A35343

Background: Ischemic injury to the brain caused by a sudden drop in blood supply causes over 80% of strokes. Large artery blockage occurs in about 25-35 percent of strokes, and patients in this category often have severe neurological impairments. The prognosis is bleak if treatment is not started right away. Imaging of the brain after a stroke is crucial for determining the extent of tissue damage and guiding treatment.

Aim: To determine the effect of early hand rehabilitation post ischemic stroke.

Presentation of Case: A 35-year-old woman with a history of hypertension acquired aphasia, left hemiplegia, and hemisensory loss all at the same time. She was sent to the hospital's emergency room. On CT the blockage of the right middle cerebral artery revealed an acute ischemic stroke. The Motor Assessment Scale is taken in which there is a hand function domain also to assess it.

Discussion: There are many studies on hand rehabilitation, but usually we stated hand rehabilitation late. Our primary focus during rehabilitation is upper limb and lower limb, hand is a little neglected part.

So, in this case study we will be focusing on early had rehabilitation.

Conclusion: The case data confirms a diagnosis and appropriately planned physical rehabilitation care that resulted in a progressive improvement on STREAM Score, Motor Assessment Scale Score, Barthal index score and WHO-QOL score.

Open Access Case Study

Efficacy of Physiotherapy Rehabilitation for Hemiparesis following Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis: A Rare Case Report

Vaishnavi Sharma, Snehal Samal, Shwetambari Morgade, Rakesh Krishna Kovela, Ragini Dagal, Rebecca Thimoty

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 43-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i1A35345

Background: In Cerebral Vascular Disease when one or more arteries are thrombosed it results in Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis (CVST) and affects in all ages. This condition is very challenging as it is not diagnosed early due to diverse signs and symptoms and involvement of extensive collateral circulation. Superior sagittal sinus is a large sinus which is commonly affected. Usually, patient comes with clinical presentation of headache with papilledema, to focal deficit, seizures and coma.  

Aim: To investigate the efficacy of Physiotherapy Rehabilitation for Hemiparesis following Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis.

Presentation of Case: A 18-year-old male patient presented with a history of severe headache, weakness in his right arm and leg, dizziness upon rising from bed, and a unilateral headache. On investigation CT scan and MRI brain was done. The physiotherapy has started from 2 days after admission in AVBRH.

Discussion: In the cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis the management of hemiparesis is shown to enhance the ADL and quality of life of patients.

Conclusion: The rehabilitation protocol planned will help in improving the range of motion and ADL of patient when started as early as possible.

Open Access Minireview Article

Effect of Intrathecal Dexmedtomidine as an Adjuvant for Cesarean Section: A Review

Radhika Bajaj, Amol Singam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-65
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i1A35808

Background: Intrathecal dexmedetomidine has been used in spinal anesthesia during caesarean sections. The purpose of this review article was to investigate the effect of intrathecal dexmedetomidine on the adverse reactions of spinal anesthesia during cesarean section.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine as a neuraxial adjuvant for elective caesarean section.

Methods: We did a literature search assessing the effect of intrathecal dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant in elective caesarean section in PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO and GOOGLE library databases.

Results: 11 Randomized control trials were included. Overall, compared with control intervention in patients with elective cesarean section, dexmedetomidine intervention could significantly improve the characteristics of the block, including onset of sensory block, duration of the sensory block and duration of the motor block. Additionally, when compared with control group dexmedetomidine could prolong time to rescue analgesiaThe incidence of shivering in the dexmedetomidine group was significantly lower than that in the control group. The incidences of nausea and vomiting, bradycardia, hypotension and pruritus were not different between the two groups.

Conclusion: Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine can effectively improve the characteristics of the block, prolong time to rescue analgesia, and reduce the occurrence of shivering during cesarean section, but it does not affect the occurrence of nausea and vomiting, bradycardia or hypotension.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacy Health Coaching Intervention Improve Medication Adherence among Drug Addiction Patients at Sambang Lihum Mental Hospital, Indonesia

. Alexxander, Ika Puspitasari, Susi Ari Kristina, Cecep Sugeng Kristanto, Yugo Susanto

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i1A35341

Aims: To prove the effect of pharmacy health coaching (PHC) on medication adherence among drug addicts at the Sambang Lihum Mental Hospital, South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Study Design:  A quasi-experimental one-group pretest-posttest design

Place and Duration of Study: Sambang Lihum Mental Hospital, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Between February to April 2020.

Methodology: The pharmacy health coaching intervention was conducted six weeks using a quasi-experimental one-group pretest-posttest design. The study was conducted during February – April 2020. The population referred to the drug addiction outpatients using consecutive sampling methods that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were collected by filling out the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale (ARMS) questionnaire and filling sheets about patient characteristics data and the drug use history of the patients. Data were then analyzed using SPSS 16.0 with the Wilcoxon mean difference test.

Results: The results showed that the pharmacy health coaching intervention could improve medication adherence of the patients with drug addiction, where the pre-measurement adherence was only 16.00 ± 1.086. At the same time, the post-measurement increased to 18.25 ± 4.109 (P = 1.00). Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the pharmacy health coaching intervention improved patient adherence, but the increase was not statistically significant (P > .05).

Conclusion: The pharmacy health coaching intervention improved patient adherence, but the increase statistically was not significant. A large number of samples was needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Silico Molecular Docking Analysis of the Potential role of Reticuline and Coclaurine as Anti-colorectal Cancer Alkaloids

Maryam H. Al-Zahrani, Rana A. Alghamdi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-42
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i1A35344

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious global epidemic, being the third most prevalent cancer worldwide, finding novel treatment alternatives for CRC is thus of the greatest importance. The atomic level interaction between a tiny molecule and a protein can be represented using molecular docking. Molecular docking is critical for visualizing ligand-protein interactions at the atomic level highlighting our knowledge of ligands behavior, which aids in the development of structure-based drugs.

Methods: We used molecular docking to investigate the anticancer activity for two main ligands (reticuline and coclaurine) and four potential anticancer receptors (TNIK, VEGFR, EGFR and AKT2). Protein Data Bank provided the 3D structures of the receptor proteins, iGEMDOCK and AutoDock vina program were used for molecular docking.

Results: Reticuline had the best docked postures and the highest interactive energy with CRC receptors: TNIK, VEGFR, EGFR and AKT2 with the following binding energy; -96.7, -117.8, -120.2, and -108.3 kcal/mol accordingly.

Conclusion: According to this study, the investigated ligands were successfully docked onto reticuline and coclaurine ligands for drug interaction studies, the calculated binding energy demonstrate their importance as an anti-carcinogenic target. The current findings lay the groundwork for further research into reticuline and coclaurine as a potential CRC therapeutic option.

Open Access Original Research Article

Short-term Effect of Mirror Therapy and Mobilization in Adhesive Capsulitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Rajkrishnan Jagadeesh, Saumya Srivastava

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 48-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i1A35346

Background: Frozen Shoulder, also known as Adhesive Capsulitis is the developing of dense adhesions, joint capsule thickening and capsular restrictions in the joint along with diminished glenoid cavity. Primary adhesive capsulitis most commonly affects individuals between 40 to 60 years of age.  A number of treatment techniques exists for the improvement of adhesive capsulitis whereas Mirror Therapy is a recent technique designed to improve adhesive capsulitis.

Objective: To compare the short-term effect of Mirror Therapy and Maitland Mobilization in stage 1 & 2 adhesive capsulitis.

Methodology: The study is a randomized controlled trial which included 34 subjects of the age group 40-60, and were randomly assigned into two groups: Group A (n=17) and Group B (n=17). The Group A was given Mirror Therapy with conventional physical therapy while group B was given Maitland Mobilization with conventional physical therapy. Outcome measure were taken at baseline, and then taken on last day of seventh session by using VAS, ROM, DASH. The treatment was given for 7 sessions over a period of two weeks.

Results: The results show that on comparison of pre and post intervention values within each group, both the groups produced statistically significant difference (p<0.05). On comparison between the groups, ROM shows statistically significant difference(p<0.05) compared to VAS and DASH.

Conclusion: The current study results shows that Mirror Therapy is better than Maitland Mobilization in terms of relieving pain, improving functional activity and increasing range of motion.

Clinical Trials Registration No. CTRI/2020/09/027576.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Oxadiazoles as a Pharmacologically Active Nucleus

Akash Kumar Singh, K. Ilango

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i1A35342

The structure of the oxadiazole skeleton is a biologically and biochemically active nucleus that has a multiple number of biological activities. The oxadiazole structure is a five-membered aromatic ring that has been used in numerous studies and molecules synthesised in laboratories. The principle structure of the Oxadiazole ring with a pair of Pyridine-type nitrogen atoms has been confirmed to be valuable for Oxadiazole analogues for having efficacious protein interactions with a large number of enzyme proteins and receptor proteins present in the organ system of the human body through different types of interactions, like Vander Wall interactions, thereby producing a huge variety of biological activities or pharmacological properties. Due to the variety in the pharmacological activity of Oxadiazole and their derivatives and analogues, they have been termed as one of the important pharmacological aspects to study. Multiple numbers of oxadiazole related synthetic compounds possessing high potent action and therapeutic activity are being widely incorporated for treatment and management of multiple diseases and disorders, giving immeasurable progression and establishment value. Oxadiazole derivatives express a multiple number of pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antifungal, antipyretic, antidepressant, anti-tubercular, anticonvulsant, anticholinesterase, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, antitumor/anticancer, anti-HIV, antioxidant, etc. The history of 1,3,4-Oxadiazole is also very interesting. It shows that it attracted many chemists, researchers, and scientists to explore the Oxadiazole nucleus as a biologically active molecule having promising potency. This review article mainly focuses on the pharmacological profile of 1,3,4-Oxadiazole with various activities and examples (in the form of figures and structures). Expectations are that this article will be like a path showing torch to help and serve as guidance for new innovations/ideas along the progression of research for the evolution of more active/potent and less poisonous/toxic Oxadiazole-based derivatives.