Open Access Case Report

A Case Report on Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

Milind Pande, Sunita Vagha, Aditi Goyal, Raunak Kotecha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 11-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34163

Background: Out of the various malignant tumours originating from the lymphatic hematopoietic system, lymphoma is one such important entity. It is divided into Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) depending on its cell source. A very rare type of malignant variant of lymphoma is the primary splenic lymphoma, involving exclusively the spleen and splenic hilar lymph nodes. Moreover, splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is even more infrequent. SMZL is an uncommon chronic B lymphocyte proliferative disease, which only accounts for about 1–2% of all non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The mean age of SMZL incidence is about 65 years. There is no known significant gender predominance. A quarter of patients with early diagnosed SMZL have known to have vague symptoms like abdominal pain and distention; and other patients may be accompanied by loss of weight, malaise, cachexia, splenomegaly, or other manifestations.

Conclusion: Although, a good prognostic outcome is what is usually expected from most patients of Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma who undergo splenectomise, an aggressive transformation leading to a worse direction cannot be ruled out. SMZL is very challenging to be diagnosed pre-operatively due to the lack of specificity in clinical presentation.

Open Access Case Report

Posterior Gastric Perforation – Rare Surgical Emergency: A Case Report

Tushar Nagtode, Y. R. Lamture, Venktesh Rewale, P. Tanveer, Aditya Mundada

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 143-146
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34183

Background: Incidence of perforation on posterior wall of stomach is rare throughout world; its occurrence has not been found till now in literature of central India. diffuse symptoms with delayed presentation to health center and poorly skilled faculty with facilities make a way to raise in total number of deaths associated with posterior gastric perforation.

Objective: To report a rare case of posterior gastric perforation at a tertiary health care center in Central India, which would be first to be documented.

Case Presentation: A 74-year-old male patient was referred to Department of General Surgery, AVBRH, with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain for two days. He had a history of alcohol consumtion which was stopped 2 years back A moderately distended, distinctly tender abdomen accompanied by guarding, rigidity and excluded bowel sounds was unveiled by abdominal examination. Patient has been resuscitated with intravenous fluids, antibiotics and analgesics. Consequently, an emergency exploratory laparotomy revealed a significant collection of purulent peritoneal fluid, 1x1 cm sized perforation on posterior wall of stomach. Perforation was repaired and thus patient recovered in a satisfactory way.

Conclusion: And since posterior gastric perforation is extremely uncommon and expected to worsen, associated with increased morbidity and mortality leading to missed presence, this case report indicates that evaluation of patients with gastric perforation, identify risk factors and ability to repair perforations right away along with resuscitation will greatly enhance clinical outcome.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Rom Exercises Effective in Reducing Pain and Discomfort in Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Viwek Nade, Vaishali Tembhare, Ruchira Ankar, Sheetal Sakharkar, Archana Dhengare, Swapana More, Prerana Sakharwade, Khushbu Meshram

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 19-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34165

Introduction: Hodgkin lymphoma, which also accounts up 11% of all lymphomas, is named Hodgkin's disease. This malignant disease is known as the Reed-Sternberg-cell, which is situated in lymph-nodes and is characterized by the proliferation of irregular gait. The disease occurs more often in those between 15-30 years and over 55 and is doubling prevalent in women, in men and women. The sickness is bimodal age specific. The frequency in India is around 1 in 25,000 inhabitants. However, for all stages, long-term survival is around 80%.

Clinical Findings: The onset of symptoms is usually insidious but usually used for frequent diagnosis are: Extension of lymph nodes in area of cervical, axillary or inguinal, extraordinary weight loss, Fatigue, Weakness, fever, chills, tachycardia, sweating or nocturnal sweat.

Diagnostic Evaluation: Peripheral analysis of the blood, Biopsy of Excision of lymph node, Examination of bone marrow, Radiological study

Therapeutic Management: Chemotherapy and radiation therapy or some may need immunotherapy or stem cell transplant.

Outcome: After treatment, the child showed great improvement.

Conclusion: A 11 year male child was admitted to pediatric ward no.22 in AVBRH on 25/05/2021 with a unique case of Hodgkin’s lymphoma with severe pain and discompfort. He was admitted in hospital and all investigation and treatment were started. After getting medical treatment and physiotherapy he shows great improvement and the treatment was still going on till my last date of care.

Open Access Case Study

Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) in an Infant Due to Primary Carnitine Deficiency (PCD); A Rare Case

Varsha Gajbhiye, Shubhangi Patil, Sarika Gaikwad, Sushma Myadam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 74-77
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34173

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is known to have ventricular dilatation and dysfunction in  myocardium. Primary carnitine deficiency (PCD) is a not common but a reversible autosomal recessive phenomenon with supplementation of carnitine. Case presentation- 11-month male child was brought with complain of fever, cough, cold since 7 days and increased work of breathing for 15 days.  2 D echo was done suggestive of dilated cardiomyopathy. His initial investigations; chest Xray revealed significant cardiomegaly electrocardiography, (ECG) showed prolonged QT interval fraction. Patient was treated with syrup carnitine syrup empirically, as there is no way to determine a fatty acid oxidation profile. Repeated 2D echocardiogram (2 D ECHO) was suggestive of recovery. Conclusions: Carnitine deficiency could be the cause of  cardiomyopathy and so treatment of carnitine supplementation can be considered empirically to avoid life-threatening complication related to cardiomyopathy.

Open Access Case Study

Unusual Case of Head Injury Presented with Brain Gliomas

Varsha Gajbhiye, Shubhangi Patil (Ganvir), Sarika Gaikwad, Sushma Myadam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 88-92
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34175

Seven years female child came with parents who gave us history that 1month back, child   during playing had fall on face and lost consciousness which remained for 30 min followed by convulsion. On examination patient was conscious, responds to command, vitals were stable, aphasia was present, pupils were equal and reactive to light bilaterally and horizontal gaze was restricted.  There was no facial weakness, Tone increase more in left upper and lower limb .Deep tendon reflexes (DTR) increase in left side.  Plantar reflex were extensors. MRI was done which shows intra axial space occupying lesion in brainstem with expansion of brainstem with hydrocephalus. Pt was inoperable and ventriculoperitoneal shunt was done for hydrocephalus. Post operatively patient was kept on assisted ventilation.

Conclusion: Unusual presentation of brainstem gliomas as head injury.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report Onventricular Septal Defect (VSD) with Pulmonary Hypertention (Eisenmenger Syndrome) with LSCS

Bali Thool, Shalini Lokhande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 238-242
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34197

Background: A ventricular septal defect is a defect of the ventricular septal wall where the abnormal opening is present in between the two ventricles. Eisenmenger syndrome is a condition it may develop due to unrepaired heart defect and complication of unrepaired heart defect who is born congenitally. The congenital heart defects lead to Eisenmenger syndrome it developed due to abnormal blood circulate throughout the heart and lungs.

Case Report: The 23-year-old female was admitted to AVBRH with the chief complaints of a history of amenorrhoea since 8 months, complaints of breathlessness during exertion since the 7th month of pregnancy and she was referred to AVBRH from Amravati on date 27/1/2021. At the age of 14 years, she had a history of cyanosis at the time of fever and had recurrent episodes of fever for 2-3 yrs, lasting for 2-3 weeks. She is primigravida and had undergone LSCS on date 3/2/2021. She delivered a male child on date 3/2/2021 of birth weight 1.9kg at 12:15 pm.

Discussion: Patient with pulmonary hypertension and Eisenmenger syndrome where the surgery is contraindicated because in Eisenmenger syndrome surgery is life-threatening. Only medical management is available to treat Eisenmenger syndrome.

Conclusion: Ventricular septal defect in adult females where the pregnancy is contraindicated. Epidural anesthesia should be preferred while the patient undergoes the lower segment cesarean section. This case report concludes that in this condition emergency LSCS is the first choice of treatment and oxygen therapy.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Primary Infertility with Hypothyroidism and Diabetes Mellitus

Thool Bali, Lokhande Shalini, A. Lalawmpuii, Ambule Kalyani, Shendre Vaishnavi, Warghane Roshani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 263-266
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34202

Introduction: Infertility is the inability, by natural means, of an animal to reproduce. Typically, adult species are not in their normal state of health. A woman who is unable to conceive well will define infertility as unable to bear a full-term pregnancy. Because of any ejaculating disease, and any declining sperm count, men are directly liable for 30-40% infertility. The WHO estimates the overall prevalence of primary infertility in India at 3.9% and 16.8%. Fertility estimates differ widely between India and 3.7% in Utter Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Case Presentation: On 9/12/2020, a 38-year-old female came for In Vitro Fertilization with a known case of primary infertility in AVBR Hospital, Wardha. Her complaint was inability to conceive for 4 years, irregular menses, headache, sleep disturbance, loss of appetite. She was admitted for in-vitro fertilization therapy for the 2nd cycle. She had a history of hypothyroidism for 8 years for which she has been taking Thyrox 50mg OD tablet and has Diabetes Mellitus for one year since she is taking Metformin 500mg BD tablet. Instead, she has no concerns about asthma, tuberculosis, epilepsy, etc. On 9/12/2020, she underwent an embryo transfer.

Diagnostic Evaluation: The diagnostic hysteroscopy was conducted at the private hospital in Amravati 2 years ago. She has been diagnosed with nullipara for 4 years as a primary infertility. She has already undergone 2 cycles of Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI) and 1 cycle of in vitro fertilization.

Hysterosalpingography: Both fallopian tubes are normal & patent uterus is normal.

Conclusion: There is multifactorial infertility. In both men and women, anatomy, physiology, the environment, hormones and genetics all play a role in causing infertility. Therefore, in the coming years, it is a very important problem and research in this zone is very essential.

Open Access Case Study

Squamous Cell Carcinoma Complicating Plaque of Lupus Erythematosus - A Case Series

K. Manoharan, D. Manoharan, S. Sivaramakrishnan, Nehete Sanket Sanjay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 550-554
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34236

Lupus Erythematosus is a multisystem disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from cutaneous involvement to widespread systemic involvement. Squamous cell carcinoma formation in cutaneous lesions of LE is rare but had greater chances of metastases. Here, we report two cases, one of Discoid Lupus Erythematosus and other of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus complicated by development of squamous cell carcinoma over cutaneous lesions.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Protocol on Comparative Evaluation of Epidural and Spinal Technique of Labour Analgesia in Rural Women of Central India and their Perceptions Regarding Pain Relief in Labour

Neeta Verma, Ankita Nigam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 210-215
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34193

Background: Labour pain while giving birth is one of the most excruciatingly painful and emotionally stressful experience for a woman that has piqued the interest of several academicians. Labour pain is induced due to the uterine ischemia, expansion of vagina and birth canal, muscle contractions, and pressure on the bladder. To relieve the severe pain during labour, analgesia is required, which offers pain relief without the loss of consciousness. Regional analgesia (Epidural and spinal) are most commonly used for offering pain relief to women.

Aim: To evaluate whether low dose spinal analgesia is a better alternative to lumbar epidural analgesia for pain relief in labour.

Objectives - Primary objective is to evaluate efficacy of lumbar epidural and spinal analgesia for pain relief in labour. Secondary objective is to evaluate the perceptions of women towards the use of labour analgesia, to evaluate the maternal and fetal outcome and to evaluate the barriers affecting the use of lumbar epidural and spinal analgesia for women during labour.

Methods: In this randomized control trial study, where 60 patients are present in each group. Patients in GROUP E, epidural analgesia will be given using 18-gauge Touhy epidural needle by a loss of  resistance  to air technique, and after confirmation of space, an epidural catheter will be inserted cranially in L3 - L4 or L4-L5 interspace, and a dose of 15ml of 0.125% bupivacaine with 25µg of fentanyl would be given slowly. Group S patients will receive subarachnoid block using 25-gauge needle inserted and directed to reach the intrathecal space between L3 - L4 or L4 - L5 intervertebral space. After a successful Dural puncture with acceptable CSF flow, 0.1% bupivacaine 2ml with 25µg fentanyl will be given via spinal needle. Throughout the duration of delivery, hemodynamic monitoring including SPO2, ECG, heart rate and blood pressure of mother and fetal heart rate would be monitored under the guidance of obstetrician and anesthesiologists. Patient will be assessed every 5min for the first 15 min, and then every 15 minutes until additional analgesia was requested. The severity of labour pain would be assessed using visual analogue scale. (0 = no pain; 10 = severe pain). Within the first 24 - 48 hours postpartum patient will fill the self-administered questionnaires.

Results: The groups are expected to be similar. However, Low dose spinal analgesia may be a better alternative to lumbar epidural analgesia in providing effective pain relief for women in labour in terms of cost effectiveness. There are no results found as it is just a protocol. Results are yet to come.

Conclusions: The study would offer new insights and knowledge into the use of epidural and spinal analgesia in India, particularly Wardha. The perceptions of women, towards labour analgesia, its consequences or side effects, and the myths associated with its use will be comprehended.

Open Access Study Protocol

Psychological Stress Due to Covid-19 on Pregnant Women in Post Partal Period

Abhi Patel, Swarupa Chakole, Neha Bhatt

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 458-461
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34225

There is no indication that covid-19 has a long-term effect on pregnancy, the mother's psychiatric condition, or the infant's developmental delay. Between May 1st and July 31st 2020, 72 pregnant patients with covid-19 took part in a study that took place in different locations. Since giving birth these woman patients engaged in three-month follow-up surveys. The data was collected from Covid-19 medical history, maternal reports, quarantine questionnaires, mother-baby feeding separation, and assessing the mothers psychiatric illnesses.

While there is no conclusive evidence of vertical transmission of SARS-COV-2, in order to reduce the risk of infection, healthcare professionals and researchers must focus more on the mental health of pregnant women, infant feeding, and closeness to the parents. This will aid in the early development of the new born, reducing stress on the mother.

Open Access Study Protocol

Effect of Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Field (PEMF) Therapy and Conventional Physiotherapy on Lipid Profile- A Randomised Control Trial

Mitushi Deshmukh, Neha Chitale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 536-540
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34234

Introduction: The varying levels of lipids in the blood is defined as lipid profile, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides are most commonly reported. Pulsed Electromagnetic field therapy, is a therapy involves powerful pulsed energy waves passing through injured and damaged area of body of patients. Waves of pulsed electromagnetic field are painless and quick to pass through the damaged cells in the damaged region, increasing the oxygen pressure activating and regenerating cells.

Methodology:  A Total of 40 subjects will be included in the study. Divided in two groups 20 in group 1 and 20 in group 2.Group 1 will receive Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF) with aerobic and resistance exercises while Group 2 will receive aerobic and resistance training exercises as conventional physiotherapy technique.

Discussion: 13 meta-analyses were categorized by Pedersen and Saltin, they have reported lipid profile involvement following exercise. They have described that exercise have a positive effect on the pathogenesis, physical fitness of individuals with dyslipidaemia. Effect of exercise profile on lipid have been stated in few studies. This study will focus on studying the impact of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on lipid profile.

Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn based on the outcome measures of the study and the statistical analysis.

Open Access Short Research Article

Effectiveness of Perioperative Local Use of Anesthetics and Antiseptics in Patients with Purulent-necrotic Lesions of Lower Extremities in Diabetes Mellitus

Yuliana Babina, Dmytro Dmyrtriiev, Oleksandr Nazarchuk, Pavlo Hormash, Serhii Vernyhorodskyi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 356-364
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34212

Background: Every second patient with the diabetes mellitus (DM) needs surgery due to purulent-necrotic changes in the feet.

The aim of the study was comparative morphological examination of the course of the wound process in purulent-necrotic lesions of the lower extremities of patients with DM with different approaches to local treatment in the perioperative period.

Materials and Methods: We investigated changes in the histological structure and the nature of the reactions of skin tissues, muscles and fascia during the healing of an ulcer in patients with the diabetes mellitus after various types of local treatment. Then the specimens were photographed and analyzed using the OLIMPUS BX 41 light microscope.

Results: In the first comparison group, which used standard anesthesia techniques and locally antiseptic povidon-iodine - granulation tissue was characterized by the complete absence of fibrous structures and the presence of a small number of small-sized neoplastic vessels with swollen endothelium. And in patients of the II observation group who received locally decamethoxin and infiltration anesthesia with a 2% solution of lidocaine after surgery during the study of histological preparations of the affected tissues, a significant decrease in signs of pathological vascular reaction was established compared with the comparison group.

Conclusions: In group 1 (control) healing of wounds on the third-seventh day is characterized by somewhat slow regeneration. Wound healing was most favorable in patients of the second group, where infiltration anesthesia was used by local anesthetic and antiseptic decamethoxin.

Open Access Short Communication

Evolving Definition and Diagnostic Criteria of Sepsis

V. Rakshana, A. S. Arunkumar, Laya Mahadevan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 391-397
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34216

For many years, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) criteria were primarily considered for the diagnosis of sepsis, promoting the importance of inflammation. The definition and dia        gnostic criteria of sepsis has undergone a sizeable metamorphosis from the inception of standardized definitions of sepsis in 1991. In 1991, the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) convened in Chicago and emphasized that sepsis is an ‘ongoing process’ of infection and considered SIRS score of two or more for diagnosis of sepsis. SOFA scoring system is an easily calculated system using parameters that are usually obtained during routine care of patients. This ensures that delays are avoided from requirement of any special investigations, making it reproducible in any number of healthcare settings.

Open Access Minireview Article

Cynodon dactylon Pers.: A Review on Forage Crop and Medicinal Herb

Papia Dutta, Jyotchna Gogoi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 344-350
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34210

Cynodon dactylon is a forage crop besides being a medicinal herb which has been holding a sacred position in our Indian culture. Its survival capacity in any ecological succession has forced it to exist as medicinal plant containing a broad spectrum of secondary metabolites like Cyanidin, Luteolin, apigenin having several therapeutic uses. The review paper has been designed in coordination with research articles to compile the various properties of the plant like its thriving capacity in tropical and subtropical regions where it can alter ecosystem by effecting nutrient cycles and community composition, diverse chemical composition, and therapeutic uses to name some such as diabetes, atherosclerosis etc., which could be used as an area of further research for mankind and environmental benefits.

Open Access Minireview Article

Ayurvedic Perspectives towards Sleep and Its Significance

Mohammad Ahefaz, Jagruti Chaple

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 448-453
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34223

Ahara (food), Nidra (sleep), and Bramhacharya (celibacy) are three pillars of life. Sleep is equally important as food, hence we must know concept of sleep described in Ayurveda. It is also enumerated as the natural urge which should not be suppressed and if suppressed would lead to various diseases. Health of a person means healthy physical body and mind together. Ayurveda helps in keeping balance, harmony and equilibrium in all physiological activities of body and mind. Ayurveda is an eternal science.

Conclusion: Causes of the rapid increase in non-communicable diseases are mostly related to Lifestyle such as physical inactivity etc. Increasing a sedentary lifestyle due to the growing use of technologies in daily life causes higher levels of physical inactivity. In modern era of civilization, due to growing use of technologies like Laptop, Tablet, Mobile phone and increasing competition, changing lifestyle especially sleeping pattern has become a leading cause for manifestation of many diseases like Hypertension, Migraine, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity etc. Hence, Nidra(sleep) being an integral part of our life plays an important role in promotion of health and prevention of diseases. It has been observed that all the living beings enjoy sleep to keep their body and mind active.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Determine the Clinical Profile and Manifestations of Scrub Typhus among People

Nandkishor Bankar, Dhruba Hari Chandi, Praful Patil, Gaurav Mahajan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34161

Introduction: In developing countries acute febrile illness (AFI) is the most common presenting complaint in emergency and outpatients department. Usually in the rainy season and post rainy season Outbreaks of AFI occur in India.  Outbreaks like Dengue, Malaria, Typhoid, Scrub typhus and several viral infections have been classically responsible. Orientia tsutsugamushi is an obligate intracellular gram negative bacteria which cause Scrub typhus. Scrub typhus is the infection caused by the bite of infected chiggers. The clinical manifestation is characterised by the presence of fever, body pain, headache and rarely can cause rashes. Scrub typhus is mite borne rickettsiosis and is an endaemic infection in area unique to Asia, with an estimated one billion people. In recent years, many parts of India scrub typhus have rapidly remerged to become the major cause of AFI during monsoon seasons. In India, of the 29 states, 23 have reported the presence of scrub typhus.

Aim: The main aim of this study is to determine the clinical profile and manifestation of scrub typhus infection among people. Material and method: Total 72 patients with conform cases of scrub typhus fever were included in this study. The evaluation of fevers were undergone clinically initially serological test and Weil–Felix test followed by immunoglobulin M (IgM) scrub typhus and positive cases were included in this study. Consideration was taken of their clinical appearance and investigations.

Results: Total 72 positive cases were included in this study. Among the total IgM positive for scrub typhus were analyzed with their age and sex variation. From each and every patient different clinical manifestations and complications were analyzed and recorded.  The common symptoms were fever; myalgia, breathlessness, rash, and abdominal pain were recorded as 100%, 66.7%, 8.3%, 13.9% and 36.1% respectively.  Renal failure was the most common complications followed by pneumonia as 19.4% and 9.7% respectively. In laboratory findings high C-reacting protein and leukocytosis are also found in 81.9% and 33.3% respectively. 

Conclusion: Scrub typhus is a widespread tropical infection and often occurs as pyrexia of unknown origin. However sometime it is under diagnosed due to low indication of suspicion and due to non-specific clinical manifestation and also in most of clinical settings due to lack of diagnostic procedures. If there was early diagnosed then treatment will be easy and cost effective due to good response of antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Hemoglobin A1c Test (HbAlc) with Different Grades of Diabetic Retinopathy

Fathima Jehan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 7-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34162

Diabetic retinopathy is a disorder which generally affects the retina and disturbs the microvasculature of it and is the most dreaded complication of diabetes. This study included 50 patients with diabetic retinopathy, out of which 4% of patients infected with Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), 48% with mild and 20% with very high NPDR. 8% of cases had very severe NPDR while the rest 20% had PDR. Our results which showed a higher prevalence of CSME in patients with HBA 1c of 8. 7 % and above. From the finding the elevated lipid levels in serum are associated with high risk of CSME and retinal hard exudates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Efficacy of Preloading With 0.9% Normal Saline with Premptive Dose of Ephedrine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Response during Propofol Induction

R. Ramanan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 15-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34164

Two different regimes propofol-normal saline vs propofol -ephedrine in prevention of hypotension during induction of anaesthesia, significant decrease in Systolic blood pressure (P<0.001) in both groups (both fluid and non-fluid groups) after induction of anaesthesia with propofol was observed. The incidence of hypo-tension was significant in control and crystalloid group when compared with ephedrine group. Systolic blood pressure decreased in all three groups and decrease in Systolic blood pressure at 2min, 3min and 5min with P values. 0.010, 0.00, 0.000 respectively. Also decrease in Mean Arterial pressure in P group when compared with E-group at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5min with P values 0.038, 0.02, 0.012 and 0.029 respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between the Preoperative Albumin Levels and Postoperative Complications in Carcinoma Stomach Patients

Marella Haneesh, Samuel Dev Merlin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 24-28
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34166

Background: Malnutrition in gastrointestinal cancer patients adversely affects the surgical outcomes. low serum albumin and postoperative complications were associated with one another.

Objectives: To find out the relationship between preoperative albumin levels and postoperative complications among carcinoma stomach patients.

Materials and Methods: The present study was a single institution retrospective study carried out in the department of general surgery, Saveetha medical college and hospital between February 2021 to July 2021. Fifty patients diagnosed with carcinoma stomach and electively posted for surgery during the study period were included into the study. The data was collected using structured proforma. Preoperative albumin and haemoglobin levels were estimated using blood samples. All the data collected were analysed using SPSS version 23.

Results: The preoperative albumin levels among those who had reported complication was 3.04±0.19 g/dl while those who had no complication in the postoperative period had preoperative albumin level of 3.82±0.31g/dl. The preoperative mean haemoglobin level among those who developed complications in the post operative period was 9.68±0.95 mg/dl and the mean haemoglobin level among those with no complication was 11.46±1.89 mg/dl. Albumin and haemoglobin values were found to be negatively correlated with duration of stay in hospital.

Conclusion: Malnutrition in the preoperative period would increase the probability of occurrence of postoperative complications and increased duration of stay in hospital. Attending to malnutrition of the admitted patients in the preoperative period would help in decreasing the postoperative complications and duration of stay.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Assess the Level of Vit B12, Vit C and Homocysteine in Chronic Smokers in Central India

Dattu Hawale, Ranjit S. Ambad, Minal Kalambe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 29-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34167

Background: Smoking is related to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Cigarette smoking has been related to higher levels of homocysteine in the blood. Both have been associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Smokers also have lower levels of vitamin B12, which affects homocysteine levels by serving as a cofactor or co substrate (folate) for the enzymes that regulate the metabolism of homocysteine.

Materials: This study was a case-control study, conducted in the Department of Biochemistry and medicine at DMMC & SMHRC, Nagpur in collaboration with ABVRH, Sawangi (Meghe). In the present study, the total number of subjects included was 200 having age Group between 30-60. The subjects were divided in two groups. Group 1: 100 subjects chronic smokers and Group 2: 100 subjects   non- smokers.

Results: The homocysteine concentration significantly increased in group 1 ( chronic smokers)  18.50±8.40 as compared to group 02( non smokers ) 8.30±5.30 and p value p<0.005.vitamin B12 concentration significantly decreased in  group 01 ( chronic smokers)  340.80±124.70 as compared to group 02 (non smokers) 485.45±175.68 and p value p<0.005. vitamin c concentration significantly decreased in group 1 (chronic smokers) 0.46±0.07 as compared to group 02 (non smokers) 1.12±0.15 and p value p<0.005.

Conclusion: On the basis of findings we concluded that the smoking increases Homocysteine levels and lowers the level of Vit B12 and Vit C leading to increase cardiovascular disease risk among chronic smokers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Periodontal Health in Sickle Cell Disease - A Case Control Study

Kuldip Singh Sangha, Priyanka Patil, Sayed Fazalulla Khadri, Sushma Sonawane, Sheiba Ronald Gomes, Prathibha Gopal Kavle, Aparna Khamatkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 34-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34168

Introduction: A hereditary autosomal recessive condition goes by the name of sickle cell disease. Hemoglobin S polymerization in red blood cells under hypoxic circumstances results in vascular blockage, which is the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease. For the sake of maintaining group homogeneity, participants in the healthy group were either related to or friends of those with sickle cell disease, whereas those in the sickle cell trait group were related to those with sickle cell illness.

Materials and Methods: A total of 150 participants were recruited for this research, 43 percent of them were female and 57 percent male. Patients in the control group were on average 30 years old, whereas those in the SCT group were 33 years old, and the average age of patients with SCD was 26. Those with sickle cell trait (SCT) and those with sickle cell disease (SCD) were divided into three categories. Patients were screened and diagnosed with chronic periodontitis using clinical criteria developed at the 1999 International World Workshop for Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions.

Results: The SCD, ST, and healthy groups did not vary significantly in terms of clinical indicators such as gastrointestinal (GI), peritoneal (PPD), and caloric (CAL). SCT group PI-1.550.45, GI 1.540.43, PPD-2.170.72 was greater than the mean and standard deviation of the SCD and control groups, but the chi square test revealed it to be non-significantly different.

Conclusion: It is possible that patients with the Indian haplotype of SCD, albeit having milder symptoms of the illness, contributed to our conclusion that SCD, SCT patients had no significantly greater periodontal breakdown than healthy people. Although SCD's fundamental pathophysiology raises issues about our knowledge of periodontitis, additional study is needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Assess the Knowledge Regarding Glaucoma among General Population

Archana Dhengare, Arti Raut

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 46-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34169

Background: The level of knowledge of glaucoma and their possible determinants in a group of people diagnosed with glaucoma and in a population based group without glaucoma. Studies performed on the prevalence of glaucoma have reported a high proportion of undiagnosed patients. Late diagnosis is related to increased risk of glaucoma associated with visual impairment and disability. Lack of awareness and non-availability of appropriate screening procedures are among the major reasons for non-diagnosis or late diagnosis of glaucoma. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the level of awareness about glaucoma among the general population.

Objective: 1. To assess the knowledge regarding glaucoma among general population. 2. To find an association between the level of knowledge with selected socio demographic variables.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in selected hospital. Descriptive  research approach was used in this study. Hundred people in the general population were selected for the study. Structured knowledge questionnaire was used to collect the  data. 

Results: The show that 1 (1%) had poor level of knowledge, 27(27%) were having an average level of knowledge. Fifty seven percent (57%) had a good level of knowledge, fifth teen present 15 (15%) had very good knowledge.  None exhibited excellent level of knowledge. The minimum score was 3 and the maximum score was 12, with the mean score for the test being 7.61 ±1.814 and mean percentage of knowledge was 50.73%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of Ultraviolet and Reverse Phase-high Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Estimation of Cilnidipine

Biswajit Samantaray, Jagannath Panda, Satyapriya Mahapatra, Kajal Ray, Satish Kanhar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 51-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34170

Aim: The current experiment was to develop and validate a straight forward RP-HPLC methodology for the determination of Cilnidipine.

Methodology: UV spectroscopy was used to estimate Cilnidipine. Action separation of Cilnidipine was achieved by employing a C18 column. Mobile phase combination of methanol: water (90:10 v/v) was tense at the flow of 1 ml/min. Detection was performed at 241 nm. Validation parameters were evaluated in line with the International conference on harmonization (ICH) Q2R1 guidelines.

Results: The standardization curve was linear within the varying concentration of 2-10 mg/ml for Cilnidipine with parametric statistic (r2) equal to 0.999. The tactic was found to be accurate (101.66% recovery), precise (intraday, 1.65 and inter day, 1.38) and robust (% RSD was calculated to be 0.66, 0.58 and 0.81 for variation in mobile phase composition, wave length and flow velocity respectively) for the analysis of Cilnidipine.

Conclusion: The developed method has passed all the validation tests and can be successfully applied to estimate the presence of Cilnidipine in bulk as well as in pharmaceutical formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethics and Professionalism in Medical Science and Its Impact on Health Care

Rekha V. Shinde, Kailas V. Shinde, Pritam R. Bande, Ranjit Ambad, Dhruba Hari Chandi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 59-64
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34171

Background: Practicing medicine is always rewarding. It brings money sometimes and friendship, experience of fame at other times. At least one gets the credit and satisfaction of having done a good deed. There could be no better deed or donation than giving life back to a patient. Actually the science of life has an unlimited scope for expansion and the physician is one of the constituent of this life science. Every science has limitations, rules and regulations to achieve the ultimate success. ( Medical) Science is light and it illuminates; one’s own intellect is vision.

Objectives: 1. To learn about Medical Ethics and how it is useful to improve the health care. 2. Professionalism in Health Care and its importance. 3.  Discuss Medical Ethics and humanities, Professionalism and its impact on Health of the society.

Methodology: The datasets used to conclude the study has taken from internet database and relevant books of science of medicine. In this article author tried to explore the trait among medical professional and how it could be develop professionalism towards human health care.

Results: Ethics are the cornerstone to the professional practice because honesty and excellence aren’t just working when your profession is most trusted.

Conclusions: The ideal physician thus has the qualities as- 1. The patient’s health and well being is goal. 2. The physician continuously strives to acquire further knowledge, skill, and proficiency. 3. The physician is well wisher of and works for the uplift of society. 4. The physician is humble, modest, sympathetic and gentle. Professionalism is the part of Good Medical Practice Guidelines (GMC). According to this the Doctors deities are – Knowledge, Skills, and Performance, Safety and Quality, Communication, Partnership and Teamwork, and Maintaining Trust.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Fuller’s Earth, Turmeric, and Sandalwood against Streptococcus Mutans, Micrococci and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci -an In vitro Study

Lekha Dhanasekaran, N. P. Muralidharan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 65-73
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34172

Introduction: Sandalwood powder (Santalum alba) is used if the skin is oily for removing dark spots on the skin. Sandalwood has an anti-tanning and anti-aging property. Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) is mainly used to rejuvenate the skin. It helps to delay aging like wrinkles and also possesses other properties like antibacterial, antiseptic, and anti-inflammatory, and many other properties. Multani mitti helps the skin in many different ways like the reduction of pore size pore sizes, removing blackheads and removing whiteheads fading freckles, soothing sunburns, cleansing skin, improving blood circulation, complexion, reducing acne and blemishes, and gives a glowing effect to your skin as they contain many-particles which can inhibit various organisms.

Materials and Methods: In this investigation, the antimicrobial viability of Turmeric, sandalwood and Multani Mutti was tested against Streptococcus mutans, Micrococci, and coagulase-negative staphylococcus. The microorganisms were filled in strong media, and culture containing stock suspensions was made and, in this way, standard strains of Streptococcus mutans, Micrococci, and Coagulase-negative staphylococci were obtained. Microorganisms were subcultured in fitting society media to affirm their virtue.

Results: The zone of inhibition of turmeric against Streptococcus mutans is about 11mm. The zone of inhibition of turmeric against Micrococci is about 9 mm. The zone of inhibition of turmeric against Coagulase-negative staphylococci is about 13mm. There was no zone of inhibition for both sandalwood and Multani mitti for Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus mutans, and Micrococci.

Conclusion: The study proves the turmeric has antimicrobial potential against Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus mutans,, and Micrococci with good prospects of development into antimicrobial face pack or face wash

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Terazosin, Silodosin and Alfuzosin on Depression and Anxiety in Mice

Mehmet Hanifi Tanyeri, Mehmet Emin Buyukokuroglu, Pelin Tanyeri, Rumeysa Keles Kaya, Aykut Ozturk, Şeyma Nur Basarir Bozkurt, Dilara Ormanci, Oguz Mutlu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 78-87
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34174

Aims: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is common urological disease, is characterized by lower urinary tract syndrome, usually associated with sexual dysfunctions. The aim of present study is to investigate the effects of terazosin, silodosin and alfuzosin which are the main treatment options for BPH on depression and anxiety to understand whether these drugs may be effective in BPH caused mood disorders.

Study Design: All the drugs were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) in a volume of 0.1 ml per 10 g body weight of mice. Drugs were given 30 min before the experiment. We investigated the effects of terazosin, silodosin and alfuzosin on depression and anxiety, in mice.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Department of Pharmacology and Department of Urology, Sakarya University, Animal Research Center, between June 2019 and September 2020.

Methodology: Here, we examined the effects of terazosin (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg), silodosin silodosin (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) and alfuzosin (3, 6 and 9 mg/kg) on depression and anxiety by using forced swimming test and elevated plus maze test, respectively, in mice (n:96). Additionally, the locomotor activity was evaluated by open field test.

Results: All doses of terazosin, alfuzosin and silodosin significantly increased immobility time, compared to saline group. Silodosin and alfuzosin prolonged the time spent in open arms but terazosin decreased the time spent in open arms compared to saline group. Terazosin, silodosin (1 and 3 mg/kg) and alfuzosin (3 and 6 mg/kg) did not have any effect on the number of entries into the open arms while silodosin (10 mg/kg) and alfuzosin (9 mg/kg) increased the number of entries into open arms.

Conclusion: We found that silodosin and alfuzosin had antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects, while terazosin had depressant and anxiogenic effects. Patients with BPH who need antidepressant and anxiolytic treatment can be treated with a single drug instead of multiple medications.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Hyperthecosis on Sporting Performance of Female Players

Syeda Maryam Zara, Sumera Sattar, Yasmeen Tabassum, Shagufta Akhtar, Mahnoor Shafqat

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 93-101
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34176

Testosterone is an anabolic hormone that increases muscle mass and strength, stimulates erythropoiesis, promotes competitive behavior and enhances the sporting performance of female athletes. A comparative study was designed on forty female athletes who were selected from the three public and private sector universities of Lahore, they had been diagnosed with HTC by a qualified gynecologist based on clinical features and lab tests. At the same time, a healthy group of female athletes (n=40) was selected from participants of the same population and having regular menses and showed no clinical features of HTC. The main objectives of the study included: 1) to compare both the groups of female athletes on clinical features of HTC, and 2) to compare both the groups on self-perceived sports performance. Data collection was done using two different instruments involving the “Hyperthecosis Questionnaire (HTCQ)” and “Athlete’s Subjective Performance Scale (ASPS)”. Data analyses involved descriptive analysis followed by an “Independent Sample t test’ to compare the physical and psychological impact of HTC and ANOVA was applied to analyze the impact of HTC on sports performance. There were significant differences between female athletes with HTC and those with Non-HTC on physical and psychological conditions. It can be concluded that female athletes with HTC were more concerned about their physical and psychological conditions. Moreover, their sporting performance was statistically significantly higher than Non-HTC athletes, which is attributed to higher energy levels caused by HTC itself.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of a Head Covering on Photo-Therapy Induced Hypo-calcaemia in Full-term Neonates with Hyper-bilirubinemia

Sachin Mulye, Revatdhama J. Meshram, Krishnakumar Thakrani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 102-107
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34177

Background: Hyper-bilirubinemia causes yellowish discoloration of the sclera and skin in newborns and is one of the most common disorders that neonatologists face daily. In the first week of life, 60 percent of term and 80 percent of preterm babies have jaundice. In neonates with unconjugated hyper-bilirubinemia, phototherapy is the most common treatment.

Objective: To compare the occurrence of hypocalcemia in full-term icteric neonates with and without head covering during phototherapy.

Materials and Methodology: Two hundred and eight full-term neonates were split into two groups for photo-therapy for hyper-bilirubinemia. The heads of the participants in the study group were covered with a hat. Before beginning photo-therapy, serum bilirubin and serum calcium levels were assessed, as well as after 48 hours of photo-therapy. SPSS software was used to tabulate and analyze the data.

Results: Ninety-four (45%) of the 208 neonates in the sample were males, while 114 (55%) were females. The average age was 5.56 +2.78 days, and the average weight was 3.04 +0.58 kilograms. Out of 208 neonates, 44 (21%) had hypocalcemia. Hypocalcemia occurred in 28 neonates in the control group and 16 neonates in the study group. There was no symptomatic hypocalcemia in any of the newborns. The p-value for the Chi square test was 0.2. Since this value is greater than 0.05, it is not statistically important.

Conclusion: In comparison to neonates whose heads were not covered, fewer neonates with covered heads experienced hypocalcemia in our research. However, these findings were not statistically important. However, Research in other countries found that neonatal head cover at phototherapy had a substantial impact. As a result, we propose that a major multicenter study be performed in our country to determine the exact significance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Community Insights Regarding COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake Intention versus Hesitancy

Khalida Naz Memon, Kanwal Naz Ariser, Rafaina Shah, Muhammad Ilyas Siddiqui, Shanti Chouhan, Sindhu Almas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 108-117
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34178

Background: It is widely believed that vaccine hesitancy is prevalent. Achievement of COVID-19 vaccination depends upon public willingness towards immunization against this disease. This study aimed at revealing the underlying situation regarding community hesitancy for COVID-19 vaccine. This study was conducted to determine the level of acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine uptake among community and to seek association between socio-demographic factors and various perceptions about COVID-19 vaccine.

Methods and Materials: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 390 health-care providers and general Pakistani people of age 20 years and above through non probability snowball sampling. An online questionnaire was used to gather data. The socio-demographic variables along with various concepts regarding intentions to take vaccine as well as hesitancy for the same were tried to bring on the surface. The p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: This study reveals that 61.28% of participants desired to get vaccinated. There was significant association between the desire to get vaccination with participant’s age & occupation (p-value < 0.01).  The significant association between the positive views of the health-care providers and the other study subjects (p<0.00) is highly encouraging. The other socio-demographic variables have varied effect on vaccine uptake intentions and hesitancy and require further research on this subject.

Conclusion: The study conducted on three hundred & ninety respondents consistently reveals the significant association between the positive views of the health care providers and the other study subjects with the p-values lesser than 0.001. The study concludes that other socio-demographic fabric of the community showed varied effect on COVID 19 vaccine uptake intentions and hesitancy.

Recommendation: 1. The broad based qualitative research is strongly recommended in order to better seek the community insights & perceptions regarding this public health issue.

  1. The large number of Community people although want to get vaccinated against covid-19, still there is a widespread prevalent doubts about this vaccine as being not so safe for them. Such type of doubts among community necessitate that some counselling sessions be conducted in order to remove uncertainties among common people. Motivations of people need to be raised so as to increase the coverage of covid-19 vaccination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparitive Study of Glutathione-S-Transferase Isoenzyme and Vitamin D Levels in Smokers and Non-smokers

Ranjit S. Ambad, Suryakant Nagtilak, Dattu Hawale, Ashish Anjankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 118-123
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34179

Background: In developed countries, cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. In the second half of this century, dramatic changes in the prevalence of cigarette smoking in the United States reduced current smoking levels to approximately one quarter of the adult population, reducing gender differences in smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable diseases. Cigarette smoking is a serious risk factor for lung cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in both men and women in the United States and around the world.

Aim: Comparative Study of Glutathione-S-Transferase Isoenzyme mu and Vitamin-D Levels in Smokers and Non-Smokers.

Materials and Methods: A total of 100 people aged 20 to 55 years old who came to Shalinitai Meghe hospital in Nagpur for a health check-up were chosen for the research. Non-smokers make up the control group, while smokers make up the research group. There are 50 patients in each group. ELISA was used to determine vitamin D status. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect GST-µ in heparinized whole blood.

Results: GST-µ was found to be mostly positive in smokers, and it was also found to be raised in heavy smokers (6.39±3.2) than light smokers (4.56±0.78). GST-µ is positive in light smokers. GST-µ is nearly equal in smokers (5.24±0.95) and heavy smokers relative to others.

Conclusion: Quitting smoking for a longer period of time was related to higher vitamin D levels than current smoking. Furthermore, the GST-µ measure used in our research may be used to show differences in cytogenetic damage between smokers who have a genetically defined detoxification enzyme and those who do not.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Analysis of Contact Lenses

Hemaanhini Tamilmani, N. P. Muralidharan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 124-131
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34180

Introduction: Contact lenses are small, thin lenses which are worn directly on the surface of the eyes. They can be worn aesthetically or to correct vision. Contact lens related eye infections can lead to serious complications such as blindness, and are associated with several risk factors such as sleeping with lenses, exposure to water, not adhering to replacement schedules, and reusing disinfecting solutions, among others. The severity of the infection may vary with the degree of pathogenicity of the microorganism. Hygiene and handling of contact lenses play a very important role. The main aim of this study is to assess the microbial analysis of contact lenses.

Materials and Methods: A total of 15 lenses were collected in 2 ml sterile saline solution individually and manually agitated for five minutes. The lens was then removed using a sterile toothpick from the container. The sterile container was stored at 4°C till it was processed. 50 microliter of the sample was transferred using a pipette and inoculated on nutrient agar, blood agar and sabouraud dextrose agar. The microorganism (fungus or bacteria) were identified by standard protocol.

Results and Discussion: Bacillus, Staphylococcus aureus and CONS [Coagulase Negative Staphylococci] were found in blood agar. No fungal growth was found among the samples. More importance could be given to contact lenses handling and hygiene to avoid eye related bacterial and fungal infections.

Conclusion: In the present study, the total CFU (Colony Forming Unit) was found to be confluent in all the participants who wore contact lenses for 4 months compared to those who have worn contact lenses from 15 and 28 days. Only bacterial growth was seen in the culture plate. There was no fungal growth seen from the samples collected.

Open Access Original Research Article

Circulatory Glutathion S Transferases Estimation in Chronic Alcoholics Vising Urban and Rural Health Center

Ranjit S. Ambad, Suryakant Nagtilak, Gangaram Bhadarge, Meghali Kaple

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 132-136
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34181

Introduction: Excessive alcohol consumption is a global healthcare problem with enormous social, economic, and clinical consequences, accounting for 3.3 million deaths in 2012. Glutathione (GSH) is tri-peptide thiol with chemical name γ glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine the properties of glutathione are conferred to it by highly reactive thiol present in one of its constituent amino acids- cysteine, hence they referred as GSH. Xenobiotics form thioether (-S) linkage with GSH. The reaction is catalysed by enzyme known as glutathione S Transferases (GSTs). The cytoplasmic GSTs are important in the xenobiotic metabolism and are present in higher concentration in liver.

Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Dept. of Biochemistry in collaboration with Dept. of General Medicine at Datta Meghe Medical College, Nagpur. In present study includes 40 diagnosed alcoholic liver disease patients and 40 non-alcoholic healthy subjects as control group who are permanent nt of study area.

Results: The level of GST was raised in chronic alcoholic patients i.e. study group (43.25±15.94) as compare to control group (1.57±0.55). At the other hand the level of total thiol were decreased in study group (3.12±0.55) as compare to control group.

Conclusions: The strong negative association between glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and total thiol (T-SH) levels suggested that as the concentration of total thiol (T-SH) decreased, glutathione-s-transferase activity increased (GST). This may be attributed to an increase in alcohol-induced oxidative stress and increased T-SH utilization from thiols.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hematological Parameters in Pregnant Women with Special Reference to Iron

Shubhranshu Shekhar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 137-142
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34182

Several biological factors, particularly haematological, are physiologically altered during normal pregnancy. Biologists and doctors who are aware of these changes in the maternal body can screen for potential abnormalities. The aim of this research is to find healthy pregnant women's reference values. This was a cross-sectional research of pregnant women who attended an antenatal clinic at Sree Balaji Medical College, with anaemic and non-anemic pregnant women. Pregnant women were categorized into three groups -Group I - First Trimester (50 cases); Group II - Second Trimester (50 cases) and Group III - Third Trimester (72 cases) while non­ pregnant women formed the fourth group (30 cases). A statistically significant difference between the pregnant women and control group was noted (p < 0.05) for all the hematological parameters: red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, leukocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, platelets and mean platelet volume. The present study provides additional baseline data for basic hematological parameters in healthy pregnant women and concluded that pregnancy in women has the tendency to alter some hematological indices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Blood Pressure on Postprandial Breakfast, Meal and Dinner among Vegetarians

L. S. Akshetha, R. Gayatri Devi, A. Jothi Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 147-153
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34184

Background: Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood within the arteries. Based on the circadian rhythm the BP can change. DBP can change according to age. Processed foods, canned soups, snack foods, and condiments may increase BP. The main aim of this study is to estimate the difference in postprandial BP responses during breakfast, lunch and dinner.

Materials and Methods: A total of 26 healthy volunteers were randomly selected, men and women aged 17-20 for the study. Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Heart rate were measured with ambulatory Blood Pressure devices every 10 min before until 90 min after each meal. The measurements were taken to identify the difference in postprandial Blood pressure responses between breakfast, lunch and dinner. Before starting the study, informed consent was taken. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS software, independent sample T test.

Results: In the present study, there was a mild increase observed before and after breakfast, lunch and dinner. There is a difference in BP before and postprandial during breakfast, lunch and dinner. In the present study, there was a mild increase observed before and after breakfast, lunch and dinner. In the morning the body releases hormones such as adrenaline and noradrenaline. These hormones boost energy which raises the BP. So there is decrease in BP before and postprandial during breakfast

Conclusion: From this study only a significant difference was observed in SBP, DBP, HR of dinner. There was no significant change seen in breakfast.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring the Factors Affecting Organic Food Purchase as Immunity Booster during the Pandemic

Vajreshwari Domle, Shiney Chib, Ranjit Ambad, Roshan Kumar Jha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 154-159
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34185

Organic food products are gaining popularity and are widely accepted by the consumers all over the world.  As they are grown and processed without the use of chemicals, consumers feel that it is safe for consumption and does not have any health hazards. The ongoing pandemic situation, COVID-19 has also given a momentum to the acceptance level of these products, as producers are marketing their products with a tag, ‘immunity booster’.  This study was an effort to identify and validate the dimensions influencing organic food purchase by the consumers.  Questionnaire having 45 questions was developed and administered to 750 respondents. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to explore the factors determining organic food purchase.  Exploratory factor analysis yielded five-factor structure.  Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify and confirm, the five-factor structure.  Multiple  Regression Analysis  was applied to identify the most prominent factor, which influenced the customer to make the purchase.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Smoking Cessation on Lung Function Parameters – A Cross Sectional Study

Yogita Hatmode, Dhanesh Kumar K. U.

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 160-166
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34186

Background: There have been widespread adverse effects and association between smoking and tobacco use across published researches, but very few studies have been investigated on the beneficial effects that accompany a long-term cessation of smoking. Comparing the lung function with normal subjects might significantly use the results obtained, if positive, to encourage current smokers to quit smoking and quitters to continue to refrain from smoking.

 Aims: To determine the impact of cessation of smoking on lung function parameters in quitters as compared to smokers and non-smokers.

Materials and Methods: The cross sectional observational study was on smokers, non-smokers, and quitters in rural area of Mangalore city. A total of 150 individuals were selected for the study, 50 each from all 3 groups of smokers, non-smokers and quitters using convenient sampling method using convenient sampling process. All participants were examined for Pulmonary Function Test parameters. The analysis was carried out using the Analysis of the variance test to determine the impact of smoking cessation in lung function parameters.

Results: Significant differences were observed between quitters, smokers and non-smokers in terms of lung function parameters using ANOVA (FVC-p<0.001**, FEV1-p<0.001**, FEV1/FVC-p=0.04** PEFR difference between the groups was not significant with p=0.25). Analysis of PFT parameters using Tukey’s multiple post-hoc procedures revealed that FVC and FEV1 showed a significant differences between the quitter group when compared to the smoker group p<0-001**.

Conclusion: Smoking cessation was followed by substantial change in lung function parameters FVC and FEV1 between the quitters as opposed to the smoker community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Undernutrition and Its Associated Factors in Tribal Population of Gadchiroli (Vidarbha Region)

Ranjit Ambad, Roshan Kumar Jha, Nandkishor Bankar, Sachin Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 167-173
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34187

Introduction: Under nutrition can be well defined as a result of insufficient food intake, living life with hunger and repeated infection. It comprises being underweight for one’s age, stunted growth where subjects are too short for one’s age,  hazardously thin wasted body and deficient in vitamins and minerals also known as micronutrient malnutrition.

Aim: Prevalence Of Under nutrition And Its Associated Factors In Tribal Population Of Gadchiroli at Aheri (Ct), Gadchiroli (Vidarbha Region)District, Maharashtra.

Materials And Methods: Family must consists of 1 children between ages of 1-6 years and their mothers must be available and willing to be interviewed were incorporated in the sample. Unwilling mothers were excluded. Three hundred study participants were included in the study.

Results: The response rate was 100%. Among all participants, 153 (51%) and 147 (49%) were females and males, respectively. Out Of the total parents, 173(57.66%) could not read, 56 (18.66%) can only read and write, 47(15.66%) of them has completed primary education and 24(8%) has completed secondary school. Out of 300 participants, 123 (41%) had monthly income of less than 750 rupeees.

Conclusion: Under nutrition was high among children below six years of age in gadchiroli,  Aheri CT, Gadchiroli.  Overall under nutrition was high found to be high and proper management should be done.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Dental Students and Practitioners towards Virtual Reality Based Technologies in Central India: A Cross Sectional Survey

Krishankumar S. Lahoti, Sayali G. Dandekar, Jaykumar R. Gade, Megha J. Agrawal, Karan V. Jaiswal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 174-183
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34188

Background: Virtual reality based technologies, which are broadly used in aviation and telecommunication, is now emerging rapidly in the field of dentistry. This technology has progressed tremendously and is simultaneously being refined according to the requirements of the healthcare sector. Such technologies aid in better understanding in an educational setting and provide efficient learning ways which can reduce harm and help to improve patient treatment outcomes.

Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of dental students and practitioners towards Virtual reality based technologies in Central India.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a total of 270 dental students and practitioners across Central India were included. A questionnaire consisting of 26 Questions with regard to VRBT’s was designed and the questionnaire was circulated through a web designed program. The responses were collected, and data were analyzed descriptively using SPSS Statistics for Windows version 24.0.

Results: 90.37 % agreed that VRBT’s could offer many advantages in comparison to conventional technologies used in dental education and practice. 91.1% had not used dental simulators but 35.93% of them believed that dental simulators can be used as a reliable evaluation tool in developing preclinical skills. 75.93 % estimated that VRBT’s will gain popularity in dental practice within 5-10 years.

Conclusion: Learning and including these VRBT’s as a part of undergraduate and continued education programmes could affect the willingness and utilization of these trends in future dental practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on Effectiveness of Rocabado Approach and Conventional Physiotherapy on Pain, ROM and QOL in Patients with TMJ Dysfunction

Sushma Pundkar, Deepali Patil, Waqar Naqvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 201-209
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34192

Background: Temporomandibular joint disorder or dysfunction (TMD) are considered to be a subclass of the musculoskeletal disorders, so requires physiotherapy treatment. Till now very few studies have been done show the effectiveness of Rocabado approach and conventional physiotherapy, so the research aims to compare the effects of same in patients having mild to moderate Temporomandibular joint disorder.

Methods: Subjects (n = 60) with TMJ dysfunction were selected for a comparative study. The participants were randomized into (1) Group A, and (2) Group B. Participants of Group A received Rocabado approach while Group B received the conventional physiotherapy along with home exercises for a period of 8 days immediately following baseline assessment.

Discussion: The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of Rocabado approach and TENS in the patients having mild to moderate Temporomandibular joint disorder. To conclude, we can say that that the current study found evidence to justify the application of Rocabado’s technique to TMJ mobility. It helps patients with TMJ problems having mild to moderate dysfunction to improve their discomfort, mouth opening and quality of life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Innovations in the Management System of the Process of Taking Medicines by Patients Based on Digitalization

Angelina Aleksandrovna Aleksashinа, Sergey Vyacheslavovich Bezuglov, Liliya Mikhailovna Fomichevа, Alexander Vladimirovich Grigoriev, Oleg Ilyasovich Katlishin, Sergey Barinov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 216-222
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34194

In modern conditions, the digitalization of the healthcare sector has increased the pace of development. This is due to the peculiarities of the development of the COVID-19 pandemic and the need to solve issues related to public health more quickly than in the pre-pandemic era.

Today, digital healthcare platforms for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment, patient adherence and tracking of medicinal products are new scientific fields. However, innovative technologies and digital solutions are currently not available to all residents of our country, this is due to the ability to access the Internet, the provision of potential patients with PCs and phones with access to the Global Network. Nevertheless, the introduction of these technologies even in the most remote corners of various countries of the world is necessary, since the constant wave-like development of morbidity indicates a long-term prognosis of the spread of coronavirus infection. Accordingly, people must learn to live and fight this disease, and information technologies in the field of medicine can help them in this. The purpose of the work is to consider innovations in the management system of the process of taking medicines by patients based on digitalization.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Contribution of a Digital Community towards the Parental Ecosystem Transformation

Mounika Reddy Nallamilli, Sunaina Kuknor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 229-237
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34196

A research study was conducted to identify digital communities' role and sphere of influence in a parenting ecosystem. This report provides an overview of the target segment needs assessment and digitalization of their physical communities and support systems. Primary research was done via telephonic calls and zoom interviews of pregnant and new mothers and couples. Forty participants took part in the study to share their experiences and pain points. In addition to this, a WhatsApp group of 350 participants was created to observe the engagement on a digital medium. The study helped us validate the need for a social support system beyond the existing physical network of the participants to reach out to others with similar or better parenting approaches. 70% of the participants have expressed their willingness to join digital parental communities. The findings have been helpful to understand the role of a digital society, which can enhance the offerings of parenting facilitators and support parents in implementing better parenting practices. Of the last 10-12 years, there has been a steady increase in regional parenting networks. As a result, we picked the impact and influence of digital parental networks on these women's lifestyles and how they have aided in the growth of a conscious and good parenting style as our research topic. The conclusion outlines the impact of these communities and the significant concerns that have arisen due to their increased use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Is the Urine Analysis, a Diagnostic Value in COVID-19 Patients?

Sonti Sulochana, Lakshmi Priya Asokan, . Mathesh, Chitra Srinivasan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 243-249
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34198

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2), a novel coronavirus causing Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) in December 2019, is now a pandemic infectious disease, primarily affecting the respiratory tract. To date, many investigations are available for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. A viral nucleic acid test has been used for the diagnosis of COVID-19, and some hematological indicators have been used in the auxiliary diagnosis and identification of the severity of COVID-19. There are very few studies available in routine urine biochemical parameters and their relation with Covid-19 patients.

Aim: This study is aimed to study the changes in urine parameter values in COVID-19 disease and to predict the severity of the disease with the changes in urine parameters.

Materials and Methods: A total of 150 patients with COVID-19 were admitted at Saveetha Medical College and Hospital during the study period. All cases tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR test done on nasopharyngeal swabs during the study period were included. Patients who tested negative by RT-PCR test were considered as controls. The relationship between the results of urine biochemical parameters and the severity of COVID-19 were analysed by Descriptive statistics, Chi-squared test.

Results: The positive rates of proteinuria (PRO) and leucocytes were more significant in COVID-19 patients than in healthy controls. The urine specific gravity (SG) value was highly significant (p <0.001) while the blood, nitrites in urine, and  potential of hydrogen (pH) value was insignificant.

Conclusion: There were some considerable changes in few urine biochemical parameters between patients with the SARS-CoV-2 and healthy controls. So from this study we conclude, proteinuria is helpful for predicting COVID-19 severity and kidney function.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cord Bilirubin Value as a Predictor of Significant Hyperbilirubinemia in Abo Incompatiblity

C. Shanmuga Sundaram

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 256-262
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34201

Background: Hyperbilirubinemia is a condition in which the blood contains too much bilirubin and producing jaundice (yellow coloring of the eyes and skin). Low bilirubin levels in newborns are common and do not pose any problems; they will resolve on their own within the first week of life. Studying the cord bilirubin levels in new born babies is significant to predict the risk of abo incompatiblity.

Methods: A total of 129 babies born to O blood group mother were included in the study. Out of which 111 babies were with risk of ABO incompatibility. Among them 17 babies developed pathological hyperbilirubinemia. None of the 0 positive babies developed pathological hyperbilirubinemia.

Results: The peak bilirubin level was attained on 3rd and 4th day for all the babies and was taken as the outcome measure and cord serum bilirubin was taken as the predictive factor. The incidence of pathological hyperbilirubinemia is 13.2%. The mode of delivery had no positive association with the development of pathological hyperbilirubinemia. Male babies had positive ociation for pathological hyperbilirubinemia without any statistical significance. Incidence of pathological hyperbilirubinemia is higher in babies with a birth weight of <3 kg.

Conclusion: A cord bilirubin value of 2.65 mg/dL can be used as a cut off for predicting pathological hyperbilirubinemia. Infants with bilirubin level more than the cutoff values were subjected to early intervention with complete recovery. None of the babies had developed encephalopathy and its sequelae.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of COVID-19 on Quality of Life among Nurses Treating COVID-19 in Tamil Nadu

Pooja Sadasivam, Preetha S, G. Sridevi, Lavanya Prathap

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 267-274
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34203

Background: COVID-19 is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS- COV- 2). The coronavirus is transmitted by different ways, including contact transmission, direct transmission and aerosol transmission. In health care professions the largest and diverse forces are the nurses. Nurses are important in managing the health emergency management crisis because of their vital link between the health care professionals and the patients. The COVID-19 pandemic has placed health care professionals (HCPs) in high stressful circumstances due to increase in patients. Normal life of nurses would be unprecedented disruption and high risk of exposure. The aim of the study is to investigate the quality of life among nurses treating patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Materials and Methods: The study setting was an online questionnaire survey among nurses in Tamilnadu. This study was conducted in February 2021. There are 127 participants in this survey. The answers regarding how they feel treating COVID-19 Patients, kind of support, impact and quality of life were collected. The data were analysed statistically using SPSS software. The results and observations were recorded in a pie chart. The chi square test and correlation between genders was done and represented in the bar chart. p<0.05 was statistically significant.

Results: More than 50% of the nurses responded that their quality of life was good. 43.31% Females have a good quality of life. 78% of the nurses replied that they have both physical and mental impact treating COVID-19 Patients. The association between the gender and quality of life of nurses was found with the help of chi square test p=0.383 (p >0.05) and hence it was statistically not significant.

Conclusion: The present study found that the majority of nurses 54.33% have a good quality of life.The officials in the health care system should improve the nurses' working conditions, strategies and their quality of work life, so that nurses will perform their duties properly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation Development of Novel Curcumin Analogue Loaded Non-aqueous Gel and Curcumin Analogue Loaded Nanoparticle (CA-NP) Gel for Topical Use and In-vitro Antioxidant Study

Kunal M. Gokhale, Dhara S. Pandey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 284-302
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34204

In this paper we have reported development of suitable dosage form for novel curcumin analogue synthesized in our laboratory. The work involves preformulation studies of synthesized curcumin analogue followed by preparation and optimization of non-aqueous gel and curcumin loaded (CA-NP) nanoparticle gel. The formulated gels were observed visually for clarity, homogeneity, and phase separation.  They were tested for their appearance and presence of any aggregates. Curcumin analogue loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by using the nanoprecipitation -solvent evaporation method and further optimized. In-vitro antioxidant activity of formulation was then evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity. The gel exhibited good antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 5.39 μg/ml.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of COVID-19 on Taste and Smell Sensation among Population in Western Region of Saudi Arabia

Lotfi Issa, Feras Alotaibi, Abdulrahman Almalki, Abdulelah Albaradi, Hamad Alawi, Khalid Althobaiti, Meshary Althwiby

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 303-311
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34205

Background: COVID-19 is pandemic disease caused by (SARS-CoV-2) first discovered in China in December 2019. It affects smell and taste sensation among large proportion of patients with COVID-19.

The aims of this study is to asses impact of COVID-19 on smell and taste sensation among COVID-19 patients in western region of Saudi Arabia.

Methods: The study design was descriptive cross sectional and our sample was be is 500 patients with COVID-19. The data was collected by using structured questionnaire which was distributed electronically and contain (sociodemographic data, diagnosed with COVID-19, status of smell and taste sensation…). The data was analyzed using SPSS program version 22.

Results: We were able to collect 404 responses to our questionnaire with response rate of 80.8 %. The mean age of total sample was 32.1 years with standard deviation of 14.34 years and 56.1 % of participants were females. Prevalence of weak or loss of smell or taste after infection with the emerging corona virus was 74.4%. Moreover, we found that patients who had weak or loss of smell or taste because of COVID-19 were older than those whose sense did not be affected. Moreover, non- Saudi Arabian were more affected by losing of smell and taste with significant difference (P=0.026). Considering medical conditions of patients, we found that patients with any medical conditions were associated with significantly higher incidence of losing smell and taste.

Conclusion: The prevalence of losing smell and taste among patients with COVID-19 in our sample were high and was higher in older patients, male, Saudi arabian and those with other medical conditions. More investigations should be conducted to assess the same variables using retrospective study design.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation of Hot Water Intake and Relief from Menstrual Cramps among Healthy Females - A Cross Sectional Study

Annika Rajaselin, G. Sridevi, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 319-327
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34207

Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that very women undergo during her menstrual phase. It may vary in its frequency and duration in each and every woman. Many home remedies have been followed by females to combat these menstrual cramps. One such treatment is intake of hot water for three days during the menstrual phase

Objective: To aim of the study is to observe the changes experienced by female who consume hot water regularly during menstruation

Methods: The study was conducted in 100 female subjects with regular cycles of menstruation. The participants were administered with a self developed questionnaire consisting of 16 questions relating to the menstrual cramps and the remedies they chose and their regularity of hot water intake and the relief they obtained. The responses were collected using google forms. Descriptive statistics, frequency analysis and chi square test was used to analyze the data.

Results: The study observed that female subjects experienced better results after regular  hot water intake during menstruation. It relieves menstrual cramps and improves mental health.

Conclusion: The present study concluded that the majority of the population had a regular habit of taking hot water and experienced improvement and relief from menstrual cramps.

Open Access Original Research Article

Patients Satisfaction with the Methods of Treatment used for Gallstones: A Cross-sectional Study

Masoud Ahmad Al-Ghamdi, Maryam Ahmad Albaqal, Rakan Abdullah Alosaimi, Lujain Hussain Althakafi, Mustafa Saud Al. Soleiss, Ahmed Abdulaziz Haider, Arub mohammed albalawi, Hassan Awad AlRabaie, Sabah Ayedh Alotaibi, Abdullah Mahmoud Alali, Faisal Qusai Alhejazi, Mohammed Abdulhamid Aljahdali, Wael khalid eibani, Malak Hamed Almalki, Muath Sulaiman Alhumaidi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 328-335
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34208

Background: If gallstones are not causing discomfort, there is usually no need to treat them. Many people with gallstones do not experience any symptoms for a long time. In addition, any treatment can have side effects, and operations are always associated with a certain level of risk. Gallbladder stones are treated differently than stones in the bile duct. If symptoms such as cramp-like pain (colic) occur, they can be relieved with medication. Such pain can only be prevented permanently by removing the gallbladder. An operation is also an option for people without symptoms but with very large gallstones - or with a porcelain gallbladder. The wall of the gallbladder is calcified and there is an increased risk of gallbladder cancer.

Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study to spotlight the satisfaction levels of the Saudi Population towards the different treatment options for gallstones.  The study was carried out at universities, hospitals, and malls in KSA. Data were collected from patients and the general population during a period from June to October 2021.

Results: Most of the patients were highly satisfied with the treatment clarification done by the treating doctor (n= 42, 8.8%), the treatment choice for gallstones, the complications that occurred during their treatment period (n= 34, 7.1%), their condition after the end of the treatment period (n= 41, 8.6%), and the treatment method for condition (n=35, 7.3%). On the other hand, there was a proportion of participants who were not satisfied with the treatment duration (n= 39, 8.1%) and the follow-up after the end of the treatment period (n= 46, 9.6%).

Conclusion: Participants are highly satisfied with treatment choice and treatment effectiveness. However, they were not satisfied with treatment duration and treatment complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anticancer Activity of Leaf Hydro Ethanolic Extract of Aegle marmelos in Human Lung Cancer Cell Mediated through Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 mRNA Expression

R. Sukanth, G. Sridevi, J. Selvaraj, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 336-343
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34209

Background: Aegle marmelos (AE) is a medicinal plant that comes under the rutaceae family and the plant was used in the past for treating many diseases and illness symptoms. The plant has many effects such as anti-diarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antiviral, radioprotective, anticancer, chemopreventive, antipyretic, ulcer healing, antigenotoxic, diuretic, antifertility and anti-inflammatory properties.

Aim: To know the anticancer activity of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Aegle marmelos over lung cancer cells treated with caspase 3 and caspase 9 mRNA expression.

Materials and Methods: The required chemicals were collected mainly from Canada. The lung cancer cells (A549) were collected from NCCS pune and then RNA was extracted from the cells and then the study was conducted after treating it with caspase 3 and caspase 9 mRNA expression. The cells were treated with many dosage of hydroethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos and the cell viability was noted.

Results: The study reported that extract of Aegle marmelos has a great anticancer activity about 1 fold change over rate of 1.7 for cells treated with caspase 3 and a fold change over of 1 in caspase 9 treated lung cancer cells.

Conclusion: The study concluded an innovative finding that the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Aegle marmelos has a great anticancer activity against lung cancer cells treated with caspase 3 and caspase 9 mRNA expression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Submucous Fibrosis with and without Associated Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Ahmad Masoud, Muzzamil Shafique, Faiza Arif

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 351-355
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34211

Introduction: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity.

Aims and Objectives: The core objective of the study is to analyze the oral submucous fibrosis with and without associated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Baqai Dental College Karachi during October 2020 to June 2021. The data was collected from 100 patients of both genders who were confirmed with OSF on the basis of history and clinical examinations were included in the study. Demographic and clinical information were recorded.

Results: The data were collected from 100 patients of both females and males. The age distribution of the sample was analyzed. The patients were mostly above 50 years of age in both categories. However, the number of patients who were with OSCC at an age below 50 was greater in the OSF-positive group (23.8% vs. 21.9%). Similarly, the mean age of OSF + OSCC patients was 57.5 years while this value was 59.5 years for those without.

Conclusion: It is concluded that tumors show well-differentiated histology and less lymph node involvement. However, a statistical significance was not observed among these variables, when comparing the OSCC patients with OSF to those who are without.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epitope Based Vaccine Peptide Predictions for fimH gene of Acinetobacter baumannii

B. Devika, A. S. Smiline Girija, P. Sankar Ganesh, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 365-378
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34213

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that is primarily associated with hospital-acquired infections. Recently, there is a dramatic increase in the incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, which has significantly raised the profile of this emerging opportunistic pathogen. MDR is often associated with the formation of biofilms and various other virulence factors. Amidst all the genes, fimH gene is our area of interest in this research, because it is an important virulence factor in A. baumannii which encodes the Type 1 fimbriae, that helps bacteria bind to the surface of host cells initiating further infection.

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the epitope based vaccine epitope peptide predictions for the fimH protein of A. baumannii.

Materials and Methods: The fimH gene for epitope prediction was selected. Druggability and physico-chemical properties were analysed. Antigenicity was predicted. Epitope mapping of T-cell MHC class 1, Class 1 immunogenicity, conservancy and toxicity analysis was done. T-cell class II epitopes were further mapped together with the immuno-dominant B-cell epitopes. 

Results: From the selected 20 epitopes, 2 best epitopes (AALVASVCL and YSSGANAFT) were selected after analysing their antigenicity and allergenicity. The epitope YSSGANAFT showed better values in association with HLA alleles - HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR and TLR-2.

Conclusion: The finding of the study documents a single immunodominant peptide (sequence) as a promising vaccine candidate to treat infections caused by A. baumannii. However further experimental analysis must be performed to assess the immunological memory and response of the peptide in both in-vitro and in-vivo studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Oral Health Care Needs among Fishermen Living in North Chennai, India – A Cross Sectional Study

V. R. Nithya, Chandrasekaran Krithika, Chitathoor Sridhar, A. Edeinton Arumugam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 379-385
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34214

Introduction: Studies conducted among fishermen shows that there was a high prevalence rate in Oral mucosal lesions. However, data on oral health care needs among fisherman is scarce. Hence this was undertaken to obtain a data that can be used to plan programmes for the prevention and treatment of such oral mucosal lesions in the fishermen.

Materials and Methods: A study was carried out among 71 fishermen after obtaining clearance from the institutional ethical committee and concerned authorities. A self administered questionnaire is distributed among the study group comprising questions relating to personal history and deleterious habits. Clinical examination was carried out using mouth mirror, explorer and under proper illumination.  Oral health examination was   done using WHO Basic Oral health Assessment proforma, 2013. Data collected and analysed statistically using SPSS software.

Results: Among the 71 fishermen, 56(78.9%) were males and 15 (21.1 %) were females. In the study population, 44(62%) were tobacco chewers, 39(54.9%) were snuff users, 24(33.8%) were alcohol consumers and 19(26.8%) were smokers. Smokeless tobacco (41.5%) was the most common deleterious habit after which by alcohol consumption (33.8%) and smoking (26.8%).The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 20.8%.It was found that statistically significant association existed between the deleterious habits and leukoplakia.

Conclusion: According to the our study, the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 20.8% among the fishermen who had a clear association with deleterious habits such as tobacco chewing, smoking, alcohol consumption and snuff.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Investigation and Analgesic Activity of Stem Bark Extract of Sapindus trifoliatus Linn

B. Sangeetha, Ronald Fernandes, K. Adarsha Govinda, K. Vijay Bhaskar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 398-407
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34217

Aims: The study is designed to isolate and charecterize the phytoconstituents, and screen for the analgesic activity of stem bark extracts of Sapindus trifoliatus Linn.

Methodology: The cleaned, dried and powdered stem barks of Sapindus trifoliatus were subjected to extraction by maceration process. The concentrated ethanolic extract of stem bark on was further subjected to preliminary phytochemical studies.  The fractionated extracts were then packed into column chromatography for the isolation of phytoconstituents and they were characterized by IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and mass spectroscopy.Acute toxicity was performed to establish the lethal dose of the extract and In vivo analgesic activity was performed by tail flick and acetic acid induced writhing methods in experimental animals.

Results: Preliminary phytochemical studies showed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins and carbohydrates. Isolation of extracts led to give compounds like saponin glycoside, a steroid and triterpenoids. The extract was found to be safe up to 2000 mg kg bodyweight. Analgesic activity was found significant at level P = 05 when compared with control by tail flick and acetic acid induced writhing models in experimental animals.

Conclusion: From ethanolic extract isolated a saponin glycoside,from petroleum ether stigmasterol and triterpenoids ursolic acid. The presence of saponin glycoside, triterpenoids, steroids might be responsible for the analgesic activity of the stem bark extract of Sapindus trifoliatus Linn.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical & Pharmacological Investigation of Stems of Passiflora foetida

N. Michael Antony, Jennifer Fernandes, Jane Mathew

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 408-414
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34218

Aims: To carry out extraction, preliminary phytochemical analysis and invivo analgesic screening of extract of the stem of Passiflora foetida L.

Methodology: Passiflora foetida L; Family: Passifloraceae, is an exotic fast-growing perennial and medicinal vine occurring in Germany, France and other European countries and USA and grown in different parts of India. Dried stems of Passiflora foetida L was coarsely powdered and maceration was done using Soxhlet apparatus. The ethanolic extract of stems of Passiflora foetida L was subjected to preliminary phytochemical tests. Then subjected to in vivo analgesic activity.

Results: Phytochemical investigation of the stem of Passiflora foetida L preliminary test showed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Acute toxicity study of ethanolic extract of stems of Passiflora foetida L was carried out and extracts were found to be safe up to 2000 mg/kg body weight. Pharmacological activities of stems of Passiflora foetida L was carried out from ethanolic extract.

Conclusion: Phytochemical investigation of ethanolic extract of stems were carried out and Analgesic activity by tail flick method in rats and acetic acid induced writhing method in mice, showed statistically significant activity (P=.05) when compared to control. The ethanolic stem extract of Passiflora foetida L proved to have significant pain relieving action in a dose dependent manner.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Post Vaccination Symptoms Following COVID-19 Vaccination in India: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study

Deshpande Sanjay, Patil Sachin, Ninad Nagrale, Swarupa Chakole

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 415-422
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34219

Introduction: The recent examples of newly emerged diseases that causes alarming situation globally include H1N1, Congo Hemorrhagic fever, Ebola virus diseases, Nipah Virus Infection, Lassa Fever and newly declared global emergency pandemic SARS nCOVID-19 infection. Since its emergence, it has spread around the globe. It tends to spread by the inhalation of the respiratory aerosols, direct human contact.

Materials and Methods: This analytical study was carried out among the healthcare workers and people who received either of Covishield or Covaxin. The online survey questionnaire was prepared and data obtained through the responses to the survey proforma.

Results: 86.17% respondents were above 40 years, 69.15% males and 30.85% were females. 89.36% were vaccinated with Covishield and 10.64% by Covaxin. 75.53% respondents experienced post vaccination symptoms; commonest were the local pain at injection site (28.72%), fever (12.76%), Myalgia (12.77%). The symptoms were found more in respondents with any of co-morbid condition.

Discussion: Covishield was used more commonly than Covaxin in study samples. The symptoms following vaccination were more common in 40-60 age group and persons with co-morbid conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Burns in a Suburban Teaching Hospital: A Retrospective Record Review in Kanchipuram, India

Sai Aishwarya Thakku Yoganathan, Alagar Raja Durairaj, Surya Rao Rao Venkata Mahipathy, Narayanamurthy Sundaramurthy, Anand Prasath Jayachandiran, Suresh Rajendran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 423-429
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34220

Background: Burn injuries rank among the most severe type of injury with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Burn injuries not only affect patients physical health but also affects their social and psychological well being along with severe economic loss to the individual, their family and to the society. About 90% burn injuries are preventable, but poor adherence of safety measures and awareness leads to disability and disfigurement throughout their life. Hence, the need for various demographic variables to understand the cause and pattern in our region are required.

Objectives: To describe the demographic and socio-cultural aspects of burn patients and to learn the cause of burn victims in our region.

Materials and Methods: A record based retrospective study was conducted at Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Thandalam, Kanchipuram district. The medical records of all patients over a period of 4 years (January 2017 to December 2020) were reviewed. Data were recorded on a pre-structured and pretested questionnaire. Chi-square test was done to study association between socio-demographic variables and burn injury and (p<0.05) was considered statistically significant.

Results: A total of 208 burn cases were involved in this study out of which 56.7% were females and 43.3% were males. Most of the burn patients were 31-45 years and lived in rural areas. The majority of burn injuries were accidental; thermal burns was the most common cause of deep burns.

Conclusion: Socio-demographic factors are important in raising educational programs and awareness in rural areas for improving quality of life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxic Effect of Pterocarpus santalinus and stevia-based Mouthwash - A Lab-based Analysis

R. Nandita, R. Priyadharshini, S. Rajeshkumar, P. Sinduja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 437-447
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34222

Introduction: Red sandalwood called as Pterocarpus santalinus is esteemed for the rich red colour of its wood. Pterocarpus santalinus used as astringent, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. Also helpful in treating skin illness, fistula, haemorrhage and ulcers. Stevia rebaudina is a food additive with lingering flavor. The wood isn't aromatic. The tree isn't to be mistaken for the fragrant Santalum sandalwood trees that fill locally in South India. In the present study we have prepared Pterocarpus santalinus and stevia-based mouthwash and evaluated its cytotoxic activity.

Materials and Methods: 1g of Pterocarpus santalinus and stevia were measured and 50 ml of distilled water were measured. Both were mixed together to make the aqueous extract. To that 10 nauplii were slowly added and the cytotoxic activity is analysed by the number of live nauplii counts. 

Results: First day, Nauplii were grown in the medium and it hatches out after 24 hours. Second day, Mouthwash was added according to the concentration. Nauplii were collected and for each concentration 10 nauplii were added. After adding the nauplii, cytotoxicity well as undisturbed for one full day to analyze the inhibition of growth. Third day, nauplii were counted and cytotoxicity of mouthwash was evaluated. Statistical analysis showed significant reduction in the nauplii count (P<0.05). 

Conclusion: Medicinal plants cure many severe diseases. Application of medicinal plants in the field of medicine should be improved. Based on the results recorded in the present study, it is concluded that Pterocarpus santalinus has a potential cytotoxicity activity. Hence the present study findings provide a beautiful base for some of the medicinal uses of Pterocarpus santalinus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Device for Holding a Mini Implant Placement Guide

Sandesh Phaphe, Tanuja Sathe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 454-457
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34224

Introduction: Generally, a mini implant is a device which is used for fixing the bones. It helps in augmenting orthodontic anchorage. It is done wherein either by direct or indirect anchorage which further is getting removed subsequently after being used.

Objective: The objective of the present research is to provide a device for holding a mini implant placement guide. Another objective of the present research is to provide a device for holding a mini implant placement guide, which provides accurate placement of a mini implant in three planes of space, namely, sagittal, vertical and transverse.

Methods: The device is configured on a dental brace. The device is provided with an engaging member, an operating member, a vertical arm and a horizontal arm. The engaging member is having two engaging legs.

Results: The present research provides a device which is used in an orthodontics treatment. The orthodontics is a dental specialty that aids in the correction of the alignment of teeth, with respect to the skeletal form, and a soft- tissue relationship of a patient undertaking the treatment.

Conclusion: The present research provides a device for holding a mini implant placement guide. Also, the device provides accurate placement of a mini implant in three planes of space, namely, sagittal, vertical and transverse. Further, the device help in the placement site decision mesiodistally, as well as the vertical positions of the crown-to-root areas can be determined.

Open Access Original Research Article

COVID-19 Pandemic Impact on Emergency Department Visits and Quality of Service: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study in a Tertiary Centre

Maram Mohammed Jaboua, Warif Jameel Abdulhaq, Nada Saeed Almuntashiri, Sarah Saud Almohammdi, Asayel Qeblan Aldajani, Ahmed Mohammed Alghamdi, Amjad Suda Alsubhi, Rahaf Ali Almehmadi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 471-483
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34227

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to a devastating impact on emergency departments worldwide, resulting in a global crisis with various health consequences. We aimed to evaluate this impact on an emergency department (ED) visit of critical conditions such as Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), Cerebrovascular accident (CVA), Sepsis and Febrile neutropenia (FN), and to assess the quality of the ED after new adaptive measures were applied.

Methods: This is a comparative cross-sectional study to assess the number of patients who presented to the ED of King Abdullah Medical city with the specified diagnosis. We collected data via the E-medical records. We compared the data over three periods pre-lockdown, lockdown and post lockdown in years 2019-2021. For quality measurement, Adaa (Ministry of Health's program) was used to calculate the percentage of patients who stayed 4 hours or less in the ED.

Results: The total number of ED visits in the specified periods of study was 8387. The total numbers of patients for 2019, 2020, and 2020 respectively were 2011 (, ACS 70.4%, CVA 16.3%, sepsis and FN 13.3%.), 2733 (ACS 73.1%, CVA 9.9%, sepsis and FN 17.0%), and 3643 (ACS 64.0%, CVA 19.4%, sepsis and FN 16.7). The average percentage of patients who stayed 4 hours or less in the ED was 60% and 57.5% for 2020 and 2021, respectively.

Conclusion: Although we expected reductions in ED visits during COVID-19 periods, we found that visits were rising through the years 2019-2021.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prediction of Epitope Peptides for PTK Gene of Acinetobacter baumannii

M. I. Sheefaa, A. S. Smiline Girija, P. Sankar Ganesh, J. Vijayashree Priyadharshini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 484-492
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34228

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is a gramnegative bacilli acquiring both intrinsic and adaptive patterns of multi drug resistance and virulence. Immune-informatics approach holds promise to detect putative epitope peptides from vital virulence factors which can be further synthesized and evaluated for their immunological response.

Aim: The aim of the study was to predict the immuno-dominant peptides from the ptk gene of A. baumannii.

Materials and Methods: Protein retrieval of the Ptk gene using CELLO V.2.5 was done with the evaluation of antigenicity and allergenicity of the predicted epitopes, using Vaxijen V2.0 server and AlgPred servers. Epitope structure prediction and validation by using RAMPAGE revealed the homology peptides. Molecular Docking of epitopes with HLA-alleles using ClusterPro server, and further identification of B cell epitope was performed by using Kolaskar and Tonganokar antigenicity method.

Results: A total of 20 epitopes were predicted and 18 peptides were chosen based on antigenicity and stability analysis prediction. The structure predictions were carried out using pepfold server and based on Ramachandran plot analysis 10 epitopes were taken for further analysis.

Conclusion: The present finding has detected and evaluated the desirable epitope as LFFSLIAQW using an immune-informatic approach. However, it needs further experimental validation for its immunological response using standard in-vitro studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Clinicopathological Profile of the Cases of Colorectal Carcinoma

Dhanya Menon, Iniya Sudhan, Ganthimathy Sekhar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 493-500
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34229

Aim: To assess the clinicopathological details of patients with colorectal cancer in a tertiary care centre in India and compare it other studies reported in the literature.

Study Design: This is a retrospective study conducted on all the patients who were admitted in the period of 2017 to 2020.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, Saveetha Medical College, Thandalam, Chennai. The data was processed and the manuscript was prepared between June 2020 and January 2021.

Methodology: Patient details were collected from the histopathology records and the parameters studied were age, gender, tumour site, histological type, differentiation and tumour stage of the colorectal carcinoma. The sampling was done using the complete enumerate sampling method. The patients diagnosed histopathologically as colorectal carcinoma were included in our study.

Results: A total of 51 patients had been admitted in the years 2017, 2018, and 2019 in our institute. There was a female predominance among the patients. The mean age of the patients was lesser than the mean age of colorectal cancer cases in other studies which have been reported in the country. The most common tumour site was rectum in both the sexes and the most common histologic type was adenocarcinoma. The most common histological differentiation was moderate differentiation.

Conclusion: The increased incidence in younger patients as compared to previous studies may be attributable to the lifestyle and dietary changes.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Identification and Comparison of Functional Components in Different Species of Passion Fruit Vine Leaves

Poornima Jeyasekaran, M. Deepa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 501-507
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34230

Functional components are found abundantly in plants which are non-nutritive and bio active compounds that prevents the onset of degenerative diseases and protects the body by maintaining the health.  The objective of this study is to identify the chemical components of different varieties of passion fruit leaves (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa,Passifloraedulisf. edulis and Passiflora quadrangularis) available wildly in the hills of Tamil Nadu, India. Young tender passion fruit leaves can be used as a raw leafy green as they contain vitamin A and niacin. The dried leaves are used for calming teas and herbal remedies. The functional components were identified using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy FTIR(ATR) spectrophotometer. The leaves contain polyphenols, triterpenes, carotenoids, polysaccharides, amino acids and flavonoids which have a lot of beneficial effect on human health especially in preventing degenerative diseases. This paves way to use these amazing abundant greens in clinical studies as ayurvedic preparations and treat illness naturally.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Assess the Effectiveness of Planned Teaching on Knowledge Regarding Mid-Wife Led Continuity of Care Model (MLCC) on Final Year Nursing Students

A. Lalawmpuii, Vaishali Taksande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 508-516
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34231

Background: In many parts of the world, midwives are the primary providers of care for childbearing women. There are considerable variations in the organisation of midwifery services and in the education and role of midwives. Childbearing women are often faced with different opinions as to which option might be best for them. The midwife‐led continuity model of care is based on the premise that pregnancy and birth are normal life events. Pregnancy and birth are significant life events for women and their families and midwife supports a woman throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postnatal period. So, the demand for services that are family friendly, women focused, safe and accessible is increasing.

Objectives: 1) To assess the existing knowledge regarding mid-wife led continuity of care model on final year nursing students. 2) To evaluate the effectiveness of planned teaching on knowledge regarding mid-wife led continuity of care model (MLCC) on final year nursing students. 3) To find out the association between knowledge regarding mid-wife led continuity of care model (MLCC) with selected demographic variables.

Materials and Methods: In this study, evaluatory research approach and one group pre-test post-test research design was used. The study was conducted at a Selected Nursing College. The sample was collected from final year nursing students (120) by using non-probability convenient sampling technique.

Results: In this study the study of the findings shows that 10.83% had good level of knowledge score in pre-test. While in post-test, out of 120 subjects the majority of the subjects and 92.50% had good level of knowledge score. This statistically shows that there is profound level of improvement on knowledge.

Conclusion: Hence, this implies that the planned teaching was effective.  Also, the study shows that the knowledge scores of final year nursing students is associated with the age in year and course of study. Hence, this means that greater the number of age in years and the course, greater level of knowledge scores. However, gender was not found to be associated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Health Care Worker about Uptake of Influenza Vaccine in COVID-19 Era

Amal M. Alshahrani, Hamzh Esam Mellebary, Yara Rashed A. Albayyahi, Ali Ibrahim Ali Alsakiti, Abdullaziz A. Alshahrani, Mohammed Abdulrahman Alasmari, Abdulaziz Zafer AlShahrani, Ziyad Ali Alosayfir, Hawra Hussain Al Radhwan, Abdulmajeed Dhafer Alshahrani, Omar Alsudairy, Alhanouf Dhaifallah Hamad Alharbi, Mohmmed A. Alshehri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 517-524
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34232

Background: Considering the important role of health workers in increasing seasonal influenza vaccination coverage and the similarity of seasonal influenza to COVID -19, it is important to increase vaccination rates to reduce the risk of both diseases.

Objective: In this study, we aim to investigate how health workers perceive the importance of influenza vaccination, especially in the era of COVID -19.

Results: The study involved 316 health workers from Abha in 2021, most of them were physicians, male and young. Participants agreed that influenza can be a serious illness and that the vaccine is very safe. Most HCWs would have preferred to inform their patients about the vaccine. This result changes if the patient disagrees with the COVID -19 vaccine.

Conclusion: Despite the low rate of seasonal influenza vaccination, there is a need to recruit health workers to increase this rate, especially in the Covid 19 era.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Role of In-patient Pharmacist in Prescribed Drug Handling, Mixing, Infusing and Spillage Handling of Chemotherapeutic Drug-Cisplatin in a Tertiary Hospital Pharmacy

K. Gladys Kalpana, K. Arun, Abraham Jebaraj, J. Senthil, M. Anandhi, S. Felicia Roshini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 525-535
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34233

The in-patient pharmacist in a cancer hospital plays a major role in patient care especially in patient taking chemotherapy and other narrow indexed drugs as a part of cancer treatment. The pharmacist works as one of the members of cancer treatment team along with physician, oncologist, nurse and other medical professionals. An oncology pharmacist has major role in chemotherapeutic drug handling, mixing, infusing and spillage handling in a disciplined manner. In order to get hands on training about ‘‘oncology-pharmacy’’, it is a mandatory novel pharmaceutical department where a hospital pharmacist who works in oncology will have to get training in handling of chemotherapeutic drugs. The pharmacists who are interested in cancer care will involve in various facets cancer care; from chemotherapeutic drug regimen preparation, mixing of dosage regimen, infusing and finally spillage handling. Hence, it is a mandatory criterion for a graduate pharmacist to get hands on training in specialty Centre to take the responsibility as oncology in-patient pharmacist. The inpatient pharmacist can also be a clinical investigator for various clinical trials involving chemotherapeutic medication usage in patients with cancer. Current study shows that an inpatient pharmacist can play a major role in handling, mixing, infusing and spillage handling of chemotherapeutic drugs in a cancer care centre. The pharmacists are also responsible for reducing drug waste, dealing with drug shortages and reducing exposure to hazardous cytotoxic drugs. The current study suggests that the pharmacist in a cancer care hospital should specially be trained for the handling of chemotherapeutic drugs, mixing and infusion, spillage handling and wastage handling in order to provide accurate treatment for patient and to avoid untoward damage to the person who is handling.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on the Impact of Parent-child Relationship and Socioeconomic Status on Problem Behaviour among Children

Partha Malakar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 541-549
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34235

Aim: The aim of study was to examine whether there exists significant difference in problem behavior among children with the variation in socioeconomic status in the family and parent child relationship (mother-child and father-child relationship).

Study Design: A cross-sectional analytical study.

Place and Duration of Study: Data collected in group (maximum with 20 participants by maintaining necessary Covid protocols) at schools in Kolkata with special appointment and after taking consent from the school authority and the participants in November, 2021.

Methodology: 100 Bengali parents as participants from Kolkata with 30 to 45 years of age and having children within 10 years of age were included following necessary inclusion criteria. The tools used for the study were an information schedule, modified Kuppuswamy SES scale, the Child Behaviour Checklist and parent child relationship scale.

Results: Results revealed that the problem behavior in children differed significantly due to the variation in socioeconomic status of the family and parent child relationship (in terms of mother child and father child relationship). Thus, the impact of socioeconomic status and parent child relationship on problem behavior among children is significant (P< .001).

Conclusion: The present study concludes that there are significant impact of socioeconomic status and parent child relationship on problem behavior of the children. The present study has implications in emphasizing that socioeconomic status of the family and nature of parent child relationship play a pivotal role in generating internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors sometimes separately and sometimes together which gradually may turn into developing chronic psychological disturbances. Therefore, immediate measures should be taken to develop concern and to implement psychological intervention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Lycopene on Histological Alterations of Basement Membrane & Fibrosis in Renal Interstitial Tissue of Celebrex Induced Albino Rats; An Experimental Study

Sadia Sundus, Ashok Kumar, Anjum Rehman, . Ata-Ur-Rehman, Sara Naqvi, Sana Aslam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 555-563
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34237

Objective: To assess the histological alterations in basement membrane and fibrosis in renal interstitium of albino rats due to celebrex with enhancement by lycopene. 

Study Design: Experimental study.

Abode of Study: Animal House of Jinnah Postgraduate institute, Karachi,

Materials and Methods: COX-2 inhibitor and antioxidant medicines were used in this research work. These medications were orally administered in 40 male albino rats weighing 200-220gm for experimentation. Rats were housed in separate pens at 23ºC. Rats were arranged into 4 groups including control horde and three experimental hordes. The medications were dose up orally by gastric tube daily for one month.  At completion of experiment, animals were dissected and tissues were well-preserved for staining.

Results: In second horde PAS stained kidney segments showed disrupted basement membrane of distended proximal convoluted tubules & ill-defined brush border and fibrosis in renal interstitium, but 3rd horde had intact basement membrane & well-define brush border at the luminal surface of proximal tubular epithelium and there was mild fibrosis in renal interstitium.

Conclusion: This study divulges that lycopene convalesce the disrupted basement membrane and fibrosis in second horde.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Gabapentin Sustained Release Matrix Tablet Using Hibiscus rosa sinensis Leaves Mucilage as Release Retardant

P. Amsa, G. K. Mathan, S. Magibalan, E. K. Velliyangiri, T. Kalaivani, S. Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 564-572
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34238

The major goal of this study was to develop and evaluate Sustained release matrix tablets of Gabapentin with Hibiscus rosa - sinensis leaves mucilage prepared by using wet granulation technique with microcrystalline cellulose as a diluents and magnesium stearate as a lubricant. Pre-compression and post-compression evaluation of physicochemical parameters were carried out and to be within acceptable limits. Drug and polymer compatibility were validated by FTIR measurements. Further, tablets were evaluated for in vitro release study. To get the sustained release of Gabapentin, the concentration of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis mucilage was tuned with a gas-generating agent. The % drug release of all formulation from F1 to F5 showed 91.24%, 80.24%, 70.53%, 62.12% and 49.83% respectively. All the dosage form release kinetics was computed using zero order, first order, Higuchi, and Korsmeyer–Peppas methods. From the above results, it is concluded that the n value of formulation F5 showed 0.78 suggesting anomalous (non-fickian) behavior of the drug. Mucilage from the leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a great retarding effect in drug release from sustained release tablets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytoconstituents Isolation and Hepatoprotective Activity Potential of Averrhoa bilimbi Leaf Extract

Raghavendra Prabhu, Ronald Fernandes, K. Adarsha Govinda

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 573-581
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34239

Objective: To isolate and evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the crude ethanolic leaf extract of Averrhoa bilimbi

Methods: The leaves of Averrhoa bilimbi were extracted by cold maceration using ethanol as a solvent, and the solvent fractions were obtained with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate. Preliminary phytochemical tests were performed for the presence or absence of secondary metabolites. Plant chemical constituents were isolated using column chromatography and characterized by IR,1HNMR,13CNMR and mass spectroscopic values. Albino rats were treated with the vehicles (distilled water or 2% Tween 80), three different doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) of the crude ethanol extract and the standard drug (silymarin 100 mg/kg), and the hepatotoxicant paracetamol. Then, the levels of biomarkers of liver injury – such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) – and liver function such as bilirubin were measured along with histopathological examination.

Results: Preliminary phytochemical studies shown the presence of n-docosanoic acid and beta

sitosterol from petroleum extract and from ethyl acetate a flavonoid apigenin.The ethanol extract suppressed the plasma levels of AST, ALT and ALP (P=0.05) in the aforementioned doses. Maximum hepatoprotective activity was observed at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight.

Conclusion: Averrhoa bilimbi is endowed with hepatoprotective activity, probably with the presence its chemical constituents like sterols,flavonoids and terpenoids.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Fluorometholone Eye Drops in a Public Healthcare Organization in Riyadh Province

Nehad J. Ahmad, Mohamad Ayman Salkini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 582-586
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34240

Aim: This study aimed to describe the use of fluorometholone eye drops in a public healthcare organization in Riyadh Province

Methodology: This is a retrospective study that includes reviewing the electronic prescriptions of fluorometholone eye drops among outpatients in a public healthcare organization in Riyadh Province

Results: During the study period, only 42 patients received fluorometholone eye drops. More than 64% of them were females and the age of 28.57% of them was between 20 and 29 years. More than 73% of the patients received fluorometholone eye drops for 1 week. Most of the prescriptions were prescribed by residents. More than 95% of the prescriptions were written by ophthalmology department.

Conclusion: The present study showed that fluorometholone eye drops was uncommonly prescribed in Al-Kharj. More studies are needed to describe the frequency of using and the pattern of prescribing fluorometholone eye drops. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Dental Arch Width and Vertical Facial Morphology in Untreated Adults- A Retrospective Study

Sameer Narkhede, Kretikka Sabharwal, Vivek Soni, Karthick Shetty, Sushma Sonawane, Nitin Gadhiya, Rakesh Singh, Aparna Khamatkar, Veera Sawant

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 587-596
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34241

Early orthodontic research has focused on the link between face shape and malocclusion. Orthodontic treatment's effectiveness and stability are heavily influenced by a patient's dental and facial anatomy. An orthodontist's knowledge of arch shapes is essential since it affects the patient's treatment and future growth.

For this study, the researchers wanted to see if there was a link between vertical face morphology and arch width, and if there was a difference in arch width between males and females. Arch width measurements (in millimetres) were utilised to determine the association.

For both males and females, participants with the lowest mandibular plane angle had the widest arch, followed by those with the average mandibular angle and those with the highest.

Open Access Review Article

Review of Recent Rehabilitation Techniques for Fall Prevention in Parkinson’s Disease

R. Shruthi, K. M. Krishnaprasad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 184-192
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34189

Background: Recurrent falls are a common phenomenon in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients which leads to increased healthcare costs, poor quality of life, and caregiver burden. Through suitable exercise training fall in PD patients can be prevented or minimized. Aim of this review was to provide recent information of different intervention strategies to prevent falls in PD.

Methodology: Electronic data base such as PubMed and Scopus indexed journals were searched from the past five year to retrieve recent evidence. Keywords such as Parkinson’s disease, fall prevention and rehabilitation were used. Only Systematic review and RCT were added for the higher-level evidence data extraction.

Conclusion: Eexercise-based program and Tai chi were found to have positive evidences for preventing falls in PD patients. However, various mechanism behind the fall in PD as well as worsening of the symptoms as the result of disease progression may be the reason behind the negative results of some of the intervention.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Assessment and Evaluation of Vitiligo in Primary Care

Faisal Suliman Algaows, Tala Shawkat Bukhari, Tahani Mohammed Asiri, Abdulkarim Mudbigh Almazyadi, Salma Abdul Khahar, Ayshah Mohammed K. Alhakeem, Danah Youssef A. Albouri, Ali Nasser Alsindi, Haytham Saleh Alzeadi, Amjad Omar Alkanas, Meshary Saud Almotiry, Ashwaq Laili Alanazi, Ahmed Abdulrazagh M. Alabdulaziz, Kawthar Fawaz Alhamwan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 275-283
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34190

Vitiligo is an acquired skin disorder characterised by the disappearance of melanocytes, resulting in well-defined white patches that are frequently symmetrically distributed. The lack of melanin pigment makes the lesional skin more sensitive to sunburn. Vitiligo can be cosmetically disfiguring, and it is a stigmatising condition that can lead to serious psychologic problems in daily life. Vitiligo is treated with a variety of topical and systemic medications, phototherapy, laser therapy, and surgical therapy. Corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and vitamin-D analogues are examples of topical treatment modalities. Phototherapy is a highly effective treatment method. It causes repigmentation in the majority of patients with early and localised disease. Because vitiligo is associated with other autoimmune disorders, a multidisciplinary approach is required. Collaboration and communication between primary care physicians and dermatologists are critical. This review aims to assess role of primary care physicians in assessment and management of vitiligo in primary care settings.

Open Access Review Article

Systematic Review on Loxapine: A Typical Antipsychotic Drug Used to Treat Agitation in Schizophrenic Patients

Abdul Halim, Ritika Puri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 193-200
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34191

Loxapine is an antipsychotic drug used in neuroleptic disorders since 1980 with an entrenched drug profile. Drug possesses dibenzoxazepine tricyclic 7-membered heterocyclic ring available commercially as oral, intramuscular and inhalation dosage forms. This review comprises the various study designs of loxapine irrespective of its dose formulations.

A comprehensive and systematic search was conducted on “Scopus”, “Web of science” and “Pub-med” data base and findings were critically analyzed. The data suggests that there is no significant difference in efficacy between typical and atypical antipsychotics.  Till now, oral and intramuscular route is widely in use. Oral dosage forms are available in the market for the treatment of agitation related to schizophrenia but it has limitation of delayed onset of action that results in increased risk. Intramuscular formulations reveal a significant difference compared to placebo with respect to agitation but time range could be in range of 15 to 60 minutes. Therefore, there is a need for a novel drug delivery system with rapid action, increased half life, better tolerance by the patient and sustained release to get enhanced patient compliance.

Open Access Review Article

The Indian Lessons to be Learnt from COVID-19 Pandemic

Sonali Wavare, Archana Dhengare

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 223-228
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34195

Emerging pandemics indicate that people are not infallible and that communities need to be prepared. Coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak was first identified in late 2019, and has now been declared a World Health Organization pandemic. Countries around the world are reacting to the virus outbreak differently. On the other hand, several other nations have put in place successful measures to control the virus, reporting a relatively limited number of cases since the pandemics started. Restrictive steps such as social distancing, lockdown, case identification, isolation, touch monitoring and exposure quarantine had shown the most effective acts to monitor the spread of the disease. This review will help readers understand that this invisible and ‘omnipresent’ virus has taught a lesson for the first time in human history that whatever human power might have, it could not subjugate every living being in this world. This has been confirmed once again by the recent invasion of this human virus. Difference in the answers of the different countries and their outcomes,  based on that country's experience, India responded accordingly to the pandemic. Only time will tell how well India comes up against the outbreak. We also propose the potential approaches the global community will take in handling and minimizing the emergency.

Open Access Review Article

Covid Shielding (Preventive Measures of COVID-19)

Pranjal Upadhyay, Pradip Jain, Praful Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 250-255
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34200

COVID-19 had a lot of lessons to tell, and one of the most interesting was how difficult it is to manage a deadly, fast-moving disease in a community that is closely tied together by mass transportation, mass consumption, and mass media. As the largest pandemic to have occurred in the “digital-mass society” period, COVID-19 demonstrates how quickly a virus can spread through the "masses" despite the many steps taken by public health authorities to limit its spread. The primary measure most in use by health officials during COVID-19 pandemic is preventing person to person spread of disease by creating a firewall between uninfected and infected masses. COVID-19 had a lot of lessons to tell, and one of the most interesting was how difficult it is to manage a deadly, fast-moving disease in a community that is closely tied together by mass transportation, mass consumption, and mass media. As the largest pandemic to have occurred in the “digital-mass society” era, COVID-19 offers an insight on how quickly a virus can spread through the "masses" despite the many steps taken by public health authorities to limit its spread. The material required for the review was taken from the databases of Pub Med, Web of science, the from the website of World Health Organization and the patients data of SMHRC and DMMC Wanadongari Nagpur.

Open Access Review Article

Overview of the Role of Glucagon like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists in the Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Asma Alshenqiti, Ghaida Almohammadi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 312-318
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34206

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects premenopausal women. It is a multifactorial disease that involves hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, insulin resistance and genetic factors. Women with PCOS present with menstrual disorder, hirsutism, and obesity. Diagnosis of PCOS involves evidence of ovulation dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, either physical or biochemical, and ultrasonographic evaluation of the ovarian morphology. There is no single treatment for PCOS but rather it is a symptom-oriented management. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are insulin sensitizers usually involved in the management of PCOS.

Aim: This article aims to review the evidence regarding the role GLP-1 RAs in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome.

Conclusion: GLP-1 RAs found to improve PCOS outcomes in the form of increasing menstrual frequency, reducing androgens levels, higher pregnancy rates, weight reduction, and improving insulin resistance. Mild and transient adverse events were observed such as nausea, diarrhea, headache, insomnia and mild hypoglycemic events. However, long term studies are required to assess long term effect of GLP-1 RAs and its safety during pregnancy.

Open Access Review Article

An Ancient Art form to a Therapeutic Intervention- Belly Dancing & Women’s Health

Taarini Kamath, Aishwarya Nair

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 386-390
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34215

Introduction: Dance or movement therapy has been proved to have a curative power for ages. Physical fitness is controlled by a combination of the potential the person has in doing his/her own regular activity and genetically inherited capability. Belly dance is an expressionistic type of dance that initially originated in Egypt which lays emphasis on complex movements of the trunk. Belly dancing has gracefully swayed its way to mainstream cardiovascular and musculoskeletal fitness all over the world, with significant impact on women’s health.

Objective: To provide concise overview of Belly dancing and its effects on women’s health.

Methods: A Search of PUBMED, CINHAL, Google Scholar. database was conducted to find relevant studies in relation to Belly dancing as a therapeutic intervention in the paradigm of women’s health. The studies that met with the inclusion criteria were included in this review.

Results: This review provides a crisp understanding of the impact of Belly dancing on several pathologies namely, breast cancer, urinary incontinence, fibromyalgia, malignancies and low back pain. It also discusses about the biomechanical aspects of abdomen and pelvis that are involved during belly dancing.

Conclusion: The study provides an up-to-date outline of the existing literature on Belly Dancing and women’s health. It lays emphasis on the effects of belly dancing as an intervention used to enhance women’s health cohesively.

Open Access Review Article

COVID -19 Pandemic: A Review Article

Riddhima Sengupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 430-436
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34221

Corona virus infection is caused by a virus of COVID- 19 strain. this infection is spread by close contact with infected person and mainly due to droplets, this virus may remain alive on surfaces which was touched by an infected person .so to stop its spread it was necessary to reduce human contact, for that all countries around the world including India declared complete of all places where mass people gatherings were happens. WHO announced Covid- 19 infection as a global pandemic and this was a global emergency required complete lockdown. This necessary lockdown was for stoppage of infection spread but it also impacted very badly on every individual’s lifestyle.

Conclusion: PHC are the easily assessable and cost friendly for rural peoples but during this pandemic situation these PHC are not prepared for facing COVID -19 pandemic. Due to less accessibility to media and less media coverage exact situation in rural areas was not stated properly also less knowledge in rural peoples about COVID -19 infection was reason of high risk of spread of infection amongst them. Children in rural areas who are economically not that much well can’t get access to internet and cannot afford the mobile or laptops for online education this made the chances of drop outs in these children. During lockdown due to pandemic all the farmers and small shop holders faced huge loss ,this was the period of great earnings from various rabi crops but due to shortage of labor and non-availability of various machineries delay harvest and this lead to huge loss for farmers.

Open Access Review Article

Anti–Diabetic Activity of Murraya koenigii – A Comprehensive Review

U. Vidhya Rekha, S. Bhuminathan, P. Ravi Shankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Volume 33, Issue 58B, Page 462-470
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i58B34226

Diabetes mellitus, one of the noncommunicable illnesses, is a severe problem worldwide as one of the leading causes of death. Because existing synthetic medications have various drawbacks, researchers are still looking for better anti-hyperglycemic treatments. Plants have been used in ancient medicine for thousands of years. India is the biggest producer of medicinal plants and is aptly regarded as the "World's Botanical Garden." Murraya koenigii Linn, also known as Meethi neem, is a Rutaceae plant. Curry trees are unique to India and likely found almost everywhere else on the subcontinent, except in the Himalayan highlands. For centuries, curry leaves were used as an antiemetic, diarrhea remedy, febrifuge, and blood purifier. Curry leaves are useful as an antioxidant, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, antihypertensive, cytotoxic, and in treating bronchial respiratory problems. Traditionally, the leaves were utilized as a spice in curries as well as other dishes. It includes coumarins and derivatives, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and essential oil. Numerous studies have found that these phytochemicals have a significant effect on type 2 diabetes. This review focuses on this plant's anti-diabetic action and concludes that it has the potential to be evaluated as a candidate for developing a new diabetes mellitus medication.