Open Access Case Report

Case Report – Accidental Epidural Catheter Breakage and Its Management

Karuna Taksande, Krishnendu S., Nikhil Bhalerao, Jui Jadhav, Dnyanashree Wanjari, Aditi Shatalwar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33961

Aim: Epidural anaesthesia which is preferred in most of the prolonged and painful procedures can be dreadful when the catheter breaks inside. In this case report we report accidental breakage of epidural catheter and its successful management.

Presentation of Case: 47 year old male patient was posted for arthroscopic Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) repair under spinal and epidural anesthesia. Epidural catheter got sheared while securing it. It was managed by surgical removal to avoid further complications.

Discussion: There are different causes for epidural catheter breakage including technical error and manufacture error. Catheter should be checked for any manufacturing defect or kinking. If there is resistant while inserting the catheter careful removal of catheter along with the needle should be performed to avoid breakage of catheter.

Conclusion: Epidural catheter breakage can be disastrous for any anaesthesiologist, so it is important to be vigilant while securing epidural catheter. If accidentally epidural catheter is retained it should be discussed with the patient and surgeons, and it is either removed since it is a foreign body or if left in situ. Serial follow-up for any neurological symptoms should be done.

Open Access Case Report

Case Report on Gastric Carcinoma

Prachi Kamble, Samrudhhi Gujar, Savita Pohekar, Ranjana Sharma, Sheetal Sakharkar, Arti Raut, Archana Dhengare, Pranali Wagh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 383-387
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34009

Introduction: Gastric cancer or stomach cancer is an any malignant tumor arising from the region extending between the gastroesophageal (GE) junction and the pylorus. The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have been declining in most developed countries. The age-adjusted risk fell 5% from 1985-1990.Clinical.

Findings: Abdominal pain in an  region, weakness and loss of appetite from 50 days, pain in lower limb from one month, nausea and vomiting, history of passage of black color stool (for two days, 50 days back), loss of weight five kg in last one month.

Diagnostic Evaluation: Hb - 11.2 gm/dl Decreased , RBC 4.17cumm,CBC MCH- 22.6 Pico gm (decrease), Platelet -1.2 lakhs / cumm (decrease), Eosinophil- 9 % (increase )Monocytes-2% (decrease), KFT- sodium – 132 meq/L (decrease) LFT -bilirubin (conjugated) – 0.30 gm %(decrease)Bilirubin (unconjugated ) 0.33 gm %{ decrease}, CT scan, MRI, Upper GI endoscopy - showed abnormal mass ,Endoscopic ultrasound lesion as small as 2-3 mm in diameter, USG CECT Abdomen Report- showed enhancing wall thickening Involving body of gastric without obvious perigastric extension Or significant, consistent with gastric carcinoma. Histopathology report of gastrectomy specimen showed poorly Differentiated adenocarcinoma gastric­ mixed type – pT4a N1 M0.

Therapeutic Interventions: Inf. Metrogyl 500 mg TDS, Inj. Amikacin 500 mg OD, Inj. Pantop 40 mg BD , Inj. Piptaz in 100ml NS 4.5  mg TDS, Inj. Levofloxacin 500 mg OD, Tab. Telma 40 mg OD, Inj. PCM in 100ml NS 500 mg TDS, Chemotherapy and Radiation therapy was also Done.

Outcome: After treatment, the patient show improvement. His  abdominal pain , nausea and vomiting , pain in lower limb were relieved and After all pharmacological, surgical and medical intervention , patient is now in stables condition his mental and it physical condition is improving and laboratory value are in normal range, and he is able to do his daily activities.

Conclusion: My patient was admit in surgery Ward No- 28 , AVBRH with a known case of Gastric carcinoma  and he had complaint of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting ,pain in lower limb , weakness, black color stool and loss of appetite. After getting appropriate treatment his condition was improve.

Open Access Case Report

A Case Series of Atrial Myxomas – A Tertiary Care Centre Experience

Dhanya Menon, P. S. Muthusubramanian, Sonti Sulochana, S. Chitra, K. Meenakshi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 417-424
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34015

Aim: The current study aims at highlighting the clinical presentation, echocardiographic profile and histopathological details of the four cases of cardiac myxoma which we had encountered in our institution within a period of one year and to identify a relationship between the clinical behaviour and the histopathological picture.

Results: Among the four cases 2 were males and 2 were females and their ages ranged from 36 to 49 years. Two of the four patients presented with chest pain and palpitations , one with dyspnoea and the other case presented with recurrent stroke. Three of the cases were located in the left atrium while one case was in the right atrium. The histopathological examination of all the cases showed stellate , round and polygonal cells surrounded by abundant myxoid stroma. There was no histopathological correlation between the different clinical presentations or locations of the myxomas.

Conclusion: Although histopathological examination is necessary along with echocardiography to make a diagnosis of cardiac myxoma , there is no correlation between the different clinical presentation , site and the histopathological examination.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Effectiveness and Outcome of Early Weight Bearing in Ankle Fracture: A Systemic Review

Abdulmalik B. Albaker

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33963

Introduction: Ankle fractures are claimed to affect 70-185 patients out of 100,000 people each year. There is currently no unanimity among surgeons throughout the world on early versus restricted weight bearing in surgically treated trauma patients with fractures. The aim of this study was to systematically review the effectiveness and outcome of early weight bearing in ankle fracture as well as quality of life and pain.

Methods: An electronic search was conducted of the databases EMBASE, PubMed, and The Cochrane Library, as well as Medline, Google Scholar to identify all articles related to the topic that have been published after 2006.

Results: Initially, 2434 records were identified. Due to similarity and duplication, 1308 records were eliminated, and 1126 records were kept. Following the screening of the records and their subjects, 921 further unconnected records were eliminated. Then, 205 qualified full-text articles were selected, and 10 articles were included in qualitative analysis.

Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, surgical therapy, both aggressive and minimal, appears to be a safe alternative for the elderly. Short-term advantages of early weight-bearing include a decreased incidence of thromboembolic disease. Active movement reduces joint stiffness while maintaining muscle mass. Post-operative mobility, quality of life, and post-operative early weight bearing status are considered as significant outcome indicators. Unsafe weight as tolerated after ankle surgery might be a safe and encouraging option. As a result, future research should include this possibilities.

Open Access Case Study

An Unusual Presentaton of Tuberculosis with Septic Shock and Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in an Immunocompetent Patient

Suraj Patil, K. Mayilananthi, Durga Krishnan, E. Dhivya, V. R. Mohan Rao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 165-169
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33980

Tuberculosis presenting as septic shock is a rare entity especially in an immunocompetent patient. It has been reported in only 1% of patients with septic shock. Tuberculosis associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is the paradoxical worsening of the current condition or the development of new lesions in patients who are on anti-tuberculosis treatment. In non-HIV patients with tuberculosis, the incidence of IRIS is only about 2.4%. We report a 29 year old immunocompetant female who presented with septic shock and on continued evaluation she tested positive for mycobacterium tuberculosis by Genexpert (sensitive to rifampicin) done in BAL fluid. All possible causes for immunodeficiency were ruled out. She was started on Anti-Tuberculosis therapy (ATT) and a month later, patient deteriorated clinically with high spiking temperatures and troublesome constitutional symptoms. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) abdomen and chest revealed new onset multiple enlarged necrotic mediastinal, para aortic and hilar lymph nodes. After extensive evaluation including autoimmune profile, fungal culture, viral serology, Positron emission tomography (PET) scan, bone marrow analysis and ruling out all other possible causes for fever, IRIS was suspected and patient was started on steroids along with ATT. There was a drastic improvement in her symptoms within a week. She completed her course of ATT and steroids were gradually tapered. At 2 years of follow up, the patient is doing well.

Open Access Case Study

Management of Acute Kidney Injury in Patient with Dengue and COVID-19 Illness Simultaneously

Satish Mahajan, Vankadari Venkata Sesha Satya Sagar, Dhruv Talwar, Annadatha Akhilesh, Chitturi Venkata sai Akhil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 170-175
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33981

Dengue is a viral illness spreads through the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito leading to a serious health hazard. Dengue induced acute kidney injury is a fatal consequence and there are very few studies reported. Hence early identification of high risk groups is crucial for prevention, to restrict progression and effective treatment of acute kidney injury and to minimise associated morbidity and mortality. The coronavirus disease outbreak has widely spread into a pandemic all over the world. COVID-19 cases have presented with wide spectrum of severity ranging from a mild presentation to severe cases affecting the lungs(ARDS) mainly and rapidly affecting various body organs leading to multiorgan failure. Among these renal involvement is common, the severity of which ranges from mild loss of protein in urine to progressive acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy.

Open Access Case Study

Role of Surgical Intervention in Hereditary Spherocytosis with Haemolytic Anaemia, Splenomegaly and Jaundice

K. Senthil Kumar, K. Abinaya, R. Anantharamakrishnan, K. Pranay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 222-226
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33990

haemolytic anaemia, splenomegaly and jaundice, admitted in Chettinad hospital and research institute during one year period from  January 2019 to January 2020. Surgical intervention is indicated for selected patients with hereditary spherocytosis with haemolytic anaemia and jaundice to abate the hemolytic process after correction of anaemia with blood transfusion. Pigmented gallstones are seen in more than 50% cases for which incidence increases with severity of hemolysis and with age. Complications include aplastic anemia (most common after parvovirus B19 infection), haemolytic crisis during inter-current infection, megaloblastic crisis – during folic acid deficiency, cardiomyopathy, hematological malignancies.

Open Access Case Study

A Case Report on the Effectiveness of Diet and Lifestyle Changes Based on the Principles of Iranian Traditional Medicine with the Focus on Cellular Energy in Treatment of Liver Cirrhosis: Health Triangle

Hassan Akbari, Nahid Momenoghlikhojin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 388-391
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34010

Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) is a school of medicine that has been a source of medical care since ancient times. Based on the teachings of ITM, a balance between six essential principles governing a person’s body can lead to health and cure disease. The current paper reports of a case of liver cirrhosis managed according to these principles in an approach known as the triangle of health. A combination of dietary, medicinal, and therapies was prescribed for a patient with a definitive diagnosis of autoimmune-induced liver cirrhosis. Adherence to the prescribed regimen has led to the improvement of the patient’s condition over the last few months.

Open Access Case Study

Impact of Balance Training and Co-ordination Exercises in Post-Operative Left Cerebellopontine Angle Tumor: A Case Report

Aditi Akhuj, Snehal Samal, Rakesh Krishna Kovela, Ragini Dagal, Rebecca Thimoty

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 413-416
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34014

Introduction: Acoustic neuromas are most common tumors of CP angle, accounting more than 90% of all such tumors. Meningioma, primary cholesteratoma and facial nerve schwanoma are the different type of tumors. Acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor situates in CP angle which has a fibrous growth and originates from the division of vestibulochochlear nerve.

Aim: Impact of Balance Training and Co-ordination Exercises in Post-Operative Left Cerebellopontine Angle Tumor

Case Presentation: A 40 year old male with right hand dominance was referred to physiotherapy department. On examination he presented mild impairment in balance and co-ordination, assisted walking.

Discussion: This case report is an important to the published literature on rehabilitation of a patient witha CPA tumor, as it presents the sequential management in the patients post CPA tumor.

Conclusion: Acoustic neuroma is most common CPA tumor. Management of CPA tumor is important to improve quality of life. As per the reference articles and the exercises planned can progressively improve balance and co-ordination of patients.

Open Access Study Protocol

Protocol on to Assess the Effectiveness of Planned Teaching on Knowledge Regarding to Adverse Effect of Antipsychotic Agents among Caregivers of Schizophrenia Patient

Deepti Ekhar, Pooja Kasturkar, Jaya Gawai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 392-398
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34011

Background of the Study: The involvement of caregivers in treatment has been known as a vital part of mental health care. The enlarged emphasis on caregiver partaking has been to some extent driven by the shift from hospitals to primary provision of schizophrenia care in the community, where caregivers are more broadly involved in supporting consumers.

Objectives: 1. To assess the pre-test knowledge regarding adverse effect of antipsychotic agent among caregivers of schizophrenia patients 2. To evaluate the effectiveness of planed teaching programme on knowledge regarding to antipsychotic agent among caregiver of schizophrenia patients. 3. To find out the association between post-test knowledge score with regards to adverse effect of antipsychotic agent regarding to adverse effect among caregivers of schizophrenia patients.

Material and Methods: Pre-experimental, one group pretest and post-test design to assess the effectiveness of planed teaching on knowledge regarding adverse effect of antipsychotic agents and their response during the adverse effect among caregivers of schizophrenia patients. In this study total 100 caregivers of schizophrenia patient who full fill the inclusion criteria.

Expected Results: This study is planned to assess the effectiveness of planed teaching on knowledge regarding to adverse effect of antipsychotic agents among caregivers of schizophrenia patients. There will be significant association between pre-test and post-test knowledge with regards to antipsychotic agents among schizophrenia patient’s caregivers.

Conclusion: The conclusion will be drawn from the outcomes.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assess the Psychosocial Problem Faced by the Primary Caregivers of Mentally Challenged Children

Achal Jiwane, Ragini Joshi, Divyani Kanholkar, Shreya Kapgate, Deeplata Mendhe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 399-404
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34012

Background: It is estimated that up to 20% of children worldwide suffer from debilitating mental illness. Learning disabilities, ADHD, depression, psychosis, pervasive developmental disorders, attachment disorders, anxiety, and conduct disorder are all serious mental illnesses. Living with such children can be extremely stressful for the family's caregiver. Recognizing the difficulties of living with these children is critical in assisting or supporting caregivers in providing appropriate care for their children. For family members, the onset and long-term presence of mental illness can be a stressful event or a crisis. Interactions with mental health professionals have been found to have an impact on these families' transition from crisis to recovery. Families who meet with a mental health professional regularly have a better chance of recovering from the crisis and dealing with the situation.

Objectives: Assess the psychosocial problem faced by the primary caregivers of mentally challenged children.

Materials and Methods: Descriptive research study was to assess psychosocial problems faced by primary caregiver’s children who are mentally challenged. Selected parents who are mentally challenged children of community area. In this study total number of 50 samples to fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected. Likert scale was developed to assess psychosocial problems.

Expected Result: This study is a plan to assess the psychosocial problem faced by primary care children who are mentally challenged. Hence it is expected to identify the psychosocial problem of parents with mentally challenged children.

Open Access Short Communication

Out of Pocket Expenditure Associated with COVID 19 Pandemic in India

Hanitha Rajasekar, U. Sharath, S. Lokesh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 176-178
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33982

Corona virus 2019, popularly known as COVID-19 is a viral illness which has caused a threat in the minds of people across the world in recent times. Even developed countries are facing major challenges in preventing and treating this dreadful disease. In view of unavailability of effective vaccine and healthcare facilities, the burden of this disease is growing day by day. An important concern among the people living in these countries is the Out of Pocket Expenditure, which is ‘an expenditures borne directly by a patient, where insurance does not cover the full cost of the health goods or service’. As of 2014 data, Public expenditure on health in India has remained at 1% of GDP, very low compared to emerging BRICS (Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa) economies and even below neighbouring countries like Nepal and Sri Lanka. Hence it is high time that Government of India focuses on strengthening the primary healthcare system, community participation and Public private partnership so that disparity in healthcare needs is addressed and OOPE is reduced.

Open Access Short Communication

Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution – A Review

S. Padmaja, K. Lakshitha Niyatee Rao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 186-188
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33984

Introduction: In this review article the safety and efficacy of of Lifitegrast™ in the management of dry eye disease is described.

Methods: Search was carried out using related search terms in data bases like pubmed and related articles were referred.

Result: A larger reduction in Eye dryness Score (EDS) was seen with Lifitegrast™.

Conclusion: Lifitegrast™ ophthalmic solution 5% provides a new option for the treatment of dry eyes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Erectile Dysfunction in Patients of Diabetes Mellitus

Yar Muhammad Tunio, Ruqayya Farhad, Abdul Ghaffar Dars, Ghullam Mustafa Mangrio, Ummama Laghari, Tarique Shahzad Chachar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33962

Aim: The goal of this study was to determine how frequent erectile dysfunction is in diabetic people and what factors contribute to this condition.

Methods:  In this study, type-2 diabetes patients were selected among outpatients who visited Diabetes Clinics regularly. For the first selection of patients, it was essential to have had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes for at least six months but no more than 10 years. 1,080 male diabetic patients (with or without active ED symptoms) who visited the institute's Medicine or Psychiatry Outpatient Departments were included in the study throughout the period under consideration. The individuals' body mass index (BMI), blood sugar levels, and lipid profile were all measured. Erectile dysfunction became more common as people became older. ED was shown to be associated with elevated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), as well as hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia (low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides), metabolic syndrome, and depression in the study population. Male erectile dysfunction (ED) has been demonstrated to be prevented by physical activity, with men who exercised more being 10 percent less likely to develop ED than those who did not. 

Results: Erectile dysfunction was shown to be prevalent in 32.21 percent of men. Patients with erectile dysfunction had a substantially higher mean age (58.4010.96 years) than those who did not have erectile dysfunction (51.0011.16 years) (p0.001).

Conclusion: In conclusion, glycemic control and other metabolic variables were linked to ED risk in people with type 2 diabetes, having a greater degree of physical activity was protective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Skeletal Maturity, BMI Percentile and Dental Caries Experience among Taster and Non-taster Children

Vinaya Kumar Kulkarni, Shradhda S. Gavade, Neeta Padmawar, Shridhar Shetty, Sourabh Joshi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33964

Introduction: Ability of an individual to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) substance divides the population in tasters and non-tasters. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the taste ability for PTC substance with BMI percentile, skeletal maturity and dental caries experience within taster and non-taster children of age 8-12 years.

Hypotheses: Tasting ability for PTC affects the BMI percentile, skeletal maturity and dental caries experience and emerge as a useful caries risk assessment tool.

Evaluation of Hypotheses (Materials and Method):  One hundred children of 8-12 years were randomly selected and their taste perception was assessed using PTC sensitivity test. Radiovisiography (RVG) of middle phalanx was obtained to determine the skeletal maturity by using Rajgopal and Kansal modification 2005. Anthropometric measurements were recorded to obtain BMI value and then BMI percentile was calculated using CDC Pediatric growth charts. For dental caries assessment, deft/DMFT scores were recorded.

Results: The non-tasters had early skeletal maturation, higher caries experience and higher BMI percentile than the tasters.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance: PTC Sensitivity is a genetically controlled trait showing strong association with dental caries. From the results of this study we can conclude that the genetic ability of tasting PTC affects the BMI percentile, skeletal maturity and dental caries experience. Thus it can emerge as a useful caries risk assessment tool helping in planning the preventive measures and interceptive orthodontics in children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cyriax Deep Friction Massage Versus Cryotherapy in Stage 1 & 2 of Adhesive Capsulitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Saumya Srivastava, K. Sukanya, Harramb Mittal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33966

Background: Adhesive capsulitis is one of the common pathologies of the Shoulder. The prevalence of adhesive capsulitis is estimated to be 2% to 5% of the general population. Several treatment techniques are existing for the improvement of adhesive capsulitis and Cyriax deep friction massage is a technique designed to improve adhesive capsulitis.

Objective: To compare between the effects of Cyriax deep friction massage and conventional physical therapy with Cryotherapy and conventional physical therapy in stage 1 &2 of adhesive capsulitis.

Methods/ Design: The study is a randomized controlled trial which included 34 subjects of the age group 40-85 years and were randomly assigned into two groups: group A (n=17) and group B (n=17). The Group A was given Cyriax deep friction massage with conventional physical therapy while group B was given Cryotherapy therapy with conventional physical therapy. Outcome measure were taken at baseline, and then taken on last day of sixth session by using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Range of Motion (ROM), and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI). The treatment was given for 6 sessions over a period of two weeks.

Results: Group A showed greater improvement after 2 weeks of intervention with a statistical significance value for SPADI, VAS and ROM.

Conclusion: Cyriax deep friction massage with conventional physical therapy has significant effect on pain, range of motion and functional activity in patients with adhesive capsulitis.

Trial registration: prospectively registered in the clinical trial registry-India in the registration number of CTRI/2019/09/021375.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Pattern of Psychoactive Substance use among Senior Secondary School Students in Community Secondary School, Umuna, Orlu L.G.A

C. C. N. Vincent, Emanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Ifeyinwa Stephina Agu, Agnes Chinyere Onyekachi-Chigbu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 59-67
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33969

Psychoactive substance use among Secondary School Students has become an increasing public health problem in many countries. This study assessed the prevalence and patterns of psychoactive substance use among senior secondary school students of community secondary school, Umuna. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study in which a sample size of 231 students was selected using simple random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire and data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics and presented using tables. The study revealed that alcohol and tobacco were the most commonly abused substance. It also revealed that more than half (51.1%) of the respondents use substance on a daily basis and smoking and sniffing were the most common patterns used. Factors influencing substance use included; peer group pressure and family background. There is a psychoactive substance. It was recommended that Government should ensure the enforcement of anti-psychoactive substance laws and health workers should be trained on how to identify addicts, prevent, and treat victims of drug abuse.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cellphone on Quality of Life among Medical Students; A Cross-sectional Study

Kiran Khan, Ata ur Rehman, Ghazala Nasim Pasha, Syeda Laraib Fayyaz, Muhammad Aslam Bhatti, Anum Mahmood

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-81
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33971

Aims: The aim of the current study is to find out the quality of life among the medical undergraduates who are addicted to cellphone use.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted in private and public sector medical and dental colleges of Karachi from January 2019 to September 2019.

Methodology: The data had been collected through a set of questionnaire, which was pre-designed. Those students were included who were using smartphones for pleasure, communication or study purpose The data was entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. For numerical variables mean with standard deviation were calculated and for categorical variables frequency and percentages were calculated.

Results: The mean age of the students surveyed was found to be 21.2 ±1.82 years. Majority of our research candidates were addicted to cell phone use. It was noted that more than 6 hours’ screen time daily was 29.75% while very unfortunate observation of less than 1-hour screen time was found in 6.25% of study participants. About 38.25% of our participants although addicted to screens agreed that this addiction is causing them to ignore their important things like study or family. Cell phone addiction is worsening day by day as 37.5% medical students confessed that they feel stressed when they do not use cell phones. About 76.75% medical students despite of being addicted to screens, confessed that this is causing them different health and social problems which they feel should be removed just by giving lesser time to the applications.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the medical undergraduates who are addicted to their cellphones, having poor quality of life which is negatively affecting their health as well as their studies. There is a need to accept the problem and find out the best solution for it. Students should be aware of the effects of cellphone addiction on the quality of life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Tamsulosin as Compared to Placebo, in Reducing Post Operative Flank Pain during Voiding, in Patients with Ureteric Stent

Arif Ali, Suhail Dilawar, Bilal Suria, Safiullah Sohu, Ghulam Mujtaba, Shahid Hussain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 88-93
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33972

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of tamsulosin in reducing post operative flank pain during voiding, in patients with ureteric stent.

Study Design: This is a Randomized control trial (RCT) study.

Place and Duration: Study carried out at Department of Urology, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from June 2016 to November 2016.

Methodology: 60 patients aged between 15 – 45years, undergone placement of ureteric stent to treat ureteric and renal calculi and have pain score >4, were included in the study. Divided into two groups ‘group A’ and ‘group B’. In group ‘A’ and group ‘B’ Tamsulosin and Placebo was given respectively in patients with ureteric stent and reduction in post-operative flank pain was measured and compared. Tamsulosin was given post operatively when NPO is broken after 2 hours – 6 hours.  Patients having uretral trauma, patients having BPH,  patient underwent TURP or TURBT, patent having urinary tract infection and  patients with pregnancy or lactating females were excluded. All patients were received intravenous antibiotic (Ceftrixone 1gr). Also all patients were receive oral analgesic (diclofenic sodium 50mg BID) and antispasmodics (Drotaverine 80mg BID). Patients were discharged after 24 hours. Postoperatively stent related flank pain during voiding was assessed via Pain Scale.

Results: 60 Patients who got operated for ureteric stent. In group ‘A’ there were 21 males (70%) and 9 females (30%), the mean age of group A was 35.67±5.99 as In group ‘B’ there were of 21 males (70%) and 9 females (30%) and mean age of group B was 35.04±6.42 (Table 1). Mean Pain score in ‘Group A’ (Tamsulosin) in week 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 was 4.1, 3.5, 2.9, 2.3, 1.9, 1.3 respectively as shown in Table 2. Mean Pain score in ‘group B’ (Placebo) in week1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 was 6.9, 6.3, 5.9, 5.6, 5, 4.2 respectively as shown in Table 2.  Average pain score in ‘group A’ and ‘group B’ came out to be 2.67 and 5.64 respectively (P value 0.005). 

Conclusion: Alpha blockers reduces the post-operative flank pain and voiding complaints in patients with ureteric stent. Our study shows that the efficacy of Tamsulosin in reducing post-operatice flank pain in patients with uretercic stent is better than placebo.

Open Access Original Research Article

Glucokinase Gene Mutations in Subjects with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus from Gaza Strip

Taher Alaqad, Mazen Alzaharna, Mohammed Ashour, Fadel Sharif

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 104-116
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33974

Objective: This study was conducted in order to evaluate the frequency of GCK gene mutations in exons 7, 8 & 9 in women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and their relationship to some biochemical parameters as compared to healthy controls.

Methods: Samples were collected from 45 GDM women and 42 apparently healthy pregnant women. DNA was extracted and the samples were screened for GCK exons 7, 8 & 9 mutations at positions C.682A>G (p.Thr228Ala); C.895G>C (p.Gly299Arg) and C.1148C>A (p.Ser383X), respectively. The mutations were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodology. Investigated biochemical features included: fasting blood glucose (FBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), HbA1c, insulin and the lipid profile.

Results: The results showed that 9 out of the 45 (i.e., 20%) GDM subjects harbored the exon 8 (895G>C) mutation. Neither exon 7 (c.682A>G) nor exon 9 (c.1148C>A) was encountered in the study population. Moreover, the level of FBG, OGTT and HBA1c were higher in the c.895G>C mutation-positive subjects, as compared to mutation-negative ones.

Conclusions: The screening of GDM patients for GCK gene mutations allowed for the identification of glucokinase-deficient patients diagnosed as GDM. Therefore, molecular screening is important for the differential diagnosis of GDM and MODY2 and consequently, proper patient management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Bacteria Prevalent during COVID-19 Pandemic

Khaled Abdulrahman Aldhwaihi, Saud M. Alsanad, Abdulrahman Hadi Almutiri, Saad Aldoihi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 117-127
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33975

Owing to disparities in the intensity of the breakouts, state and federal regulations, accessible means, cultural elements, and social consciousness, the global reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic has been varied. The COVID-19 pandemic, on the other hand, has had an impact on all parts of society, notably efforts to combat antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The pandemic has highlighted that a greater burden on medical infrastructure can contribute to higher, often unnecessary antibiotic usage and a de-prioritization of antimicrobial stewardship and surveillance (AMS). The focus of this research is to see if there is a growth in antibiotic resistance during the covid-19 pandemic in the King Salman Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to investigate the subcomponent that leads to antibiotic resistance. This is a comprehensive review of patients hospitalized at the King Salman Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) during the first wave of the covid-19 pandemic, which occurred between March and August 2020. An analysis of the case dataset was performed to determine the rise in antibiotic resistance and relate it to resistant cases before the pandemic (September 2019 to February 2020). Before and throughout the pandemic, fifteen kinds of bacteria were found, with K. pneumonia being the most prevalent bacteria (49; 30.6%), and Ac. Baum/haem being the most removable bacteria during the pandemic (74; 37.3%). Cephalosporin antibiotics, in notably cefotaxime and ceftazidime (100%), cefazolin (96.3%), ceftriaxone (96%), cefuroxime and ceftazidime (95%), cefotaxime ((94.7%). These antibiotics also had the same amount of resistance during the pandemic. In pre-covid-19 and during covid-19, these findings were congruent with the penicillin antibiotics class, ampicillin, and piperacillin (96.3% and 92.1%), accordingly. It is presently uncertain if COVID-19 patients would develop new or growing antibiotic resistance in locations with low historical prevalence, but this should be investigated in retrospective and future clinical and microbiology research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparitive Study of Formulated Herbal Mosquito Repellent Incense Sticks with Market Product

S. Valarmathi, M. Senthil Kumar, . Chithra, . Coralinanisha, Antony nelson Prabhu, Aloysius Shibin, . Abzal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 128-132
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33976

The mosquito repellent formulations that are available on the market are causing irritations like coughing, sneezing, allergic reactions and respiratory disorders to human.The mosquito repellents available in the market are in various forms like colis,mats,sprays and fast cards. So the present study was carried out to formulate mosquito repellent incense sticks using herbals like Vitex negundo, Neem, Holy basil, and Garlic. The poly herbal mosquito repellent formulation are made by hand rolling method.The solid formulation containing binders and additives are rolled in the form of incense sticks and dried for 24 hrs. After drying its evaluated and compared with the market formulation. The prepared herbal mosquito incense sticks are potent, safe with more duration of time and less cost.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lawsone Co-Crystals Loaded Antifungal Gel for Cutaneous Candidiasis

Vinita Patole, Devyani Awari, Priyanka Lokhande, Rahul Sathe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 133-143
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33977

Aim: An attempt was made to improve the solubility and to achieve better penetration of antifungal agent lawsone a poorly water-soluble naphthoquinone, derivative via co-crystallization to treat cutaneous candidiasis.

Methodology: The co-crystals of lawsone were prepared using benzoic acid as co former by solvent crystallization method. The formulated co-crystals were assessed for different parameters namely, saturation solubility, thermal properties, crystalline nature, particle size and its antifungal activity against Candida albicans.

Results: Lawsone co-crystals exhibited enhanced solubility of lawsone (9.57±2.5 mg/ml and 0.523±0.23 mg/ml respectively) and the particle size of the co-crystals were reduced to 560±2.2 nm as compared to pure lawsone (2478±1.5 nm) which further resulted in enhancement of antifungal activity. Lawsone co-crystals were loaded in the xanthan-gel base for easy applicability to the skin and to achieve patient compliance. The prepared gel was evaluated in terms of spreadability, adhesiveness, in vitro diffusion, viscosity, and antifungal activity. 

Conclusion: Lawsone co-crystals loaded gel showed enhanced retension of drug in the skin as compared to plain lawsone gel. The antifungal potential of lawsone co-crystals loaded gel was at par with marketed Clotrimazole gel formulation. The short-term stability study carried out as per ICH guideline indicated that the formulation was stable. Lawsone co-crystals loaded gel.

Open Access Original Research Article

Theophylline Derivatives' In-vivo Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities

Faruk Alam, Ruhul Amin, Biplab Kumar Dey, Josef Yakin, Smriti Rekha Chanda Das, Mohidul Islam, Himangshu Deka, Republica Borgohain, Durgaprasad Kemisetti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 144-152
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33978

The reaction of theophylline and chloro-acetyl chloride produced an exceptional series of substituted theophylline derivatives (3A-3D), followed by ammonium thiocyanate and substituted aromatic aldehyde, and these synthesized derivatives were screened to study their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. UV, IR, H-1 NMR, mass spectral data, and CHN activities were used to describe the compounds, which were shown to be considerably efficacious at 100 mg/kg p.o., as well as experimental results that were statistically significant at the p <0.01 and p <0.05 levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Analysis of New 1,3,5-Trisubstituted-2-Pyrazolines Derivative for Their Analgesic Potential

Jitendra Kumar Chaudhary, Alok Pal Jain, O. P. Tiwari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 153-164
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33979

The goal of the study was to develop, synthesise, and characterise a novel 1,3,5-trisubstituted-2-pyrazolines derivative, as well as to assess its analgesic potential. The reaction of chalcone derivatives with 4-hydrazinylbenzene sulfonamide hydrochloride and phenyl hydrazine hydrochloride yielded 1,3,5-tri-substituted-2-pyrazolines derivatives. The IR, 1HNMR, and mass spectrum analyses were used to characterise a total of sixteen substances. Analgesic activity of the proposed substances has been tested. The analgesic effect of the produced compounds was tested using two methods: the hot plate test technique and acetic acid induced writhing in mice. To compare the effectiveness, pentazocine and acetyl acetic acid were utilised as reference drugs. The hot plate test technique and acetic acid induced writhing in mice were used to assess the analgesic effect of the 16 produced chemical series A1-A8, and B1-B8. The evaluation's outcomes were viewed using Pentazocine and acetyl acetic acid as the standard drugs. In a 90-minute hot plate test, compounds A2 (10.30 s), A4 (9.45 s), A7 (11.65 s), and A8 (11.26 s) showed a delay in paw withdrawal latency time. Compounds B2 (9.10 s) and B7 (10.42 s) prolong the paw withdrawal latency time after 90 minutes in series B1-B8, reduce the pain feeling, and inhibit pain induced by heat methods. Compounds A2, A5, A6, A7, and A8 from Series A1-A8 showed 83.00, 76.01, 80.34, 86.99, 88.15 percent inhibition, substantially (p0.05 and p0.001, respectively), and decreased the number of wriths caused by 0.6 percent acetic acid at a dosage of 10 mg/kg. Acetylsalicylic acid (10 mg/kg) appears to be more successful in lowering the number of wriths, with a 99.0% reduction in the number of wriths (p0.001). B1, B3, and B4 have the least amount of active activity. These all finding suggest that these synthesized compounds have the potential as analgesic agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Planned Teaching Program on COVID- 19 Vaccination in Terms of Knowledge and Attitude among the People in Selected Rural Area of Nadiad Taluka

Patel Shivangi, Pateliya Jahnvi, Makwana Pinal, Chavda Surbhi, Mahida Rajan, Chauhan Nirali, Patel Aesha, Chavda Dipika, Arpita Vaidya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 179-185
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33983

Introduction: Vaccination is intended to prevent diseases. Vaccines saves 2-3 million lives every year. A COVID-19 vaccine is one of the best way to provide acquired immunity against COVID -19. The study aims to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching program in terms of knowledge and attitude [1].

Objective: To assess the impact of planned teaching program on COVID- 19 vaccination in terms of knowledge and attitude among the rural people.

Method: A quantitative study with one group pre test post test design was conducted at various rural places of Nadiad Taluka. A total 60 people were enrolled in to the study. A structured knowledge questionnaire and likert attitude scale was built that contained information regarding COVID 19 vaccination. The effect of teaching program was analyzed by statically

Results: T-test and chi square test was used to find the association with selected demographic variables. In the knowledge regarding COVID-19 vaccination range was 8, mean was 0.849 standard deviation was 0.357, standard error mean was 0.0595. In the attitude range was 33, mean was 4.345, standard deviation was 0.797, standard error mean was 0.132. A knowledge paired t-test value was 5.30 and the attitude paired t-test value was 6.57 was.

Conclusion: The planned teaching program was effective in increasing knowledge and attitude regarding COVID-19 vaccination among the rural people of Nadiad Taluka.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency and Fetomaternal Outcome in COVID 19 Positive Pregnant Women

Mehwish Younus, Urooj Naz, Aruna Kumari Hira, Sana Shahmir, Uroosa Naz, Haris Majeed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 200-205
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33987

Objective: To determine the frequency and outcome in pregnant women with COVID-19 infection.

Study Design: This is a observational cohort study.

Setting: Study carried out at Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Civil Hospital, Dow University of health sciences Karachi, from July 2020 to November 2021.

Materials & Methods:  The study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. Women having COVID-19 positive status during any stage of their pregnancy having antenatal visits in our hospital were included in our study. Maternal demographics, race, maternal outcome, and neonatal complications were noted on a self-made Performa. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 21 and descriptive statistics with frequencies were mainly calculated.

Results: During the defined time of 14 months, we had 143 women visiting antenatal outpatient department and were tested positive for COVID-19. Majority of the women were tested for COVID-19 due to symptoms like fever, flu, cough and diarrhea. The mean age of women in our study was found to be 30 ± 6.7 years. The most frequent maternal outcome with SARSCOV-2 was preterm delivery. Out of 143, 27 cases had emergency lower segment C-section.PCR testing of neonates was carried out and 8.39% (n=12) neonates tested positive for SARSCOV-2. 

Conclusion: Infection with Covid-19 during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Covid-19  infection can be transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy or childbirth. Neonatal has a high chance of being admitted to the ICU, and women also faces other complications of Covid 19, such as the risk of miscarriage and premature delivery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Antimicrobial Properties of Some Ethnomedicinal Plants

Abha Vashistha, Soni Chaubey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 206-213
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33988

The world is suffering through large number of diseases which are primarily caused by the microbes, though it is bacteria, fungi, viruses or protozoans. The inappropriate, prolonged use of antibiotics and loss of biodiversity and climate change is leading to the invasion of microbes in the human population, because of which every individual on the earth is suffering from diseases caused by microorganisms. In current scenario it is the prerequisite to screen the effective, safe, cheap, and available therapeutics from plants and natural products. Plant parts of sixteen medicinal plant species such as Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, Calotropis procera, Cassia fistula, Catharanths roseus, Coriandrum sativum, Curcuma longa, Emblica officinalis, Eucalyptus, Mentha piperita,   Nerium oleander, Ocimum sanctum, Withania somnifera and Zingiber officinale  with high antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative Escherichia coli and fungus Aspergillus niger were extracted with aqueous, ethanol and acetone and with the help of well diffusion method minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined.

Out of three solvent phases, ethanol extract showed the highest inhibition against the microbes, where as the efficacy of most of the aqueous and acetone plant extracts were also confirmed as antimicrobial agent and their use as therapeutic drugs for the treatment of various diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on Anti-inflammatory Activity of Hydroethanolic of Leaf, Stem and Root Extracts of Tecoma stans

. Prateek, R. Gayatri Devi, J. Selvaraj, A. Jothi Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 214-221
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33989

Background: Tecoma stans is an important medicinal plant. The major bioactive compounds like alkaloids, phenols, terpenoids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins had been isolated from this plant. The leaves bark and roots contain biologically active chemicals, and extracts from those tissues are in use as traditional folk medicines. Inflammation is a biological response of the immune system that can be triggered by a variety of factors, including pathogens, damaged cells and toxic compounds. The aim of the study was to analyze the anti-inflammatory activity of hydroethanolic leaf, stem and root extracts of Tecoma stans.

Materials and methods: All chemicals and reagents were bought by sigma Chemicals Company. Anti inflammatory activity of the three different parts (leaf, stem and root) the plant were analysed by an in-vitro protein denaturation inhibition assays and inhibition calculation on protein inhibition percentage was done by the formula % inhibition=100−(A1 -A2)/A0 )*100). Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test.

Results: After comparing the anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf root stem of Tecoma stans, the results were plotted in graphs through statistical analysis using ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test. The results showed that the stem of the plant has maximum anti-inflammatory activity compared to leaf and root.

Conclusion: A comparative study of the extract or stem, leaf and root shows that the stem portion of the plant contains maximum anti-inflammatory activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Academic Performance of Hearing Impaired Children Who Received Early Intervention

Amin Fatima Choudhry, Hafiza Shabnum Noor, Rabia Shahid, Tehreem Mukhtar, Syeda Mariam Zahra, Ghazal Awais Butt

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 227-234
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33991

Aims: This study aims to assess the academic performance of children with hearing impairment who received early intervention in Lahore.

Study Design:  Cross sectional survey design was used.

Place and Duration of Study: Data was collected from Special Institute/School; Hamza foundation academy Lahore, Pakistan for the duration of six months from March 2021 to September 2021.

Methodology: 97 students with moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss children (aged in between 4 to 12), using hearing aids (HA’s) and cochlear implant (CI) were included by using purposive sampling technique. Hearing impaired children with other than sensorineural hearing loss and children who didn’t receive early intervention (hearing aids/implants or speech therapy) were excluded from this study.

Results: It was found that 97 children with hearing impairment achieved significantly in their test score (80 to 99%) across English, Science, and Mathematics as compared to Urdu and Islamiyat (70 to 79%) after the implementation of intervention strategies.

Conclusion: The study conclude that, while children with hearing impairment faced struggle in some areas of academics which includes listening and imitation in subjects like Urdu (structure of words) and Islamiyat (due to Arabic talafuz), their  academic performance in Math, English, and Science is higher with overall achieved percentage between  80 to 99%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Intradialytic Stretching Exercises on Muscle Cramps among Patients Undergoing Haemodialysis in a Selected Tertiary Care Hospital Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu, India

K. Anbu, A. Rathiga

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 235-248
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33992

Background: Chronic kidney disease is the vital and non-communicable disease epidemic that affects the world population including India. Muscle cramps are a common complication of haemodialysis treatments and they often result in the early termination of the session, it is an important priority to provide timely intervention to improve their muscle cramps of haemodialysis patients.

Materials and Methods: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of intradialytic stretching exercises on muscle cramps among patients on haemodialysis. Time series quasi experimental design was conducted in dialysis unit of Chettinad Super Specialty Hospital, Kelambakkam at Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India.Total sample of 138 belong to 30 to 60 years were selected with the use of purposive sampling technique as per the statistical calculation and equally allocated to control 69 samples and to Study group 69.  The structured questionnaire are demographic, Clinical variables & Modified cramps questionnaire chart was used to assess the effectiveness of intradialytic stretching exercises on level of muscle cramps.

Results: The study findings concluded that in pre test 41(59.4 %) of the patients in study group and 38(55.1 %) of the patients in control group had mild muscle cramps whereas in post test 4(5.8 %) of the patients in study group had severe muscle cramps and 16 (23.2 %) of the patients in control group had severe muscle cramps. While comparing the post test mean value of control group 2.652±0.854 the study group mean value was 2.101±0.769 was significantly reduced with‘t’ value of 10.185 at p ≤ 0.000. Therefore the Research hypothesis H1 was retained. Hence there was no significant association between the test scores on intensity of muscle cramps among patients undergoing haemodialysis with selected demographic and clinical variables of group 2 (study) at P ≤ 0.000 level. Therefore the Research hypothesis H2 was rejected.The majority finding of the study results that in pre test 32 (46.4 %) of the patients were in mild muscle cramps in post test 1.More than half of the patients 30 (43.5 %) of moderate muscle cramps in post test 2. And majority 40 (58 %) of the patients in moderate muscle cramps in post test 3.The effect of intradialytic stretching exercises in reducing the level of muscle cramps during haemodialysis.

Conclusion: Intradialytic stretching exercises is an effective method which can be used as a preventive therapy in the treatment of muscle cramps.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Recovery Rate in COVID-19 Patients Treated with Steroidal Drugs

V. V. Rajesham, B. Rekha, Gayathri Kothawar, N. Lavanya, B. Pallavi, T. Rama Rao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 249-255
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33993

Introduction: Coronavirus belongs to the family coronaviridae that majorly affects the respiratory system this group of virus outbreak previously as SARS and MERS in various countries and recently as COVID-19. COVID-19 has symptoms like fever, dry cough, breathing problems, loss of smell and taste, body aches. COVID-19 has spread to 210 countries and infected 272.51 million people worldwide, reached over 5.34 million deaths. Treatment includes antivirals, antibiotics, Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, corticosteroids.

Methodology: It is a hospital-based retro-prospective study was conducted for 6 months in the Inpatient department. 100 patients were taken who met the inclusion criteria. Data collected and evaluated, analyzed by open label study.

Results and Discussion: severe COVID-19 can develop systemic inflammatory responses that can lead to lung injury and multisystem organ dysfunction. It has been proposed that the potent anti-inflammatory effects of corticosteroids might prevent or mitigate these deleterious effects. Both beneficial and deleterious clinical outcomes have been reported with the use of corticosteroids in patients with other pulmonary infections

From study, The Recovery% using steroids in the time period of 0-10 and 11-20 days was found to be 34 and 27% respectively. The Recovery percentage using steroids in the time period of 0-10 and 11-20 days was found to be 18 and 8% respectively. Dexamethasone was most commonly used in males and females, 77.08 and 84% respectively.

Conclusion: Considering beneficial effects of corticosteroids in COVID -19, prescribing steroids is safe by dose tapering continued up to 10days or hospital discharge

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Attitudes and Practices Related to Social Media Usage among Dental Practitioners in their Dental Practice in Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad City: A Cross-sectional Survey

Tanushri Dalvi, Shrivardhan Kalghatgi, Samruddhi Metha, Amol Karagir, Madhuri Sale, Dipali Deshpande, Chetan Patil, Swapnil Metha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 264-269
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33995

Background: In the last few decades, information and communication technology in social media has brought tremendous changes in the whole business, educational and political system; Dentistry is not an exception. The rise of social media has transformed how health professionals interact with their patients and deliver different types of health care services.

Aim: To assess the attitudes and practices related to social media usage among dental practitioners in Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad city.

Methods: A self-designed questionnaire survey was conducted among all dental practitioners in Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad city, Maharashtra, India. The questionnaire consisted of first part with socio-demographic variables like age, gender, years of experience and area of expertise and second part to assess attitudes and practices towards social media usage.

Results: Among total of 138 dental practitioners, majority (68.1%) were belonging to age of 36-44 years followed by those above 45 years of age (17.4%). Around 49.3% dental practitioners were practicing dentistry since less than 5 years. Gender wise comparison showed no significant difference between attitudes and practices for social media usage. Although significant difference was found for question 3, 6 and 11 for P < 0.05.

Conclusion: There has been wide adoption of social media among dental practitioners and shows no significant difference with different genders for both attitudes and practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

COVID- 19 Infections with and without Co-morbidities and Clinical Outcome

Beenish Ghafar, Urooj Bhatti, Shehmeen Khan, Afsheen Abro, Rubina Ahmedani, Quratulain Memon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 276-280
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33997

Aim: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and severity of disease in COVID-19 patients presenting with and without comorbidities. 

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration: ICUs, wards of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center Karachi from March, to June 2021.

Methodology: The enrolled patients diagnosed with COVID-19 ie according to the provisional directions given by WHO, were assessed for clinical outcomes. Comorbidities were determined based on patients self-report on admission.  

Results: Total 200 COVID patients were enrolled in the study, out of them 179 were with comorbidities like type 2 Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiac disorders and  asthma, while 21 COVID patients were with no co morbidity. In present study (n=200), 55.5% were belonging to the age group more than fifty five years old, there were 50.5% males and 29.5% patients came in the month of June 2021. There were 84% hypertensive, 54% were diabetic, 10% were Ischemic Heart Disease and 5% were Asthmatic patients.  Clinical outcomes, i.e., pneumothorax, pulmonary embolism, Myocardial Infarction,   septic shock, heart failure, Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation was compared  regarding associated co-morbidities at the time of admission, p-value was <0.01 and  x2=20.15 .

Conclusion: COVID patients with comorbidities are more at risk of developing worst clinical outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Salivary Interleukin-1 Beta in Covid Recovered Patients

Harini Palani, Palati Sinduja, R. Priyadharshini, V. Meghashree

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 291-299
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33999

Introduction: The COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The epidemic started in Wuhan in mid-December 2019 and quickly spread across the world as a pandemic. Saliva is emerging as a promising alternative to nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs for COVID-19 diagnosis and monitoring.

Aim: To evaluate the Interleukin-1 Beta in the salivary samples of COVID-recovered patients and healthy controls.

Materials and Methods: An observational study on saliva samples of COVID recovered patients. The study was non-invasive and easy to perform without much inconvenience to patients. The samples were obtained from patients who came to the clinics of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. A total of 20 saliva samples were collected from recruited patients 10 of whom were healthy controls and 10 were collected from patients who had made complete recovery from covid infection at least three months ago Student T  test were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (IBM SPSS statistics for windows version 23.0, Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Released 2015). Values were expressed as Mean and SD. An observational study on saliva samples of COVID recovered patients.The salivary Interleukin-1 levels were analyzed using ELISA.

Results: Within the limitations of the study, we conclude that salivary Interleukin-1 level is increased in COVID recovered patients. The difference was statistically significant proving that in spite of complete uneventful recovery from COVID infection the individual’s inflammatory markers are seen to be at our rise.

Conclusion: Salivary Interleukin-1 levels are increased in COVID recovered patients. Further prospective studies with the limited sample size of the salivary levels of IL-1  can effectively assess disease severity and predict outcome in patients with COVID-19.This study illustrates the group of healthy controls and COVID recovered patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Fatigability in Undergraduate Dental Students: A Survey

Sneha Kannan, R. Priyadhrashini, Palati Sinduja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 306-317
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34001

Introduction: High levels of stress and fatigue are associated with decreased academic success, well-being, and quality of life. The objective of this research was to quantify levels of perceived stress and fatigue among dental students to identify sources of and student coping mechanisms for perceived stress and fatigue and to identify the relationship between students' perceived stress and fatigue.

Materials and Methods: A total of 102 responses were tabulated and analyzed using statistical analysis. This study was conducted to acknowledge the effect of stress and fatigability and the different ways it affects the health of dental students. The obtained data was collected and tabulated in Google sheets, analyzed statistically with descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 23.

Results: Respondents have faced a feeling of fatigue in their working environment and some have experienced visual fatigue due to excessive screen time.

Conclusion: The survey concludes that respondents have moderate awareness about the prevalence of fatigability in dental students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Squamous Cells and Age Estimation in Exfoliative Cytology with Hematoxylin and Eosin Stain– A Quantitative Study

B. Keerthana, R. Priyadharshini, Palati Sinduja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 323-329
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34003

Introduction: Exfoliative cytology in age estimation is a simple, painless, less invasive collection of exfoliative cells from epithelial layers, used as a diagnostic aid for age estimation. The oral cavity is an ideal site for exfoliative epithelial cells with a physiological turnover of cells, turnover decreases as the age increases show age variation with cellular morphological changes. Age estimation is one of the important factors to identify an individual and also helps to know the chronological age of a person.

Aim: To analyze and estimate the age from buccal smear and comparing the average cellular size under Image morphometric analysis.

Materials and Methods: Buccal mucosal smears are taken using a wooden spatula in gentle motion of scraping and smeared on a clean glass slide and fixed in 95% ethanol immediately after smearing a minimum of around 15 minutes and stained with Haematoxylin and eosin stain. After staining, the cells were observed by microscope and measured by a paint tool. Pearson correlation analysis was done using SPSS software.

Results: The cell and nuclear size difference values observed using a Pearson correlation coefficient were statistically significant with p value<0.05 revealing that there is shrinkage in cells with increase in age.

Conclusion:  Exfoliative cytology is a successful and vastly growing technology that is used for the detection of premalignant lesions. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of C-reactive Protein Levels in the Saliva of Covid Recovered Patients

Soorya Ganesh, Palati Sinduja, . Priyadharshini, V. Meghashree

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 344-351
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34005

Introduction: The acute phase reactant synthesized by the liver. CRP is an annular (ring- shaped) metameric protein set up in plasma, whose circulating immersion rise in response to inflammation. The idea of the study is to estimate the C-reactive protein situations in the salivary samples of COVID- 19 recovered cases and healthy controls.

Materials and Methods: An experimental study on salivary samples of COVID recovered cases. The study was non-invasive and easy to perform without important vexation to cases. The samples were acquired from cases who came to the clinics of Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. An aggregate of 20 saliva samples was collected from recruited cases 10 of whom were healthy controls and 10 were collected from cases who had made complete recovery from COVID infection.

Results: C-reactive protein (CRP) could be generally used as a biomarker of systemic inflammation, routinely measured in serum blood samples. Still salivary samples offer a non-invasive and simply accessible preference which might upgrade point of care (POC) testing for inflammation. This study illustrates the group of healthy controls and COVID recovered cases.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of our study, we were capable to interpret the difference of CRP levels between COVID recovered cases and healthy individualities.

Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Molecular Docking of Anthraquinone Identified from Boerhavia diffusa Linn against Bax and Bcl-2 Gene

U. Kanagavalli, E. Deboral, M. D. Lakshmipriya, A. Mohamed Sadiq, A. Mohana Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 352-359
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34006

In today's medical environment, natural products have made a substantial contribution to the therapeutic approach in the treatment of diseases ranging from the simple to the complex. The old or traditional approach of standardization in medicinal plant research is a time-consuming, costly, and to some extent antiquated process. As a result, a computational technique that includes an in silico molecular docking simulation study has become an important tool for drug development, standardisation, and screening of phytochemicals. To investigate the cardioprotective research and the interaction of the strong chemical against Bax and Bcl-2 cardiomyocyte gene, docking was conducted using multiple Protein Data Bank files (3EOO, 3D2U, 2I42, and 3D2Y). The Anthraquinone has shown more potent interaction with apoptotic regulators Bcl-2 and Bax genes by showing good binding energy. The study also evident that Anthraquinone (UBA) was an ideal drug agent with better drug likeliness.  Further, the compound can be used as therapeutic molecule for myocardial infarction. However, the results are preliminary and experimental evaluation will be carried out in near future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV/AIDS in Federal Medical Centre, Owerri

C. C. N. Vincent, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Ifeyinwa Stephina Agu, Ngozi Chidinma Ukeagu, Agnes Chinyere Onyekachi-Chigbu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 360-368
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34007

The research is set out to determine the adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIVAIDS in Federal Medical Clinic Owerri. The purpose of the study was to assess patients knowledge of benefits of Highly Active antiretroviral Regimen, determine level of adherence among the HIV patients, identify factors affecting adherence to antiretroviral regimen among HIV patients, relationship between adherence antiretroviral therapy and basic demographic factors like level of education and gender . Related literature was reviewed. The research design used was a descriptive survey design. The instrument for the study was a validated and reliable questionnaire (r-0.82). A reliable and validated questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. The findings indicated that 169 (88.0%) of the respondents have a high knowledge of the benefits of antiretroviral therapy while 23 (12.0%) of the sample have low knowledge. In other words, a large number of the sampled populations are well aware of the benefits of antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion was drawn that a large number of the sampled population are well aware of the benefits of antiretroviral therapy. Recommendations made were that the clinician should emphasize reducing adverse drug reaction, detecting and treating co-morbidities early, improving knowledge through health education, and encouraging the patients to disclose their HIV status to their families. Also  Intensive adherence counseling should be provided to all patients before initiation of antiretroviral  therapy. Health care providers must identify possible barriers to adherence to HIV/AIDS antiretroviral therapy and provide appropriate solution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Evaluation of Nanophytosomes of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Momordica charantia

P. Ramakrishna Reddy, V. Sreedhar, K. Rajesh Reddy, D. Murali, K. Sudhakara

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 369-382
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34008

Though there was not enough data available throughout the phytosome research, authors tried maximum to provide all inputs for the preparation of phytosomes. The objectives of the present research work focused on the investigation of phyto chemical constituents of aqueous extract, preparation of nanophytosomes of aqueous extract. Momorica charantia plants were collected locally from the village of Muhavur. The leaves were separated from the plant and the leaves were washed with water and then again washed with chloroform to remove soil particles and the leaves were spread and dried in the shade for 4 days. The aqueous extract of Momorica charantia obtained was subjected to qualitative analysis to test the presence of various phytochemicals. Particle size of prepared nanophytosomes was analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy using a Shimadzu particle size analyzer (SALD 2101, Japan). Diluted nanophytosomal suspension was placed into the sample dispersion unit while stirring at room temperature (in order to reduce the inter particle aggregation). All analyses has been performed in triplicate. Nanophytosomes of Momordica charantia aqueous extract was effectively prepared and tested. The aqueous extract was evaluated phyto chemical screening followed by all characterization studies. Phytochemical screening study remaining that the extract consists of flavanoids. The characterization study showed that the phytosomes are having nano size, good stability properties with round to spherical shape with smooth surfaces.

Open Access Original Research Article

ACL Injuries and Meniscal Lesion: Hand in Hand?

U. Nivetha, . Vignesh, . Anvesh, . Munis, Navin Balasubramaniam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 405-412
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34013

Objective: To assess the incidence, nature and pattern of meniscal tear in ACL injury. Methodology: A retrospective study was conducted among the patients who were admitted and treated for ACL tear in Saveetha Medical And College And Hospital over a 2-year period from August 2019-August 2021. There were 52 patients admitted and treated for the same. The case records of each of the patients were reviewed to find the incidence of meniscal lesion in ACL tear and were then analyzed using appropriate statistical tests.

Results: 52 patients with ACL tear were reviewed in this study. ACL tear was most commonly reported in younger age group of 20-29 (46.15%). Out of which, 19(36.54%) patients had meniscal tears. About 9(47.37%) patients had lateral meniscus tear, 6(31.58%) had medial meniscus tear and 4(21.05%) had bilateral meniscal tear. It was seen that bucket handle injury (n=12) was the most common meniscus tear overall. Radial tear was most specifically common in bilateral meniscus injury (N=4).

Conclusion: Meniscal tears are the most common intra articular lesions associated with ACL tear. It was most commonly reported in the age group of 20-29. We found that the incidence of lateral meniscal tear was significantly higher in the patients rather than medial meniscal tear. Bucket handle injury was the most commonly reported tear in meniscal injury. Therefore, the surgeon needs to equip himself with the necessary meniscal repair instruments in his armamentarium

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation, Characterization and Screening of Gold Nanoparticles Using Phenolic Rich Fractions of Amaranthus gangeticus L. for its in-vitro Anti-oxidant, Anti-Diabetic and Anti-Cancer Activities

Akila Elias, Prasanna V. Habbu, Sudhir Iliger

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 425-439
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34016

Aim: In this present study, Gold Nanoparticles are prepared by biosynthesis method using Phenolic Rich Fractions of ethanolic leaf extract of Amaranthus gangeticus L. which was characterized and evaluated for their In-vitro antioxidative, antidiabetic, and anti-cancer potential against HeLa cells.

Materials and Methods: Plant mediated AuNPs (gold nanoparticles) were synthesized using phenolic rich fractions of ethanolic extract of Amaranthus gangeticus L. and characterization was done by UV–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) and TEM analysis and Selected Area Electron Diffraction SAED pattern. The synthesized AuNPs were assessed for its pharmacological studies.

Results: Initially the formation of AuNPs has been identified by its change of colour followed by UV–visible spectroscopy (at 550 nm) due to surface Plasmon resonance. Using XRD pattern the crystalline property of AuNPs were confirmed. The functional group existing in Phenolic Rich Fractions of Amaranthus gangeticus L. responsible for the reduction of gold ion and the stabilization of AuNPs was investigated through FT-IR. The spherical shape of AuNPs were studied by SEM and TEM analysis. From the results, it is confirmed that the synthesized AuNPs having good antidiabetic potential at a very low concentration as well as potent anti-cancer activity against the HeLa cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. It also observed with potent antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: From the present study, the synthesized AuNPs using Amaranthus gangeticus L. were found to be very potent to treat the major diseases like cancer and diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation between Peripheral Blood Eosinophilia and the Histopathological Changes in Nasal Mucosal in Chronic Rhinosinusitis

Jahnavi Narayanan, K. Nithin Diwagar, Ganthimathy Sekhar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 440-448
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34017

Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis(CRS) has emerged as one of the major causes of significant morbidity in otorhinolaryngology, as it is often noted to be refractory to medical management and has a tendency to recur post-surgery. Limited research has shown that peripheral eosinophilia is related to the presence of nasal polyps, the extent of the mucosal disease, the severity of tissue eosinophilia, and the risk of recurrence.

Aim: This study aimed to establish the significance of peripheral blood eosinophilia, both differential (EC) and absolute eosinophil counts (AEC) - in adult CRS, to correlate the tissue eosinophilia and peripheral blood eosinophilia, and compare the observations in the two types of CRS with nasal polyp and without nasal polyp.

Material and Methods: A total of 50 adult patients with CRS who underwent FESS were included in the study and were divided based on the presence (Group 1) or absence (Group 2) of peripheral blood eosinophilia.

Results: There were equal number of cases of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp (CRSwNP) and without polyp (CRSsNP); 25 each.  With regard to clinical features, Group 1 had a higher number of cases with nasal obstruction (p-value = 0.023), post-nasal drip (p-value = 0.035), and hyposmia (p-value = 0.021) when compared to Group 2. On histopathology, Group 1 had more areas of edema (p-value = 0.027), and mucous gland hyperplasia (p-value = 0.013) while Group 2 had prominent lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates (p-value = 0.035), neutrophilia (p-value = 0.047), and tissue infiltration of macrophages (p-value = 0.027).  Tissue eosinophilia was present in 32 out of the total cases; 20 (71.43%) in Group 1 and 12 (53.33%) in Group 2. The group with tissue eosinophilia had significantly higher eosinophil count (9.24 ± 4.26% vs 5.32 ± 2.9%; p-value < 0.01) as well as AEC (823.335 ± 434.357/µl vs 485.128 ± 285/µl. 907; p-value < 0.01).

Conclusion: The study demonstrated that CRS cases with tissue eosinophilia exhibit an elevated peripheral eosinophil count when compared to non-eosinophilic CRS.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Retrospective Study of Adipocytic Tumours Received at a Tertiary Care Center

Neha Agarwal, Dr.Nithin Diwagar, Ganthimathy Sekhar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 459-467
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34019

Introduction: Adipocytic tumours comprise a large proportion of the vast histomorphological spectrum of soft tissue tumours. They range from benign lipomas to malignant liposarcomas with an entire range of various histological sub-types in between. Liposarcomas account for 15-20% cases of soft tissue sarcomas diagnosed. They are characterized with a high recurrence rate, progression to higher grade with time making their correct and prompt diagnosis imperative.

Aims: To analyze the clinicopathological profile of adipocytic tumours received at a tertiary care center over a period of three years. To determine the distribution of adipocytic tumours among different age groups and gender. To ascertain the most common site of occurrence/organ involved. To determine the most common histopathological subtypes among the benign and malignant adipocytic tumours.

Study Design: Retrospective Descriptive study.

Place and Duration of Study: Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, between July 2017-June 2020.

Methodology: All cases of adipocytic tumours (218) inclusive of both resection and biopsy specimens received during the study period were included and their case records were accessed. The demographic details were obtained from the case records at the Medical Records Division and the histomorphological findings from the histopathology registers at the Department of Pathology.

Results: In this study, from a total of 20,767 specimens received at our tertiary care center during the period of study, 1.05% (218) were adipocytic tumours, of which 97.25% (212) were benign lipomas and 2.75% (6) were malignant liposarcomas. Out of the total number of malignant tumours (1050) received during the period of study, 2.95% (31) were soft tissue sarcomas, out of which 19.35% (6) cases were liposarcomas. Among the liposarcomas received at our center, 50% (3) cases were well differentiated liposarcoma, 33.3% (2) cases were pleomorphic liposarcoma and 16.7% (1) cases were dedifferentiated liposarcoma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Malignancies in Surgical Subjects and Subjects with Mass in Breast in the Surgical Department of Pumhsw Nawabshah Pakistan

Sadia Ayoob Chandio, Mashoque Ali Khowaja, Gulshan Ali Memon, Attiya Ayaz, Yasir Ayoob Chandio, Sajjad Hussain Qureshi, Altaf Hussain Ghumro, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 468-474
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34020

Objective: To conclude frequency for malignancies in subjects with mass in breast at the PUMHSW Nawabshah department of surgery Wards.

Design of Study: This is an Observational research.

Duration & Location of Study: Current research was carried out in surgery at Nawabshah People's Medical College Hospital (SBA) from November 20, 2018 to November 20, 2020.

Methodology: This research comprised of 200 subjects. A comprehensive history was taken from total subjects with special consideration for breast nodules & axillary lymph nodes & recorded proforma to evaluate the affected area was specifically inspected. A systematic review was also conducted to identify comorbidities. Total subjects received baseline & specific tests, especially radiological & histopathological reports. The selection criterion was that total female subjects over the age of 15 associated with mass in breast were included in this research. Exclusion criteria were subjects with breast abscesses & those who were diagnosed & treated for breast cancer with recurrent lesions.

Results: the range of age started from 15-65 years, 39+4.11 years was mean age. lesion of Benign nature on biopsy were were Fibroadenoma 22%, intraductal papilloma 9%, Phylloid Tumor Benign 6% & lactating adenoma 5%. Neoplastic nature was observed on biopsy invasive ductal carcinoma 19%, Invasive lobular carcinoma 11% & malignant phylloides tumor 9%.

Conclusion: Study determined that frequency of breast malignancy in breast lumps was 58%.

Open Access Review Article

Overview on Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis in Pediatrics: A Review

Ahmed Abdelsamie Fadl, Hiba Saud H. Aldubaib, Nof Tarq F. Alzayyat, Mohammed Abdullah S. Alzahrani, Alshammasi, Mustafa Mohammed A., Fatimah Arif S. Alabbad, Ashjan Aqeel Q. Alanzl, Al Jalooud, Hassan Haeider A, Aseel Saud S Alrefaei, Mohammed Marwan Ahmed Alattas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33965

Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) is the most common kind of post-infectious glomerulonephritis and is caused by group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes). Although the prevalence of PSGN has decreased in affluent nations, non-streptococcal species are becoming more common. and it is still the major cause of glomerulonephritis in children. APSGN can manifest itself in epidemic outbreaks or clusters of instances, as well as in single persons. Epidemic outbreaks have previously been documented as a result of upper respiratory or cutaneous streptococcal infections in various parts of the world. In developed nations, APSGN is now mostly a disease of the elderly, who are more likely to have disabling illnesses such as cancer, alcoholism, or diabetes. Children between the ages of 3 and 12 (with a peak incidence between the ages of 5 and 6 years) and seniors over the age of 60 are the most commonly affected. The pathophysiology of APSGN is complicated by inflammation. (APSGN) often occurs one to two weeks after a throat infection and three to five weeks after a skin infection. Hematuria, edoema, azotemia, and hypertension are the most common clinical signs. Loop or thiazide diuretics, are the most effective therapy for hypertension and edoema in PSGN. In this review we’ll be looking at the disease causes, epidemiology, presentation and treatment.

Open Access Review Article

Overview on Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies in Children

Ahmed Abdelsamie Fadl, Asma Awad M. Alhazmi, Tariq Mohammed Alyami, Najla jaber Alkhaldi, Abdulshaheed Salman Alhamdan, Waad Musayid Alsaedi, Yazeed Nashi M. Alaufi, Meshary Saud Almotiry, Ashwaq Laili Alanazi, Hussain Hassan Alrashdi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33967

Introduction: Greatest percentage of the upper gastro intestinal accidently swallowed foreign bodies in adults are related to food bolus impaction with meat. Most patients who swallow a true foreign body typically are younger, however young children were recorded to accidently swallow other objects rather than food poluses. Males are more often recorded, and often have significant psychiatric illness and/or drug abuse. Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a very common problem in children. FB may pass through gastrointestinal (GI) system silently without any indication, or it may need an intervention to prevent complications. The diagnosis, decision for involvement and management may have some difficulties, and it’s usually decided according to the case, especially in cases with protracted lodgment. Complications caused by lodgment of ingested GI FBs varies according to many factors and are associated with important morbidity and mortality in children.

Objectives: to show an overview of gastrointestinal foreign bodies in children, its epidemiology, risk factors, hazards and management.

Open Access Review Article

Assessment Screening of Chest Pain in Primary Setting: A Review

Faisal Suliman Algaows, Saud Saad A Albishi, Abdulrahman Dayel A. Alshahrani, Mohammad Rajab Alkhalaf, Heba Hesham Nezamadeen, Abdulaziz Saud Alasmari, Salman Fihat Alanazi, Hussain Fayiz Alhowaish, Nuha Abdulaziz Alharbi, Turki Abdullah N Aldosari, Sawsan Jawad Alsalem, Asem Abdullah Ahmed Murshed, Ibtihal masad aljohani, Leena Mohammed Alzakry

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 82-87
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33968

Chest pain can be caused by a variety of illnesses, ranging from benign and self-limiting to significant or life-threatening. Before a doctor examines more benign reasons, a workup must focus on ruling out significant pathology. The words "dull," "deep," "pressure," and "squeezing" are commonly used to describe visceral discomfort. Visceral pain generally has a diffuse distribution pattern, making it difficult for the patient to pinpoint a precise location. chest discomfort accounts for 1.5 percent of all consultations in primary care. The age group 45 to 64 years has the highest prevalence of chest pain consultations. Patients with suspected Acute coronary syndrome (ACS)  should be diagnosed and treated as soon as feasible. While most patients are sent to the hospital, an electrocardiogram (ECG) is the sole examination necessary in primary care. In this review we will be looking at chest pain incident in primary care, and also we’ll be making overview to the etiology and diagnosis of the disease.

Open Access Review Article

Overview on Temporary Abdominal Closure Techniques: A Review

Hashem Bark Awadh Abood, Sadeel Fahad Daghistani, Nouf Hashem Koshak, Yazid Ali Alghamdi, Sahad sami Ghamri, Khaled Rafea Aldraihem, Wiam Mohammed Ahmed, Abdulwahab Abdulrahman Alsaman, Rwan Saeed Almalki, Hisham Abdulnaser Filimban, Feras Adel A. Alotaibi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 68-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33970

Open abdomen (OA) is becoming more common, primarily to prevent intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) following emergency abdominal surgery. The purpose of temporary abdominal closure (TAC) techniques is no longer just abdomen coverage; fluid regulation and early fascial closure are now important considerations. TAC techniques for leaving the abdomen open are numerous. The ideal one should be simple to apply and remove, allow for quick access to a surgical second opinion, drain secretions, ease primary closure with acceptable morbidity and mortality, allow for easy nursing, and, finally, be readily available and inexpensive. Over the years, several TAC methods have been proposed. In this review, we overview different techniques for temporary abdominal closure and its advantages and disadvantages.

Open Access Review Article

Epidemiology, Evaluation and Management of Wilson Disease: Review Article

Mohammed Salah Hussein, Turki Mohammed A. Alshehri, Nada Muidh Aloufi, Alghamdi, Ibrahim Saeed A., Al zahrani, Adel Abdulrahman S., Fahad Ayed Alharbi, Ahmed Abdulaziz A. Alqerafi, Alsarraj, Nawaf Faiq M, Manal Abdulrahman Alem, Alotaibi. Saad Jamal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 94-103
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33973

Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) is a rare autosomal recessive ailment characterized by aberrant copper buildup in the body, with the brain, liver, and cornea being notably affected. Wilson illness is caused by a mutation in the ATP7B gene on chromosome 13, which regulates the protein transporter that excretes excess copper into the bile and out of the body. So far, over 500 mutations have been discovered. The most common treatment for WD is D-penicillamine (D-PCA). Patients with severe spasms, deformities, or dysphonia, as well as those who are allergic to D-PCA, should avoid it. Early Diagnosis is a key factor in saving patient’s live, and thus prober investigation should be done as soon as possible.  Family screening is a must when a patient is diagnosed to role out any other patients in the family with the disease and because of the strong genetic factor impacting the disease. early detection is critical for initiating therapy in the early, asymptomatic stages of the disease, rather than when liver decompensation or extensive neurological irreversible harm has already occurred. In this circumstance, the optimum technique is to finish copper investigations in the index patient's first- and second-degree relatives. In the present article we’ll be discussing disease prevalence, etiology and more importantly diagnosis and management.

Open Access Review Article

Determining the Role of Psychiatric Nurse for Client Receiving Anti-Psychotic Drugs in India

Mayur B. Wanjari, Deeplata Mendhe, Pratibha Wankhede

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 189-193
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33985

The prevalence of mental diseases is increasing. Even the average person suffers from minor issues such as stress and anxiety due to various causes. Clients having psychiatric consultations require support and exceptional care from a psychiatric nurse; these clients are given multiple drugs with varied side effects that must be managed; the nurse is only present with the patient and manages the patient. As a result, this article discusses the numerous roles that a psychiatric nurse can play in this regard.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Standardization of Ayurvedic Medicine

Janmejay Pant, . Ripudhaman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 194-199
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33986

Standardization in Ayurvedic formulations ensures the establishment of standards for the quality and purity of raw materials, quality control during the drug manufacturing process, production of a good quality finished product, storage and distribution to maintain the quality of the final product. It is an essential tool for establishing quality control methods for Ayurvedic drugs. In Ayurveda, standardization has been well defined and documented in the classical and contemporary texts. Still, these have been written with an individualistic intent and not for industrial or commercial purposes.  Careful contemplation of the classical literature of Ayurveda was done, the current guidelines of WHO on standardization of herbal drugs, latest researches on the same via the internet were explored and examined in the purview of the newest standardization procedures.  In this article, an attempt has been made to bring to light the classical references related to standardization, the milestones in this on-going pursuit have been exhibited, with the use of the latest scientific methods being incorporated for a standardized Ayurvedic drug. It can be concluded from the review that standardization in Ayurveda is an on-going process where one needs to be strictly vigilant about the new scientific methods to study the fine chemical procedures and the intermediate compounds formed, but at the same time be aware of the classical. Ayurvedic methods concepts of the procedure. Asava-arista's medicinal characteristics of Ayurvedic classical dosage forms, liquid dosage forms based on self-generated alcohol with faster absorption, long shelf life, and increased market conformity have led to a continuous rise in demand. New fermentation methods and packaging innovations tend to have been embraced by many Ayurvedic processing units. The importance of standardization of such goods is underlined by these advances in manufacturing, distribution and storage. Therefore, it is of concern to examine the latest manufacturing situation and the standardization of the dosage type regarding the procedure and the consistency and effectiveness of the finished product. In addition to the effort to include criteria of consistency and standardization, the study consists of an overview and deliberates on the importance of improvements made to the conventional preparation processes, ingredients and material used in the process and the potential impact on its efficacy.

Open Access Review Article

Aloe Vera as an Antidiabetic and Wound Healing Agent for Diabetic Patients

. Harshali, Pitambri Thakur, Gunjan Mukherjee

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 256-263
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33994

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that has been prevalent among the population and has been reported to rise worldwide at an alarming rate. Diabetes puts a person through a lot of risk to his or her life because of the late complications developed with time if this is not cured. It affects some metabolic processes related to lipid and glucose such that they further can lead to liver and kidney disorders. An evergreen, herbal, plant which is called aloe vera is a health remedy and in large demand these days because of its ability to cure many diseases. The present study is designed for the purpose to examine and check the efficacy of aloe vera to cure diabetes, reducing the risk of complications and also reducing the chance of liver and kidney dysfunction. The glucose level in the patient and lipid profile status is also an important part of studying effectiveness. It is also known that a therapeutic drug already is responsible to cure the disease but as it is a chemical compound, so it is important to note the side effects of the same on the patient’s health, no matter how effective the drug is. To reduce this risk, the therapeutic drug in low quantity is combined with aloe vera extract to enhance effectiveness and lower down the side effects in patients. The aloe vera extract has also shown benefit in increasing the rate of the wound healing process in diabetic patients because of the problem of lack in their cell’s ability to recover and heal the wound. Clinical trials have also become the evidence of proving the fact about the anti-diabetic nature of aloe vera so that in the future all the chemical drugs may get replaced by herbal plant active components to reduce health problems in most people.

Open Access Review Article

Populus trichocarpa (Black Cottonwood) As a Model for Plant Genomic Studies: A Review

Navjit Kaur, Divya Dhawal Bhandari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 270-275
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33996

Numerous plants have been the subject of recent research in the pharmacological, cosmetic, and agro-alimentary domains due to their chemical composition and multiple therapeutic capabilities. Populus trichocarpa is one of the most common trees found in deciduous forests (Salicaceae family). The current study examines Populus trichocarpa as a model plant for plant genomics research, as well as the most recent findings on phytochemical composition and medicinal potential. More than 45,000 potential protein-coding genes were discovered. In the Populus genome, a whole-genome duplication event was discovered, with approximately 8,000 pairs of duplicated genes surviving. Furthermore, the reproductive biology of Populus provides new opportunities and challenges in the study and analysis of natural genetic and phenotypic variation. In the present review, we endeavour to describe and compile the available knowledge on Populus trichocarpa as a model plant for genomic investigations and to bring that material up to date of Populus trichocarpa's phytochemical and medicinal properties.

Open Access Review Article

Amalgamation of Nanotechnology with Plant Sciences

. Nishtha, Vaishali Verma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 281-290
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A33998

This review paper deals with the basic aspects and advancement of Nanotechnology and its varied applications in every possible field starting from biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, drug science energy related sectors and so on. They show some explicit properties like strength, electrical, optical and chemical properties. Nanoparticles show increment in plant productivity by showing direct interactions with plants or indirectly with soil. Nanoparticles can easily be synthesized utilizing microbes and plants so they are organically protected, savvy, and climate amicable. Nanoparticles are termed as “magic bullets” because of their extraordinary properties, and for this reason they are employed in production of nano herbicides, nano pesticides. Nanotechnology does the job of addressing distinctive natural and medical problems which occurs to happen with the unreasonable utilization of pesticides and fertilizers in horticultural practices. When used in an appropriate amount and concentration they cause positive effects on the respective plants. Some of these include increment in crop production, better quality, increased photosynthetic activity, biomass, chlorophyll content and the list go on. With every positive effect comes the detrimental ones also. Inhibition of root and shoot length, reduced seed germination, inefficiency in photosynthetic activity.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on the Effects of Cadmium Toxicity on Living Beings

Anchal Deshwal, Navneet Kaur, Pankaj Mehta, Neelam Thakur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 300-305
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34000

Cadmium is a toxic transition heavy metal with perilous effects on the health of animals and humans by indefinite ways. It is one of the asserted carcinogens group given by IARC. There are jillion ways by which cadmium may be prevalent in the environment as the pollutant or may be through contaminated water, food or by smoking. Cadmium poisoning may be seen in the form of itai itai disease. It came in knowledge after its outbreak in Japan in 1960s after the consumption of cadmium-contaminated rice as a food source. The exposure and accumulation of cadmium may lead to numerous forms of cancer, including breast, lung, prostate and nasopharynx, pancreas and kidney cancers. It expresses its effect by formation of stress proteins that depends on the amount of exposure and time of exposure. It had shown effects on the functioning of mitochondria resulting in formation of less energy or ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and more ROS. Other effects are cell apoptosis and inhibit growth, division and carcinogenic activity in cells. The current study has been done to understand the various effects scrutinised by numerous workers.

Open Access Review Article

Biological Activity of Aromatic Compounds from Clove (Syzygium aromaticum)

. Surbhi, . Sushma, Reena Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 318-322
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34002

Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is most vital spice which has been utilized for food preservative and also as a remedial plant over centuries. It is local plant of Indonesia however these days it is used in numerous parts of the world including Brazil in the province of Bahia. This plant is one of the plentiful sources of phenolic compounds and bears enormous capacity for pharmaceutical, makeup and foodstuff. This analysis includes studies coverage biological activity of eugenol and clove. The antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of clove are higher than numerous of the fruits and vegetables and it ought to have extraordinary consideration. The diverse studies mentioned in this review prove the long-established use of clove in food preservation and also as a remedial plant.

Open Access Review Article

Tinospora Cordifolia: A Literature Review on Therapeutic uses and Pharmacological Actions

. Yoggeta, Deepika Bhatia, Sheetal Rani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 330-343
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34004

Tinospora cordifolia is a medicinal ayurvedic herb having vast benefit to human health. It is come under the climbing shrub, which belongs to family Menispermaceae and is inherent to India and some extent to China also, and some parts of Australia and Africa. Other names used for Tinospora cordifolia are Guduchi or Amrita or Giloy. Not a single part but whole plant has its own pharmacological effect for human well-being. Tinospora cordifolia has chemical constituents like terpenoids, alkaloids, steroids, lignans, flavonoids and glycosides. It has many pharmacological activities such as immunomodulation, anti-diabatic, antifungal, in hepatotoxicity (hepatic disorder), anti- cancer, anti-HIV potential, antitoxic effect, and in Parkinson disease. This review paper will discuss about the various properties/activities of the plant.

Open Access Review Article

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy-a Mirror Image of Parkinson’s Disease, A Literature Review of Rehabilitation Strategies

Arpita Shetty, K. M. Krishnaprasad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 449-458
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i57A34018

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disease which mimic similar to Parkinsonism. PSP advances much quicker than in PD yet no effective medication or therapy to manage PSP available. This literature review aimed to discover the recent advances in the physical therapy treatment options for PSP. Databases such as PubMed, Elsevier and SAGE journal searched for both published and unpublished studies. Last 10-year studies were included in this review. Limited clinical trial conducted in this population due to which a structured protocol or rehabilitation strategies is missing for this condition. Balance exercise and gait training showed potential benefit and music-cued walking demonstrated participant’s satisfaction.