Open Access Case Report

A Case of Wilson’s Disease Presenting with Persistant Hemolysis

Vrinda Vijayakumari, Kaliyannan Mayilananthi, Durga Krishnan, Ramprasath Anbazhagan, Gaurav Narayanan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 90-95
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33850

Wilson’s disease is one the rare autosomal recessive disorders of copper metabolism due to mutation in ATP7B gene located in chromosome 13. The mutations of this gene cause accumulation of copper in different tissues such as brain, liver, and eyes. The clinical presentation usually reflects this tissue distribution and varies from asymptomatic patients to those with hepatic or neuro-psychiatric manifestations. Here, we report an interesting case of Wilson’s disease which presented with mild persistent hemolysis leading to pre hepatic and post hepatic jaundice. He also had hepatocellular jaundice due to liver injury.

Open Access Case Report

Scrotal Ulcer is a Rare Presentationof TB Epididymis in Young Male

Rekadi Srinivasa Rao, Senthil Kumar, R. Anantharamakrishnan, P. Varadaraju

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 146-149
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33858

Introduction: Scrotal tuberculosis (TB) is rare and may present as painful scrotal swelling with ulceration and discharging sinus.

Case Report: A 28 years male with 2 months history of swelling and pain over left scrotum. Developed ulcer over the scrotal region with multiple sinus associated with pus discharge.

Conclusion: The clinical presentation of TB scrotal ulcer can be atypical and a high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis. Diagnosis is by using ultrasonography, microbiology, and biopsy. Treatment requires prolonged ATT for 6 months.

Open Access Case Report

Atypical Oral Presentation of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Case Report

V. Sadananda, M. N. Hegde, N. Hegde

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 196-199
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33865

Hypogeusia, dysgeusia and ageusia are commonly prevalent and considered as the first recognized oral symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Various other oral manifestations have also been reported in patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. This article presents clinical presentation of oral lesions in two patients who were subsequently confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Open Access Case Report

The Consequence of COVID-19

Porkodi Arun Pandiyan, Kaliannan Mayilananthi, Krishnan Durga, Pichaipillai Senthilnathan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 241-244
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33871

SARS-CoV-2 is the third and largest pandemic that emerged in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China in 2019. As per WHO 45,988,595 people have been infected and the COVID 19 has caused more than 1,194,979 deaths. The clinical spectrum of COVID 19 varies from asymptomatic presentation to multi-organ dysfunction. The pathophysiology behind the sequel of COVID 19 immuno-suppression is an area yet to be explored. Here, we report a case of 52 year old male with persistent pyrexia post his recovery from COIVD-19. On further evaluation, a diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess that resulted as a sequel of COVID-19 was made.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Exploring the Role of Neuroscience in Talent Management

Yash Agarwal, Sonal Shree

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 231-240
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33870

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of neuroscience in talent management (TM), discuss and analyze the findings that can have a potential role in the execution of talent strategy in organizations, and bring out the future research agenda. Corporates adopting this science have been found to understand what motivates employees and drives excellence. Neuroscience elucidates how talent strategies can be improved to meet organizations' strategic goals. This paper suggests that such talent management interventions may improve employee engagement and development and calls for further research and thinking. A systematic study on past literature published on Neuroscience, Psychology, Talent Management, L&D was conducted. By applying ideas from the paper, TM professionals can improve talent strategies to meet business objectives. It will also help comprehend and cement the connection between neuroscience and TM. This research has not covered the challenges associated with combining neuroscience and TM. The findings are theoretical and are not supported by quantitative results via primary research.

Open Access Case Study

Primary Testicular Lymphoma a Rare Extra Nodal Involvement of NHL

R. Anantharamakrishnan, Senthil Kumar, K. Pranay, Rekadi Srinivasa Rao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 161-164
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33860

Primary testicular lymphoma is a collection of neoplasms that constitutes only 1–9% of testicular tumors. Although uncommon in the general population, it is the most common type of malignant testicular tumor in men ≥50 years of age. There are various subtypes, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), Burkitt’s lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. In the adult testis, primary DLBCL represents the most frequent subtype of lymphoma (80–90%), whereas the majority of testicular lymphomas in children consist of secondary involvement by Burkitt’s lymphoma, DLBCL or lymphoblastic lymphoma. The typical clinical sign is a painless testicular mass of variable size that is usually unilateral. Primary testicular lymphoma may be identified during the initial presentation of primary or systemic malignant lymphomas, or during a clinical follow-up of patients with lymphoma. Historically, primary testicular lymphoma has been reported to exhibit a poor prognosis with an overall 5-year survival rate of 17–48%, particularly primary testicular DLBCL, whose clinical behavior has been reported to be aggressive and to demonstrate a high propensity to disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) and skin at presentation and relapse. The underlying mechanisms responsible for this aggressive behaviour have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, a patient with primary testicular DLBCL was examined from histological examination and immunohistochemical staining in the diagnosis of testicular DLBCL.

Open Access Case Study

A Rare Case of Salmonella Typhi Presenting with Tonsillitis

S. Aarifaa, Kaliannan Mayilananthi, Durga Krishnan, V. R. Mohan Rao, Praveen Srinivas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 294-296
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33879

Typhoid fever is an endemic infection in developing countries like India. Oral manifestations of enteric fever and typhoid tonsillitis have rarely been reported in the literature.   We report a 20 year old male, showing tonsillitis to be an integral part of clinical presentation of typhoid fever.The patient presented with fever, throat pain and oral ulcers. Blood culture and swab from tonsils showed significant growth of Salmonella typhi.This case report adds light to tonsillitis as a rare clinical manifestation of typhoid fever.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Rural Population of Wardha District Regarding Oral Cancer- A Study Protocol

Suwarna Dangore-Khasbage

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 263-268
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33874

Background: Oral cancer is one of the easily diagnosed cancer as compared to the cancers of other parts of the body as the mouth is easily accessible for self or clinical examination. But, it is frequently diagnosed in advanced stage as the population lack the knowledge about the causes and signs & symptoms of oral cancer. Though many studies are there describing this issue, scanty literature is available relevant to knowledge, attitude and practice regarding oral cancer especially in rural areas which needs attention.

Aim: To assess knowledge, attitude and practice of rural population of Wardha district regarding Oral cancer.

Methodology: This questionnaire based prospective study will include 1000 subjects who will be able to read and understand the questionnaire. Self-administered questionnaire prepared in local language (Marathi / Hindi) of the rural population of Wardha district will be administered. Questionnaire will be comprised of two parts. First part request demographic information and the second section contain 18 questions regarding knowledge, attitude and practice regarding oral cancer. All the questionnaire responses will be recorded in tabular format and subjected to statistical analysis.

Expected Results: In rural area of Wardha District in the Indian state of Maharashtra, there may be majority of the people, still having minimal knowledge regarding oral cancer and its causes marking a high percentage when compared to the urban. Thus, this study will be an attempt to evaluate the awareness and access the knowledge of the rural public regarding oral cancer.

Conclusion: The knowledge about the risk factors, sign and symptoms of oral cancer amongst the rural population can be useful for the prevention and early diagnosis of oral cancer, and thus reducing the oral cancer burden of the society.

Open Access Short Research Article

Improving Quality of Life among Thalassemia Major in Adolescents: Video Assisted Teaching

N. Jenifa, Hepsibah S. Sharmil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33840

Background: Thalassemia major (B-TM) a grave health concern that poses serious health consequences during which there arises a mandatory need for regular blood transfusions that is vital for survival.. This led to the conception of this video assisted teaching to improve the Quality of Life (QOL) among B-TM patients.

Aim: To assess the effectiveness of video assisted teaching on knowledge regarding quality of life among Thalassemia Major Adolescence and to find the association between knowledge regarding quality of life among Thalassemia Major Adolescence with selected demographic variables.

Materials and methods Sample: A Pre- test and post - test designs was conducted in Gujarat. A total of 50 adolescents were included in study. The data from the thalassemic major adolescents is collected using a predefined questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the collected data, and the results were interpreted in terms of the study's goal and hypothesis. The 0.05 level of significance was chosen.

Results: Post-test result shows that majority of thalassemic major adolescence 11(22%) were having adequate knowledge, 39(78%) were showing moderate knowledge regarding quality of life among thalassemic major adolescence.

Conclusion: The study's goal was to see how efficient video assisted education is at improving knowledge about quality of life among thalassemia major adolescent.The goal of measuring thalassemia major adolescent knowledge and evaluating the effectiveness of video assisted instruction, researchers used a one-group pre-test and post-test approach. The knowledge of thalassemia major adolescents was assessed using a questionnaire.The data was interpreted by suitable appropriate statistical methods.

Open Access Short Research Article

Semen and Spermatozoa Characteristics in Alcohol Users and Non-Users

Tanuja Lella, A. Ruckmani, N. Pandiyan Pandiyan, R. Arunkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 102-106
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33852

Introduction: Increasing infertility rate worldwide raises research to investigate plausible reason health community. To find out the characteristics of semen and spermatozoa in alcohol users and compare these characteristics with that of non-users of alcohol.

Methodology: The data on alcohol use and semen analysis were obtained from case records of patients reported to the Department of Andrology & Reproductive Medicine of a tertiary care hospital for a period of one year from January 2018 to December 2018. The semen volume, sperm concentration, motility and morphology in alcohol users were compared with non-users.

Results: A total of 231 patients had reported to the Department of Andrology & Reproductive Medicine during the study period. Among them 81 (35.06%) were alcohol users and 150 (64.94%) alcohol non-users. Analysis of their semen reports revealed that the difference in semen volume and sperm morphology was not found to be statistically significant, but the sperm concentration and progressive motility of spermatozoa showed significant reduction in alcohol users compared to non – users (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The semen volume and sperm quality were found to be low in alcohol users. Among the spermatozoa characteristics, sperm concentration and motility were significantly reduced in alcohol users.

Open Access Short Research Article

Pre-experimental Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Warm Compress on Lumbar Region during First Stage of Labour among Primi Parturient Mothers in Labour Room of Selected Hospitals at Amravati

M. A. Sheelamma, C. C. Linson

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 275-280
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33876

The goal of this study was to determine the intensity of pain experienced by primiparturient women during the first stage of labour. To see how beneficial a warm compress is on the lumbar area. To see if there's a link between labour discomfort and certain demographic factors. At the 0.05 level of significance, the post-test pain score will be lower than the pre-test pain score. The research method chosen was quantitative, and the study design was pre-experimental, pre-test, and post-test. Purposive sampling was used to collect data from 60 primiparturient moms in the early stages of labour. The research was carried out at Amravati's Dayasagar Hospital. A pre-test was done using a numerical pain scale to determine pain levels among primiparturient moms who met the inclusion criteria. In the initial stage of labour, a warm compress on the lumbar area is applied for 15 minutes every half hour for four hours. The numerical pain scale is used to measure post-test pain levels. In the current study, 53.3 percent of primigravida moms in the control group reported moderate pain (scoring 4-6) and 46.6 percent had severe pain in post-test 1. (score 7-10). 36.6 percent had moderate pain (scoring 4-6) and 63.3 percent had severe pain (7-10) in post-test 2, while 13.3 percent had moderate pain (4-6) and 86.6 percent had severe pain in post-test 3. (score 7-10). In post-test 1, 70% of the experimental group experienced moderate pain (scoring 4-6) and 30% had severe pain (score 7-10). In post-test 2, 66.6 percent of participants reported moderate pain, while 33.3 percent reported severe pain. In post-test 3, 56.6 percent of participants reported moderate pain, while 43.3 percent reported severe pain. As a result, it may be stated that using a warm compress to relieve pain was successful.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Zinc Oxide in a Public Healthcare Organization in Riyadh Region

Nehad J. Ahmad, Mohammad Javed Ansari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33841

Aim: The present study aimed to describe the use of zinc oxide in a public healthcare organization in Riyadh Region.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study that includes reviewing the electronic prescriptions of zinc oxide among outpatients in a public healthcare organization in Riyadh Region.

Results: More than 52% of the patients who received zinc oxide were males and the age of 79.41% of them was less than 10 years. More than 55% of the patients received zinc oxide for 1 week and 17.65% of them received zinc oxide for 2 weeks. All of the prescriptions were prescribed by residents (100.00%). Most of the prescriptions were written by emergency department (76.47%).

Conclusion: The present study showed that zinc oxide was uncommonly prescribed in Al-Kharj. Additional studies are needed to explore the frequency of and the pattern of using it in different settings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Level of Knowledge and Practices on Hand Hygiene among School going Children at Selected Districts, Tamil Nadu, India

K. Keerthana, S. Subbulakshmi, A. Ameer Suhail, Sharon Varghese, S. Sesan Raj, S. Johnson

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33842

Background: The practice of hand washing is a simple effective way to prevent infection cleaning of the hands can prevent the spread of germs and micro organisms. Hand hygiene is recognized as a leading measure to prevent cross –transmission of microorganism. Infection due to microbes is a evolving problem in worldwide and horizontal transmission of bacterial organisms to cause a high mortality rate increased. Hand washing with soap and water can prevent a significant proportion of childhood diarrhoea and respiratory infections, the two main global causes of child mortality. 

Objectives: The objectives were to assess the existing level of knowledge and practice of school going children on hand washing, to find out the correlation between level of knowledge and practice on hand washing among school going children and to find out the association between level of knowledge and practices of school going children on hand washing with their selected demographic variables.

Methods: A quantitative evaluative approach with descriptive research design was adopted. 50 school going children were selected by the purposive sampling technique.

Results:  The collected data was tabulated and analyzed. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. In the level of knowledge majority of the school going children (52%) had inadequate knowledge, 28% of them were had moderately adequate knowledge and only 20% of them had adequate knowledge. The mean knowledge score on hand washing was 10.4 and the standard deviation was 4.31. The mean practice score on hand washing was 21.52 and the standard deviation was 7.4.

Conclusion: The study results shows that most of the school children were having inadequate knowledge and less desirable practices of hand washing. A structured teaching program on hand washing is very important for incorporating the knowledge among school children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant and Anti Gout Potential of Aqueous Seed Extract of Punica granatum - An in vitro Study

V. Jayavarsha, R. Gayathri, V. Vishnu Priya, J. Selvaraj, S. Kavitha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 21-28
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33843

Background: Punica granatum belongs to the family punicaceae. Pomegranate has a reservoir of secondary metabolites which possess free radical scavenging activity. Pomegranate has high antioxidants content, which helps in the delayed progress of atherosclerosis, cancer and ageing. Gout is a chronic metabolic disease. It is caused due to increased deposition of monosodium urate crystals in joints. It is caused due to increased intake of purine rich food. Xanthine oxidase converts hypoxanthine to uric acid. Xanthine oxidase (XO) plays an important role in the regulation of production of uric acid. Many research has been done in the extract to analyse the pharmacological characteristics and its beneficial uses. Pomegranate is widely consumed and used as preventive and therapeutic agents.

Aim: The aim of this study is to analyse phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and anti gout activity of aqueous seed extract of Punica granatum.

Methods: Aqueous seed extract of Punica granatum was prepared and analysed for its phytochemical, antioxidant and anti gout potential by using statistical methods.

Results: Phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids were present in aqueous extract of Punica granatum. IC50 of antioxidant activity of aqueous seed extract of Punica granatum was found to be 280µg/ml. The extract also exhibited anti gout potential with an IC50 = 310 µg/ml. P value is < 0.05 so, it is significant.

Conclusion: Aqueous seed extract of punica granatum can be used to treat gout and to combat various other disorders and also have antioxidant and phytochemical activity. It will be an alternative for synthetic drugs. Herbal extracts are more preferred for its accessibility, cost effectiveness and less side effects. The combined effects of antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitors will be helpful in hyperuricemia treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Organ Donation’- Awareness, Perspective and Practices among Adults – A Cross Sectional Study in Rural Tamil Nadu

S. S. Lokesh Kumar, D. Raja, U. Sharath

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 29-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33844

Introduction: Organ transplantation is the most opted treatment for the most of the end stage organ diseases since it increases the quality of life and long-term survival benefits. The rate of organ donation is less in India. This leads to organ deficit which is the major obstacle in transplantation. The main reason behind this less rate of organ donation is lack of knowledge and awareness.

Methodology: A Cross sectional descriptive study done among 203 study participants residing in rural field practicing area of a tertiary care centre by using two stage random sampling method.

Results: 47.3% of the participants were in the age group of 31-60 years. Most of them were female and married. 78.7% of the participants were completed at least primary education and 28.3% of the participants were belong socio economic class V according to modified BG prasad’s scale 2019. 84.2% of the study participants were aware about the organ donation and Television acted as a main source of information about organ donation. Majority of the participants doesn’t know about the organ donation card and the place of enrolment for organ donation.

Conclusion: Measures to be taken to create awareness about the need of organ donation. Campaign should be conducted for the enrolment for organ donation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Appraisal of Behaviour-change Models and Application of Transtheoretical Model-based Motivational Interviewing for Bottle Feeding Cessation- A Qualitative Study

Priyanka R. Acharya, Ashwin M. Jawdekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33845

Behaviour change is the key to prevention of diseases; oral diseases being no exception. Behaviours such as frequent consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), feeding milk using a bottle and lack of oral hygiene maintenance are a few examples of behaviours that can cause early childhood caries. Dentists must adopt skills to counsel patients in a manner that will elicit behaviour change. Motivational Interviewing (MI) based on the transtheoretical model of behaviour-change has been effective in tobacco cessation and also has been shown effective in oral health behaviours. This qualitative study demonstrates effectiveness of MI practiced by a paediatric dentist for bottle-feeding cessation. Sixteen mothers were counselled by a single trained MI counsellor in one-to-one counselling sessions and followed up telephonically. Fifteen mothers could stop the practice of bottle feeding. Mothers reported positive feedback on the counselling sessions and satisfaction with the result.

Open Access Original Research Article

Profile of Blood Donor Deferrals in a Tertiary Care Centre-Our Institutional Experience

D. Rajeswari Thivya, R. Vijayashree, K. Meghanath

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-80
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33848

Background:  It is the prime duty of transfusion services to provide safe, adequate and timely need of blood and the blood products. Understanding the reasons for donor deferral can help in planning more efficient recruitment strategies and educate and motivate temporarily deferred donors in order to maintain a safe and adequate supply of blood products.

Aims of the Study: To evaluate and analyze the blood donor deferral pattern in a tertiary care hospital blood bank and to review its influence on blood safety.

Methodology: This retrospective study was conducted in the blood bank, CHRI from the year January 2015 to December 2018. Data like demographic data, clinical history, physical examination, haematological examination, stored in the blood bank was retrived. The donors will be deferred based on standard WHO guidelines. The collected deferral data was analyzed using SPSS software 2011version 20.

Results: During the study period there were 7010 registered blood donors. The deferral rate was 5.19%. Among the donor deferrals, females were more commonly deferred ie 31.66%. The deferral rate among voluntary and replacement donors are 4.71% and 11.62% respectively. The rate of permanent deferral (17.86%) was less compared to temporary deferral (82.14%). Among temporary deferral anaemia is the most common cause (27.75%). Seropositive for Hepatitis B is the most common cause for permenant deferral (52.30%).

Conclusion: In our study temporary deferral is higher this necessities the need of education, motivation of these donors for future donation to maintain a healthy and safe donor pool. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation & Evaluation of Effervescent Tablet of Verapamil Hydrochloride

Rajeev Kumar, Sushant Kumar Shrivastava

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 81-89
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33849

The chief aim of the present investigation is to study the Formulation & Evaluation of Effervescent Tablet of Verapamil Hydrochloride. The floating tablets of verapamil hydrochloride were prepared by direct compression technique. For each tablet formulation,  drug, HPMC-K15M, karaya gum, sodium bicarbonate, and diluents were blended homogeneously for 10 min followed by addition of magnesium stearate. The total weight of each tablet was 300 mg. The amount of karaya gum used was in the range of 40–90 mg, whereas HPMC was used in the range of 20-40 mg. The powder mixture was further mixed for 5 min in a mortar. The resultant mixture was compressed into tablets using a Rimek rotary tablet machine. After preparation, the formulations were evaluated by various parameters. The friability of the tablet formulation varied between 0.3 ± 0.0063 to 0.59 ± 0.0076%. The weight variation of prepared tablet formulation complies with USP limits. The thickness was found to be in the range of 4.1 ± 0.48 to 4.2 ± 0.76 mm. The assay for drug content varied between 96.53 ± 0.36 to 102.03 ± 0.52%. The B1, B5, B6, B9, and B10 exhibited more than 75% drug release at 12 h. The B1 exhibited a maximum of 30 % drug release in the 1st hour and constant release for almost up to 12 h. B8 showed the least drug release among all other formulations; this may be due to the formation of a thick gel barrier on the tablet. Tablets were prepared by direct compression. Technological characteristics of floating tablets were within the Pharmacopoeial limit. Tablets floated for more than 8 h. Complete swelling was achieved by the end of 8 h, so percent swelling was determined at the end of 8 h for all the developed formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction in Culture-Negative Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples of Bacterial meningitis Patients

C. P. Khuntia, S. K. Kar, B. Dwibedi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 96-101
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33851

Background: Meningitis is a rigorous childhood disease with high morbidity and mortality. It is the main cause of under five mortality in India. Mainly three bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae are responsible. In low economic set up country like India, documented bacterial meningitis  mainly depend on gram staining, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture results or latex agglutination test resulting in less number of positive due to the prior antimicrobial intake which affects culture and latex agglutination test results. This study was taken up rapid and accurate molecular method like RT PCR to diagnose bacterial meningitis in culture-negative CSF samples.

Materials and Methods: Fifty culture-negative CSF samples from suspected cases of bacterial meningitis were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) for the presence of lytA, bexA, and ctrA genes specific for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis respectively.

Results: Positive real-time PCR results for Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected in 36 (72%) of culture-negative CSF samples while 10% positive results for Haemophilus influenzae type b. Nine  (18%) samples were negative by real-time PCR for all tested organisms.

Conclusion: The use of molecular techniques as real-time PCR can provide a valuable addition to the proportion of diagnosed cases of bacterial meningitis especially in settings with high rates of culture-negative results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiological Study and Associated Risk Factors for Developing Bacterial Meningitis in Children of Odisha, India

C. P. Khuntia, S. K. Kar, B. Dwibedi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 107-115
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33853

Background: Bacterial meningitis is a leading cause of high childhood transience. It is the foremost cause of fatality in pediatric age group of 0-5 years in India accounting 0.5 to 2.6% of hospital admissions with CFR 16-30%. Based on above scenario, the study was undertaken to address the prevalence, etiology, social determinants of health factors of bacterial meningitis among under five children Odisha, India.

Methods: A cross sectional study comprising of children under five years of age admitted to tertiary care hospital and teaching institutions in Cuttack with suspected clinical diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during April, 2012 to September 2013. About 634 children enrolled into the study after getting appropriate consent from parents or their legal guardians. Lumbar puncture was done and CSF was sent for biochemical analysis, cell counts, staining, culture, latex agglutination test (LAT) and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR).

Results: About 61 children (10.4%) were confirmed with diagnosis of bacterial meningitis by either culture, latex or RT PCR.  Male children (74.7%) were significantly more prone to bacterial meningitis than females (24.3%). The common isolated pathogens were Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza type b, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebseilla pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Streptococcus pneumoniae was observed to be most common pathogen (57.6%) followed by Haemophilus influenzae type b (26.2%). The risk factors analyzed showed statistically significant association (p<0.01) with low household income, mother’s education, overcrowding (more than 3 persons in a single room), smoking and poor ventilation of household.

Conclusion: Strengthening early detection of bacteria meningitis by rapid diagnostic test like LATEX, RT PCR and prompt treatment of emergent case at the household level, improvement in mother’s education and awareness, transportation to local hospital and facility for treatment and care should be utmost priority in the present scenario. It is crucial to assess the burden of bacterial meningitis with its etiology is in this region as  vaccines are yet to be introduced in the child vaccine program.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assess the Quality of Life amongst Antenatal Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Selected Districts, Tamil Nadu, India

D. Joanie Priya, A. Agusta, M. Jasmine, M. Rakesh, Praveen Nirmala

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 116-121
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33854

Background: Gestational diabetes Mellitus is defined as the diabetes diagnosed within the second or third trimester of pregnancy. Gestational Diabete Mellitus is one of the most frequent metabolic diseases during pregnancy. It approximately affects 7% (range:2-18%) of all pregnancies. This clinical condition potentially affects not only negative medical outcomes but also the mental state status with additional adverse consequences on psychological well-being and Quality of Life.

Objectives: Were to assess the quality of life amongest antenatal mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and to associate the quality of life amongest antenatal mothers with the selected demographic variable.

Methods: The descriptive research design was used in this study. The convenient Sample (N=30) was used to assess the Quality of Life Scale among antenatal mothers with the Gestational Mothers. The data regarding demographic variables like Age, Income, Occupation, Education and Obstetric Variables like past obstetrical complications, Gravid, Week of Gestation. The result showed that 30 Antenatal Mothers with Gestational Diabetes was participated in this study and they were assessed by Modified Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL – BREF) which includes physical, psychological and social relationships domains are rated on 5points Likert Scale to determine Score.

Conclusion: The result shows that the level of Quality of Life Scale of Antenatal Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (N=30) 12 of them have Moderate Quality of Life, 11 of them have Adequate Quality of Life and 07 of them have Inadequate Quality of Life. And there is Significant Association of demographic variables of age, except age other demographic and Obstetrical variables are Not Significant and (X2 – 56.16, P = >0.05).

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Metoprolol Controlled Release Formulations

Ramakrishna Vydana, Chandra Sekhar Kothapalli Bonnoth

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 122-132
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33855

Aim: The main perspective of the present research work was to prepare Metoprolol floating controlled release formulations.

Methodology: After performing the characterization studies, Metoprolol tablets were prepared using various concentrations of poly ethylene oxide (PEO) WSR 303 (5% to 30%) by direct compression method. Formulations MP1 and MP6 were formulated using PEO WSR 303. Various pre and post compression parameters were evaluated. Dissolution studies were performed for the prepared tablets using dissolution medium of 0.1N hydrochloric acid.

Results: Characterization studies like Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for Metoprolol, Polyethylene oxide WSR 303 and their combination were carried out, which revealed that there is no interaction between drug and polymer. The dissolution studies showed the controlled release pattern of Metoprolol up to 24h. The formulation MP5 prepared using 25% w/w of PEO WSR 303 showed maximum drug release of 98.22% at 24h. Similar drug release profile was observed for MP6 which was formulated using 30%w/w PEO WSR 303. These two formulations were further added with various concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (5% to 15%) and citric acid (2.5% to 10%) which enhanced floating of drug. Formulation MP8 containing 10% of sodium bicarbonate with 25% PEO WSR 303 showed less buoyancy lag time and prolonged drug release. Formulation MP15 showed very less buoyancy lag time of 4sec.

Conclusion: Thus the prepared Metoprolol floating tablets showed prolonged drug release which could be a promising formulation for anti-hypertensive patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Quality Control Data of Hormones Using Six Sigma Metrics Tool in Clinical Laboratory

G. Anuradha, S. Santhini Gopalakrishnan, . Hemalatha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 133-137
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33856

Background: In health care system it is necessary to provide high quality and reliable test results to the patients. Many clinical laboratories are using six sigma as a tool to improve the quality control in health care system. Keeping this in mind, the present study was conducted using the quality control data of hormones under NABL(National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories) which were assayed in our clinical laboratory.

Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, both the internal and external quality control data of 11 hormones were collected for a period of 6 months from April 2020 to September 2020 and the six sigma analysis was done.

Results: Testosterone level 1(6.8), level 2(6.5) and Folate level1(6.9), level 2(6.6) showed sigma level more than 6 and hence excellent performance. The hormones, FT3 level 1(3.7), level 2(4.8), HCG level 2(3.6), TSH level 1(4.8), level 2(4.7) and Vitamin B12 level 1(4.4), level 2(4.5) showed average performance with sigma level between 3.5 and 6. The hormones, FT4 level 1(1.7), level 2(2), HCG level 1(2.2), Prolactin level 1(3), level 2(3.3), FSH level 1(1.9), level 2(2.0), LH level 1(2), level 2(1.9) and Progesterone level 1(3.4), level 2(3.3) showed poor performance with sigma level less than 3.5.

Conclusion: Stringent rules need not be applied for hormones with sigma>6. Moreover, control limits can be relaxed to 3S so that false rejections can be minimized. For hormones with sigma< 6, internal QC rules have to be strictly applied and the root cause analysis has to be done. To conclude, six sigma metrics is a powerful quality control tool which helps to improve the performance of the clinical laboratory and hence the efficiency of the health cares system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Pharmaceutical and Analytical Study of Chapal Shodhan (Purification Process) with Special Reference to Bismuth and Selenium

Prasanna Mathad, M. R. Pandya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 138-145
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33857

Rasashastra is the branch of science which deals with alchemic preparation or metal and mineral medicinal formulation explained in ancient texts of Ayurved. Rasashastra explained group of drugs in different names on the basis their therapeutic application and binding capacity of drug with Mercury. Chapal one among the group of Maharasa which is having potent therapeutic properties like immune modulator, analgesic, rejuvenator and aphrodisiac. Due to lack of identification, difficulty in procurement and confusion in synonyms and vernacular names, Chapal placed in controversial drugs. Some opines Chapal as Bismuth and some says Selenium. To overcome from these controversies to confirm the type of drug this comparative study is undertaken. Comparative study given nearer conclusion that Chapal can be Selenium, after observing organoleptic properties and symptoms experienced by the person during the purificatory process.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Newly Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Mediated Phytomedicine from Linum usitatissimum for Dental Caries

P. Bhuvaneshwari, P. Vinoba, N. Prabhu, M. Vijay Pradhap Singh, M. Rajamehala, A. Archana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 150-160
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33859

The present study deals with the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of Linum usitatissimum (Flaxseed) with ethanol as solvent and examined for anticariogenic activity using disc diffusion method along with antioxidant activity using DPPH scavenging studies. The ethanolic seed extract revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, counarins, anthocyanins, carbohydrates, leucoanthocyanin and xanthoproteins. Characterization of synthesized AgNPs were confirmed by FTIR to confirm the functional group involved in reduction of Ag+ ions, SEM to know the morphology of synthesized nanoparticles and XRD to study the crystallographic structure of nanoparticles. The antioxidant activity of synthesized AgNPs showed that the maximum inhibition of 88.88% for the seed-AgNPs and compared with the standard ascorbic acid (90.74%) was observed at concentration (100 µg/ml). The anticariogenic activity of synthesized AgNPs using the seed of   Linum usitatissimum showed the maximum zone of inhibition for Streptococcus salivarius with the radius of 12 mm at a higher concentration of 100 µg/ml. Therefore, it is proposed that the synthesized seed-AgNPs played the efficient role against the antioxidant activity and forms the potential source for anticariogenic activity in dental caries application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Maxillary Incisal Edge Position using Canine Visibility as a Guide – An In vivo Study

Ankita Piplani, G. Ganadhipathi, M. C. Suresh Sajjan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 165-171
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33861

Purpose:  To evaluate the reliability of the visibility of the central incisor & the canine for the cervico incisal positioning of anterior maxillary teeth related to age & sex while the upper lip was in repose in dentate patients & the development of rehabilitation recommendations for edentulous individuals with regard to the location of the maxillary incisal edge

Methodology: 308 subjects [152 Males & 156 Females] belonging to the age of 30 to 59 years were selected using a simple stratified random technique. There were three age and sex groups: Group I was 30 to 39 years old, Group II was 40 to 49 years old, and Group III was 50 to 59 years old. The vertical distances (in mm) between the lower border of the upper lip and the right maxillary central incisal edge and canine tip were measured and recorded using adhesive tape marked with millimetres. A single examiner recorded all the measurements and the values were tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis.

Results: Men in Groups I and II had maxillary central incisor exposure ranging from +6 to -1mm, whereas males in Group III had exposure ranging from +5 to -2mm. There was an exposure range of +6 to -2 mm in females in Group I, +7 to -2 mm in Group II, and +5 to -2 mm in Group III for the central incisors. While the canine exposure in Group I and II and Group III ranged from +2 to -4mm in females, the exposure ranged from +3 to -3mm in men of all ages. In all groups, females had statistically significant (P0.05) more central incisor and canine exposure than men.

Conclusions: The canine visibility was less variable in all the age groups and in both males and females in comparison to the central incisor. When restoring edentulous individuals, the average canine exposure dimension can be employed for cervico-incisal location of the anterior maxillary teeth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ceramic Restorations Based on Zirconium Dioxide for Orthopedic Dentistry

Alina Anatolyevna Muzayeva, Abulmuslim Magomedovich Nuraliev, Saida Astanovna Temirova, Elena Anatolyevna Muzaeva, Turpal-Ali Arsanovich Adaev, Zarina Vadimovna Kudzieva, Muslim Temirkhanovich Chantiev, Zelimkhan Uvaysovich Akhmetov, Lyana Khachimovna Bizhoeva

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 172-178
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33862

Currently, ceramics based on solid solutions of zirconium dioxide tetragonal structure are common biomedical materials. In commercially common ceramics of orthopedic dentistry based on zirconium dioxide, the stabilization of the tetragonal shape is achieved by the introduction of yttrium or cerium cations. As a result of this scientific work, a ceramic material based on nanopowders of a system of zirconium dioxide and ytterbium oxide with high strength parameters has been developed. The results of the conducted research allow us to recommend the new Yb–TZP ceramics as an alternative to Y–TZP ceramic materials for restorations in orthopedic dentistry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 with Lipid Profile, MDA and AOPP in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

P. Divya, R. Inmozhi Sivakamasundari, T. K. Jithesh, K. Santha, K. Shifa, M. Nakkeeran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 179-186
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33863

Background: Diabetes mellitus is rising all over the world due to population growth, aging, urbanisation, and the increase of obesity due to physical inactivity, characterized by persistent high blood glucose levels associated with aberrations in lipid, carbohydrate, and protein metabolisms leading to water and electrolyte imbalance. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of mortality in diabetic patients. Mechanisms such as oxidative stress, lipid metabolism imbalance, as well as myocardial cell apoptosis are key factors to facilitate the progression of Diabetic cardiomyopathy.

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess FGF-21 levels and their association with lipid profile parameters and oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods: A patient based cross-sectional study was conducted among the subjects with history of type 2 DM for the past 10 years.

Results: Variations in FBS, T.C, TG, LDL, HDL, VLDL, FGF-21, MDA and AOPP levels among cases and controls were depicted in Table 2. There was an increase in all these parameters in cases compared to controls whereas HDL showed a decrease among cases.

Conclusion: Our study concluded that there is a significant correlation between fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), oxidative stress, and abnormal lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients. We would recommend further studies to explore the role of FGF21 as an important marker in predicting cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Radiological Imaging and CA125 Correlation as Predictive Variables in Ovarian Pathologies

S. Varsha, C. Bhavya Sree, Karthik Krishna Ramakrishnan, Seena Cheppala Rajan, Muthiah Pichandi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 187-195
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33864

Introduction: Primary Ovary Neoplasms are the most frequent tumors showing epithelial differentiation. Tumour Marker CA-125, glycoprotein synthesized mainly by neoplastic cells with epithelial differentiation. Serum Level of CA-125 has a biological potential of these lesions. This study is mainly done to evaluate the association between serum CA-125 levels and imaging findings and to predict malignancy in various ovarian lesions.

Objectives: To evaluate the capacity of CA125 and Imaging findings to predict malignancy in various ovarian pathologies.

Materials and Methods: Study area: Department of Radiology, Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Chennai, Study design: Retrospective study.

Study period: 6months.

Study population: Patients with history and clinical symptoms of ovarian lesions and USG detected ovarian lesions confirmed on Radiological Imaging.

Sampling method: Purposive sampling Sample size: 30.

Inclusion criteria: Patients with clinically suspected ovarian lesions or indeterminate ovarian lesions on USG who underwent Radiological imaging and CA-125 estimation.

Exclusion criteria: Children less than 12years of age are excluded from this study.

Results: Among 30 cases, 19(63.33%) were benign and 2(6.67%) were borderline and 9(30%) were malignant lesion in the present study. Ovarian pathologies is mostly seen in women of age above 25 yrs(86.67%). In this study Ovarian lesions are more commonly seen in married women(86.67%) and menstruating women(56.67%). Out of 30 Cases, Serum CA-125 level <35IU/ml is seen among 13(43.33%) and level >35IU/ml is seen among 17(56.67%). Out of 17 women with CA-125 level >35IU/ml, 9 had malignant lesions on histopathology while 7 women had benign lesions and 1 women had borderline lesion.

Conclusion: The present study shows significant association of Serum CA-125 levels with mixed solid cystic ovarian lesions ill defined margins (possible Malignant Ovarian lesions) (p<0.05) especially in Post-menopausal women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Serum Zinc Level with Febrile Seizures in Children

Maryum Naveed, Rimsha Mohsin, Palwasha Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 200-203
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33866

Introduction: Febrile seizure (FS), previously known as febrile convulsion, is the most common seizure in children. FS usually occurs between six months and five years of age.

Aims and objectives: The main objective of the study is to find the association of serum zinc level with febrile seizures in children of Pakistan.

Material and methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at Mayo Hospital, Lahore during June 2020 to January 2021. The data was collected from 164 patients of both genders.

Results: The data was collected from 164 patients. In the case group, 46 children were male (53.3%), and 36 children (46.7%) were female. In the control group 44 children were male (43.3%) and 38 children were female (56.7%). The age of all participants was between one months and six years.

Conclusion: It is concluded that low serum zinc levels are fairly un-sufficient to support the hypothesis that Zinc deficiency could not be a potential risk factor for febrile seizure in children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Knowledge and Practise of Esthetic Dentistry amongst the Practicing Dentists of Private Dental Colleges of Navi Mumbai- A Questionnaire-based Study

Mridula Joshi, Sunil Dogra, Swapnali Mhatre, Nilesh V Joshi, Prajakta Rao, Mahesh Ghadage

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 204-210
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33867

Purpose: The inter-disciplinary approach to practise and also should constantly update their knowledge to keep up with the demands that this field presents.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of Esthetic dentistry amongst the practicing dentists of private dental colleges in Navi Mumbai, through a questionnaire- based study.

Materials and Methods: Self-administered KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, Practise) questionnaires were distributed amongst the practicing dentists of private dental colleges in Navi Mumbai. A total of 100 questionnaires were distributed.

Statistical analysis used: Pearson’s chi. Sq. test was applied and the likelihood ratio calculated for each question. Independent T Test was applied for equality of means between the groups, i.e. both gender and graduate and post graduate qualifications.

Results: Most of the dentists were aware of the field and practise of Esthetic dentistry, although there were some differences found between the general dentists and specialists in adopting and accepting new dental procedures.  According to them, Finances played a major role in opting for an esthetic treatment by patients.  

Conclusion: With the advances in esthetic dentistry and increased level of patients’ expectations and awareness, practicing dentists should be well versed with the same, by attending continuing dental education programs and courses to update their skill and knowledge. Also Finances plays a major role in opting for an esthetic treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension on Uteroplacental Vasculature Hemodynamic Changes and Pregnancy Outcome

Fahmida Gul, Sameena Gul Memon, Maria Javaid, Suresh Kumar, Yaswant Rai, Kuldeep Kumar Mewaram Poorani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 211-215
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33868

Background: Among the various complications of pregnancy, pregnancy-induced hypertension is found to be the most common which may affect maternal and fetal outcome. Pregnancy induced hypertension can cause growth retardation of fetus.

Aim and Objective: This study aims to assess hemodynamic variations in uteroplacental circulation in pregnancy-induced hypertension and its effect on fetal outcome.

Materials and Methods: The study was carried out at tertiary care hospital of nawab shah for the period of 06 months at Department of Radiology in association with Department of Gyne and Obs. Total 106 participants were selected for the study and all females were pregnant with 1st or 2nd trimester gestational record and medical history was taken from all participants and co-morbidities was also evaluated. Blood pressure was checked from all participants from their right arm in lying position and Ultrasound test was repeated as per requirement through color Doppler ultrasound machine and Data was analyzed by using statistical software SPSS. 24.00 version.

Results: After collection of research data from all participants, the entire data was assembled for the analysis. Participants were divided into various age groups as 26 were in 18-21yeras, 34 in 22-25years, 21 in 26-29years and only 07 were from 34-37years. 26 participants were belongs to 1st trimester, 34 among 2nd trimester and 21 in third trimester. PI was also noted with three different readings 32 in Umbilical artery, 21 in middle cerebral artery and 37 in uterine artery. RI was also noted among different arteries 41 in umbilical, 36 in middle cerebral and 39 in uterine arteries. S/D was also noted, 33 in umbilical artery, 49 in middle cerebral artery and 30 in uterine arteries.

Conclusion: Pregnancy-induced hypertension causes hemodynamic variations in uteroplacental vasculature which may be responsible for causing impaired fetal growth in some cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of the Amount of Sorption and Solubility Seen in Soft Liner with Herbal and Commercially Available Denture Cleanser - An In vitro Study

Malika J. Sehgal, Surekha Dubey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 245-254
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33872

Aims: the aim of the current study is to assess the quantity of sorption and solubility seen in the soft denture liner with herbal (neem) and commercially (clinsodent) available denture cleanser.

Materials and Methods: The cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Prosthodontics at Sharad Pawar Dental College And Hospital between February 2021 and July 2021. 52 samples of heat cured acrylic resin of circular shape were prepared using a stainless steel mould. The resilient liner was applied to all the samples using a denture adhesive. All samples will then be desiccated for 24 hours to get a stable or conditioned weight W1. The samples will then be divided into 2 groups namely: Group A (clinsodent group) and the Group B (herbal denture cleanser group). All the samples were immersed daily in cleanser for 8 hour and then transferred to artificial saliva for rest 16 hours of the day. Solutions of artificial saliva and denture cleanser was changed daily for the entire period of study that is 7 days. Later, all the test samples were removed from saliva, wiped dry, weighed for saturated weight W2. - After desiccating again for 24 hours the samples were again assessed for renovated weight that is W3.

Results: With respect to sorption and solubility it was found that the clinsodent group exhibited greater percentage of sorption when compared to the neem denture cleanser group after a period of 7 days, p-values of 0.0001,S.

Conclusion: It can be established that the solubility and sorption values of clinsodent group were higher when compared to the herbal denture cleanser group. Overall, neem in the form of denture cleanser performed better than clinsodent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Osteopontin, Oxidative Stress and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Hypothyroidism Subjects

Sumesh Prasad Sah, Jyoti Batra, Aarushi Batra, Manisha Arora, Sonu Sah, Sudeep Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 255-262
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33873

Aims: To find out the correlation between Osteopontin (OPN), oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in female hypothyroidism subjects.

Study Design: Case Control study

Place and Duration of Study: The present case control study was conducted with the collaboration of the Department of Biochemistry, Santosh Medical college, Ghaziabad and Muzaffarnagar Medical College, Muzaffarnagar from September 2018 to September 2020.

Methodology: The study includes 120 female hypothyroidism subjects and 120 age and sex matched normal healthy individuals as controls.  Serum OPN was estimated by commercially available ELISA kit, MDA by method described by Satoh et al. method, TAC by FRAP method and Ceruloplasmin was estimated on Access 2 Beckman Coulter clinical chemistry analyser.

Results: The anthropometric parameters, Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist hip ratio (WHR) were increased significantly in all the female hypothyroidism subjects as compared to controls. Study showed increased levels of TSH and MDA and decreased levels of serum Osteopontin, T3, T4, TAC and Ceruloplasmin (Cp) in hypothyroid subjects as compared to controls. A Significant positive correlation was found between OPN vs T3, OPN vs T4, OPN vs TAC and OPN vs Cp whereas significant negative correlation was found between OPN vs TSH, and OPN vs MDA.

Conclusion:  In the present study, we found decreased levels of Osteopontin in hypothyroidism subject. Pearson’s correlation analysis predicts, OPN negatively correlated with MDA and positively correlated with total antioxidant capacity and ceruloplasmin. Hence, Osteopontin, malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity and ceruloplasmin should all be considered while assessing the hypothyroidism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dietary Habits among Undergraduate Medical Students in Tamil Nadu; A Before and After Intervention Study

Hanitha Rajasekar, E. Venmathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 269-274
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33875

Introduction: In a developing country like India, people suffer from poverty and hunger on one hand and other lifestyle related diseases on the other hand. Unhealthy lifestyle is especially common among affluent society. Non communicable diseases has a multifactorial causation and key modifiable risk factor for NCDs is obesity. Adolescent population tends to suffer from ill effects of obesity because of unhealthy eating habits and social factor like stress. This study aims to evaluate the life style pattern especially eating habits among undergraduate medical students and possible outcome of interventional program in the form of health education.

Methods: A Before and After Intervention study was conducted among 100 undergraduate medical students in a private medical college of Tamil Nadu. Universal sampling method was used to select the study participants. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the study participants and Mc Nemar chi-square test was used for analysis.

Results: The Percentage of students who were overweight was 23% and obese was 5%. It was estimated that 94% of the participants had habit of consuming outside food before intervention and when enquired about the frequency 13% consumed daily, 48% consumed twice or thrice per week, 28% monthly once and 11% had rare consumption of outside food. Mc Nemar test was done to compare consumption of healthy food among study participants before and after intervention and this association was found to be statistically significant.

Conclusion: This study concluded that consumption of healthy food among study participants before and after intervention improved and association was statistically significant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Mental Activity on Heart Rate, Heart Rate Variability and Respiratory Rate in Healthy Volunteers

Ahamed Basha Abdul Bari, N. K. Subbalakshmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 281-286
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33877

Introduction: The link between mental stress and cardiac autonomic regulation plays a significant role in the patho physiological process of cardio neural feedback loop. This study assessed the effect of mental arithmetic and silent reading on heart rate variability, heart rate and respiratory rate in young healthy volunteers.

Materials and Methods: R-R intervals were recorded for five minutes in ten healthy volunteers aged 22-24 years of either sex while resting, doing mental arithmetic, and silent reading in a sitting position. Time and frequency domain approaches were used to measure heart rate variability (HRV). In them, heart rate and respiratory rate were also calculated. Using the paired ‘t' test, mean differences in values were evaluated between resting and mental arithmetic; resting and quiet reading conditions.

Results: Heart rate and respiratory rate were significantly higher during mental arithmetic (p = 0.012, p<0.0001 respectively) and silent reading compared to resting state (p=0.005, p=0.0002 respectively). There was no significant change in HRV during mental arithmetic and silent reading compared to resting state.

Conclusion: Mental arithmetic and silent reading primarily evoke a rise in respiratory rate and heart rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Effectiveness of Cortexin in the Treatment of Cardiac Arrhythmias in Children

Madina Borkhaevna Bolgucheva, Khadizhet Alikhanovna Barakhoeva, Nellya Karoevna Avakian, Iznor Musaevich Tutaev, Tatiana Sergeevna Baranova, Madina Rashidovna Kotieva, Khadishat Islanovna Sultukhanova, Milana Lemaevna Abdulkadyrova, Bela Zakharovna Albegova, Milana Rafikovna Gabachieva

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 287-293
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33878

In this article, a new look at cardiac rhythm and conduction disorders in children is outlined. These deviations, along with congenital malformations, have taken one of the first places in the structure of cardiovascular pathologies. This is one of the most serious problems that stands at the intersection of cardiology and pediatrics. The frequency of occurrence of severe forms of arrhythmias reaches 1:5000 of the child population, and life-threatening arrhythmias – 1:7000. Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disorders is one of the most difficult sections of clinical pediatrics. There are medicinal and non-medicinal methods. According to experimental new data, nootropics, in particular the drug Cortexin, along with cardiotrophic drugs, form the basis of neuro-metabolic therapy and correction of children's arrhythmias.

Open Access Review Article

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT): Its History, Evolution and Future Perspectives in Evolving World

Pankaj Mehta, Anushka Solanki, Navneet Kaur, Neelam Thakur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-55
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33846

The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is known to be a very complex practice which involves the transplantation of multipotent stem cells from a donor to the recipient. For the very recent time period this field has changed into its better form i.e. it has immensely proved itself for the medical care of certain hematological as well as immune-deficiency syndromes. Right now, HSCT is a broadly acknowledged treatment for some dangerous illnesses. It in this manner addresses a genuine helpful expect numerous patients. Due to this widening latitude of transplantation, it has certainly drawn the attention of medical crowd as it now being synchronized in many parts of the world. The present work provides a review of the development strategies of HSCT.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Polymer Based Nanoparticles for Increase the Bioavalibilty of Poorly Water Soluble Drug

Karishma Mahajan, Nishant Thakur, . Simran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 56-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33847

In this review study about the polymeric nanoparticles and how polymer based nanoparticles increase bioavailability of less water soluble drugs. Polymeric nanoparticles have a matrix of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers of synthetic and natural origin. Polymer based nanoparticles are very useful for increase the solubility of the poor water-soluble drugs by decrease the particles size. Polymeric nanoparticles are very useful for targeting the drug to the specific site. Polymeric nanoparticles are also used to maintain and control the release of the drug. In present review study on the type of polymer used for the preparation of the polymer based nanoparticles. The choice of method depends on a number of factors, such as, particles size, area of application and characterization of polymeric nanoparticles.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of the State of the Art towards Biological Applications of Graphene-based Nanomaterials

Varun Kumar Sharma, Mohd Yusuf, Prem Kumar, . Sheeba, . Nafisa, Munesh Sharma, Vipan Chand Waila, Shafat Ahmad Khan, Nizamul Haque Ansari, Saifullah Zaphar, . Sadiya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 216-230
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55B33869

The field of nanoscience has evolved into a wide variety of successes over the past two decades and the emphasis on nanotechnology is to revolve around various dynamic fields, such as sensor, biomedical, and many useful applications. Advances in related fields are certainly due to the ability to synthesize nanoparticles from a variety of materials, structures, and to convert samples into complex nanoarchitectures. The promises of nanomedicine are broad. Graphene (Gr), the first 2-dimensional material to stand alone, is a type of new nanomaterial that leads to the excitement of natural biological applications. Number of researches has been conducted on applicability of GBNs in the area of environment, biomedical, and healthcare sectors. As compared to other nanomaterials, extraordinary properties of graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) like high surface area, multilayers, multifunctional and excellent biocompatibility make them capable to play great roll of highly-tailored multifunctional delivery vehicles for drugs delivery, gene delivery, phototherapy and bioimaging. However, research communities performed plenty of research works on GBNs synthesis and biological acitivity evaluation, but  there is limited comprehensive reviews published so far biological applications. So, we have studied a large number of scientific reports and investigations, presented in this review describing recent progress and modern perspectives with respect to graphene and related nanomaterials for biological applications.