Open Access Case Report

A Rare Case of Immune Mediated Hemolytic Anemia- Tuberculosis

Durga Krishnan, Kaliyannan Mayilananthi, Vrinda Vijayakumari, Thejesh Chikmangalur Vishwanath

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 281-283
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33833

Tuberculosis is one of the oldest diseases known to mankind. The disease still puzzles us with its varied clinical presentations and complications. Though tuberculosis is known to have many hematological manifestations, auto immune hemolytic anemia is extremely rare in tuberculosis. Here we report aninteresting case of tuberculosis presenting with auto immune hemolytic anemia. The treatment withanti tuberculous therapy is enough for the managing tuberculosis associated auto immune hemolyticanemia.

Open Access Case Report

Impact of Rehabilitation in a Complex Case of Intertrochanteric Fracture in Geriatric – A Case Report

Sojwal Nandanwar, Medhavi V. Joshi, Deepali Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 284-288
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33834

Peri-trochanteric femoral fractures are among the most prevalent fractures in the aged population. Injury and trauma are the leading causes of intertrochanteric fractures. The intertrochanteric aspect of the femur is made up of dense trabecular bone and lies between the greater and lesser trochanters. The female to male ratio for sustaining these fractures is seen between 2:1 and 8:1.Patients with femoral neck fractures are usually in geriatric age group. The dynamic screw approach is used to treat intertrochanteric fractures surgically. An 88year old male patient with left intertrochanteric fracture, diagnosed on x-ray after a fall in toilet was operated and was referred immediately for physical therapy, which included strengthening exercises, balance retrainig, and breathing exercises. According to the case study, a physiotherapy treatment technique resulted in considerable and gradual improvement of functional goals.

Open Access Case Study

Effective Response to DPP-4 Inhibitors in Patients of COVID – 19 Triggered Uncontrolled Type 2 DM – A Case Report

Akshay Dahiwele, Shailesh Patil, Sarju Zilate, Harsh Salankar, Sonali Rode

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33803

Introduction: A bidirectional relationship exist between the COVID -19 diagnosed & recovered patient and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. As per the various article available in public domain it has been proved that entry of COVID – 19 virus can lead to a series of pathological changes into a patient’s body which may lead to the development of insulin resistance and damage to the pancreas.

The patient in our case was a COVID – 19 survivor which was diagnosed with type 2 DM during the treatment. The patient was started with the Glargine insulin when she was undergoing her treatment in the hospital for COVID – 19 Symptoms. Her fasting and postprandial blood sugar level was controlled with the insulin. After her discharged she was started with the Metformin 500 mg twice a day but her blood sugar was not controlled with the Metformin monotherapy, so we started with the triple drug combination Metformin + Glimepiride + Pioglitazone. After 1 month of follow-up, it was seen that the blood sugar level was not controlled, so the Pioglitazone was replaced with the DPP-4 inhibitor drug Vildagliptin and again the patient was asked to come for follow-up after 15 days, it was seen in this follow-up that the patients’ blood sugar was dramatically controlled.

Conclusion: COVID – 19 triggered Type 2 DM is the result of cytokine storm develop during the disease. Metformin and DPP – 4 inhibitors reduce the insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes patients and helps to achieve the euglycemic goal of the patient.

Open Access Case Study

Geriatric Physiotherapeutic Approach for Intertrochanteric Fracture- A Case Report

Ishwin Kaur Bagga, Swapna Jawade, Neha Chitale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33805

Hip fractures are a growing concern around the world as the geriatric population increases rapidly. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of proximal femoral nailing on elderly. Despite the fact that intertrochanteric fracture fixation is generally successful, treatment is difficult when fixation fails. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of an evidence-based protocol designed for the treatment of failed intertrochanteric fractures. When treating an unstable intertrochanteric fracture, there is a lesser risk of implant failure and reoperation, as well as a better postoperative functional recovery is seen. But in some rare cases some implant failures are major and requires a long-term treatment. Intertrochanteric femur fractures, particularly those with unstable patterns, are increasingly being treated with intramedullary implants. Despite the widespread use of nails in the treatment of these fractures, perspectives on the proper length of an intramedullary nail differ. Long nails were created to alleviate the risk of diaphyseal fracture that came with prior short nail designs. The main aim is to govern the unstable nail fixation of the intertrochanteric femoral fractures.

Open Access Short Research Article

Formulation of Cake with Banana Peel Extracts to Enhance Colour and Bioactive Properties

Premagowri Balakrishnan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 310-316
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33838

Aim: To analyse the phytochemical and nutrient content of banana peel extract and incorporate in cake to enhance the bioactive properties.

Study Design: An experimental design is used as it is used mostly in formulating product, process development, sensory testing, and analysis.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, PSG College of Arts & Science and Alpha labs technologies, Coimbatore between June 2019 and November 2020.

Methodology: Cake was chosen as a product to develop with incorporation of banana peel extract.Nutrient analysis and sensory evaluation was done for the control and sample product. Banana peel extract was obtained by filtration using muslin cloth and processed. Various phytochemical tests were performed and found that alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, proteins and steroids were present in the peel extract.

Results: Phytochemicals like alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, proteins and steroids were identified in both small and big banana Small banana peels contain more amount of calcium, potassium, and sodium compared to big banana. DPPH values obtained as 0.22. Total antioxidant properties of banana peel were calculated and the value obtained as 0.215. The carbohydrate and fibre content of the cake incorporated with banana peel extract was higher than control product further shelf life is also enhanced.

Conclusion: Banana peel extract is a good source of natural food colour as black with positive effect on nutrients. As functional food ingredient,banana peel extract promote human health and also extend the shelf life of the products as it is an antioxidant and antimicrobial natural sources.

Open Access Short Communication

A Short Communication on Wastewater Treatment Techniques Used in Pharmaceutical Plant

. Simran, Nishant Thakur, Karishma Mahajan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 167-172
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33819

Toxic and difficult to biodegrade pharmaceutical wastewater is complex in composition with high concentrations of organic debris and microorganisms. There may still exit quantities of suspended particles and dissolved organic materials even after further treatment. Advanced treatment is required to improve the quality of pharmaceutical wastewater discharge. In this study, the pharmaceutical technology categorization has been established, and the features of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent quality have been summarized. On the other hand, The methods of advanced treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater have been incorporate, including coagulation and sedimentation, flotation, activated carbon adsorption, membrane separation, advanced oxidation processes, membrane separation, and biological treatment. In the meanwhile, each process's features were specified.

Open Access Minireview Article

Ethnobotanical Note on the Medicinal Plants of the Lower Himachal Pradesh

Kritika Thakur, Nishant Thakur, Chandan Sharma, Bhupinder Kaur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 317-320
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33839

Himachal is rich in the natural resource. These plants are hereditary used in various formulation and dietary foods. The plants are widely distributed in the lower Himachal from the altitude of 800mtrs to 2600mtrs. The plants are known by their local names and the ethnic knowledge has been passed from one generations to next generation. These plants are immunomodulatory, anticancer and improves the body functions. Various parts of plants like roots, barks, leaves and fruits are used in the food and medicines by local peoples.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assess the Prevalence for Needs of Breast Cancer Survivors' in the Oncology Ward at a Selected Tertiary Care Hospital

Yogita Autade, Grishma Chauhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33799

The unmet needs of breast cancer survivors are not being addressed as the number of survivors continues to climb.

Aim and Objective: To determine the prevalence of post-treatment unmet needs and association between unmet needs of breast cancer survivors with selected demographic variables. A descriptive research study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital's oncology outpatient clinic and wards.

Materials and Methods: Data was gathered in two sections: I – baseline data, and section II – Modified needs assessment questionnaire. 35 needs were categorized as physical, emotional, family, spiritual, practical routine, and sexual relationship needs, with ‘Yes’ scored as ‘1’ and ‘No’ scored as ‘0’. Data was collected for one month. Data tabulation and analysis was done.

Results: The majority of BCS had a monthly income of Rs.3000- 10000/- (50.8%) and menopause had occurred in 54 (45%) of the women under the age of 45. Majority 65 (78%) did not have health insurance, whereas 42 (35%) had it. Majority 108 (90.33%) breast cancer survivors had high level of needs, whereas 12 (10%) had moderate level of needs. High physical needs reported by 87 (72.50 %) and 32 (26.67%) moderate physical needs. All 100% BCS reported high emotional need. Whereas 2(1.67%) less need, 14(11.67%) moderate, 56 (46.67%) high needs and 48 (40%) very high reported family and spiritual need and 39 (32.5 %) BCS reported moderate level of practical needs. Participants 14(11.67%) less needs, 39 (32.50%) moderate, 22(18.33%) high and very high 8(6.67%) reported practical needs. 100% of breast cancer survivors (BCS) reported physical includes Hot flashes, a change in appetite or eating pattern. High emotional needs followed by physical needs. Family and spiritual requirements of BCS were found to be strongly related to age, P 0.036. Age, education, occupation, income, stage of cancer, and health insurance are not associated with the overall and physical needs of breast cancer survivors (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Breast cancer survivors' needs are more prevalent and have an impact on quality of life, prognosis, and recovery of clients. Real, appropriate assessment of breast cancer survivors needs is an important steps in development of need base intervention to improve quality of life. As a result, health care providers should address the needs of BCS patients as soon as possible in order to make better use of scarce health resources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Medical Students' Choice Regarding Anaesthesiology as a Future Career at King Abdulaziz University Hospital Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Hani Alnajjar, Ibtesam Munshi, Yumna Kamal, Rawan Awad Aljohani, Baylasan Alsahafi, Ghadeer Alsulami

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33801

Aims: Our study aimed to identify whether anesthesiology is a desired specialty among medical students at King Abdulaziz University and what factors may have influenced or hindered their decision.

Study Design: Cross‑sectional study.

Study Setting: At King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between June 8th, 2019 till June 25th, 2019.

Methodology: An online questionnaire was distributed to all 700 5th and 6th year medical students at King Abdulaziz University Hospital and they were asked to fill it anonymously. Pre-clinical medical students (2nd, 3rd and 4th years) were excluded due to their lack of exposure to the field of anesthesiology. The estimated sample size was a random 248 medical students of KAUH.

Results: Our results showed that the most preferred specialties were Internal medicine (37.9%), followed by surgery (35.5%), then family medicine (27%). While the field of anesthesiology was chosen by 14.5% of the participants. However, in response to a separate question, 79.8% of the respondents have not considered it as their future career.

Many considered Doctor-patient relationship to have the greatest influence (81.7%), followed by controllable lifestyle (80%), while income 71% and prestige 63.2% were less influential factors for those career decisions.

Conclusion: It is essential to show medical students that anesthesiologists do interact with patients and increase their interaction with influential individuals in this field since they are capable of positively adjusting their viewpoints.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Waste Land soil Bacterial and Fungal Isolates

P. Jayashree Lakshmi, K. Vanmathi Selvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33802

Objective: Different bacterial and fungal isolates were collected from the wasteland municipality site, Tambaram. The antimicrobial activity of two types of nanoparticles ZnO & SiO2 [Zinc oxide and Silicon dioxide] against several types of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi was investigated in this work.

Methods: P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus fumigatus were isolated from 5 soil samples taken from three sites of Tambaram Municipality wasteland (Chennai). After collecting the samples, we used culturing and biochemical tests to identify the microbes and then used a chemical approach to make ZnO and SiO2 nanoparticles with altered structure and morphological features. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was used to assess the antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles against various microorganisms.

Results: The best inhibition zone was found in Pseudomonas sps and Bacillus sps growth at concentrations of 10 µg/ml and 5 µg /ml of nano-ZnO, respectively, whereas the lower inhibition zone was found in Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus fumigatus at a dosage of 2.5 µg /ml of the same nanoparticle. It was also discovered that no inhibitory zone existed in any of the bacteria and fungi at a concentration of 10 µg /ml nano-SiO2. We found that all of the bacteria and  fungi we tested were completely inhibited at a concentration of 1.25 g/ml nano-ZnO (MIC), with no antibacterial activity below this concentration. When compared to data that showed that all tested bacteria were not completely inhibited even at a concentration of 0.625 g/ml of nano-SiO2.

Conclusion: In comparison to the two nanoparticles (ZnO and SiO2), nano-ZnO outperformed nano-SiO2 in inhibiting most bacteria and fungi at the quantities tested in wasteland soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Uncertainty Tolerance and Acceptance in Postoperative Patients with Cervical Cancer

Bushra Ghaffar, Muhammad Jahangir Shah, Marvi Zaka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33804

Background and Objectives: The main objective of the study is to explore the relationship between uncertainty tolerance and positive acceptance of post-surgical patients with cervical cancer and provide reference opinions for gynecological nurses to carry out targeted health education for patients.

Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Nishtar Hospital Multan with the collaboration of BVH and Avicenna Hospital, Lahore during March 2021 to September 2021. The "Uncertainty Tolerance Scale" and "Positive Acceptance Scale" were used to investigate 233 post-operative patients of cervical cancer.

Results: The uncertainty tolerance and acceptance aggressiveness scores were 3.74±0.34 and 1.96±0.20, respectively, with a significant correlation coefficient between uncertainty tolerance and acceptance aggressiveness (r= -0.516, P<0.05).

Conclusion: It is concluded that the uncertainty tolerance and positive acceptance levels of patients after cervical cancer surgery were low and were negatively correlated with each other. The gynecological nurses should consider the patients' uncertainty tolerance post-surgery and develop tailored health education and intervention programs to improve the positive acceptance level of post-surgical patients with cervical cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Current Trends in Removable Partial Prosthodontics Teaching in Undergraduate Dental Colleges of Sindh, Pakistan

Muneeb Ahmed Lone, Ahsan Inayat, Maham Muneeb Lone, Mohid Abrar Lone, Bharat Kumar, Muhammad Farhan Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33806

Objective: To explore current trends in removable partial prosthodontics teaching in undergraduate dental colleges of Sindh, Pakistan.

Study Design: Descriptive Cross-sectional.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of prosthodontics in dental colleges of Sindh in September 2019.

Methodology:  A descriptive cross-sectional study was done in which a questionnaire was sent by email to head of Prosthodontics department of 16 dental institutes of Sindh, Pakistan. The survey included different questions regarding current trends in removable partial prosthodontics education in undergraduate dental colleges.

Results: Out of sixteen questionnaires, fourteen were completely filled and returned. Majority (69.2%) of the institutes teach fabrication of removable partial dentures (RPDs) in third year of dental college. Students of only one dental college fabricate 10-12 RPDs in their clinical rotation. All dental colleges teach acrylic RPD construction in their preclinical years. Faculty in 12 (85.7%) dental colleges always give clinical demonstrations to students before their clinical rotations. Eleven out of the fourteen colleges teach cast partial dentures (CPDs) theoretically, but no CPDs are fabricated by the students during their clinical rotation. About 70% dental schools do not have in-house facility to fabricate cast partial dentures.

Conclusion: This study describes current trends of removable prosthodontics teaching in undergraduate colleges of Sindh. A large majority of undergraduate dental students are not fabricating the minimum number of partial dentures as per PMC requirement. Although theoretically cast partial dentures are taught in lectures but students do not construct them in their undergraduate years. Efforts should therefore be made to improve teaching practices and clinical skills of undergraduates, for them to be able to treat partially dentate patients after graduation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Organisational Climate on Nurses’ Commitment at Public Hospitals in Saudi Arabia

Magdah Al Hassan, Nada Almowallad, Muneerah Al Motary, Mohammed Alshmemri, Maram Alghabbashi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 59-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33807

Background: Nurses represent most healthcare professionals. They work in different healthcare organisations and play a vital role in improving the quality of healthcare. Consequently, it is essential to study the factors that influence nurses' organisational commitments. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of organisational climate and nurses' commitment in Saudi Arabian public hospitals and to explore the correlation between hospital climate and nurses' commitment.

Methods: a quantitative cross-sectional method conducted at the Al-Zulfi General Hospital, Riyadh; King Abdul-Aziz Hospital, Makkah; and King Fahd Central Hospital, Jazan. The Data was collected from 343 participants by using electronic questionnaire in English distributed for the period between 01/03/2021 to 01/04/2021. The questionnaire is composed of three parts: demographic data, a three-component model (TCM) of employee commitment, and an organisational climate questionnaire (OCQ). The sample size was calculated based on the Steven K. Thompson equation. The data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests to identify the differences in organisational commitment and organisational climate among participants’ characteristics. Correlation analysis was used to identify the relationship between organisational commitment and organisational climate.

Results: The results demonstrated a significant positive moderate correlation between nurses’ commitment and hospital climate, where r = 0.580 and P < 0.001. We found that organisational commitment was observed as significantly correlated with gender, nationalities and hospital; also, organisational climate was perceived as significantly correlated with gender, nationalities, marital status, years of experience and hospitals with a p-value < 0.05. It is evident that improving organisational climate leads to an increase in nurses’ commitment.

Conclusion: Improving the organisational climate could help to promote nurse retention and enhance nursing commitment. The current study recommends that nurse managers pay careful attention to the organisational environment to increase organisational commitment, which can contribute to positive attitudes and appreciation for the organisation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Evaluation of Antibacterial Properties of Chalcones Derived from Thiophene-2-Carbaldehyde

Chaithra R. Shetty, L. Dikshith, Fathima Sible Dsouza, Fathimath Shahana, Fatima Nooha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-79
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33808

Chalcone is a simple chemical structure which is present in most of the naturally occurring substances. Many chalcone derivatives are synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction. It is a subject of great research opportunity due to numerous biological activities and convenient synthesis of chalcones. This study aims on synthesizing different α, β unsaturated ketones (chalcones) containing thiophene from thiophene-2-carbaxldehyde and different substituted acetophenones, further evaluating antibacterial activity of synthesized compounds. The synthesized compounds are characterized for their spectral study. From the antibacterial study it was observed that the compounds bearing electron withdrawing group, electron releasing group exhibited excellent to moderate antibacterial activity respectively. These results showed that chalcones incorporated with thiophene have better scopes for further development of the antimicrobial agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Frequency of Prescribing Nicotine and Varenicline in a Public Hospital

Nehad J. Ahmed, Gamal A. Gabr, Abeer A. El-Sherbiny

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 80-85
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33809

Aim: This study was conducted to demonstrate the prescribing pattern of nicotine and varenicline in a public hospital in Alkharj.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study includes evaluating outpatient prescribing of nicotine and varenicline from 1st of January 2018 to 30th of June 2018 in a public hospital in Alkharj.

Results: All of the nicotine patch prescriptions were written by internal medicine department and all of the prescriptions were prescribed by residents. The age of more than half of them was between 30 and 39 (53.33%). All of the varenicline tablet prescriptions were written by internal medicine department. The age of about 88.23% of the patients who received varenicline tablet was more than 29 years.

Conclusion: Nicotine and varenicline prescribing was infrequent in Al-kharj. More awareness programs are needed for health care workers and for the public. Moreover, the physicians should assess if the treatment is needed or no according to the person condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Various Cross Linking Agents on Dentin Adhesive Systems - an In-vitro Study

Ganapathi Vasavi Prasanna, Vemareddy Rajasekhar, Someshwar Battu, Korrai Balaraju, Seera Sudhakar Naidu, Chava Gayathri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 86-92
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33810

Aims and Objectives: The main aim of this study is to compare and evaluate the shear bond strength of composite resin using a total etch adhesive and self-etch adhesive after treatment with different collagen cross-linking agents.

Materials and Methods: Forty freshly extracted human maxillary central incisors were taken. The proximal dentin was exposed, cavities were prepared on mesial and distal of each tooth. The specimens were randomly divided into two groups based on bonding agent applied-Group A and Group B i.e universal bonding agent and all in one bonding agent respectively and are subdivided into four groups based on the surface treatment of dentin. Group I A (n=10) Control-total etch(CTE); Group II A (n=10) Sodium Ascorbate-total etch (STE); Group III A (n=10)- Proanthocyanidin total etch(PTE); Group IV A (n=10)- Chitosan total etch (CHTE); Group I B (n=10) Control-self etch (CSE); Group II B (n=10) Sodium Ascorbate-self etch(SSE); Group III B (n=10)- Proanthocyanidin self-etch (PSE); and Group IV B (n=10) - Chitosan self-etch (CHSE). Shear bond strength of the specimens are tested with universal testing machine, and the data was statistically analysed with one way ANOVA.

Results: Significantly higher shear bond strength to dentin was observed in teeth treated with 6.5% Proanthocyanidin Total etch, 10% Sodium Ascorbate Total etch and 1% Chitosan acetate compared to the control group. No significant difference was seen with self-etch treated groups.

Conclusion: Dentin surface pretreatment with 6.5% Proanthocyanidin, 10% Sodium Ascorbate and 1% Chitosan acetate results in significant enhancement in bond strength of composite resin to deep dentin.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Prescribing of Calamine Lotion in Alkharj

Nehad J. Ahmed, Menshawy A. Menshawy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 93-96
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33811

Aim: This study aimed to describe the prescribing pattern of calamine lotion in a public hospital in Alkharj.

Methodology: This retrospective study included the electronic prescriptions of outpatients in a public hospital in Al-kharj and aimed to describe the prescribing pattern of calamine lotion. The collected data included the personal data of the patients, the number of calamine lotion prescriptions in different months, the duration of calamine lotion, the level of prescribers, and the prescribing’ departments.

Results: Most of the patients who used calamine lotion were male patients (62.12%) and most of them were less than 10 years old (72.73%). Most of the patients used calamine for 7 days (63.64%) and about15.15% of them used it for 5 days. All of the prescribers were residents (100.00%). Most of the calamine prescriptions were prescribed by emergency department (98.48%).

Conclusion: Calamine lotion prescribing was uncommon in the outpatient setting in Al-kharj. More studies are needed to explore the frequency of prescribing of calamine lotion in other setting, and to explore the frequency of prescribing other alternative agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Budesonide Use in the Outpatient Department in a Public Hospital in Al-Kharj

Nehad J. Ahmed, Menshawy A. Menshawy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 107-111
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33813

Aim: This study aimed to describe the prescribing pattern of budesonide nebulizer and budesonide nasal spray in a public hospital in Alkharj.

Methodology: This retrospective study was conducted in a public hospital in Alkharj city. The outpatient prescriptions were reviewed to describe the use of budesonide in the period between 01-01- 2018 and 31-06-2018.  The study included budesonide forms that are delivered directly to the respiratory system, so budesonide nebulizer and budesonide nasal spray were included in the study and other dosage forms were excluded.

Results: About 53.12% of the prescribed budesonide was in the form of nebulizer and 46.88% was in the form of nasal spray. Most of them were males (62.50%) and about 43.75% of them were less than 10 years. More than 53% of the prescriptions were written by residents and 40.62% were written by consultants. The most commonly prescribed department was pediatrics department (43.75%) followed by Ear-Nose-Throat (E.N.T) department (18.75%) and emergency (18.75%).

Conclusion: The present study showed that the use of budesonide was uncommon in the outpatient setting. More studies are needed to explore the frequency of prescribing other dosage forms of budesonide and to explore the frequency of prescribing other alternative agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatitis B, C, and HIV Infections among blood Donors at Several Hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan

Shafia Arshad, Amina Arif, Rafique Ahmad, Zeemal Seemab, Faiqa Shaheen, Rida Tanveer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 112-126
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33814

The study's objectives are to find out the frequency of hepatitis C, B, and HIV infection among blood donors at different hospitals of Lahore; to understand the relationship of demographic risk factors contributing to the positive cases of hepatitis C, B, and HIV. A cross-sectional study with random sampling in which 200 blood donors participated. A questionnaire was used to record the social and personal practices.  A small percentage of blood donors have a history of jaundice. More than one-fourth had undergone surgical intervention, and more than one-third had suffered a needle stick injury. The vast majority had a history of I/V injections/drips, tooth extraction/dental operations, or both. 10.5% of blood donors were Anti-HBV positive, 12.5% were Anti-HCV positive, and 0.5% were HIV positive. Shaving from community barbers should be avoided. In addition, to overcome hepatitis B, C, and HIV transmission, health education programs should be held among blood donors and the general public to prevent them from infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence of Liver Diseases among Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: Statistics from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Majed Alghamdi, Bussma Ahmed Bugis, Alaa Bugis, Nader Alharbi, Saleh Mohammed Alotaibi, Ziyad Hamdan Alanzi, Yazeed Yousef Almutairi, Rakan Abdullah Elamro, Fahad Abdulaziz Aloqayfi, Omar Abdulaziz Alsalem

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 127-135
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33815

Background: Alpha-1 antitrypsin is an important protein produced by the liver, and deficiency in this protein will cause many liver diseases. A deficiency in this protein can cause congenital emphysema, characterized by damaged and stretched air sacs of the lungs. To our knowledge, limited studies have been performed on liver disease prevalence among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This study was a secondary data analysis of existing clinical records and aimed at determining the prevalence and association of liver diseases among COPD patients from 2016 to 2020. A total of 1579 clinical records were collected. In this study we analyzed one hundred fifty-five records.

Results: Senior patients who were aged 65 or older represented most patients (61.29%). In addition, 81% of the selected COPD patients were diagnosed with cirrhosis, while only one patient was diagnosed with fibrosis. Senior COPD patients aged 65 years or older were more likely to be diagnosed clinically with any type of liver disease (61.75%) than those from younger age groups.

Conclusions: Screening and expression tests for patients showing liver and lung diseases are the procedures to determine whether symptoms are due to alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. However, this is challenging in patients with COPD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Formulation of Borage (Borago officinalis) Seeds Oil and Leaves Extracts as Microemulsion

Reem Yaghmour, Marwa Garajah, Ibrahim Kayali, Fuad Al-Rimawi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 136-148
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33816

Aims: This study aims to investigate antioxidant and antibacterial activities of borage (seeds and leaves) extracts, and to prepare different topical microemulsion formulations using borage oil.

Study Design: Borage seeds and leaves were collected from Hebron -Palestine, then the borage leaves and seeds were prepared for extraction and then extracted with Soxhlet using ethanol. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the extracts were studied, and then Ternary Phase Diagram was constructed using the borage extracts (from seeds and leaves).

Methodology: The seeds were cultivated upon their ripening season in April of 2016 from the Halhul mountains in Hebron/Palestine. Soxhlet method was used to extract borage seeds and leaves oil by using ethanol 95%. A ternary phase diagram was constructed by determining appropriate nonionic surfactant to assess the ability for microemulsion formulation and durability of each system. Tween 80 was found to be more suitable to solubilize each of borage seeds and leaves extracts compared with Tween 20 due to its prominent hydrophobic properties. The antibacterial activity was evaluated for both borage seeds and leaves extracts using a well diffusion method against Staphyloococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, &Candida albicans.

Results: Results showed that the seeds extract has inhibition zone (12 mm) against S. aureus (gram positive bacteria) higher than inhibition zone that leaves extracts exhibited (7.5mm), but no significant effects observed for both extracts against E. coli and C. albicans. In addition, antibacterial activity for microemulsions formulation was measured against S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans. Results showed that there is minor activity against S. aureus when compared to PenicillinG and the pure seed oil or leaves extract. In contrast no activity was reported against E. coli and C. albicans. The antioxidant activity was further indicated by the quiet good ability to reduce the FRAP reagent for both extracts with the indication of higher seeds extract activity. This variation is explained by the higher seeds extract content of polyphenol, tocopherol and vitamin C than leaves extract.

Conclusion: Borage seeds and leaves were extracted, and the extracts were showed antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and showed that they can be used in microemulsion using ternary phase diagram.

Open Access Original Research Article

Level of Knowledge in Physical Therapy of Tunisian Physical Education Teachers

Aymen Hawani, Anis ben Chikha, Ghazwa ben Maaouia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 160-166
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33818

Physical Therapy is a profession that helps to restore movement and function following an injury or illness. This study sought to identify the physical therapy knowledge of physical education teachers in Tunisia. This study is a cross-sectional study conducted on several physical education teachers in Tunisia. Participants were given the questionnaire through google forms, and they were all advised to fill it up. A predetermined selection criterion was used to select the participants. Out of 250 volunteers chosen for the study, only 152 questionnaires were selected for the final analysis. A self-administer questionnaire was developed, which includes two parts. Part I collects the demographical data, and part II contains the Knowledge of Physical Therapy. The consent form is attached with the questionnaire, and those who gave consent to use the data were included in the analysis. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0. With the alpha set for significance at <0.05. Overall, it was identified that 84% of the physical education teachers have good knowledge about Physical Therapy services. This study concluded that a more significant proportion of the physical education teachers have a good understanding of physical therapy services provided to the sports personnel in Tunisia. They have good knowledge of physical therapy techniques and services provided, and they also have good knowledge of their role in on-field and off-field management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Hypotension in Lateral Verses Sitting Positions during Induction of Spinal Anaesthesia for Caesarean Section

Muhammad Arshed, Hafiza Khatoon, Kenza Nadeem, Tahir Ali, Hira Asad, Shahid Hussain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 173-178
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33820

Objective: To compare the hypotension in lateral verses sitting positions during induction of spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section.

Study Design: This is a Randomized control trial (RCT) study.

Setting: Study carried out at Department of Anaesthesiology, Surgical Intensive Care Unit and Pain Management, Civil Hospital, Dow University of health sciences Karachi, from December 2018 to June 2019.

Materials and Methods:  All women age 18 to 45 underwent elective caesarian section having ASA I and II, singleton pregnancy on ultrasound with parity ≤3 were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive spinal anaesthesia in the lateral position (Group L) or the sitting position (Group S) through lottery methods. Using the L3-4 interspace, patients received intrathecal plain bupivacaine, 10mg or 12 mg according to their height, after which they was placed immediately in the supine position with left uterine displacement. Maternal blood pressure was measured with the help of Non-invasive BP apparatus. BP was recorded at baseline then every 5 min till 30 minutes by anesthetist who was unaware of parturient group. Any single or more reading of SBP of <90 mmHg was considered as Hypotension.

Results: Mean age of the patients in lateral group was 31.49 ±10.87 years and mean age of the patients in sitting group was 31.80 ±10.77 years (p-value 0.869). Majority of the patients 35 (62.5%) with hypotension were presented with sitting position. Chi square test was applied and statistically significant difference was observed between groups (p-value 0.012). 

Conclusion: We concluded that less frequency of hypotension was observed when spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section using plain bupivacaine in the lateral position.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Vata Dosha on Intelligence Quotient and Emotional Quotient

G. Sreelekshmi, Raole Vaidehi, N. R. Navoday Raju

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 179-186
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33821

According to Ayurveda the whole life processes are governed by the Tridosha i.e. Vata, Pitta and Kapha. Vata Dosha has been given prime importance because it is the primary force that motivates and mediates other Dosha, Dhatu and Mala for performing their functions in the body. Vata Dosha possesses various Guna. Based on such Guna it performs different Karma in the body. Vata control motor as well as sensory functions. It is a self-generating and self- propagating energy responsible for the regulation of almost all the activities in our body. It should be considered as an invisible force that is recognised through its functions. This paper aims at understanding the effect of Vata Dosha on Intelligence Quotient and Emotional Quotient. The word quotient means amount of a specified quality or characteristic. The characteristics of individuals are developed on the predominance of Dosha during intra-uterine life and it is mentioned in classical textbooks in Prakruti concepts. In the formation and maintenance of Deha Prakruti and Manasa Prakruti the role of Dosha is inevitable. Among the five types of Vata, Prana is responsible for controlling the functions of Buddhi and Manas, while Udana helps in recalling the past experiences.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Attitude towards Vitamin D among Saudi Female university students at Princess Nourah University

Yomna Khaled Ramadan, Sarah Mohammed Alasgah, Amira Saud Alshammari, Rima Salman Bnfadliah, Mashael Abdulmohsin Aldrees, Fatimah Abdullah Alwehibi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 187-195
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33822

Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude towards vitamin D and sunlight exposure among female university students.

Study Design:  Cross Sectional study design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted among 500 female Saudi students in Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University (PNU).

Methodology: A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge about vitamin D sources, health benefits and effects of vitamin D deficiency and assessing the attitude towards vitamin D and sunlight exposure.

Results: The present study recognized that health college students (52.7%) had better knowledge than non-health college students (47.3%). Although PNU students had good knowledge about vitamin D, only 6.0% of them knew the current recommended daily dose. Female students showed good behavior and attitude in terms of high frequency of sunlight exposure daily (34.8%). Educational institutions were the main sources of information about vitamin D (43%). Hot weather (54.8%) and fear of pigmentation (51.2) were the main reasons for limited sunlight exposure among students.

Conclusion: There was a good level of knowledge (52.2%) about vitamin D sources, benefits and effects of vitamin D deficiency among female students. In fact, health college students had better knowledge about vitamin D than non-health college students. Hot weather (54.8%) and fear of pigmentation (51.2%) were the main barriers to sunlight exposure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti – Androgenic Activity of Caesalpinia bonducella in Androgen-induced Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Rats

M. Sumithra, V. Chitra, Murali Krishna Moka, . Padaleeswaran, Safeeq Ahamed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 220-227
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33826

Aim:  Our goal was to use the androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) Testosterone Propionate (TP) to create a novel animal model to study polycystic ovaries.

Materials and Methods: Thirty albino female Wistar rats weighing 200 – 250 g were split into five groups with six rats in each group. Group I was treated as standard control, Group II was treated as the PCOS induced group, Group III was treated as a standard group, Clomiphene citrate (20 mg per kg body weight), intraperitoneally (I.P) along with a 4 mg TP injection intramuscularly (I.M) in an oily solution, Group IV was treatment control group treated with a hydro-alcoholic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (CBHAE) at a dose of 200 mg per kg body weight. Group V was given CBHAE at 400 mg per kg of body weight. Blood collected from animals examined for hormonal parameters and ovaries is subjected to histopathological studies. 

Results: There was a fall in testosterone volume and an increase in the efflux of female hormone constituents, which improved the ovarian development and helped to regulate menses.

Conclusion: Significantly lower levels of Testosterone were produced as a result of the extract, which also showed superior anti-androgenic properties. However, additional intervention is recommended in order to investigate the therapeutic effect of Caesalpinia bonducella seed in further detail.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Outpatient Prescribing Pattern of Norethisterone in Al-Kharj

Nehad J. Ahmed, Gamal A. Gabr, Abeer A. El-Sherbiny

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 244-247
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33828

Aim: This study was conducted to demonstrate the prescribing pattern of norethisterone in Al-Kharj.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study includes evaluating outpatient prescribing of norethisterone from 1st of January 2018 to 30th of June 2018 in a public hospital in Alkharj.

Results: The age of about 31.03% of the patients who used norethisterone was between 40 and 49 years, the age of 24.14% of them was between 30 and 39, and the age of 24.14% of them were between 20 and 29 years. About 31.03% of the patients used norethisterone for 3 weeks and 17.24% of them used norethisterone for 10 days. Most of the prescriptions that contained norethisterone were prescribed by obstetrics and gynecology department (68.97%).

Conclusion: The prescribing of norethisterone was uncommon in the outpatient setting due to the availability of several alternative drugs. Further studies are needed to investigate the prescribing of norethisterone and its alternatives by the different settings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Age-related Distribution of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Respiratory Tract Infection in a Developing Country

C. N. Adike, N. R. Agbakoba, I. B. Enweani, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Ifeoma Stella Ekelozie

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 248-255
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33829

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an organism that belongs to the family mycoplasmataceae. Its role as a disease causing agent continues to draw interest especially with the advent of highly sensitive detection techniques. This bacterium poses a health problem to both animals and humans resulting in serious illnesses such as community-acquired pneumonia, lung damage and this work investigated the prevalence of M. pneumoniae as agent of respiratory tract infections using culture and molecular methods of identification, in patients attending Pulmonary Tuberculosis Clinic at Nnamdi Azikiwe Teaching, Hospital, Nnewi as well as detecting the most virulence gene of this organism. A total of 263 sputum samples were collected: 188 test subjects and 75 control subjects. These samples were examined bacteriologically using PPLO broth and agar, MacConkey, blood and chocolate agars. The overall prevalence rates of M. pneumoniae among the 263 subjects were 4.9% by culture. The prevalence rate of the organism was significantly higher among the test subjects 11(5.9%) by culture than the control subjects 2(2.7%) by culture. The colonization of the organism was significant among the age groups 31-40 years (P<0.05). The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of M. pneumoniae showed that the organism was susceptible to Lyntriaxone, Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Azithromycin and Doxycycline while it showed resistance to Septrin, Peflacine, Rifampicin, Erythromycin and Norbactin. M. pneumoniae is an additional bacterium that might contribute to respiratory tract infections and consequently to death when it disseminates to various organs of the body, hence their presence in the respiratory tract of children, adolescent and adults should not be treated with levity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Contraceptive Methods among Eligible Couples in an Urban Area of Chennai - A Cross Sectional Study

K. R. Deepak Avinash, S. Suganthi, E. Venmathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 262-267
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33831

Introduction: Rapid population expansion is putting a strain on many developing countries' resources, especially in India. Optimal fertility management enables women and men to avoid and achieve conception and parenthood when desired. India launched officially Family Planning Programme way back in 1952 to address these issues, yet its goals were far from achieving facing stern obstacles in many forms. Surveys and studies by individual authors to find out the prevalence of contraceptive use and their determinants have been conducted in various parts of India. However, the contraceptive prevalence is not uniform across India. The aim of the study is to estimating the prevalence of contraception usage among eligible couples and to assess the factors associated with contraception usage.

Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted among married eligible couples living in the urban area named Semencheri in Chennai. It was carried out for a period of 4 months from 2ndApril to 5th of July 2019. The study population consisted of eligible married couples with female partner of age between 15 to 49yrs of age married for at least 2 year, and having minimum one child, Based on the results of a pilot study the sample size was calculated and estimated to be 120, structured questionnaire was used to collect data.

Results: The prevalence of contraception was only 63.3% though 92.5% of couples studied were aware of the contraceptive methods, the factors like education of either of the couple and mode of delivery of the previous child were significantly associated with contraception usage.

Conclusion: Even though the use of contraception has increased among couples, still there is an unmet need for contraception, in spite of increased education qualification and knowledge about contraceptive methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Influence of the Molecular Weight of Polyethyleneglycols on the Optical Properties and Dispersed Characteristics of Sols of Au Nanoparticles used in Medicine

Abdul-Fattah Visirkhazhievich Ibragimov, Iman Ibragimovna Magomadova, Maryana Vyacheslavovna Teberdieva, Seda Alievna Ferzauli, Tamila Muslimovna Dolaeva, Magomed Shamilevich Akhmedataev, Andrey Vladimirovich Blinov, Alexey Alekseevich Gvozdenko, Anastasiya Aleksandrovna Blinova, David Guramievich Maglakelidze, Alexey Borisovich Golik, Kristina Sergeevna Slyadneva

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 268-280
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33832

In this work, the synthesis of Au nanoparticles stabilized with polyethyleneglycols with different molecular weights from 200 to 8000 Da was carried out. The synthesis was carried out by the method of chemical reduction in an aqueous medium using sodium citrate as a reducing agent. The dependence of the optical properties on the concentration and molar mass of polyethyleneglycol was studied in the obtained samples of Au nanoparticles. The absorption spectra were recorded using an SF-56 optical spectrometer. The studies were carried out in the visible range of the spectrum from 400 to 800 nm. It was found that the type of spectrum, the position of the surface plasmon resonance band and the optical density of the samples of Au nanoparticles stabilized with PEG-8000 with a concentration of 10 and 20% did not undergo significant changes during storage, which characterizes the high aggregate stability of these sols. The dispersed characteristics of these samples of sols of Au nanoparticles were also studied. The studies were carried out using photon-correlation spectroscopy by the method of dynamic light scattering. It is established that an increase in the concentration of the stabilizer leads to an increase in the average hydrodynamic radius of the particles. This fact is associated with an increase in the thickness of the stabilizer layer and with the "stitching" of the polymer layer of Au nanoparticles with the formation of aggregates. Thus, the best result was found in PEG-8000 samples with concentrations of 10 and 20%, since the type of spectrum, the position of the surface plasmon resonance band and the optical density did not undergo significant changes. Based on the data obtained, it can be concluded that the best stabilizer for Au nanoparticles obtained by the citrate method is PEG-8000 with a concentration of at least 10 %. It is important to note that with an increase in the concentration of the stabilizer, the average hydrodynamic radius of the particles increases. This fact is associated with an increase in the thickness of the stabilizer layer and with the "stitching" of Au nanoparticles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Interaction through Child to Child Approach on Knowledge towards Junk Foods among Adolescents at Selected Private School, Kelambakkam, Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu, India

D. Lakshmi Narayani, S. Subbulakshmi, T. Kathir Subramanian, A. Shanmuga Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 289-294
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33835

Background: ‘Home and school is the primary source for beginning the food habits and in school, it is a place for learning and nurturing’ it is an important priority to provide intervention to improve their knowledge and competency of junk foods among adolescents.

Materials and Methods: The study aimed to assess the effect of interaction through child to child approach on knowledge towards junk foods among adolescents. A quantitative evaluative approach with a one group pre-test  post-test design. The purposive sampling technique was used to collect data from 150 adolescents aged between 13-15 years, who were studying in Bhuvana Krishnan Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Kelambakkam, Chengalpattu district. The students were trained with instructional teaching programme based on child to child approach in the ratio of 1:10 for a period of one month. The structured standardized questionnaire on junk foods was used to assess the pre-test and post- test was conducted after 14 days.

Results: The study findings revealed that the post test level of knowledge of junk foods among adolescents was found to be statistically significant compared to the pre test level at p<0.001.

Conclusion: The instructional teaching programme on junk foods was effective in improving the level of knowledge of junk foods among adolescents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sensitivity of Propionibacterium acnes towards Commercial Anti-Acne Formulations

Chandan Shivamallu, Safa Sharif, Gayatri Vidya, Chandan Dharmashekar, Bhargav Shreevatsa, Kollur Shiva Prasad, Bramhadev Pattnaik, Sharanagouda S. Patil, Chandrashekar Srinivas, S. M. Gopinath, P. Ashwini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 295-304
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33836

Propionibacterium acnes are aerotolerant anaerobic, gram-positive bacilli that form part of normal flora. They produce several pro-inflammatory substances that can trigger an immune response in the host by an influx of inflammatory leukocytes into the strands, causing inflammatory lesions that leave behind scars. Repeated isolation of Propionibacterium acnes may reduce efficacy among the resistant types, clearly explaining Acne lesions' importance. The Counter acne therapies are often the first treatment choice due to the convenience of cost and time over clinical appointments. However, not all of the commercially available anti-acne formulations are supported by clinical studies. The present study was conducted to test the efficacy of selected commercial anti-acne gel formulations. The microscopic observation and biochemical studies conform to the presence of anti-acne activity. A sensitivity test was performed on all the isolates of Propionibacterium acnes by well diffusion technique. The selected over-the-counter anti-acne gel formulations failed to produce any inhibition zone.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Quality Control Data of Clinical Chemistry Parameters using Six Sigma Metrics Tool in Clinical Laboratory

G. Anuradha, S. Santhinigopalakrishnan, S. Sumathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 305-309
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33837

Background: Physicians rely on laboratory results for treating patients. So it is the duty of laboratories to assure quality of the results released. So laboratory performance should be validated to maintain the quality. Six sigma has now gained recent interest in monitoring the laboratory quality.This study was designed to gauge the clinical chemistry parameters based on six sigma metrics.

Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, both the internal and external quality control data of 26 clinical chemistry parameters were collected for a period of 6 months from June 2020 to November 2020 and the six sigma analysis was done at the Central clinical biochemistry laboratory of Chettinad Hospital and research institute.

Results: AST, amylase, lipase, triglyceride, HDL, iron, magnesium, creatine kinase showed sigma values more than 6.Uric acid, total protein, ALT, direct bilirubin, GGT,cholesterol, cholesterol, calcium, TIBC and phosphorus shows sigma values between 3.5 to 6. Glucose, BUN, creatinine, albumin, Na, K, Chloride, showed sigma values less than 3.5.

Conclusion: Six sigma metrics can help in improving the quality of laboratory performance and also helps to standardisethe actual amount of QC that is required by the laboratory for maintaining quality.

Open Access Review Article

Medicinal Plants Explain the Significant Role of Uric Acid for Malaria Parasite

Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad, Sufian Khalid M. Noor, Awadalla H Kashif, Mohammed Medani Eltayeb, Abdelgadir Elamin Eltom, Praveen Kumar Kandakurti, Elizabeth Popova, Shafie Abdulkadir Hassan, Yassin Bakri Salih, Tarig Mohammed Elfaki, Mohammed Ahmed Ibrahim Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33800

Medicinal plants, recognized and employed in conventional medicine practices since prehistoric era. Plants produce thousands of chemical substances for functions counting defence against insects, fungi, bacterial and parasitic diseases.

Malaria is most widespread parasitic infection , it caused by coccidian protozoa of the genus plasmodium , four species are mostly infect human, P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malriae and P. ovale, Majority of malaria cases resulted from P. falciparum and P. vivax.

Uric acid regarded as one of the damaging molecular patterns of malaria parasite infection, and in this review we discussed the potential role of medicinal plants used as antimalarial to diminish the level of uric acid in gout patients. These may suggest that most of the complication associated with malaria, may attributed to amplified level of uric acid . Experimental studies recommended.

Open Access Review Article

Dental Anthropology-A Revolutionary Tool in Forensic Science

Anura Saher Raza, Amit Reche, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Priyanka Paul Madhu, Drishti Dixit

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 97-106
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33812

Dental anthropology is a field of physical anthropology that studies the origin, development, and evolution of anthropoid dentitions, as well as their relationship to social, physical, and cultural factors. Teeth have their own distinct morphology and physiology, which is in stark contrast to the body's genetic structure. Teeth are also unique among the resistant elements of archaeological and fossil remains in that they have been exposed on the body's surface throughout their lives. As a result, dental anthropology may be assessed in the mouth cavity of living humans using similar methods to those used for prehistoric relics. As a result, it's no surprise that practising dental surgeons have historically ranked well among dental anthropologists.

This review’s initial purpose is to provide an overview of the morphological and non-morphological properties of animate dentitions that aid in the indirect identification of prehistoric remains and the understanding of their cultural, social, and physical relationships, as well as to assist forensic odontologists with craniofacial identification and skull bone reconstruction.

Open Access Review Article

Recent Modalities in the Diagnosis of Obesity

V. V. S. S. Sagar, A. K. Wanjari, Sourya Acharya, Sunil Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 149-159
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33817

Obesity has been an emerging health problem worldwide which has a major impact on public health. It is associated with medical, psychosocial and economic implications with increasing prevalence among both adult and paediatric population. Obesity led to an increased risk of medical conditions like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, insulin resistance and sleep apnoea. Obesity has a major impact on cardiovascular system causing structural and functional changes leading to cardiac dysfunction.

Hence it is important to diagnose obesity at the earliest for timely prevention of associated complications. Apart from routine diagnostic methods for obesity like body mass index, anthropometry (waist circumference, hip circumference, neck circumference), several recent modalities were described for the diagnosis of obesity like radioimaging, nuclear medicine imaging which will be described in detail in this review article.

MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging) aids in the detection of adipose tissue at various sites and organs, whereas MRS (Magnetic resonance spectroscopy) helps in mapping of small quantity of lipids. MRI helps in delineating ectopic adipose tissue accumulation establishing that obesity alone is not a major cause for derangement in metabolic profile. An additional advantage is MRI brain is an excellent imaging guide for studying the role of central appetite regulatory systems in the occurrence of obesity.

Sonography is not accurate in the estimation of hepatic steatosis. But advancements in sonographic modalities gives an extra edge in evaluation of hepatic steatosis by availing special physical characteristics such as stiffness of adipose tissue and its sound absorption.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) (Nuclear medicine imaging) helps in studying central pathophysiology, activity of brown adipose tissue and disruption of gut-brain homeostasis.

Open Access Review Article

Review of Marginal Adaptation and Fracture Resistance of Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturer (CAD‐CAM) Fabricated Endo-crowns

Abdulrahman Alhaddad, Samar Abuzinadah, Abdullah Al-Otaibi, Abrar Alotaibi, Mohsen Alfkih, Mohammed Bin Madhi, Mawaddah Almatrafi, Fahad Alsharif, Mohammed Alfarhan, Waad Almatrafi, Malak Alzahrani, Rayan Bin Mahfuth, Mohammed Niaz, Khames T. Alzahrani, Osama Qutub

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 196-208
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33823

Background: Zirconia-based restorations have become more popular in dentistry during the last two decades. Patients choose metal-free restorations, preferring materials with similar attributes to natural teeth and similar light scattering characteristics, resulting in a nice esthetic appearance. Restoring a root canal treated teeth is one of the hot topics today. endo crown materials can be either; feldspathic, glass-ceramic, monolithic hybrid ceramic or composite material. Considering the marginal gap of endocrown, an important cause of failure of treatment, the current study evaluated the marginal gap of CAD‐CAM concocted endo-crowns.

Materials and Methods: This research is an analysis systemic review study was conducted between January 2020 and October 2021. We followed the PRISMA principles and recorded this systematic review using the PROSPERO database to find and identify published literature related to the marginal adaptation of CAD-CAM-fabricated endocrown. The search will include all relevant articles through the end of 2021. Finally, 24 papers on marginal clearance and fracture resistance in coronary arteries were reviewed.

Results: The electronic database search yielded 98 studies that were relevant. After cross-referencing, further seven studies were added. After a full-text analysis and duplicate reduction, 74 of the 98 articles were eliminated. 5 clinical (prospective) studies, 19 in vitro studies were found.

Conclusion: This analysis of the recent literature on the marginal seating integrity and fracture resistance of CAD/CAM made-up endo-crowns showed that the endo-crown had superior marginal seating integrity than classical full crown. CAM/CAM showed statistically significant higher mean fracture resistance than MAD/MAM.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Pentraxin-3 in Periodontal Inflammation - A Comprehensive Review

Syed Wali Peeran, Ahmed Elhassan, Tazeen Dawood, Karthikeyan Ramalingam, Syed Ali Peeran, Fatma Ahmed, Abdul-Aziz Ahmed A. Adawi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 209-219
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33824

Acute phase reactants like C-reactive protein (CRP), and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) are increased with inflammation and tissue injury. PTX3 is an acute phase protein and a member of the long pentraxin family. CRP is synthesized in the liver but PTX3 is generated locally at the inflammatory site. It is a fluid-phase pattern-recognition molecule that regulates antimicrobial immunity and inflammation by interfering with selectin-dependent neutrophil recruitment and regulating the complement cascade. Hence, PTX3 could be used as a potential biomarker to identify inflammatory response in both acute and chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss the role of PTX3 in periodontal inflammation.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on: Analytical Techniques Development and Validation of Drugs Used for Alzheimer’s Disease

Sunayana Kesharwani, Parul Mehta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 228-243
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33827

Pharmaceutical analysis plays a very prominent role in quality assurance as well as quality control of bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations. Rapid increase in pharmaceutical industries and production of drug in various parts of the world has brought a rise in demand for new analytical techniques in the pharmaceutical industries. As a consequence, analytical method development has become the basic activity of analysis. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory defeat and impairment in behavior, language and visuospatial skills. Donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, tacrine and memantine are the US Food and Drug Administration approved oral drugs used in the treatment of AD. These drugs can provide a symptomatic relief but they poorly affect the progression of the disease. Quantization of these drugs in various biological matrices, dosage forms and monitoring them in long-term treatment is essential to titer the dose of these drugs and ensures patient compliance. The main objective of this review mainly focused on spectrophotometric, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPTLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) which can be used for method development and validation of different Alzheimer’s drugs. The review is a collection of data including various analytical methods used, the different columns used, mobile phase used, flow rate, different detectors and detection wavelength and retention time. This review includes discussion on method development and validation of Alzheimer’s drugs and newly developed compounds which have lesser side effects and are proving more efficient for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. This review challenges to researches for development of front line drug for Alzheimer’s disease.

Open Access Review Article

Particular Patterns of the Influence of the Physiology of Normal Pregnancy on the Pharmacokinetics of Drugs in the Liver

Eliza Umarovna Khasueva, Yana Evgenevna Efimova, Diana Khasanbievna Khatanova, Leila Ibragimovna Bachieva, Alina Yurievna Maslova, Kamila Nurmagomedovna Magomedova, Aiza Gazimagomedovna Galbatsova, Miyasat Sirazhutdinovna Kurbanova, Taibat Yunadievna Mirzaeva, Ahmed Romanovich Zadaev

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 256-261
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i55A33830

Pregnant women are the most "untouchable" group of people in relation to pharmacological research due to ethical and legal aspects, as well as concerns for the health and integrity of the fetus. And that is why pregnant women practically do not participate in clinical, pharmacodynamic, or pharmacokinetic testing. The mechanisms of teratogenesis are unpredictable, and in this case mutations can occur regardless of the duration of pregnancy and at any level. In women during pregnancy, the activity of liver enzyme systems involved in drug metabolism changes completely, which affects their clearance. This should be taken into account when selecting drugs and dosages for the treatment of various diseases. Our study showed that during pregnancy, a significant decrease in the intrinsic hepatic clearance of the CYP1A2 substrate is enhanced by a decrease in the binding of theophylline to plasma proteins and an increase in the glomerular filtration rate.