Open Access Case Report

Metastasis Relapse in Synovial Sarcoma of Parotid Gland Followed by Neuropathies and Tissue Damage: A Case Report

Quratulain Babar, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Chikwendu Lawrence Udenze, Bart I. Ifionu, C. C. N. Vincent, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Emmanuel Ikechukwu Nwobodo, C. O. C. Ibe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 125-131
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33726

Synovial sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors, accounting for 1-2% of adult cancers worldwide. Formation of synovial sarcoma after tissue and nerve injury, radiations induced neuropathies and latent metastasis is those events which are still controversial and need more research. In this report, we present the case of an 18-year-old female patient who developed synovial sarcoma followed by a punch to the face. MRI showed lobulated lesion of 4x3cm appreciated in left parotid space. In spite of Parotidectomy, radiotherapy and radiosurgery followed by MRI and CT-scan latent metastasis was raised in lungs which leads to demise of patient. There are numerous potential etiologic and neurological factors for the development of latent metastasis in synovial sarcoma. Here we will summarize all factors and its complications according to the current literature.

Open Access Case Study

A Case Report on Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor

Sanket V. Madavi, Samruddhi Gujar, Ranjana Sharma, Ruchira Ankar, Savita Pohekar, Sheetal Sakharkar, Vaishali Tembhare, Kanchan Bokade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 43-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33717

Introduction: A germ cell is a type of Tumor that arises from germ cell (GCT). Germ cell tumors are both cancerous and benign. The gonads contains majority of germ cell (ovary and testis). GCT that arise outside the gonads could be the result of embryo devlopment errors.

Clinical Findings: Abdominal mass without pain, backache, and weight loss.

Diagnostic Evaluation: HCG and alphafetoprotein level in the blood identifying women with malignant ovarian germ cell tumor is beneficial. Serum alphafetoprotein and HCG is elevated as condition progress.

Therapeutic Intervention: Patient treated with inj. Bleomycin, inj. Cisplatin, inj.Etoposide, tab Pan 40 miligram and inj. Emset.

Conclusion: A 3year old female was admitted in AVBRH Sawangi Meghe wardha with the major complaint of right abdominal swelling for 6 month, both when they observed abdominal mass without pain and swelling was small in size and backache and weight loss.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Sickle Cell Anemia

Saloni Moon, Kavita Gomase

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 121-124
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33725

Introduction: Sickle cell anemia is a kind of anemia caused by a virus a homozygous HbS mutation (HbSS). Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a congenital blood illness that has an impact children. It is inherited from a parent’s DNA. SCD patients produce an abnormal kind of hemoglobin. This is the oxygen-transporting protein found in red blood cells. SCD causes a lack of oxygen in organs and tissues of the body.

Clinical Findings: Fever, Cough and cold, pain in lower extremities, Bodyache , Fatigue and Anemia (6.3 gm/).

Diagnostic Evaluation:   Blood test: Hb -6.3gm%, Total RBC count -2.2millions/cu mm, RDW- 18.2%, HCT-20.2%, Total WBC count 3000/cu mm, Monocytes 02%, Granulocytes 20%, Lymphocytes 77%, AST(SGOT) – 110 UL.

Peripheral Smear: RBC mild hypochromic with mild cytosis which show few microcytic and mildly Hypochromic. Platelets – Reduced on smear, APC -60,000 cells.

Ultrasonography: Splenomegaly.

Therapeutic Interventions:  Blood transfusion, Inj. Cefotaxime 750 mg IV x BD, Syr. Azee 4ml x OD, Tab. Folic Acid 5 mg x OD, Tab. Udiliv 150mg x BD, Cap. Hydra 500 mg x OD.

Outcome: After treatment, the child show improvement. His fever and body ache, cough and cold fatigue and pain in hands and leg were relieved and his Hb% increased from 6.4 gm% to 11 gm% after blood transfusion.

Conclusion:  My patient was admitted to Pediatric Ward No- 22 in AVBRH with a known case of SCA   kind of anemia a body in which he had complaint fever and body ache, cough and cold fatigue and pain in hands and leg. After getting appropriate treatment his condition was improved.

Open Access Study Protocol

Effectiveness of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Intervention for School going Children on Hygiene Practices, Absenteeism, Diarrhea, and Respiratory Infection: An Interventional Study Protocol

Sarika Dakhode, Abhay Gaidhane

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 77-87
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33721

Introduction: Safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene beyond the household, and particularly in the school setting, are crucial to the health and education of children. Ashram schools where children from tribal community are taking education in India are mostly ignored. Thus, inclusion of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in schools as part of the SDG, necessitates assessing the coverage and utilization in all types of schools; Government, private, funded including Ashram (residential) schools. Hence, we plan this research to study the effectiveness of proposed WASH in Ashram school with regards to hygiene practices, diarrheal diseases, respiratory infection and school absenteeism.

Methods: Interventional study will be conducted in all eight Ashram schools of Wardha district. Baseline data regarding WASH practices and absenteeism, diarrhea, and respiratory infection will be collected. Intervention model for adopting safe WASH practices will be developed implemented in randomly selected four ashram schools. Survey and interview questionnaire will be adopted from UNICEF monitoring package modules. Children of forth, fifth and sixth classes (460), teachers, and Principles(8) will be interviewed; and school environment will be reviewed. After collection of post intervention data in ODK tool, descriptive statistics, two-sample t-tests and unadjusted mean percentages for all outcome variables were calculated by aggregating individual-level data to the school level.

Conclusion: The intervention package is based on community mobilization and participation; life skill education, capacity building of school staff related to WASH. This will contribute to bring long term changes and improvement in health status and academic performance of school children.

Open Access Study Protocol

To assess the Effectiveness of Psychoeducation Intervention on Reducing the Burden of Caring of Alcoholic Dependence Syndrome Patients among Family Caregivers

Trupti Uke, Jaya Gawai, Pooja Kasturkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 287-296
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33749

Background: Alcohol dependence is considered as a “family disease.” In terms of occupational and social instability, physical and emotional distress, and financial burden, alcohol dependency affects the person as well as those around them, which has a major effect on the lives of significant others.

Aim: Study aims to assess the effectiveness of psychoeducation intervention on reducing the burden of caring for alcoholic dependence syndrome patients among family caregivers.

Objective: 1.To identify the existing burden of caring of alcoholic dependence syndrome patients among family care givers in experimental group and control group.2.To evaluate the effectiveness of psycho education intervention on reducing the burden of caring of alcoholic dependence syndrome patients among family care givers in experimental group and control group at post-test. 3. To evaluate the effectiveness of psycho education intervention on reducing the burden of caring of alcoholic dependence syndrome patients among family care givers between experimental group and control group. 4. To compare the effectiveness of psycho education intervention on reducing the burden of caring of alcoholic dependence syndrome patients among family care givers between experimental and control group.5.To associate post-test score of psycho education intervention on reducing the burden of caring of alcoholic dependence syndrome patients among family care givers with their selected demographic variables in experimental and control group.

Methodology: The research design is experimental one group pre-test post with control group, and participants are, the Family caregivers of alcohol dependence syndrome patients. The aging population will be selected according to the criteria of inclusion and exclusion, and the sampling technique will be selected as the technique of purposive sampling technique. Data will be obtained by participants’ demographic variables and the use of a modified standardized scale for burden assessment and all scales distributed for reducing the burden of caring of alcoholic dependence syndrome patients among family caregivers. The literature review was identified through Pub MED, Medline, Cochran, computerized, books, library.

Result: There may be effectiveness of psychoeducation intervention on reducing the burden of caring of alcoholic dependence syndrome patients among family caregivers and this effectiveness will be tested with demographic variables by regression analysis.

Conclusion: findings will be drawn from the statistical analysis.

Open Access Minireview Article

Degenerative Disc Diseases: A Brief Review

Ahmed Abdulaziz G. Ibrahim, Muna Faisal Alnaim, Sara Khalid Albawardi, Nouf Mohammed Alrabiah, Shoog Khalid Aloulit, Nouf Waleed Alnafea, Nadeen Abdullah Boubshait, Jawaher Ibrahim Alraihan, Yousef Salem Alshammari, Abdulrahim Oudah Albalawi, Saif Marzouq Alanazi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 282-286
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33748

Back pain of different etiology is a common encountered symptoms in daily practice. Several factors were associated with the development of degenerative disease (DDD) of the intervertebral disc (IVD).

The intervertebral disc, usually asymptomatic but once became symptomatic it will be presented as a low back pain with is consider the main complain among the patient with IVD.  Both genetic  as well as environmental factors lead to progressive redaction in extracellular matrix (ECM) composition which resulted overtime in weak IVD. Clinically back pain divided into two main categories: Inflammatory versus mechanical back pain,   DDD typically present with mechanical type lower back pain.

In patient with compatible history and physical exam findings, diagnosis of DDD can be confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or provocative discography.

The DDD can be manage with several treatment strategies such as conservative therapy which aim to relief the pain, on the other hand, surgical approach which aim to definitely treat the DDD. The current study aims to provide a brief review about degenerative disc diseases. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dementia Educational Program on Formal Caregivers Burden in Elderly Homes

Khulud Ahmad Rezq, Jesusa V. Gutierrez

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 15-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33714

Background: Dementia disease is usually identified among older patients, but it is not a part of the normal aging process. The number of Dementia's patients in the Arab countries is increasing due to increased longevity and improvement in the health care system. This study aimed to assess the effect of an educational program on Formal Caregivers Burden in Elderly Homes.

Methodology: This study employed a quasi-experimental one-group pre-test-post-test design. The study was conducted in three elderly nursing private homes in Amman, Jordan using purposive sampling of 50 formal caregivers.

Results: Dementia patient’s caregivers’ burden was decreased after program implementation, with statistically significant between pre- post, and three months after program implementation (p<.001). Findings demonstrated that the formal Dementia caregiver’s education program can effectively decrease burden among caregivers.

Recommendation: Conducting continuing education program for Dementia patient’s caregivers in the nursing homes to promote their practices and decrease their burden.

Open Access Original Research Article

Computational Analysis for Physicochemical Properties of Compounds in Senna auriculata Leaves Methanolic Extract to have Antidiabetic Potentials and their Molecular Interaction with α-amylase

Abdulaziz Bin Dukhyil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-42
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33716

Aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is chronic disorder well known for increased glucose level in blood. This disease can be controlled by inhibiting the enzyme (e.g., α-amylase) involve in carbohydrate hydrolysis. Senna auriculata leaves methanolic extract (SALME) have potential antidiabetic properties and it was also found to be safe in preclinical studies. In this study the aim was to explore the molecular interactions of α-amylase and bioactive compounds in SALME and their physicochemical properties.

Methodology: Computational approach such as molecular docking and physicochemical analysis prediction was applied to understand the antidiabetic potential of natural compounds present in SALME.

Results: The results showed from physicochemical analysis that out of 11 only 7 compounds are having drug like properties which are orally and intestinally better bioavailable. Furthermore, molecular docking analysis explained that three compounds (C3, C4, and C7) have lower binding energy, ΔG (-8, -9.1, -9.5 kcal/mol) and better binding affinity, Ki (7.31 x 105, 4.68 x 106, and 9.2 x 106 M-1, respectively) than the acarbose ΔG (-7.8 kcal/mol) and Ki (6.18 x 105 M-1), a well-known FDA approved medication for DM. The study also explained the binding pattern that the catalytic residue such as Asp197, Glu233 and Asp300 are involved in stabilizing the natural compounds with in the catalytic active site of target enzyme.

Conclusions: From the results it has been concluded that these three compounds found in SALME have better inhibitory potential for α-amylase in comparison with acarbose. Further validation of the findings is required through molecular dynamics simulation, ADME-T study, and in-vitro enzyme inhibition by the purified compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Five Different Noise Intensities Robustly Affects Corticosterone, Gastrin and Endothelin-1 Responses and Initiated Gastric Tissue Damage in Wistar Rats

Ravinder Kumar Mehra, Mahesh Prashad, Dinesh Kumar Sharma, Prevesh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-69
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33719

Likewise other stress response noise stress is also affects the homeostasis of the biological systems and produce stress response in the form of Corticosterone to prevent the damage but if the exposure is longer with higher magnitude it may disrupt the robust ability of the homeostasis and could produce the damage to the biological systems. The goal of our study was to see how five different noise intensities affected stomach tissue damage. 42 healthy rats were divided into five different stress exposure group, normal control (NC) and sham control (SC) groups. Noise stress exposure was delivered for 1 hour per day continued for 30 days in all five noise exposed groups by specially designed noise chamber whereas sham control group of animals kept in noise chamber for 1 hour per day continued for 30 days without noise stress exposure and control group of animals neither exposed to noise stress of any intensities and nor kept in noise chamber without noise but remain in the same experimental room in their homecage for 30 days respectively. Results of the study showed that animals exposed to 60 and 80 dB noise give habituated and not significant Corticosterone, Gastrin and Endothelin-1 responses compared to NC and SC groups while animals exposed to 100, 120 and 140 dB had significantly higher Corticosterone, Gastrin and Endothelin-1 response and also chronic gastric damage was observed compared to later two noise exposed groups respectively. Study concluded that not only higher but also lower noise intensities also initiated the gastric damage even after the adaptation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nocturnal Enuresis in Primary Schools Children (6-12 Years) of Tabuk City, Saudi Arabia

Omaima Tawfiq Alomani, Tahani Khalil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 88-103
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33722

Background: Regardless of the significance and the disturbing magnitudes of NE, this problem remains under-reported in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia and comprehensive studies in this regard are considerably lacking in that region. This study aimed to discuss the prevalence and associated risk factors of NE among children in Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: A cross sectional study design was adopted in Tabuk, KSA using a self-administered questionnaire for data collection distributed online on social media sites to be filled out personally. All data were collected, tabulated, and statistically analyzed using SPSS 23.0 for windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).

Results: The study included 431 participants. (37.4%) of children aged between six and seven years old, (32.7%) between eight and nine years old, and (17.2%) between ten and twelve years old. (58.9%) of children were males and (41.1%) females. Average frequency various from (53.8%) one time to two times per week, (31.3%) three times to four times per week, (14.8% five times to seven times per week. Enuresis was at night only in (77.5%) while (22.5%) at day or night. (64.5%) don’t seek to medical advice, while (35.5%) getting medical advice. (48.5%) of children getting behavioral therapy to treat this condition, (15.8%) exercise to strengthen bladder muscles, (14.6%) getting medical treatment, (10%) getting urination alarm, (0.5%) doing surgical intervention. There was a significant relationship between frequency per week of enuresis with mother educational level, number of family member, age of child (6-7) years old, sex of child (female), family history of nocturnal enuresis and delayed growth. Also, there was a significant relation between timing of enuresis during night or day and night with parents suffering from nocturnal enuresis, father’s education level, mother’s education level, and caring of parents to awaken the child.

Conclusion: Nocturnal enuresis associated factors and parenteral knowledge of definition and causes of it were among universal reported figures. Referral to a pediatric urologist can be indicated for children with primary enuresis refractory to standard and combination therapies, and for children with some secondary causes of enuresis, including urinary tract malformations, recurrent urinary tract infections, or neurologic disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Measurement of Adherence Level of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Drugs use in Patients in the Primary Health Centers in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia, using MMAS Instrument

Maya Arfania, Dedy Frianto, Diany Astuti, Ebta Narasukma Anggraeny, Triani Kurniawati, Robby Alivian, Maulana Yusuf Alkandahri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 115-120
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33724

Aims: This study aims to determine the level of drug adherence in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis at the Cilamaya Kulon Primary Health Center area, Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia.

Study Design: The measurement of adherence level was carried out using the MMAS (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale) instrument.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Cilamaya Kulon Primary Health Center area, specifically in Bayur Lor and Pasirukem Primary Health Centers, Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia, from July to September 2021.

Methodology: A cross-sectional design with a purposive sampling data collection method was used. Furthermore, the subjects were pulmonary TB patients from the Bayur Lor and Pasirukem Primary Health Centers, Karawang Regency. The instrument used was the MMAS questionnaire sheet, and data analysis was performed using SPSS (version 22.0) and continued with statistical tests using the chi-square test.

Results: The results showed there was no significant relationship (p>0.05) between age, gender, educational status, employment status, income level, smoking status, duration of treatment, drugs side effects, medication supervision, and patient motivation for drugs adherence in the Cilamaya Kulon Primary Health Center area. Furthermore, the level of medication adherence of pulmonary TB patients at this Primary Health Center area was high with a value of 84.13%.

Conclusion: Adherence to medication in pulmonary TB patients was not influenced by age, gender, educational status, employment status, income level, smoking status, duration of treatment, drug side effects, medication supervision, and patient motivation. Therefore, the adherence level is included in the high category.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphometric Study of Cadaveric Spleen in Vidarbha Region

Vilas K. Chimurkar, Vaibhav Anjankar, Prajakta Ghewade, Anil J. Anjankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 132-137
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33728

Background: Spleen is one of the largest lymphoid organs that are involved in haemopoitic function also during fetal life. Its anatomy is useful not only for Anatomist but also for Surgeons, Radiologists and Physicians. A lot of variations are observed in the spleen from its shape to size which is important to diagnose or treat the number of diseases.

Methodology: This study was carried out on 60 spleens in the dissection hall of our medical college which were removed during routine undergraduate dissection. The parameters studies were shape of the spleen, number of notches (single or multiple), location of notches (Superior or inferior border), weight, breadth, width or length.

Results: The 90% spleens has single notch. The weight of the spleens ranges from 89 gm to 220 gm with an average 142.6 gm. Range of breadth observed 3.5cm to7.4cm with an average 5.8cm, Range of width observed 2.8cm to 5.7cm with an average 4.1cm. Range of length observed 8.1cm to13.2cm with an average 11.7cm.

Conclusion: Morphological variation is very common in spleen and varies according to the genetic, geographic, nutrition and work habits of individual and varies regions to regions of India. Morphological analysis is under reported and need to be carry out at different regions and places for obtaining more accurate data.

Open Access Original Research Article

Breast Cancer Screening Awareness, Practice and Knowledge among Women Attending Out Patient in Tertiary Care Centre

A. G. Lathishna, V. Shruthi Kamal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 146-150
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33732

Background: The second most common cancer in the world among women is breast cancer. The survival rate can be increased by early detection and treatment.

Objectives: To assess the knowledge about breast cancer screening methods among women attending outpatient setup.

Materials and Methods: A semi structured pretested questionnaire was distributed to 200 women attending outpatient setup. The questionnaire contained information of their demographic details, questions about knowledge on symptoms, risk factors, screening methods and management outcomes of breast cancer.

Results: The most marked result is that 71.5% women were aware of the fact that mammography detects breast cancer in early stages. A fair percentage of 68.3% women agreed that breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women.

Conclusion: Awareness about breast cancer screening methods and treatment would enhance early detection and reduces the mortality rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Statistical Optimization of Media Components for Xylanase Production by Aspergillus spp. Using Solid State Fermentation and its Application in Fruit Juice Clarification

Laxmikant R. Patil, Anil R. Shet, Sharanappa Achappa, Shivalingsarj V. Desai, Veeranna S. Hombalimath, Misba M. Kallur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 151-166
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33733

Xylanases are enzymes that convert xylan into xylose, xylobiose, and xylotriose. The present study deals with the production and optimization of xylanase through Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) using different agricultural wastes by   Aspergillus spp. The Plackett Burman (PB) design was used to screen significant media components affecting the xylanase production. The carbon sources screened were wheat bran, rice bran, sugarcane bagasse, corn cob, and orange peel. The nitrogen sources screened were yeast extract, peptone, (NH4)2SO4, Na2NO3, and urea. Also, nine different salts such as KCl, MgSO4, Na2HPO4, CaCl2, FeSO4, ZnSO4, Na2CO3, KH2PO4, and NaH2PO4 which act as trace elements were screened. The results showed that wheat bran, yeast extract, Na2NO3 and KCl are the significant factors that affect xylanase production. A 33 Full Factorial Design (FFD) was performed to optimize the significant media components (wheat bran, KCl, yeast extract) obtained from PB design using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Statistical analysis of results showed that wheat bran, KCl, yeast extract, and interaction between wheat bran and yeast extract were found to be significant. The optimum concentration of wheat bran, KCl, yeast extract was 8 g/L, 0.1 g/L and 3 g/L. The Partial purification of xylanase was carried out using ammonium salt precipitation and dialysis. Gel filtration chromatography was performed to optimize the elution time, which was found to be 6 minutes. Application of xylanase in orange juice clarification was studied at 40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C. The optimum temperature obtained was 60 ºC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of IL-33 and IL-1α in Ovarian Cancer Metastasis

Gulshan Parveen, Aaisha Qadir, Abubakar Sarfraz, Ahmad Farooq Butt, Rubab Aftab, Qurrat-Ul-Ain Laghari, Faheem Hadi, Laila Sumreen, Qurban Ali, Awais Altaf, Huma Sattar, Anam Naz, Mahwish Arooj, Arif Malik

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 167-174
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33734

Aim: The current study conducted with aims to evaluate the levels of various inflammatory cytokines in women affected by ovarian cancer.

Methods: Case-control study was conducted from 1st January 2018 to 4th March 2018 among women affected by ovarian cancer in Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore, Pakistan. Ovarian cancer patients (n=50) and control individuals (n=50) were included in present study. Serum was separated from patients and control individuals from which levels of various interleukins (IL-6, IL-33, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1α) and TNF-α were measured by ELISA kit method.

Results: The results of present study explain that increased levels of IL-10, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were recorded in women affected by ovarian cancer in contrary with control individuals. Elevated trend of IL-33 and IL-1α were recorded in ovarian cancer patients (9.02±2.55 pg/ml and 8.44±2.55 pg/ml) in contrary with healthy group (3.88±1.02 pg/ml and 3.56±1.32 pg/ml) with statistical significant p-value=0.000.

Conclusion: Study has concluded that inflammatory cytokines particularly IL-1α and IL-33 are major source of inflammatory pathway in the development of ovarian cancer invasion, proliferation and metastasis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Hypodontia in Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Digital Orthopantomographic Study

Osama Ahmed Qutub, Abdulelah Binmahfooz, Samar Hatem Abuzinadah, Ghadeer I. Basunbul, Reem Abualsaud, Esraa Ahmed Abdulghafour Attar, Khames T. Alzahrani, Mohammed Algthaiae, Abdullah Algahtani, Abdulrahman Jafar Alhaddad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 191-198
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33736

Introduction: Hypodontia or Dental agenesis; is defined as a developmental missing of any teeth, excluding the last molars. It may befall as a genetic syndrome or as a non-syndromic isolated trait. However, there is no prevalence available in our city.

Aim and Objectives: The tenacity of this research is to assess the frequency of hypodontia among the population who received dental care at King Abdul Aziz University Dental Hospital in the city of Jeddah.

Study Design:  Retrospective digital orthopantomographic: cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Oral & Maxillofacial Prosthodontic Department, King Abdulaziz University, between January 2019 and July 2020.

Methodology: This research is a retrospective cross-sectional study based on the examination of an archival dental record and 2D panoramic radiographs of patients who are presented at King Abdulaziz University Dental Hospital, Jeddah. A total of 2045 records were reviewed and included in this study. Two general practitioners reviewed patient’s dental charts looking for congenital missing tooth/teeth in a dark room by the method that the practitioners use. Careful reviews of each patient’s record were done to ensure that the cause of the missing tooth/teeth were congenital and not surgical or traumatic. Data were gathered from dental records of patients’ age period 6-9 years since most of the dental follicle of the permanent teeth should be completed or the tooth just erupts, radiographic findings were always compared to the patients’ file and progress notes to ensure the causative factors of missing teeth. The data were recorded in an excel sheet which included gender, age, the type, area and counting of the missing teeth.

Results: After collecting the data, the total number of patients after exclusion were 1984. The prevalence of hypodontia in our tested population was %5.39. Statistical analysis were done by using SPSS software to correlate between variables. Varices grades.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study our data shows that the most common congenitally tooth agenesis is the second premolar %47.6 and the second most common congenitally missing tooth is lateral incisor %18.6.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Remote Simulation amongst EMS Professionals in Pune, India

Parag Rishipathak, Shrimathy Vijayaraghavan, Anand Hinduja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 199-204
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33737

Introduction: The Sars CoV2 virus has spread havoc claiming millions of lives in its wake and the world health Organization (WHO) had declared it as a pandemic in 2020. Though medical education and clinical training has always laid more emphasis on face – to- face teaching and physical skill based hands-on training, lately various e-learning tools have become popular as teaching pedagogy due to the restriction of social distancing in the current COVID scenario. Simulation based learning plays a very important role in adding to non-technical skills and management of patient as a whole. Simulation through remote mode has gained major precedence in these last few years especially since the onset of COVID. The present study seeks to know the effectiveness of a single remote simulation session amongst Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of remote simulation in the management of cardiac arrest amongst EMS professionals.

Study Design: Cross Sectional Descriptive Study.

Place of Study: Symbiosis Centre for Health Skills (SCHS), Pune India in September 2021.

Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in September 2021, amongst 80 Emergency Medical Professionals (EMPs) from Pune, India. American Heart Association (AHA) – Pre-course Self-Assessment Questionnaire for the year 2020 was utilized for the study to assess ECG interpretation competency among EMS Professionals before and after a remote simulation session.

Results and Discussion: Time is of essence in a cardiac arrest scenario as any delay can cause exponential rise in the mortality rate. The COVID 19 era has severely restricted bedside learning and on site simulation. A healthy alternative has emerged in the form of remote simulation, which can ensure continuity of learning along with mitigation of the disease spread.

Conclusion: The findings of the study are encouraging and should be followed up with larger sample size and multiple remote simulation sessions to gain further insight into the effectiveness of this unique tool. The COVID 19 era has severely restricted bedside learning and on site simulation. A healthy alternative has emerged in the form of remote simulation, which can ensure continuity of learning along with mitigation of the disease spread.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Diabetic Foot and its Risk Factors in the General Population of Arar, Northern Saudi Arabia

Abdelrahman Mohamed Ahmed Abukanna, Ghaida Abdullah R. Alshamlani, Alenezi,Ahlam Sultan F., Reham Arif A. Alanazi, Shahad Fahis A. Alanazi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 205-213
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33738

Background: Foot ulcers may be complicated to toe amputation or limb amputation which can be prevented by patient education on self-management and appropriate foot care procedures.

Study Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the awareness of diabetic foot and its risk factors among the general population of Arar city, Northern Saudi Arabia.

Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out in primary health care centers in Arar, Northern Saudi Arabia, during the period from 1st September to 10th October 2021. Data was collected by personal interview with the attendees of the primary health care center, using a predesigned questionnaire.

Results: Almost 60% of participants have knowledge about diabetic foot. The Source of information about diabetic foot was doctors and nurses in 13% and 11.9% social media in our study population. 62.7% know that diabetic foot risk may be reduced by controlling blood sugar level, 13% by checking the feet every day and several times a day, and 9.2% reported wearing shoes and socks on a daily basis. 65.6%, 66.7%, 48.4%, 82.6% and 62.1% knew that skin infections, foot abscess, bone infections, gangrene, and foot deformity are complications of diabetic foot respectively. Good knowledge of diabetic foot was significantly associated with age and educational level but not with marital status.

Conclusion: The level of knowledge of diabetic foot and its related complications is relatively average. Due to the high incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Saudi Arabia, it is vital that the population has appropriate information and awareness about this illness to enable continued promotion of public health measures to limit its prevalence. It is also crucial for DM patients to understand the medication and lifestyle modifications that may enable them to better regulate their blood glucose and prevent the complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation Development and Evaluation of Migraine Almotriptan Loaded Ethosomes Using Box Behnken Design

Megha Parashar, Ashish Jain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 214-223
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33739

One of the most common nervous system illnesses is headache disorders, which are characterized by chronic headaches. In Present investigation Almotriptan loaded Ethosomes were prepared by water phase addition method. The three independent factors including Phosphotidylcholine: Cholestrol: DSPE (6:3:1molar ratio), Surfactant concentration and sonication time. A factorial design 3*3(3 factor 3 level) was applied to prepare 17 formulation. Optimization of ethosomal preparation was carried out by applying Box Behnken response surface randomized factorial design following quadratic model using Design of Experiment (DOE) software version 11.04.0.  The factor Soya PC: Cholesterol: DSPE in molar ration (6:3:1), Concentration of Tween-80 and sonication time were selected as dependable process and formulation factors that can be effect formulation characteristics like entrapment efficiency, average vesicle size, Polydispersity Index (PDI). All other factors like sonication speed and rotation speed was kept constant All the formulation were prepared by simple solvent evaporation thin film formation method and characterized for the drug entrapment, average vesicle size and PDI, shape morphology. Formulations were optimized on the basis of responses such as average vesicle size, PDI, and entrapment efficiency. All the characterized values of the responses were putted in the formulation design table and analyse to best fitted model for the design. It was observed that, quadaratic model is best fitted model for the design. The prepared ethosomes formulation can further incorporated in situ gel for effective treatment of migraine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sacubitril/ Valsartan in Advanced Heart Failure: Is it Just a Matter of Contractility or are there Effects on the Pulmonary Circulation? A Real Life Monocentric Experience

Walter Serra, Rosario Bonura, Renato Alabrese, Marco Ferretti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 224-229
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33740

Background: Sacubitril/valsartan (S/V), an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), is the first drug to demonstrate a mortality benefit in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. S/v had a 20% reduction in the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization, compared with subjects receiving enalapril.  However, the mechanisms are not clear.  The aim of this prospective, non-randomized study was to assess the clinical and instrumental effects of this agent in patients with HFrEF and pulmonary hypertension.

Methods: To investigate the effects of S/V in HFrEF, we selected 40 consecutive patients (31 males, 9 females, mean age 64±19 years) in the NYHA class II-III, because they had left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% at echocardiography. Etiology: 22 CHD, 3 Myocarditis, 15 IDCM.

Results: 2 patients took the maximum dose of 97/103 mg, 2 stopped the therapy due to a creatinine increase, all the others took the dose of 49/52 mg. During a mean ± SD follow-up of 24±6 months, no patients died. PASP decreased from 42.71 to 36 mm/Hg (p <0.0001); 6MWT improved from 402 m to 453 m (p <0.0001). Mean LVEF increased from 28.9% to 31.5% p <0.005); NYHA mean class improved from 1.95 to 1.70.  An AICD was implanted in 20 patients.

Conclusion: These preliminary data suggest that in patients with severe heart failure, S/V is able to improve 6MWT and PASP, even in the absence of a significant improvement of ventricular contractility. S/v may reduce the fluid retention and pulmonary vasoconstriction that contribute to heart failure symptoms.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Assess Social Demographic Characteristics of Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

Vaishali Deoraoji Taksande, Shraddha Satish Ambade, Roshan Deoraoji Bajait, Prajwal Vinayakrao Bhonde, Tejaswini Shrirang Borkar, Shital Raju Chaudhary, Pranjali Ramesh Dhawane

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 230-236
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33741

Introduction: One of the prevalent clinical conditions in daily gynecological treatment is pelvic organ prolapses (POP), particularly in parous women. The entity comprises vaginal wall descent and/or uterine descent. Pelvic organ prolapse is a common pelvic disorder among women.

Objective: To determine the social demographic characteristics and types of pelvic organ prolapse and to find out the association between social demographical characteristics with pelvic organ prolapse.

Methods: The descriptive survey was used and the sampling technique was non probability convenient sampling technique and the sample size was 60.

Results: Twenty six (43.3%) women were belongs to in the age group of 33-40 years. 54 (90%) of  women were married.29 (48.3% ) of women never had abortion. 26 (43.3%) of women had normal delivery whereas 17(28.3) had instrumental delivery .19 (31.3%) of women had perineal tear, 20 (33.30%) of women had cervical tear in previous pregnancy . 21(35% ) of women had cystocele whereas 20(33.3) has rectocele . There is significance association between the of age of women, marital status, occupation, Place of previous delivery, type of previous delivery, complications during previous labour except the parity with pelvic organ prolapse.

Conclusion: Pelvic organ prolapse is common gynecological condition .The patients are relatively middle age group. Parity, Occupation, Injuries to birth canal was may be contributory to severity of pelvic organ prolapse.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Coronary Heart Diseases Risk Factors among Healthcare Male Students in KSAU-HS Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Awadelkarim Abdulla Elneama, Aamir Omair, Abdullah Abdulhadi Alharbi, Alhommedi Shaker Alhabbad, Raed Awadh Alshehri, Talal Abdullah Alqarni

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 237-243
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33742

Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition in which plaque builds up on the inner walls of coronary arteries and can lead to blood clot formation. It is the leading cause of death worldwide. Developing coronary heart disease takes long period and its risk factors can be found in young people.

Objectives: Study of risk factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was done at King Saud bin Abdul-Aziz University in Riyadh. Non-probability convenience sampling was used to select 151 health care students. The data was collected through questionnaire and physical measurements. The data was entered and analyzed by SPSS.

Results: More than half of the students eat fruits one or less time per week which accounts for 53.6%. Moreover, 28.5% of them eat vegetables one time or less per week. Regarding healthy food containing healthy fat such as fish, 76.2% of the students include healthy fat food in their diet more than two times per week. The percentage of those who eat fast food and consume soft drinks is 80.8% and 70.2% more than two times per week respectively. Furthermore, the percentage of the students who are smokers, either currently or occasionally is 49%. Concerning physical activity, 31.3% of the students exercise more than two times weekly, and only 7.3% of the students watch TV more than four hours per day. On the other hand, the majority which accounts for 54.3% of the students use computer, laptop, or tablet more than four hours per day. Regarding premature CAD, 3.3% of the students reported positive and 16.2% of them reported positive for CHD family history. Finally, 1.3% of the found to have DM.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation Consideration and Skin Retention-Permeation Study of Insitu Nanogel Containing Dimethylfumarate for Treatment of Psoriasis

Deepa Patel, Sneha Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 248-261
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33744

Aims and Objective: to develop and evaluate an insitu nanogel formulation containing dimethylfumarate for targeted topical delivery therapy of psoriasis.

Study Design: 32 full factorial design

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutics, Parul Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Parul University, Vadodara, between 2016 to 2019.

Methodology: Nanogel were formulated by chemical cross linked gel method using Polyvinyl alcohol and Hyaluronic acid (1:5) ratio using Glutaraldehyde (GA) (25 %w/v) and Hydrochloric acid (HCl) (6%v/v) as a crosslinking agent and catalyst. Dimethylfumarate loaded nanogel were clear and showed physicochemical parameters desired for topical delivery and stability.

Results: The Permeation profile of dimethylfumarate through rat skin from selected nanogel formulation exhibited highest skin uptake. The Micoscopic observations indicated that the optimized nanogel had n significant effect on the microscopic structure of the sin and epithelial cells appered mostly unchanged. The surface epithelium lining and the granular cellular structure of the skin were totally intact. The developed Nanogel may be a potential drug delivery vehicle for targeted topical delivery of dimethylfumarate in the treatment of psoriasis.

Conclusion: As per drug retention study the highest amount of drug retained on the skin and lowest amount of drug permeate to the skin. Hence it was observed that there was no significant correlation between skin retention and skin permeation study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Effect of Biosynthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles against Erwinia amylovora and Induction of Crop Growth

K. Jagathy, K. Lavanya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 262-270
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33745

Objectives: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are widely recognized as one of the most promising types of materials in a wide range of applications, including agriculture.  Modern systemic efforts have identified several therapeutically active microalgae-derived compounds, including phenols, flavonoids and others. The antibacterial properties of the phenolic substances were demonstrated. Hence, the present study aims to exhibit the antibacterial activity of the bioactive compound capped silver nanoparticles under in vitro conditions.

Methods: Bioactive compound separated by Solid-phase Extraction method. Dispersible Zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using the bioactive compound as the major capping agent. Zinc nitrate was used as starting material and its reduction was carried by phenolic components of Spirulina platensis aqueous extract from Zn2+ to ZnO.  The synthesized Zinc oxide nanoparticles are characterized by H1 NMR spectroscopy. Conjugated nanoparticles are characterized physically by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. SEM demonstrated particle sizes in the range 10–15 nm. ZnO nanoparticles demonstrated antibacterial activity against an isolated plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Time kill determination assay was done.

Findings: Phenols obtained after Solid Phase Extraction. Hence, this was regarded as the maximum quantified bioactive compound of Spirulina platensis. H1 NMR spectroscopy analyses showed the presence of phenolic compounds and alcohols groups of long chain were also detected. In SEM analysis, the mean diameter of spherical Phenols-ZnOPs is less than 15 nm surrounded by the capping agent. In given time periods of 4, 8, 16, and 24 hour cells, concentrations of 1000µg/mL were 42 %, 33 %, 20 %, and 18 %. At 500 µg/mL of extract concentration, Spirulina platensis inhibited 50% bacterial proliferation (IC50) of Erwinia amylovora. A significant inhibitory effect (p<0.0001) was seen against the plant pathogenic strain.

Novelty: In addition to their antibacterial activities, biosynthesized ZnO-NPs are thought to show promise efficacy as growth accelerators. The most dangerous bacterial disease of pear and apple trees is fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Phenolic capped ZnO-NPs have been found to be efficient plant pathogen antagonists.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Effectiveness of Self-Instructional Module on Knowledge Regarding Home Care Management of Thalassemia Children among the Parents in A.V.B.R. Hospital, Wardha

Ekta Padmane, Shalini Patiye, Aditya Patel, Prerna Pawar, Archana Lohave (Taksande)

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 271-281
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33746

Background of Study: Thalassemia is a genetic condition in which the production of globin chains is reduced or non-existent. Beta-thalassemia is caused by mutations in the beta-globin gene, which impede the formation of beta-globin chains. Based on clinical severity, beta thalassemia is categorised as follows.

The most severe form of beta thalassemia is characterised by severe anaemia and the requirement for blood transfusions. Anaemia caused by beta thalassemia intermedia can be treated with medication or transfusions. Beta thalassemia minima- Also known as beta thalassemia trait, this type is typically asymptomatic.

Children with beta-thalassemia major require regular blood transfusions, which can result in issues such as iron overload and the transfer of illnesses such as HIV, HCV, and HBsAg, all of which can shorten their life. Inadequate transfusions, on the other hand, result in severe anaemia as well as fatigue and debility.

Objectives: To measure parents' existing knowledge of thalassemia children's home care management.

To analyses the efficiency of a self-instructional module on thalassemia children's home care management expertise.

To link the post-test knowledge score to the demographic factors chosen.

Materials and Methods: A descriptive research design study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of a self-instructional module on parental understanding of thalassemia children's home care management. The total number of samples in this study was 30. All of them were parents of thalassemia children from A.V.B.R. Hospital in Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha. The study employed a non-probability convenient sampling strategy, with the instrument being designed questionnaires on parental understanding of their children's medical conditions and knowledge of home care management of thalassemia. Based on the aims and hypothesis, the data was statistically analysed using various tests such as descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.

Results: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficiency of a self-instructional module on parental understanding of thalassemia children's home care management. Following the installation of the seif-instructional module, 63.33 percent of Thalassemia parents had a poor level of knowledge and 36.67 percent had an average level of knowledge prior to the exam, according to analysis. The lowest knowledge score on the pre-test was 2 and the highest knowledge score was 7. The pre-test mean percentage of knowledge score was 33.559.17, and the pre-test mean knowledge score was 5.031.37. Post-test knowledge scores were average for 23.33 percent of Thalassemia parents and excellent for 76.67 percent of Thalassemia parents. The minimum post-test knowledge score was 8 and the maximum post-test knowledge score was 14. The mean post-test knowledge score was 11.901.84, and the mean percentage of knowledge score was 79.3312.29.

Conclusion: The current study's pre-test results reveal that parents of thalassemia children had insufficient information about thalassemia home care management. Following the self-instructional module, it was a modest attempt to develop understanding of thalassemia home care management. Based on their pre-test scores, 19% of subjects had low knowledge, 11% had moderate knowledge, and 0% had strong knowledge, according to the findings. However, according to post-test results, 0% of subjects had low knowledge, 7% of subjects had average knowledge, and 23% of subjects had strong knowledge. As a result, the post-test knowledge score was statistically interpreted to be greater than the pre-test knowledge score.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identify and Assess Drug Interactions with Atorvastatin in Inpatient Care

Ibrahim Dighriri, Abdulrahman Hommadi, Hatim Zaeri, Rahaf Aldajany, Rahaf Alotaibi, Fai Aljuaid, Shoug Aljuaid, Abdullah Madkhali, Saleh Ghulaysi, Abeer Alanazi, Sarah Alburaidi, Amal Hamdan, Hassan Alzahrani, Razan Musharraf, Bashaier Albutaih

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 297-306
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33750

Background: Atorvastatin is a recent HMG-COA reductase inhibitor used to treat primary hypercholesterolemia, homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, and mixed dyslipidemias. It is also taken to prevent heart disease, including strokes and heart attacks. In addition, Atorvastatin is used to lower bad cholesterol low-density lipoproteins (LDL) levels, increase good cholesterol high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, and lower triglycerides. It works by reducing the amount of cholesterol produced in the body, hence reducing the amount of cholesterol that may build up on the walls of arteries. Atorvastatin is long-acting, has few adverse effects, and is low in price. Nevertheless, it interacts with a wide variety of medications. These interactions may be lead to adverse drug reactions.

Objective: The study aims to identify and asset atorvastatin interactions with other medicines at King Abdulaziz Hospital. Also, to prevent atorvastatin interactions in the future.

Methods: The retrospective study investigated 280 electronic prescriptions inside the inpatient clinic at King Abdulaziz Hospital in Saudi Arabia between January and April 2021 to identify and asset interactions among atorvastatin and different medications.

Results: Most atorvastatin interactions are category C (44.64%) and category B (41.43%). Atorvastatin had the most common interactions with esomeprazole (16.07%), clopidogrel (14.64%), and sitagliptin (12.14%). Atorvastatin had clinical interactions with medications metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 )CYP3A4(. Use of atorvastatin with cyclosporine or clarithromycin increased the risk for atorvastatin toxicities such as myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. In addition, Atorvastatin decreases clopidogrel's antiplatelet effect and increases the risk of skeletal muscle toxicity of daptomycin.

Conclusion: The majority of atorvastatin interactions may be avoided by adhering to best practices in clinical care and clinical pharmacology, such as avoiding complicated treatment regimens, utilizing a single pharmacy for all prescriptions, and recognizing patient risk factors. Health care professionals should use drug-drug interaction checkers such as Medscape and Micromedex, as well as a book such as the Handbook of Drug Interactions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Alternative Routes and Timing of Dopamine and Mannitol Administrations to Reduce Negative Properties of Extended Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Renal Function in Coronary Artery Operations

Iqra Ejaz, Salwa Naeem, Mian Seher Munir, Muhammad Usman, Sohail Zafar, Faiza Hanif

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 307-312
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33751

Objectives: To analyze impact of alternative routes and timing of dopamine and mannitol administrations to reduce negative properties of extended cardiopulmonary bypass on renal function in coronary artery operations.

Methods: Set I (n: 26 individual): Mannitol (1 g/kg) has been introduced to the CPB priming solution. Set II (n: 25 patients): Even during interval among anesthetic induction and operation, 3 g/kg/min of IV dopamine was delivered. Group III (n = 25 patients): 2 g/kg/min IV dopamine was provided among anesthesia initiation and operation conclusion, and 1 g/kg mannitol were added to priming solution for CPB. Furosemide was administered to Group IV (n = 26 cases) when urine production was poor.

Results: There would be a substantial rise in the post-operative urine microalbumin/creatinine ratios over all classes (p 0.06), as well as a rise in cystatin-c in Set 1, 2, and 3 (p 0.02).

Conclusions: Researchers suggest that combining dopamine infusion (1 g/kg/min) and mannitol (2 g/kg) throughout CPB seems to be the more actual method for preventing detrimental possessions of CPB on renal functioning.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Hydrophilic Carriers for Solubility and Dissolution Enhancement of Sulfamerazine by Solid Dispersions Technique

Jitendra Gupta, Reena Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 313-326
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33752

Aims: The present research was carried out to investigate the effect of hydrophilic carriers in enhancing the solubility and dissolution rate of Sulfamerazine (SMZ) employing the fusion technique of solid dispersions (SD).

Methodology: SMZ is an oral antibacterial drug exhibiting a poor dissolution profile and water solubility. SD of SMZ was prepared using poloxamer 407 (PX407) and Polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) as a hydrophilic carrier by employing the fusion technique.

Results: The powder SDs were subjected for solubility, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in-vitro dissolution profile, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. The FTIR spectral analysis showed no significant incompatibility between drug and carriers and confirmed the presence of SMZ. From XRD and DSC, SMZ indicated the amorphous form in solid dispersion with larger specific surface area, resulting in a better in-vitro rate of dissolution of the drug from solid dispersions than pure drug. However, SD of PX407 (SDSMFF8) indicated higher aqueous solubility than pure SMZ. Further, SDSMFF7 showed higher in-vitro drug release 96.45±0.3% within 60 minutes, and pure drug (18.54±0.8%).

Conclusion: In conclusion, enhancing thesolubility and dissolution of SMZ using hydrophilic carriers by solid dispersion technique provides new strategies for broadening its potential clinical application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spectrum of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Drinking and Wastewater in Rafha City of Saudi Arabia

Akbar Ali, Samreen Soomro, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem, Elsamoul Ibrahim Ahmedani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 327-334
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33753

Introduction: E coli is one of the most important etiologic agent of diarrhea in children and adults. Based on the clinical features and virulence determinants, there are five major E. coli strains which cause diarrhea; Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). The PCR based identification proves to be a better choice as it can differentiate between different strains on the basis of genetic difference.

Aim: The purpose of the current study was to isolate diarrheagenic E. coli from the drinking and wastewater from Rafha city of Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: One 100 drinking and wastewater samples (50 each) were included in the study. The samples were cultured on MacConkey agar plates at 37 oC for 24 hours. Pink colonies were carefully picked and subjected to DNA isolation and PCR detection and identification of E. coli and Diarrheagenic E. coli. The detected PCR products were sequenced for the confirmation.

Results: We identified 5 isolates out of 50 wastewater samples (10%) which were further categorized into 3 different DEC pathotypes. They included ETEC (2 out of 5), atypical EPEC (1 out of 5), and EAEC (1 out of 5); EIEC and EHEC were not detected.

Discussion and Conclusion: The prevalence of DEC strains is different across different studies which depends on different factors such as geographical location, number of samples taken, and the number and type of the target genes selected. The prevalence of DEC in the current study was much lower than other reported studies.  Although the percentage of DEC strains in the wastewater samples from WWTP of Rafha was moderate to low, it can be a considerable risk factor for the people using ground water for drinking.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modern Economic Realities, Coronavirus, Vaccination: Interrelation and Challenges to the Future

Viktoriya Andreevna Medvedeva, Alexander Vladimirovich Grigoriev, Amina Ildarovna Sakhbieva, Inessa Makedonovna Kalyakina, Gulnaz Minnulovna Murzagalina, Evgeny Aleksandrovich Nayanov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 335-341
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33755

The purpose of the work is to consider the relationship between the current economic situation and the pace of development of coronavirus infection, which has had a direct impact on various spheres of society. Doctors around the world are calling on citizens to be vaccinated, because only the formation of the so-called global immunity will allow to resist the further development of the pandemic.

The situation with the wave-like development of morbidity, which causes the announcement of more and more restrictive measures and, as a result, a decrease in the economic activity of the population, also testifies in favor of universal vaccination. The prospects for future economic development at such rates of infecting the population in various countries are rather vague, so the promotion of vaccination is gaining momentum. However, the choice of a particular vaccine often becomes a difficult issue for most citizens, since all vaccines were developed in a fairly short time, their adaptation took place at an ultra-high pace, and many citizens question the side effects of vaccines.

It seems to us that the problem can be solved by the common "elimination of illiteracy" in the field of vaccination against coronavirus and formation of a collective understanding of the need to join the vaccinated on the basis of explanatory work among potential patients of vaccination offices, based on scientific facts and submitted in a popular scientific form.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Efficacy of the Pap and H & E in Identifying the Various Changes in Liver Samples of High Fat Diet Induced Rat - In vitro Study

E. Dhivya Sri, R. Priyadharshini, Palati Sinduja, V. Meghashree

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 364-380
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33757

Introduction: High fat induced (HFI) liver is associated with a high calorie intake and many other diet-induced complications, such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. HFI is the most common chronic liver disease that develops due to high fat intake. A wide range of liver injuries is associated with HFI, ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. The signs and symptoms of metabolic syndrome may be induced in rats by feeding them a diet rich in carbohydrates and fat. The aim of the study is Comparison of efficacy of the PAP (Papanicolaou) stain and H&E (Hematoxylin and eosin) stain in identifying the various changes in liver samples of high fat diet induced rat.

Materials and Methods: Liver samples of Normal control group animal and High fat diet induced animal were sectioned, weighed fixed 10% neutral buffer formalin and mounted in DPX compound. Four micrometer sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and PAP stains for the histological examination of micro-vesicular and macro-vesicular steatosis in the liver tissue. The grading of steatosis was given from 0-3 based on the lipid accumulation (steatosis): grade 0 - absence; grade 1 - mild Steatosis (<30% hepatocyte); grade 2- moderate steatosis (30%-70% hepatocyte); grade3- severe steatosis (>70%hepatocytes). Efficacy of grade of PAP stain and H&E stain were accessed and statistically evaluated by considering seven parameters and overall staining characters where compared.

Results: Our present study evaluated high fat induced hepatic steatosis of H&E and PAP stain and also evaluated efficacy of both the stain. In our study, Pie chart showing the percentage distribution of Number of micro-vesicles about 70% represents greater than 30, 10% represents 30-70, 20% represents less than 70 (Fig. 1). In our study 20% represents the greater than 30, 30% represents the 30-70, 50% represents Less than 70 (Fig. 2). 30% represents mild steatosis, 20% represents moderate steatosis, 50% represents Severe Steatosis (Fig. 3).          

Conclusion: We demonstrated the comparative efficiency of the PAP and H&E high fat diet induced rat liver by in vivo and conclude that both H&E and PAP stain has equal efficacy and clarity in observing the various minute parameters.

Open Access Review Article

Infertility Riding on Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS): A Review of Treatment Modalities

Reenoo Jauhari, Prashant Mathur, Vineeta Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33713

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest cause of anovulatory infertility. Depending on the population studied between 5 and 18% of women of reproductive age suffer from PCOS, however not all of them are anovulatory or experience subfertility. PCOS has been associated with numerous reproductive and metabolic abnormalities. Despite enormous advances in the management of reproductive dysfunction, insight into the metabolic implications of PCOS is limited by the lack of uniform diagnostic criteria, the heterogeneity of the condition and the presence of confounders including obesity. Obesity clearly has a role in long term health and may best predict both reproductive and metabolic dysfunction as well as negatively affect the response to treatment in women with PCOS. Diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer are also at the forefront of any risk assessment or comprehensive treatment strategy for these women. Lifestyle modifications including dietary changes, increased exercise and weight loss are appropriate first line interventions for many women with PCOS. Pharmaceuticals including metformin, lipid lowering agents and oral contraceptives should be tailored to the individual’s risk profile and treatment goals. The fertility treatment in women with subfertility and PCOS aimed to safely induce monofollicular ovulation resulting in the birth of a singleton child. Women with PCOS undergoing fertility treatment are at risk of multi-follicular development as well as ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome (OHSS), so they must be carefully counselled and monitored during fertility treatment. It is imperative that prior to embarking on fertility treatment, a patient’s health and weight is optimised. This chapter will explore the latest evidence for fertility treatments for women with PCOS.

Open Access Review Article

Effects of Leishmania Species on Immune Response against Malaria Parasite in Malaria Leishmania Coinfections

Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad, Sufian Khalid M. Noor, Awadalla H. Kashif, Mohammed Medani Eltayeb, Bader Saud Alotaibi, Elizabeth Popova, Shafie Abdulkadir Hassan, Yassin Bakri Salih, Yassin Saad Elhossin, Tarig Mohammed Elfaki, Mohammed Ahmed Ibrahim Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33715

Both malaria and leishmania  are most widespread protozoon parasitic diseases, certainly in tropical countries of the world. Malaria leishmania coinfection is common in leishmaniasis endemic areas which is mostly endemic to malaria too.

Researchers notice that in cases of malaria leishmania coinfection , leishmania species find the some extent the outcome of malaria infection , but also behavior of malaria parasite species play a significant role to figure the consequences of it. While L. donovani protect from severe malaria complications by suppression of major histocompatibility class Ⅱ , so it diminish the clinical severity of malaria but not malaria parasite density due to dysfunction of major histocompatibility class I, which controlled by suppressed one, In another side L. mexicana tends to sequester in macrophages and lead to severe clinical outcomes when it coexisted with malaria parasite at same host. Experimental studies required to know more information about coinfection of different malaria and leishmania species to establish clinical research.

Leishmania infection excluded when studies aim to assess the immune response to only malaria parasite, experimental studies required involving different species of malaria and leishmania.

Open Access Review Article

Diabetic Foot Risk Factors and Effectiveness of Education in Saudi Arabia

Mohammad Saqib Siddiqui, Abdulaziz Fehaid Alotaibi, Fahad Mohammed Saeed Alharthi, Abdullatif Meshal Almalawi, Ahmed Zayed Asiri, Ali Mustafa Alhabrti, Jood Mohammed Faidhi, Hussain Faroog Jan, Abdulaziz Hussain Bin salman, Mohammed Ali Alqahtani, Naseem Ahmed Matari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 48-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33718

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease with a remarkable global burden on the affected patients and healthcare systems. Among the reported complications, the diabetic foot has been reported to be a common one, which might be disabling, resulting in related amputations. Furthermore, we will provide evidence regarding the effect of education on the awareness and knowledge of diabetic Saudis about diabetic foot risk factors and management practices. Different risk factors were reported for developing diabetic foot among patients with DM. These will be studied in the current literature review, focusing on evidence that was conducted in Saudi Arabia. Age, gender, type of diabetes, education, duration of the disease, peripheral neuropathy, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, peripheral vascular disease, ischemic heart disease, renal artery disease, having a previous history of diabetic foot, and hypertension were all reported to be significant factors that were associated with the risk of developing diabetic foot across the Kingdom. The level of knowledge was variable across the different investigations. However, there is a poor attitude in general about the appropriate care practices of diabetic foot. Although it has been demonstrated that educational campaigns are effective, further efforts are still needed to increase awareness and attitude levels among diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia.

Open Access Review Article

Ovarian Torsion Presentation, Treatment and Iatrogenic Surgical Management

Sheema Sabahath, Hussain Salah AL Sinan, Asalah Tariq Alsaigh, Rawan AlSalamah AlFadhli, Tahani Salman Al Mansour, Abdullah Mohammed AlQatari, Fatin Abuagla Mohamed, Feras Mohammed Al Habshan, Amro Saad Alzahrani, Atheer Humaidy Alenazi, Nora Mishaal Alfertaj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 70-76
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33720

Ovarian torsion is among the gynecological life-threatening conditions that may require urgent surgical intervention among the appearance of clinical manifestations. The most common clinical manifestations include severe abdominal pain, nausea extending to vomiting. The ovarian torsion is not limited to children only. However, it can also occur in adult females, either pregnant or non-pregnant. The etiology of the disease tends to be related to the weakness of the uterine ligaments or malpositioning of it due to known and unknown causes. Despite that, the surgical intervention is needed to release the torsion. Sometimes, it can lead to adverse events or side effects such as decreased blood flow to the surrounding structures. Which by role may lead to unpleasant complications and clinical manifestations of hemorrhage and shock. In this article, we reviewed the topic of ovarian torsion from different aspects, including the definition, causes, clinical evaluation, and clinical management and its common complications.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Cardioprotective Mechanism of Chemical Constituents of Medicinal Plants

Sreya Kosanam, Rajeshwari Pasupula

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 104-114
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33723

Plants are the major source of human living. Since the beginning of the era, plants have been used for medicinal purposes. There is dire to explore the mechanism of chemical constituents in plants and particularly saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids due to their mechanism to save damaged cells in cardiac muscle. Databases like Google Scholar, Medline, PubMed, and the Directory of Open Access Journals were searched to find the articles describing the cardioprotective mechanism of medicinal plants. Saponin, flavonoids, glycoside, steroid, alkaloids, tannin, phenol, phlorotannin, terpenoids, and anthraquinone are chemical constituents in plants that enhance cardioprotection activity and decreases cardiac abnormalities. The current review article provides data on the use of medicinal plants, specifically against cardiac diseases, as well as an investigation of molecules/phytoconstituents as plant secondary metabolites for their cardioprotective potential.

Open Access Review Article

Dietary Recommendation for Survival During COVID-19

Shalini H. Moon, Manjusha Mahakarkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 138-145
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33731

Corona viruses are a large family of viruses that exist in many different species of animals including camels, bovine animals, and bats. The new strain of corona virus identified as the cause of outbreaks of respiratory disease in people first detected in Wuhan, China, was COVID-19.WHO has published a new guide on how to eat healthily during the COVID-19 COVID pandemic and self-quarantine.The guideline contains valuable information about nutrition to help keep the immune system strong. It also has tips for a diet that supports good health while advised to stay at home and may have less opportunity to consume fresh foods and be physically active.The FDA continues important research to protect public health during the COVID-19 pandemic along with other federal, state , and local agencies and public health officials around the country [1,2,3]

Open Access Review Article

A Literature Review on Urtica dioica: An Ordinary Creature with Extraordinary Features

Sheetal Rani, Deepika Bhatia, . Yogeeta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 175-190
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33735

Urtica dioica Linn is a popular medicinal plant that is native to Europe and is very commonly found in Temperate Asia, Western and Northern Africa, America and New Zealand. It is a traditional medicine used widely in various kind of treatment as was believed to be galactagogue – a substance that promotes lactation. It is well recognized in Ayurveda due to its multidimensional pharmacological and therapeutic effects as the compress of nettle help to revive Rheumatoid arthritis, Muscle pain, Sciatic and as Rasaan tonic as it constitutes various beneficial phytochemicals. It is popularly known for its stinging action. Its chemical compounds are highly irritating mainly histamine. Traditionally, the leaves and roots are used as a blood purifier, emmenagogue, nasal hemorrhage, eczema and diarrhea.

Open Access Review Article

Fighting Covid-19 with the Help of Alkaline Diet

Jaya Khandar, Achita Sawarkar, Madhuri Shambharkar, Sonali Kolhekar, Khushbu Meshram, Sheetal Sakharkar, Vaishali Tembhare, Savita Pohekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 244-247
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33743

The relative acidity or alkalinity of all substances in nature can be categorised. The term acid is derived from the Latin word "acidus," that is to state "to eat."" which meaning "sour or tangy." Several of them the typical substances that are acidic we come into  touch with have these characteristics, such as salad dressing vinegar, Beverages, which contain phosphoric acid and carbon dioxide, and black tea, which contains tannic acid, all contain acetic acid. Grapefruits, oranges, lemons, and limes contain citric acid, while grapes have tartaric acid.

The acid-alkaline diet, or alkaline ash diet, is another name for the alkaline diet. Food is divided into three groups in the alkaline diet: acidic, neutral, and alkaline. Red meat, poultry, fish, chocolate, wheat, and alcohol are all acidic foods. Natural fats such as butter, most oils, milk, and cream are all included in neutral meals. Foods that are alkaline make up the majority of fruits and vegetables.

Open Access Review Article

Alternative Approaches for Rheumatoid Arthritis Management: Future Perspective, Herbal, Dietary, Lifestyle, Psychological, Nutritional Intervention and Healthcare

Reena Gupta, Jitendra Gupta, Dhruv Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 342-363
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i54A33756

Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease autoimmune disorder that develops when our immune system attacks the tissues near joints due to the release of chemicals and enzymes. Although the exact pathogenesis of the disease has yet to be determined, studies indicate that cellular proliferation of synoviocytes results in pannus formation, which damages cartilages and bones. Recent research also supports the role of free radicals in the disease's pathogenesis. For rheumatoid arthritis treatment, a variety of anti-inflammatory and other types of drugs are available. However, long-term use of such types of pharmacological drugs is associated with serious side effects. As a result, herbal remedies, lifestyle, nutritional, probiotics, dietary and psychological interventions provide a rich source of anti-arthritic agents along with management of rheumatoid arthritis. This review focused on pathogenesis, treatments approaches for RA, mechanism of action, patents of marketed products. Tailored made approaches for arthritis management helps the scientists and researchers for finding newer leads, promotes growth and development of herbal industries, significantly improving health.