Open Access Systematic Review Article

Current Research Progress in Stem Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering Using Decellularized Materials

Anjali Oak, Swati Singh, Asim Mustafa Khan, Prateek J. Pachore

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 329-346
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33458

Aims: The study clearly aims to describe the advancements of the researches that are made of stem cell and tissue engineering. It also aims to provide the objectives of using decellularization.

Study Design: The study is based on the secondary qualitative analysis of primary resources collected from previous researches. The systematic review that deals with the solutions of the raised challenges in the PICO model has been performed in this research. 

Methodology: Methodology of the study deals with the testing of the uses of stem cells and tissue engineering so that new and innovative methods can be made in the field of tissue and organ transplantation. The methodology also describes the way of the collection of data from several databases. The data has been collected on the basis of the answer of drawn research question in the research. 

Results: The result deals with the meta-analysis of the secondary sources chosen for this research. Characterized features of the stem cells and tissue engineering in different filed of the diseases. The result also discusses the factor that there must be the implementation of scaffolds from different organisms. It is thus analysed to be the part of tissue engineering and tissue engineering there must have some developmental stages of the ECM matrix. The implementation of plant tissues has been observed to a promising result. The sections from different field of stem cell therapy has been collected together to bring out advancements in the stem cell therapy.  The findings suggests that to increase the efficacy of the stem cell therapy and tissue engineering cross kingdom connections such as taking decellularized  tissues from plants must be implemented.

Conclusion: The study concludes that the uses of stem cells and use of plant scaffold can be determined. It is also concluded in the study that there is not highlighting gaps that have been analysed in the advanced filed of decellularized implementation for stem cell therapy. This means the use of decellularized components, be it for plants or even from animals can bring up better results for the redevelopment of tissue engineering.  

Open Access Case Study

Management of Crossbite in Anterior Region Due to Over-retained Deciduous Teeth in an Adolescent – a Case Report

Niharika Gahlod, Arun Sajjanar, Surykant Singh, Milind Wasnik, Sneha Khekade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33423

The deciduous teeth which are retained beyond the age of exfoliation are termed as over-retained deciduous teeth. There are numerous reasons for such teeth which include congenital absence or impaction or translation or transmigration of successor teeth or maybe because of existence of some kind of pathology, such as cysts, tumours, and odontoma under the primary tooth that results in the impaction of successor teeth. It may also be due to partial or total microdontia of permanent dentition. This leads to malalignment in permanent dentition which indirectly hampers the normal growth of the jaws. This case report shows several after-effects of over retained teeth along with the concerned multiple treatment options.

Open Access Case Study

Levetiracetam Induced Hyperkalemia – A Rare Side Effect in Elderly with Pre-Existing Subclinical Renal Insufficiency Presenting with Bradyarrhythmia

Abhishek Chande, Vidyashree Hulkoti, Shivam Khanna, Sunil Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 185-190
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33442

Levetiracetam is a commonly used drug in today’s world for long term management of partial as well as generalized seizures mainly due its major advantage that is has so few and non-threatening side effects[1].In the following case scenario, we show how a 70 years old male presented with severe hyperkalemia and after no other common culprits were seen, it was thought to be a side effect therapy with levetiracetam and after discontinuing it and managing hyperkalemia, the patient’s condition improved from a very critical state. We also show a rare form ECG presentation of severe hyperkalemia in the form of bradyarrhythmia with absent P waves. Our experience shows that unpredictable and rare side effects of new anti-epileptic drugs should be given attention and such cases often go undiagnosed.

Open Access Short Communication

A Study to Assess the Knowledge of Staff Nurses on Infection Control Protocol in NICU Suitable for Peripheral Newborn Clinic at Selected Hospital of Jabalpur City, Madhya Pradesh

Jyoti Tiwari, C. C. Linson

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 317-322
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33456

Newborn care is one of the vital sectors to be looked into in order to reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity. Infection is great area of concern, especially for the newborn babies, we are losing many babies, because of sepsis in resources limited setting, while it is difficult to treat neonatal sepsis, it is rather easier to prevent infections. Recommendations for prevention for infection, with special references to the rural Indian scenario. The approaches towards the prevention of neonatal sepsis are multi-disciplinary. Comprising of neonatologist, hospital administration, nursing staff, and engineers. Thus making implementation easy, if the equipment and other consumable are manufactured indigenously bulk, and in a large quantities, thus reducing the financial burden on the hospital and the health care cost of the country. The present study was to evaluate the knowledge of staff nurses on infection control protocol. Total sample size consumed of 100 staff nurses and convenience sampling was used area in Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh. Data was collected using a self – structured question are purposive sampling. Regarding demographic variables majority highest number of respondents was in the educational qualification staff nurses. Majority of the respondent (49 %) had experiences in SNCU. It was found that self-instructional module was very effective in improving the knowledge of staff nurses of regarding infection control protocol in NICU.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Video-assisted Intervention on Perception and Anxiety among Patients Undergoing Robotic Surgery in a Selected Hospital, Mangaluru

P. V. Vineesha, Syed Imran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33419

Background: There are times when a procedure may have benefits, but a patient is unwilling to undergo surgery for their own reasons. Making this choice is their right. Many patients view surgery as a last option, rather than their first choice in treatments. The need for a surgery can be a confusing and frightening prospect and people may have many questions. Robotic assisted surgery has a great future in India, but majority people are not aware about robotic surgery.

Purpose: To focus on the level of anxiety and perception among robotic surgery patients and it has also identified the need for a video assisted intervention for patients undergoing robotic surgery.

Methods: A video assisted intervention on perception(perception rating scale-20 items) and anxiety (State Anxiety Inventory-20 items) among study participants(n=30) undergoing robotic surgery were selected by purposive non probability sampling by means of self administered questionnaire.

Results The perception mean difference pretest-post-test 1(18.80±7.45), pretest-post test 2 (21.83±8.00) and post-test 1- post-test 2 (3.03±7.18). The level of perception has increased from pre-test to post-test 1 and from post-test 1 to post-test 2 and it is statistically significant (p< 0.05). The anxiety mean difference pre-test-post-test 1 (11.27±12.98), pre-test-post test 2 (21.40±13.38) and post-test 1-post-test 2 (10.13±10.89). The level of anxiety has decreased from pre-test to post-test 1, from post-test 1 to post-test 2, and it is statistically significant (p< 0.05).

Conclusion: The findings of the study showed that the video assisted intervention was effective on levels of anxiety and perception among patients undergoing robotic surgery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagonistic Value of ARFI in Breast Lesions

J. Jayapriya, S. Arul Murugan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-30
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33421

Breast cancer became the most prominent cancer type in women worldwide. Its prevalence increased in recent years due to changes in life style and relapse among the patients seemed to be higher. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging in based on the principle of the ultrasonic elasticity and the elestography accurately predict and measure the changes in breast cancer tissue compared to the normal tissue. It is a technical alternative to the palpation and able to measure lesser than 10 mm size. In contrast to biopsy, where the reduced deformability would occur and lead to biopsy failing. In fibroadenoma, due to its complications, many false positives could be detected and the ARFI elastography serve as an effective alternative method for breast cancer confirmation. The tissue stiffness index value is used to differentiate the benign and malignant tissue samples. ARFI further, use B- mode elasticity and help in recommending the biopsy confirmation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Awareness about Eating, Sleeping, Weight, Diet and Other Lifestyle Changes during COVID Pandemic

Jeswin Immanuel, R. Gayatri Devi, A. Jothi Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 31-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33422

Background and Aim: COVID pandemic lockdown has been constantly associated with psychological changes which have resulted in an increase in stress level and other diseases. So the main aim of this study is to create knowledge about the lifestyle, sleeping and other changes happening during pandemic situations.

Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among the dental population with a sample size of 100 to 150. The survey was done in an online questionnaire pattern through Google forms and circulated. The statistics were done using SPSS software, chi square test was used to check the association and P value of 0.05 was said to be statistically significant.

Results: 36.63% responded to intake of vegetables as slight increases and 36.63% responded to significant increase of fruits and vegetables. There were many positive as well as negative changes were observed like increase in screen time and low physical activity were considered to be negative and positive changes like decrease in smoking and drinking alcohol. COVID-19 marginally improved the eating behavior, yet one-third of participants gained weight as physical activity declined significantly coupled with an increase in screen and sitting time. Mental health was also adversely affected. Intake of a balanced diet was significantly increased in females than males. Nearly 42% of them significantly increased their sleeping hours.

Conclusion: The increase of COVID virus all over the world at a faster rate may distract people from attention over lifestyle, physical and mental health. The mental issues may result in severe consequences. People must be aware that a healthy lifestyle change may cause severe health issues. A detailed understanding of these factors can help to develop interventions to mitigate the negative lifestyle behaviors that have manifested during COVID-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Increasing Noncompliance of Psychiatric Patients Undergoing for Psychotropic Therapy

A. R. Bharathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 51-54
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33425

Introduction: The positive result of the treatment regimen mainly depends on the adherence of the patients towards the instruction given by the physician and termed as the noncompliance or incomplete adherence to treatment.

Methods: The present study aimed to descriptively analyze and identify the reasons that increasing the incomplete adherence for psychotropic therapy based on information retrieved from the patient and their relatives in Institute of Mental Hospital (IMH), Chennai.90 participants were interrogated using a structured questioner by purposive-sampling procedure after receiving their informed consent.

Results: The present study showed the involvement of different factors such as pre – mature stopping the drug regimen (28.8%), buying lesser quantity of the drugs than prescribed by physicians (24.4%), and irregular drug consuming (23.3%). The present study importance of creating the awareness regarding the optimal follow- ups and emphasized the advices regarding the changing the mental health service regimes.  The patients and relatives should be given the psychological based awareness for reducing the noncompliance on the psychotropic regimes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combined Effect of Walking and Vitamin D Intake on Patients with Heart Failure

Muhammad Usama Javed, Tanzeel ur Rehman Mustafa, Sharoz Mukhtar Shah, Iza Babar, Fatima Maham Iqtidar, Muhammad Arslan Babar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 55-59
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33427

Objective: Patients with heart failure may benefit from vitamin D treatment, according to new research (Congestive Heart Failure).

Methods: In our current nonrandomized clinical research, 43 individuals with dilated cardiomyopathy who did not exhibit substantial gains in physical functioning with optimum heart failure therapy were included. Twelve weeks of weekly vitamin D supplements (200,000 IU) were added to the heart failure therapy to help improve the patient's condition. On the other hand, researchers looked at how it affected the 6-minute walk distance and pro-BNP levels. To analyses the data, we utilized SPSS version 19. Accordingly, we utilized random samples t-tests to assess the substantial role of vitamin D supplementation on pre-intervention vitamin D level, 6-minute walk distance, and pro-BNP level, respectively. Significance was defined as an alpha value less than 0.01.

Results: Individuals in NYHA class II (66%) were the majority, while those in NYHA classes I, III and IV were represented by 18%, 8% and 5%, accordingly. Following 14 weeks of vitamin D treatment, the group's mean vitamin D level was increased from 17.596.57ng/ml at baseline to 32.974.65ng/ml (p0.0006). Pre-intervention mean distance travelled was 806382ft, however after the intervention it rose to 945392ft (p-value 0.07). While before the intervention, the mean per-BNP level of research participant was 1025-636, and after intervention, it had enhanced to 160-80--a statistically significant improvement (p=0.005).

Conclusion: According to a decline in blood pro-BNP characterized by an increase in six-minute walk distance, vitamin D administration decreases the intensity of heart failure.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Silico Screening of Potential Inhibitors of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Kinase using Benzimidazole, Benzoxazole, Imidazole, and Tetrazole Derivatives

Subramaniyan Arulmurugan, Helen P. Kavitha, Jasmine P. Vennila

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 60-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33428

Background: Small molecule compounds are docked into receptor binding sites and the binding affinity of the complex is calculated using the structure-based drug design technique. Precise and quick docking processes, as well as the capacity to examine binding geometries and interactions, are required for a full knowledge of the structural principles that influence the strength of a protein/ligand complex. The present work deals with in-silico molecular docking studies of some heterocyclic compounds such as benzoxazole, benzimidazole, imidazole and tetrazole against the EGFR tyrosine kinase receptor.

Methodology: Molecular docking studies of some heterocyclic compounds such as benzoxazole, benzimidazole, imidazole and tetrazole against the EGFR tyrosine kinase receptor using Schrodinger LLC (Maestro 9.2) software.

Results: Our in silico observations reveal that, all the selected heterocyclic compounds (1-8) show good binding interaction and good docking score against selected target enzyme. Out of eight compounds selected for the study two compounds compound 3 and 7 shows higher glide score. Compound 3 binded to ASP855 with a docking score of −11.20 kcal/mol. Compound 7 binded to ASP855 with a docking score of −11.56kcal/mol.

Conclusion: Docking results revealed that compounds (1-8) interact with EGFR kinase receptor active site. Among the compounds, compound 7 has shown the highest glide score of -11.56 kcal/mol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Antibacterial Efficacy of Fenugreek Seed Extract Rinse and Nigella Sativa Seed Extract Rinse against Streptococcus Mutant Colonies

Nasima Iqbal, ATA UR Rehman, Syeda Amber Zaidi, Kiran Khan, Lubna Farooq, Hira Mehmood

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-86
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33430

Background: Dental infections were caused by the bacterium overgrowth on the surface of the tooth, and treatment should always be set up to prevent this development.Antibiotics have long been used as a conventional antibacterial medication, but their overuse has resulted in microbes gaining resistance to many of the antibiotics, trying to make many commercialized therapeutic remedies ineffectual and resulting to infection recurrence. In this regard we aim to analyze the antibacterial activity of nigella sativa seeds’ and fenugreek seed extract rinses against S. mutans' colonies.

Methodology: It was a preclinical experimental study conducted at Baqai Medical and Dental College Karachi., from January - June 2021. Calculated sample size was n = 80 Consecutive sampling technique was used. Plaque of study participants was collected on sterile strips that was transported to laboratory for culture in sterile containers.The extract of Fenugreek seed and nigella sativa seed was kept in an airtight bottle and stored in a refrigerator till usage. The extracts were diluted in distilled water in 1:4 (Extract: Distilled water). Study participants were instructed to not brush their teeth before sampling. Study participants were divided into four groups (negative control, positive control, fenugreek seed extract group and Nigella sativa group) each group had 20 participants. Diluted Fenugreek seed extract and Nigella sativa extract was given to experimental groups for rinses.

Results: There was significant decrease in number of colonies in positive controls, fenugreek seed extract group and nigella sativa extract group and there was no change in number of colonies in control group. Furthermore, the analysis showed significant (p-value = 0.001) difference among the groups followed by post hoc analysis. Post hoc analysis showed no difference between positive control, fenugreek seed extract group and nigella sativa group.

Conclusion: Fenugreek seed extract and Nigella Sativa seed extract showed comparable antibacterial properties. Also, the effect was found to be similar to commercially available mouth rinse.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Supervised Exercise Program and Cyriax Physiotherapy on Pain and Function in Lateral Epicondylitis

Gouri Kalaskar, Pratik Phansopkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 87-97
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33431

Aims: To see the effectiveness of supervised exercises and cyriax physiotherapy both including therapeutic ultrasound for improving pain and function in adults with lateral epicondylitis.

Study Design: Comparative study- to find out the efficacy of effectiveness of two different interventions for reducing pain and improving function in patients with lateral epicondylitis

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Musculoskeletal  Physiotherapy Sciences, Ravi Nair Physiotherapy College, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha, for 12 months.

Methodology: A total of 30 people with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) were selected to take part in a comparative research. Subjects were randomized 1:1 to either (1) supervised exercise programme group, or (2) cyriax physiotherapy group. Over just a 4-week period, three times each week for a sum of 12 sessions, promptly after baseline evaluation and randomization, subjects received static stretching of Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis followed by eccentric strengthening of the wrist extensors and Therapeutic Ultrasound in supervised exercise programme group. While those in cyriax physiotherapy group received deep transverse friction massage for 10 min immediately followed by Mill’s manipulation and Ultrasound. The study concluded at the 4 weeks.

Results: Out of 30 patients half were placed in each group, where p=.0001. Significant increase in mean in the group I and II in pre ad post-test VAS score (4.20±0.77 and 5.20±0.67) and TEFS score pre and post-test (17.33±1.44 and 19.80±1.42). analysis showed significant improvement in both the groups.

Conclusion: From the observations and results, the conclusion drawn that there is significant improvement in both the groups but effect of cyriax physiotherapy in the form of deep friction massage and mills manipulation combined with therapeutic ultrasound for improving pain on VAS and function on TEF scale.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Screening of Alkylene Dithiophosphate Derivatives of Macrocyclic Complexes of Pb (II)

Chetan G. Prajapati, Amanullakhan Pathan, C. P. Bhasin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 104-112
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33433

Alkylenedithiophosphate derivatives of macrocyclic complexes of Pb (II), having N4S4 potential donors, of the general formula, [Pb(L){S2P(OR)2}2] where L=macrocyclic ligands L1, L2, L3, L4 and L5; R= C2H5-, C3H7n or C3H7i have been synthesized from the reaction of [Pb(L)X2(where X= Clˉ, NO3ˉ or CH3COOˉ) with sodium Alkylenedithiophosphate in 1:2 molar ratios in THF. These complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, molecular weight determinations, IR, 1H, 13C NMR. Macrocyclic Complexes of Pb (II) derivatives have been studied by screening them Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata and bacteria like Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtili. Alkylenedithiophosphate derivatives were found to be more fungitoxic and antibacterial than their corresponding macrocyclic complexes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Efficacy between Intramuscular Diclofenac and Transdermal Diclofenac Patch for Postoperative Analgesia in Patients Undergoing Lower Limb Surgery Under Sub Arachnoid Block in Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Wardha, India

Anjali Modak, Harindanath S. Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 113-120
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33434

Background: To compare the analgesic efficacy of transdermal Diclofenac patch (100 mg) with intramuscular Diclofenac sodium (75 mg) for postoperative analgesia and to know the side effects of transdermal Diclofenac patch.

Methods: 60 ASA I and II patients, of either sex, aged 15 and above, scheduled for lower limb surgery under subarachnoid block were included in the study. All were allocated randomly by computer generated randomization sheet into two groups of 30 each. Subarachnoid block was administered using 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine. Participants in the study group were applied with a transdermal Diclofenac patch containing 100 mg of Diclofenac diethylamine at the beginning of the surgery. In the control group 75 mg of Diclofenac sodium was given intramuscularly half an hour before the end of surgery. Pain was assessed postoperatively using visual analogue scale. Injection Tramadol 2 mg was administered intramuscularly as rescue analgesia. The data obtained was analyzed using chi - square test and unpaired student’s ‘t’test.

Results: The mean time at which rescue analgesia was administered in the control group was 7 hours 28 min and in study group was 20 hours 6min.The time at which rescue analgesics were required in the study group was significantly prolonged (p<0.0001). The amount of Inj. Tramadol required as rescue analgesia in the control group was 189.33 mg. ± 16.38 mg. and in study group it was 97 mg. ± 7.24 mg and this was found to be statistically significant (p<0.0001). When the side effects were compared they were not significant.

Conclusions: Based on the results obtained we conclude that, the intraoperative application of 100 mg transdermal Diclofenac diethylamine patch significantly prolongs the time at which patient requires rescue analgesia without any significant side effects. Rescue analgesic requirement was also significantly lower in the study group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Prone Positioning on Oxygen Saturation in COVID-19 Patients in Sri Aurobindo Hospital, Indore

Anand Misra, Akshay Pal, Rajni Pawar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 121-129
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33435

Background: Physiotherapeutic intervention body positioning have been observed to increase oxygen saturation.  In COVID-19 patients, we intended to investigate how the prone position worked in conjunction with conventional respiratory physiotherapy. The objective was to determine the effect of prone position along with conventional respiratory physiotherapy on SpO2 of COVID-19 patients in Aurobindo hospital, Indore district.

Methods: The Ministry of Health, Government of India, authorized the rules for collecting data from infected patients. In this study, 400 patients between the ages of 20 and 80 years old were recruited from Sri Aurobindo Hospital in the Indore district, all of them had a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and required oxygen treatment. SpO2 data was collected as a baseline. Patients were helped into the prone position after baseline data collection and conventional respiratory physiotherapy. Clinical data was obtained again after using the prone posture in conjunction with conventional respiratory physiotherapy. To demonstrate the various prone variations, a patient information sheet was supplied. At 0 and 60 minutes after the exercise, oxygen saturation was measured.

Results: Between April 2020 to June 2020, we assessed SpO2 of 400 Patients pre and post prone position along with conventional respiratory physiotherapy. Prone positioning was feasible. Oxygenation was significantly improved from supine to prone position. The data were processed for mean and standard deviation. It was analyzed that there was difference in pre to post value of mean, from 95.685 to 98.123 with standard deviation from 1.645to 1.445. The result shows significant improvement in SpO2 after applying prone positioning in patients infected with COVID-19. The findings suggest that prone positioning is both possible and beneficial in increasing blood oxygenation in awake COVID-19 patients. Further study is needed to find the technique's potential value in terms of enhancing overall respiratory and global outcomes.

Conclusion: The difference between the saturation of the two position was significant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bio-Analytical Stability Studies of Nadolol Material

B. Veeraswami, V. M. K. Naveen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 130-140
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33436

The best practices of Bio-analytical stability studies on drug samples are very crucial and essential for the drugs development process as it specify the acceptancy, purity, efficacy, prediction of strength and quality of the drugs. The main objective of this stability studies on Nadolol the proposed approach of chromatographic separation was administered in isocratic way by using asymmetric C18 column of 40:60 percent of acetonitrile and 0.1% OPA at a flow rate of 1 ml/min is a quantitative measure for drug analysis in biological matrix for more reliable, selective, reproducible and sensitive.  This stability study constituents several methods like Bench-Top, Auto-sampler, Freeze-Thaw, Dry-extract, Wet-extract, Short-term, long-Term stability studies at various intervals gave the complete stability information about these drugs. The results of these stability studies are accepted based on ICH guidelines represents this drug has a good stability under the present experimental conditions. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Vitamin D in Different Stages of Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy and its Correlation with Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 (TGF-β1) –A Cross Sectional Study

Liji Kavuparambil, Ashok Kumar Pammi, T. K. Jithesh, K. Shifa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 141-147
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33437

Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a microvascular complication of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and the prevalence of which is increasing in every year. Monitoring of Vitamin D status in diabetic nephropathy patients is important, as the deficiency of vitamin D appears as a risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy. Studies evaluating the role of vitamin D in DN are few. Conflicting data is available on the correlation between vitamin D and Diabetic Nephropathy. Studies revealed the sample population is Vitamin D deficient. Therefore, it is important to understand the correlation of Vitamin D with severity of Diabetic nephropathy and its role in fibrogenesis. The aim of this study is to analyse vitamin D status in different stages of type 2 diabetic nephropathy and its correlation with transforming growth factor beta-1.

Methods: A 1.5-year cross-sectional study of 120 diabetic patients, 60 with nephropathy and 60 without nephropathy patients enrolled to MES Medical College. Patients with heart, liver, or thyroid disease, as well as those on dialysis, were excluded from the study. The VITROS 5600 integrated system were used to measure fasting blood sugar (FBS), HbA1c, creatinine and vitamin D.  Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 (TGF-β1) is measured using ELISA technique. According to HbA1c and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values, the study population is divided into two groups. The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) software was used to conduct the analysis. The level of significance was calculated at 95%.

Results: The level of vitamin D in diabetic patients with nephropathy is much lower than in diabetic patients without nephropathy. In diabetic nephropathy patients, serum creatinine, urea, HbA1c and TGF-β1 exhibited a highly significant negative correlation with vitamin D status, but eGFR showed a highly significant positive correlation.

Conclusion: Vitamin D status has been found to be poor in all diabetic patients, with a greater drop in diabetic nephropathy patients. In diabetic nephropathy patients, serum creatinine, urea, HbA1c and TGF-β1 exhibited a highly significant negative association with vitamin D status, but eGFR showed a highly significant positive link. Deficiency of vitamin D have role in the development and severity of DN, and showed a highly significant correlation with the regulator of fibrosis, TGF-β1. This finding indicates that vitamin D couldbe an important factor for development and progression of Diabetic nephropathy. So supplementation of vitamin D may slow down progression of DN. 

Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Identification of Potential Inhibitor Targeting Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus Acidophilus for the Treatment of Dental Caries

M. Chittrarasu, A. Shafie Ahamed, A. Andamuthu Sivakumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 148-160
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33438

Background: Dental caries is one of the most common chronic diseases, and it is caused by the acid fermentation of bacteria that have become attached to the teeth. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) anchor surface proteins to the cell wall and form a biofilm to aid adhesion to the tooth surface. Some natural plant products, particularly several flavonoids, are effective inhibitors. However, given the scarcity of inhibitors and the emergence of drug resistance, the development of new inhibitors is critical. The high-throughput virtual screening approach was used in this study to identify new potential inhibitor of against S. mutans and L. acidophilus by using ligand (Ellagic acid).

Aim: To evaluate the drug interaction ligand (Ellagic acid) and protein [A3VP1 of AgI/II] of Streptococcus mutans (PDB ID: 3IPK), glucan-1,6 - alpha-glucosidase from Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (PDB ID: 4AIE).

Materials and Methodology: The pdb format of two selected proteins was retrieved from the RCSB protein database. Then inhibitors were docked with protein (A3VP1 of AgI/II) and glucan-1,6-alpha-glucosidase to identify the potent inhibitor. An evaluation criterion was based on the binding affinities by using AutoDock.

Results: The binding energy of Ellagic acid - Streptococcus mutans docked complex-10.63 kcal/mol and with Ellagic acid – Lactobacillus acidophilus docked complex was -7.30 kcal/mol.

Conclusion: In this study, Showed that lesser binding energy better is the binding of the ligand and protein. These findings can provide a new strategy for dental caries disease therapy by using Ellagic acid as a inhibitor against  Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effect of Blood Flow Restriction Therapy and Retro Walking on Pain, Strength of Muscles and WOMAC Score in Patients of Osteoarthritis of Knee

Indrani Gurjalwar, Deepali Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 168-177
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33440

Aim: To assess the impact of blood flow restriction and retro walking in knee osteoarthritis subjects.

Study Design: It was a comparative study. All the participants who meet inclusion criteria gave a written consent and were allocated to Group A or Group B randomly by chit method and the pre and post test scores were derived. The scores obtained in the two groups were compared and the results were derived.

Place and Duration of the Study: This study was conducted in musculoskeletal sciences division, RNPC Sawangi, Wardha, for 12 months

Methodology: A total of 150 samples were chosen. Using the chit method, they were divided into two groups at random, Group A and Group B. Blood Flow Restriction Training was given to Group A, while retro walking training was given to Group B. The training lasted 15 days. After 15 days, the pain, strength, and WOMAC score were tested again.

Result: Out of 150 patients 75 were placed in each group, where p=.0001. Significant increase was seen in mean of group I and II in pre ad post-test NPRS score, Quadricep and hamstrings muscle strength and WOMAC score. Analysis showed significant improvement in both the groups.

Conclusion: Both the interventions included in this study, have been shown to help individuals with osteoarthritis reduce pain, enhance strength, and improve their WOMAC score. Both the interventions are easy to practice and can be easily performed by the older population. When these two interventions were compared blood flow restriction therapy was proved to be better than retro walking.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neck Pain among Medical Students during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Questionnaire Based Study

Bader Dubian Al Otaibi, Rayan Dhafer Alamri, Mujahed Abdullah Alzahrani, Rana Mohammed Albalawi, Khulud Abdullah Alzahrani, Khames T. Alzahrani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 178-184
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33441

Aims: To determine the relationship between distant learning and neck pain during COVID-19 pandemic especially among medical students, thus we aim to assess prevalence of neck pain for specific Group and time.                     

Study Design: An observational cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Conducted in Saudi Arabia, between July 2020and October 2021.

Methodology: This is a cross-sectional observational descriptive study that started in July 2020. Our target population include all medical students either male or female suffering from neck pain in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period of distant learning due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Sample size: Total Number of medical students in KSA (26126), Confidence level 95% and margin of error 5%. The sample size 379 was estimated using the Qualtrics calculator.

Results: A total of 2071 participants were a part of study. Most of them are female n=1509(72.9%) and least of them are male n=562(27.1%). The minimum age of participant was 18 years old n=61(2.9%), And the maximum age was 30 years old n=10(0.5%). Most of medical students noticed increase of neck pain during the period of pandemic. Most of them had noticed exacerbation of neck pain during COVID-19 pandemic n=1002(72.3%), where n=384(27.7%) had same pain before and during pandemic. Majority of them were completely relying on electronic devices for their education.

Conclusion:A high Pervasiveness of neck pain in the medical students during COVID-19 pandemic has been observed. Most of medical students noticed increase of neck pain during the period of pandemic. Majority of them were completely relying on electronic devices for their education.

Open Access Original Research Article

6 Minute Walk Test (6-MWT) as a Tool for Predicting Post Operative Pulmonary Complications in Abdominal Surgeries

K. Janani, K. Rajkumaran, S. Niranjani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 204-209
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33444

Background: Post operative pulmonary complications (PPC) contribute to increased morbidity and mortality. Thus pre operative assessment is required. Six minute walk test (6-MWT) is a simple and reliable test which is recently being included in pre operative evaluation.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the value of the six minute walk test as a reliable tool in detecting post operative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

Materials and Methods: It is a prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care centre for a period of 3 months. 66 patients in the age group of 40-60 years undergoing elective abdominal surgery under general anaesthesia were included in this study based on universal sampling method. Patients with recent coronary syndrome, uncontrolled hypertension, cardiac diseases, pregnancy and conditions which impair walking (eg. Arthiritis) were excluded from the study.     6 minute walk test was performed before the surgery. The procedure was explained to the patients and consent was obtained. The test was conducted on a flat surface of 20m near our pre anaesthetic clinic and the patient was asked to walk for a period of 6 minutes in their own comfortable pace. The distance covered by the patients in the 6 minutes was noted. Vitals such a SpO2, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were recorded before and after the test. The patients were followed up for the development of pulmonary complications in the post operative period.

Results: Out of the 66 patients included in the study, 35 patients did not develop        PPC (Group 1) and 31 patients developed PPC (Group2) including one death due to respiratory failure. The six minute walk distance in the PPC group was significantly less (p=0.0001) when compared to that of the non PPC group. Patients in the PPC group also required prolonged hospital stay. Pneumonia was the most commonly developed post operative pulmonary complication.

Conclusion: Six minute walk test is a useful tool in predicting post operative pulmonary complication in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Streptomyces sps Isolated from Muthupettai Mangrove Soil

C. Nivetha, T. Deepika, A. Arjunan, P. Sivalingam, N. Revathi, M. Muthuselvam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 210-234
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33445

Muthupet mangrove forest soil sediment was the abundant resource of the actinomycetes with distinct nature of bioactive compounds. The soil sediment was collected at 1-3meter away from bank. The present study was focused on isolation, identification and antimicrobial activity of the actinomycetes from Muthupet mangrove soil samples. Totally 32 actinomycetes strains was isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Among 32 isolates 16 have antibacterial activity and 10 have antifungal activity but MG-3 and MG-4 showed maximum activity against both all the test pathogens. These two strains are gram-positive, rod-shaped, MG-3 possessing an earthy characteristic odour and MG-4 produce purple color pigment. The isolates were confirmed as Streptomyces sp. based on morphological, cultural, biochemical and physiological observations, as well as identification using the 16S rRNA gene sequence, it showed 98% similarity with Streptomyces parvus for MG-3 and Streptomyces californicus for MG-4. Bioactive compounds were extracted from Streptomyces using different solvents such as ethyl acetate, methanol, chloroform, hexane and antibacterial activities were assayed against test pathogens, ethyl acetate extract showed maximum zone of inhibition when compared with other solvents. The Minimum inhibitory concentration of ethyl acetate extract was found ranged between 1.96-3.9 μg/ml. The invitro antioxidant capacity of the crude extract was estimated by DPPH, ferric reducing power assay, H202 radical scavenging assay, phosphomolybdenum assay and total antioxidant activities. The characterization of crude extracts was analyzed by FTIR and GC-MS. From the results, it is clear that the ethyl acetate crude extract of S.parvus MG-3 and S.californicus MG-4 possesses high antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and suggested that the isolated strains could be a potential for the nature resource of pharmaceutical.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Awareness on Puberty Menorrhagia among Medical Students of Saveetha Medical College

T. Sarathkumar, K. Jayashree

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 235-240
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33446

Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and awareness on pubertal menorrhagia among medical students.

Design: It was a cross-sectional study conducted at the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Thandalam.

Methodology: The study was carried out on 129 students comprising of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th year M.B.B.S students. The students were given a pretested questionnaire and asked to fill up the questions. The responses were collected and analysed using appropriate statistical tools for parametric and non-parametric data with the help of SPSS for Windows version 22 software.

Results: The knowledge of participants on pubertal menorrhagia was 58%. The participants that had a positive attitude concerning pubertal menorrhagia was 55% the awareness of participants on pubertal menorrhagia was 51%

Conclusion: The study concluded that there is a definitive knowledge of pubertal menorrhagia among students.  the participants showed the palpable deficit of knowledge and awareness as well. To prevent such practices knowledge, awareness must spread among the students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Accuracy of Impression Material During COVID-19 after Sterilization- In vitro Study

Abdulrahman Jafar Alhaddad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 241-246
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33447

Aims: The goal of this research is to assess the effect of steam autoclave sterilization due to the impact of Covid-19 on the accuracy of the elastomer impression materials.

Study Design: In vitro study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of oral and Maxillofacial Prosthodontics, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah; Saudi Arabia, between June 2021 and November 2021.

Methodology: The following materials were used in this study: fully dentate master cast, metal trays, elastomer impression material (addition silicon), type IV stone. Forte impressions made using the metal tray and elastomer impression materials. The impressions were separated equally into two groups: Control group (C.G), untreated impressions. Sterilized group (S.G): Impressions were sterilized by using the steam autoclave. To make stone castings for each group, they were poured with type IV stone. The traveling microscope was used to evaluate the impression material's dimensional accuracy and detail reproduction with and without autoclave sterilization.

Results: The cross-arch distance (X) of the master model was measured (41.29 mm), While the cross arch distance (X) in the control group (C.G) of the untreated impressions  had a mean and standard deviation  of 41.492 ± 0.150 mm. In the tested group  (S.G) : the sterilized impression, we found the cross-arch distance (X) had a mean and standard deviation of 41.628 ± 0.223 mm. The master model's Anteroposterior distance (A-P) was measured (21.12 mm). For the control group  (C.G) : we found the mean and standard deviation value reading of the A-P distance were 20.899 ± 0.79 mm. For (S.G) group: we found the mean and standard deviation reading of the A-P distance were 19.992± 0.482 mm.

Conclusion: Steam autoclave sterilization of the elastomer impression material should be considered carefully, especially when fabricating fixed partial dentures. If the impression material is to be used in making diagnostic castings, conventional steam autoclave sterilization of the elastomers impression material may be sufficient for patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tangeretin and its Derivatives: An Integrative Bioinformatic Study of Obesity and Related Immunodeficiency

V. Manjunath, Kaveripakam Sai Sruthi, Sreedevi Adikay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 247-266
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33448

Obesity is a complex and major public health concern known to exacerbate many diseases. There are increasing evidences stating the obese people due to adiposity are getting more susceptible to immune deficiency disorders. Tangeretin is a key member of flavonoids reported to have many favourable biological activities. In search of novel leads in ameliorating obesity and related immunodeficiency, the present study is aimed at the in silico evaluation of tangeretin derivatives to assess their biological role. Initially tangeretin derivatives are designed by molecular manipulation approach.Drug likeness and bioactivity score prediction was done using Molinspiration web tool. Swiss ADME prediction and toxicological predictions were performed. In silico Molecular Docking studies were performed by employing a flexible ligand docking approach using Schrodinger on the protein targets namely leptin, Fat mass and obesity associated protein (FTO), Pancreatic lipase, Peroxisome proliferated receptor (PPARɣ) and NADH oxidase. Further the electronic parameters were computed for the best fitted ligands by DFT analysis. The evaluation of results was made based on Glide (Schrodinger) dock score. Out of 18 screened compounds, some of them showed the best docking scores with the targets when compared with the standard (Lovastatin). Particularly the two ligands (L-13 and L-8) showed the best binding score with all five targets. Moreover, DFT analysis carried out for the tangeretin and best fitted ligands (L13 and L8) substantiated the other in silico studies. These findings probably provide excellent lead candidates for the development of therapeutic drugs in combating obesity and related immune deficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Virtual Educational Space and Psychological Problems in a Pandemic

Vdovichena Olga, Bahunina Olha, Tovstukha Olesya Mikolaivna, Lukіianchuk Alla, Budko Hanna Yurievna

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 274-285
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33450

Aims: We aimed to analyze the peculiarities of educational simplicity and psychological problems under pandemic conditions, to conduct an empirical study among the participants of the educational space, to identify correlations between psychological properties of personality and the level of procrastination.

Study Design: empirical study among the participants of the educational space, identifying correlations between psychological properties of personality and the level of procrastination.

Place and Duration of Study: 320 students and teachers of higher educational institutions in Lviv took part in the survey.

Methodology: In our study we used descriptive and empirical methods with application of elements of statistics - Pearson correlation analysis. In the study we also used the following sociological methods: online survey “Detection of socio-psychological problems, procrastination generated by the COVID-19 pandemic in the activity of educational institutions”, scales of diagnosing emotional states of personality, “Procrastination Scales” by B. V. Takman and methods of FAM (Feeling-Activity-Mood). Place and duration of the study: Dnipro State Medical University, Institute of Kyiv National Trade and Economic University and Medical Institute Sumy State University, of State mortgage «Lugansk National University of Taras Shevchenko» from April to October 2021. We also followed systemic approach, comparative method, weighting and forecasting method, according to which virtual educational environment also opens new perspectives for teachers and students, providing opportunities of access to multidirectional information, which allows to acquire social knowledge, social experience, formulate life prospects and realize personal potential.

Results: It was found that teachers and students during the COVID-19 pandemic had a higher level of positive well-being, activity, a higher level of mood than during the pandemic. It was also determined that teachers and students had an increased level of procrastination during the pandemic. According to the results of correlation analysis in the group of students and teachers’ correlation relationships between the indicators: the level of procrastination, mood, well-being was established. It has been established that the crisis has hurt both the country and the population quite badly. Training for pupils and students and teachers changed from full-time to distance learning. This form of learning vividly showed all the difficulties: the motivation of students; their ability to self-education; communication in the learning process; the organization of the learning process. For teaching staff, the main difficulty became mastering digital technology to organize the educational process. Empirically it was confirmed that the emotional state “before” and “during” the pandemic is significantly different.

Conclusion: The stressful situation has had its negative impact on the mental health of participants in the educational process, so an important role in this time of crisis is the activity of the psychological service of the educational institution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Union in Fracture Tibia Managed with Closed Intramedullary Interlocking Nail, Our Hospital Results

Lachman Das Maheshwari, Muhammad khan Pahore, Madan Lal, Syed Salman Adil, Bheesham Kumar, Niaz Hussain Keerio, Syed Shahid Noor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 286-291
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33451

Introduction: The purpose of this research was to present our hospital results in union of fracture Tibia managed with close intramedullary interlocking nail.

Methods: This research was carried out at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Science Jamshoro Pakistan from June 2020 to June 2021. A total of 250 patients with a closed tibial shaft fracture were recruited from the emergency room and outpatient clinics for this study. Our study's clinical outcomes were categorized as union, nonunion, delayed union, or malunion based on the criteria. All of the patients were given anesthesia, either general or spinal. All of the patients were tracked for a period of nine months.

Results: In 90–150 days, about 88 percent (220/250) of patients had union, with a mean of 110.68. Union occurred in 11.2 percent (28/250) of patients in 95–109 days, with a mean of 103.38. There were 7.2 percent (18/250) delayed unions and 4.8 percent (12/250) non unions treated with dynamization and bone transplant. The outcomes were outstanding in 88 percent (220/250) of the patients and good in 7.2 percent (18/250). Our patients all had full range of motion in their knees and ankles at the time of their examination.

Conclusion: We found that this approach is beneficial due to early mobilization (early weightbearing), reduced complexity, good outcomes, and low cost.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Instrument Assisted Soft-Tissue Mobilization in Patients with Heel Pain: An Experimental Study

Shivani Bhurchandi, Pratik Phansopkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 292-301
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33453

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of Instrument-Assisted Soft-Tissue Mobilisation (IASTM) and Therapeutic Ultrasound in patients with heel pain in terms of Numerical Pain Rating Scale and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure scale. This was undertaken as even though Ultrasound is regularly used, heel pain still remains resistant to treatment in some patients. Hence, the need to compare a relatively newer technique with it.

Study Design : Experimental study

Place and Duration: Department of Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy Sciences, Ravi Nair Physiotherapy College, Sawangi (Meghe) , Wardha , duration of 12 months.

Methods: Seventy people (n=70) with heel discomfort (lasting 6 weeks to 1 year) were chosen at random and placed into two groups, each getting eight therapy sessions. IASTM and Home Exercise Program was given to Group A, whereas Therapeutic Ultrasound and Home Exercise Program was given to Group Calf muscle stretches and Plantar fascia stretches were incorporated in the Home Exercise Programme. Outcome measures were recorded both at the beginning of treatment and after final treatment. The patients were assessed for Numerical Pain Rating Scale with first step in morning and at the beginning of first session and after end of last session and for Foot and Ankle Ability Measure scale at the beginning of first session and after end of last session. A follow up period of 90 days (after last session) was taken, the measurements of Numerical Pain Rating Scale and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure scale were taken again to see the long-term effects.

Results: Group A which received IASTM + Home exercises showed great improvements than Ultrasound and Home exercise group, from baseline to week 4 after the pain intensity and foot function were assessed using Numerical Pain Rating Scale and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure scale. Statistically significant differences were found in both the groups. i.e. P=0.0001. But 7 people in Ultrasound group complained of pain and functional ability at follow-up session.

Conclusion: In this study, it can be concluded that combining both the IASTM and Home Exercise Program have got beneficial effects in decreasing the pain intensity thus improving the foot and ankle function in patients with heel pain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude, and Awareness about Nitrous Oxide Inhalation Sedation among Dental Practitioners of Gujarat, India

Khushbu Chawla, Pratik B. Kariya, Brijesh Tailor, Sweta Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 302-308
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33454

Introduction: Conscious sedation is a safe and effective method of anxiolysis. However, the use of conscious sedation in pediatric dental patients is a controversial topic as it involves the intersection of dentistry and medicine. Among the many questions that could be asked, it is necessary to find out what dental practitioners think about the use of sedatives in their routine pediatric dental practice. Therefore, the above survey was conducted aiming to evaluate the perceptions of dentists on the use of Conscious Sedation in pediatric dental practice in Vadodara city, Gujarat.

Methods: Questionnaires were sent electronically to Indian Dental Association (IDA) members of Vadodara at the time of the study. The contact details of these dental practitioners were obtained from the IDA members list. Details on personal status, use of, and training in, conscious sedation techniques were sought via the questionnaires to find the knowledge, attitude, and awareness towards the use of Conscious Sedation in pediatric dental practice.

Results: The questionnaire was sent to IDA members in Vadodara city, Gujarat. 64.37% (150 dentists) responded to the questionnaire. 48% were female practitioners and 52% were male practitioners. 78.5% were in favor of using conscious sedation as a behavior management technique in pediatric dental practice, irrespective of their qualification or years of experience. Maximum knowledge about conscious sedation was obtained through the curriculum.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the dentists of Vadodara city, Gujarat state developed a positive attitude towards the use of conscious sedation, however, complained of a lack of training to the subject.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Knowledge Regarding Menstruation and Menstrual Hygiene among School Girls of Karad

Pradnya C. Bhandari, Meghana G. Bhole, Anandh Shrinivasan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 309-316
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33455

Background: Menarche is an important milestone in women’s life usually occurring between

12-14 years of age. It reflects the health status of the population as it marks as the beginning of sexual maturation. The adolescent girls usually undergo menarche unprepared and they lack the knowledge of menstruation and also practice poor hygiene. Poor hygiene and inadequate self-care practices have major determinants of morbidities and other complications. Therefore, it is important to spread awareness of menstruation and its proper hygiene practices.

Materials and Methods: A community-based survey was conducted among 84 school girls of Karad. Data was collected using a questionnaire including the demographic information of each participant. The duration of study was 6 months.

Results: The study revealed that the mean age of menarche was 11.05 years. Out of total participants, 44.05% girls had poor knowledge of menstruation and 35.71% girls had poor hygienic practices during menstruation.

Conclusion: The study concluded that there is a prevalence of early menarche and it is associated with various factors. The adolescent girls should be made aware about menstruation and its hygiene at an early age. The girls who attained menarche early had a poor knowledge than that of the girls who attained menarche at a normal age.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitudes and Perceptions about Smoking Behavior of Students in the School Environment and Some Suggested Solutions

Huynh Tan Hoi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 323-328
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33457

The trend of tobacco use is increasing among young people, students and evidence shows that tobacco smoke contains nicotine, which is a very strong addictive substance and is harmful to health, especially for children, adolescents and pregnant women. The chemicals in tobacco include acrolein, chemicals, acetaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nicotine, etc. Some of these chemicals are classified as carcinogenic. The cause of the increase of cigarettes stems from products with eye-catching, compact, flavorful, low-cost designs, etc. Tobacco is an addictive products very popular trade items in Vietnam. Today, it is not difficult to buy a pack of cigarettes from a shop, a grocery or at a supermarket. Although the mass media has propagated a lot about the harmful effects of smoking as well as the harmful effects of cigarette smoke to those around them, the proportion of smokers has not decreased. This situation is happening not only in adults but also in young people. Especially, smoking is creeping into the school where nurturing future talents. Although the harmful effects of cigarette smoking as well as the effects of cigarette smoke are widely known by the school as well as the media, the percentage of students smoking is increasing. This paper aims to study the smoking behavior of the students therefore we can assess the effectiveness of the mission of promoting health education to students and young people and finding solutions reduce student smoking rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Depression among Antenatal Women in Sriperumbudur, Chennai

Jayashree Kannappan, Abhilash Kannappan, V. S. Prema Subathiraa, Shanthi Dinakaran, P. S. Jikki Kalaselvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 347-354
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33459

Background: Women are twice as likely as males to suffer from mood disorders, which tend to cluster around the childbearing years. Depression negatively influences maternal and neonatal outcomes.

Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate the prevalence of depression in pregnant women aged 18 – 35 yrs and to identify predictors accounting for variability across estimates during pandemic.

Methodology: This is a cross sectional study, conducted among 74 pregnant women coming for antenatal checkups in the Sriperumbudur, Chennai. Using height and weight values obtained from the sample, Body Mass Index (weight in kg/height in metre squares) was calculated. Hamilton – Depression Scale (HAM-d) was applied after initial psychiatry work up to all women who were selected for the interview. Mean of parameters were assessed and correlation value were calculated by Fisher’s exact test. The statistically significant P value was less than 0.05.

Results: The sociodemographic variables have been found as significant contributors in explaining the variability of the prevalence rates of antenatal depression. It showed positive correlation between economic status and depression (p<0.05) and a negative correlation between obesity and depression (p>0.05). According to the findings, fewer than 1/3rd of pregnant women experience depression as a result of life circumstances such as economic crises in order to support their families. These were identified as significant associate variables (P>0.05). And also, this study identified insufficient socioeconomic assistance were more likely to experience multiple psychological discomfort [atleast 1] than women who got appropriate economic support. (r = -0.118, P < 0.001)

Conclusion: In rural Tamilnadu, the prevalence of antenatal depression among women is significant. Antenatal Depression is caused by a number of circumstances, including physical, obstetric, economic, and family-related issues. To treat these antenatal depression risk factors, comprehensive therapies are required.

Open Access Review Article

Antidiabetic Potential of Selected Medicinal Plants: A Literature Review

Abdulrahman Altalhi, Mashhour Alsufyani, Khalid Alqurashi, Hussain Alshalwi, Abdullah Althobaiti, Khames Alzahrani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33418

Aims: To investigated for any scientific evidence indicating traditional use of different plant species in the management of diabetes.

Study Design: Review Article.

Place and Duration of Study: Conducted in Saudi Arabia from December 2020 to August 2021.

Methodology: The literature was thoroughly investigated for any scientific evidence indicating traditional use of different plant species in the management of diabetes. The search was done in databases of Google Scholar, Saudi Digital Library and PubMed. Accordingly, the used plant species are classified into six groups. These are: Plants with antidiabetic activity, Plants with hypoglycemic activity, plants with alpha-glucosidase activity, Plants with alpha-amylase activity, Plants with glucose tolerance test, Plants with hypolipemic, anti-cholesterol, LDL and HDL activity.

Conclusion: We have done in vitro and in vivo evaluation of M. arvensis L. for antidiabetic activity.  The leaves extracts of M. arvensis L. showed significant antioxidant potential and significantly inhibited protein glycation, which correlated well with its phenolics along with other phytoconstituents. the methanolic extract of M. arvensis L.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview on Pressure Ulcers: Prevention and Management

Nasib Kasem Al Shibli, Bader Menwer N. Albilasi, Talal Tuwayjir Y. Alruwaili, Dalal Ali D. Alazmi, Yazeed Mayah D. Alazmi, Khaled Bassam A. Almadi, Omar abdulaziz A. Alhassan, Osama Abdulaziz A. Alhassan, Bander Daher H. Alsharari, Ali Nuwaysir S. Alruwaili, Khalid Ahmed S. Alsharari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 17-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33420

Pressure ulcers are significant and painful side effects that might indicate a lack of care. The formation of a pressure ulcer is a major complication of reduced mobility. And since over 65-year-olds are the fastest-growing sector of the population in many developed countries, it imposes the risk of increasing disease incidences. There are also higher rates of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, which also increase the risk. There are many causes that can contribute to the formation of pressure ulcers; tissue ischemia is the most prevalent route to ulceration. Pressure ulcer prevention generally begins with an examination to determine who is most vulnerable to pressure ulcers, such as the elderly, the immobile, or individuals with a spinal cord injury. Wound dressings, debridement, physical therapy, antibiotics, and antimicrobials are all possible therapeutic options for pressure ulcers. Interventions such as mobilization, positioning, and repositioning, as well as support surfaces, are utilized in conjunction with other wound care methods. In this review we’ll be looking at prevention and management of pressure ulcers.

Open Access Review Article

Sitagliptin and Acute Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Hyder Osman Mirghani, Salem Ahmed S. Shaman S. Shaman, Ibrahim Mahmoud Hussain Aljwah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33424

Background and Objectives: Sitagliptin is a dipepidyl peptidase inhibitor (DPP-4i) with gentle antidiabetic effects with a lower risk of hypoglycemia. The association with acute pancreatitis is controversial. The current meta-analysis aimed to assess the relationship of sitagliptin and acute pancreatitis.

Methods: The literature in PubMed and Google Scholar was searched for relevant articles published in the last ten years up to September 2021. The keywords sitagliptins, DPP-4i, acute pancreatitis were used with the protean AND or OR. Among the 204 articles retrieved, 24 full-texts were assessed for eligibility and only five studies (Three from the USA, one from Asia, and one from Canada) met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The author name, year of publication, country, type of study, number of patients, and the duration of the study were reported.

Results: There were five studies. The total number of patients were 729808 with 6459 events. The studies showed no increased rate of acute pancreatitis following sitagliptin use, odd ratio, 0.79, 95% CI, 0.29-2.15, a significant heterogeneity was observer, I2 for heterogeneity=98%, P-value, <001, the P-value for overall effect was 0.65 and the chi-square, 160.15.

Interpretation and Conclusion: Sitagliptin use is not associated with acute pancreatitis.

Open Access Review Article

New Understanding of Dental Public Health: A Review

Vedanti Kitey, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Priyanka Paul Madhu, Amit Reche, Gunjan Hiware, Prachi Jawade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33429

Oral disorders are a most important public health issue in most of the developing countries, and their prevalence is on the rise. To enhance the population's oral wellbeing by providing preventive and therapeutic services is the main aim of dental public health (DPH). However, due to low requirement of capability and ability among DPH personnel, its accomplishment in India is being probed [1]. For many people, dental care has grown expensive, and a huge number of patients around the world are delaying or ignoring important dental procedures. in addition, the ageing of the worldwide populace, as well as the resulting growth in common and dental concern needs, raises worries about the long-term viability of healthcare organization. These changes underscore the critical requirement for a new dental care representation that is both sustainable and efficient [2]. In this regard, the favorable approach for transforming the scene of oral healthcare is the adoption of scientific advancements in dentistry, commonly known as "digital dentistry" by many. 

In addition, the World Health Organization (WHO) campaigns revolutionize on a regular basis, encouraging the creation and spread of community wellbeing practices that are holded up by both documentation and conveyance technology (e-Health) and mobile phones (m-Health) [3]. We can see how scientific developments could facilitate to accomplish these aims by offering constructive apparatus if we focus on the concept of Dental Public Health (DPH) as “the knowledge and art of arresting and scheming dental disorders and understanding dental wellbeing through efficient group hard work” [4].

Open Access Review Article

Emergence of Mucormycosis during COVID-19 Pandemic in India

Bramhadev Pattnaik, Sharanagouda S. Patil, Gayatri Vaidya, Mahendra P. Yadav, Shashanka K. Prasad, Chandan Dharmashekar, Bhargav Shreevatsa, Chandrashekar Srinivasa, Kollur Shiva Prasad, P. Ashwini, Chandan Shivamallu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 98-103
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33432

The present review describes about the disease and the fungal agent in brief, and also stresses for establishment of mechanically ventilated hospital wards across the country. Second wave of COVID-19 pandemic in India has been complicated by high infection rate (R0), 600% jump in medical oxygen demand by COVID hospitals, and after all emergence of Mucormycosis since April-May 2021 leading to fatal complications. Mucormycosis is a very rare infection in humans. It is caused by exposure to mucor mould/ fungi which is commonly found in soil, plants, manure, and decaying fruits and vegetables. These Fungi belonging to the class Zygomycetes and order Mucorales often cause devastating angio-invasive infections, primarily in co-morbid and immunocompromised patients.  The emergence of mucormycosis is being reported globally.  In India, people with diabetes mellitus are highly susceptible to the disease.  But during the second wave of Covid-19 in India, several cases of mucormycosis, also called the "black fungus" disease, have been reported among convalescing and convalescent COVID-19 patients across India with a mortality rate of 50%. More than 5000 cases of mucormycosis during the second wave of Covid-19, have been reported in about 21 states of the country, with Maharashtra and Gujarat states reporting highest number of cases (as on 21 May 2021). The infection has claimed over 120 lives so far, and has complicated recovery from Covid-19 in many more. The Indian Union health ministry has declared mucormycosis as a notified disease under the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897.

Open Access Review Article

Joint Preservation Using Orthobiologic Therapies in Osteoarthritis

Syed Asif Hasan, Salman Nawaf Almutairi, Lwai Abdullah Alhemaid, Ahmad Hassan Al Ghazwi, Badr Saad Alkhathaami, Talal Sulaiman Alrumaihi, Noor Abdullah Altarooti, Ahmed Suliman Fallatah, Omar Samir Moamina, Yasir Abdullah Alkhayri, Majed Abdullah Almutairi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 161-167
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33439

Osteoarthritis is estimated to be the most prevalent musculoskeletal disorder in the world. Estimates show that the disease is prevalent in 18% and 10% in women and men that are aged >60 years old. The quality of life of the affected patients can also be significantly impacted due to the associated morbidities and functional loss. Many interventions have been proposed to preserve the joint and enhance the functional outcomes in patients with osteoarthritis. In the present literature review, we have discussed the different orthobiologic therapies for patients with osteoarthritis for joint preservation and subsequent improvement in the functional and pain outcomes. Variable modalities that have been proposed in the literature include Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate (BMAC), gene therapy and platelet rich plasma (PRP). All of these modalities were reported with favorable outcomes and minimal complications. PRP has been reported to have a clinical efficacy that is boosed when co-administered with hyaluronic acid. However, it should be noted that the clinical efficacy is limited in the long term, and administration is continuously required. On the other hand, gene therapy is a promising technique that offers maintained favorable outcomes with no adverse events. However, further studies are still needed to indicate the effectiveness and cost-efficacy of this approach.

Open Access Review Article

Clinical Outcomes of Convalescent Plasma Transfusion Therapy in Moderate to Critically Ill Covid-19 Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

P. Ramakrishna, Rani Padmasree, R. Swetha, Sk. Asifuddin, A. Susedharan, S. Vincy, Prashant Tiwari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 191-203
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33443

Background: Currently, Convalescent plasma (CP)is considered a favorable treatment option for moderate to critically ill Covid-19 patients. But there were very few systematic reviews focused on the effect of CP on clinical parameters. As a result, we undertook this systematic review to learn more about the safety and clinical benefits of convalescent plasma therapy over standard treatment (control).

Methodology: We searched Pub Med, Embase and other bibliographic databases to find relevant articles between December 2019 and February 2021 and identified 10 relevant articles which compared CP therapy taken in addition to standard medication with the Control group(who received standard medication). Two independent reviewers examined all full-text articles and extracted the required information intoa predesigned proforma. Forest plots were drawn using RevMan v.5, a statistical tool offered by the Cochrane database to estimate the pooled effect.

Results: The results of meta-analysis using a random effect model indicated a significant reduction in mortality rate in CP (about 27% risk reduction), a reduced length of hospital stay in about 2 days (Weighted Mean Difference: -2.53, 95% CI, -7.20 to -2.14, P<0.0001), less time to improve clinical symptoms in about 4 days (pooled mean; CP:10.82 days vs Control:15.14 days). C-Reactive Protein (CRP) concentration levels (mg/L) were well controlled with the control group than the CP group and significant changes in lymphocytes and D-dimer values were not observed after CP treatment. It was also found that no difference between CP transfusion and control was seen in improving the oxygen saturationlevels.

Conclusion: CP transfusion can be considered safe and showed a significant reduction in mortality and possible benefits in clinical improvement. Patients on CP therapy had no significant benefits in improving inflammatory markers such as CRP, lymphocytes, D-dimer, or oxygen saturation levels over standard drug therapy, according to meta-analysis data.

Open Access Review Article

Methods of Isolation and Extraction of Anthocyanin’s from Hibiscus sabdariffa L.: Literature Review

Aarti Shastri, Ved Koparde, Pushkar Kulkarni, Suyash Bagad, Surabhi Joshi, Dipali Sawant

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 267-273
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i50B33449

The classic method for extracting anthocyanins from plant tissues is the same as for other phenolics: the tissues are soaked and then extracted with a solvent in a process known as Solid Liquid Extraction. Modern approaches to anthocyanins extraction include;Supercritical fluid extraction, Ultrasound-assisted extraction, Pressurized liquid extraction, Microwave-assisted extraction, Ohmic heating-assisted extraction, Precipitation, and Solid phase extraction. The aim of this article is to review the methods used for Anthocyanins extraction from Hibiscus Sabdariffa.The study for the same has been done at Charak’s Pharmacognosy Laboratory, MIT-WPU School of Pharmacy, Pune. Usually, modern methods seem to have an edge againsttraditional methods in extraction procedures. This article discusses these methodsand tries to identify if it is the case in the case of anthocyanins extraction from Hibiscus sabdariffa L.while individually commenting on the method’s advantages or disadvantages too.