Open Access Study Pre-Protocol

Relationship between Attitude and Anxiety Related to Online Learning

Darshana Kumari, Swity Besekar, Karishma Wadsariya, Minal Ughade, Aditya Utkhede, Pranay Wankhede

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 105-110
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33346

Background: Online learning is not newest but recently fresh used mode in educational sector where it was difficult for every student to adopt it. Initially students were having a different attitude towards online learning and they were anxious about there academic curriculum. The study was conducted to assess their attitude and anxiety towards online classes and to see the correlation between attitude and anxiety of online learning. We know mid school student has good adaptation ability but then also it’s a very new for them where students were facing lots of problem and faced lots of challenges due to COVID-19 pandemic specially the student who belong to poor family, but in this difficult time, everyone is doing their best to acquire new skills, and it's getting easier to enroll in online classes and finish their academic sessions.

Objective: 1. To assess the attitude and anxiety of online learning among students. 2. To correlate the attitude and anxiety of online learning among students.

Methods: This study was based on a Quantitative research approach. Convenient sampling technique was used.  The population was all mid-school students from selected school area consisted of 200 samples. And there was structured attitude and general anxiety scale were used.

Results: The mid study shows positive attitude and mild anxiety where the correlation between the attitude and anxiety is negative as per analysis.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

A Systematic Review of the Potential Implication of Salivary Secretions in Covid-19 Patients

Salem Mohammed Hassan Alharthi, Laila Mohammed Alanazi, Dalal Jumah Alturaif, Wesam Yousef Othman Alibrahim, Waleed Yahya Binammar, Riham Mohammed Salman Alzaki, Ahmad Nayef Habahbeh, Fatima Sultana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 29-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33337

As reported on 23rd May 2021, there are a total of 167,313,629 confirmed cases of Covid-19 all across the world with a mortality of about 3,473,851 whereas in Saudi Arabia 439,847 were registered cases of covid-19 and 7,237 deaths. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) a total of 12,244,264 people were vaccinated with Covid-19 vaccination. Covid-19 is a respiratory infectious disease. More recent researches on SARS-COV-2 suggests the entry of the virus into the host cell using the host entry factors like TMPRSS-2, TMPRSS-4 and ACE-2 in the oral tissues. The spike proteins of the SARS COV-2 attaches to the ACE-2 and TMPRSS2 of the salivary gland. Saliva provides the lubrication of the oral cavity, initiation of digestion and provides immunity in host. A complete research of all the articles was done using databases like: SCOPUS, PUBMED, EMBASE and WEB OF SCIENCE. In case of SARS CoV-2, the salivary glands act as reservoir for the virus. Intake of these viruses present in infectious saliva droplets found in the air would lead to the transmission of infection to an individual. Saliva is more efficient when compared to the blood as it doesn't clot. A reduced secretion of saliva is observed in patients post the covid 19 disease.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Prevalence of Infections, the Rate of Bacterial Resistance and Antibiotics Use in Al-kharj: Narrative Review

Nehad J. Ahmed, Menshawy A. Menshawy, Mohd. Faiyaz Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 272-277
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33363

Aim: The present review aimed to describe the rate of different infections, the rate of bacterial resistance and antibiotics use in Al-kharj.

Methodology: This was a narrative review that included searching Web of science for the keywords “infections” or “bacterial resistance” or “antibiotics use” and “Al-kharj” from 1st of January 2015 to 14th of October 2021.

Results: Searching Web of science for the keywords resulted in 29 papers that was conducted during the study period and investigate the rate of different infections, the rate of bacterial resistance or the use of antibiotics in Al-kharj. So, 29 articles were included in the present review.

Conclusion: Most of the studies about infections included only some types of infections and most of the conducted studies about the use of antibiotics focused only on the outpatient setting. More studies are needed to explore the rate of other infections and to describe the prescribing of antibiotics in other hospital settings.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Peripheral Neuropathy in Diabetes: Burden, Lifestyle and Pharmacological Interventions for Prevention and Treatment

Maryam Fairag, Abdulrahman Akbar, Abdulrahman Ghasib, Faisal Alagbari, Saleh Alzahrani, Hussein Alshegifi, Abdulmajeed Alamoudi, Mohammed Awad, Rahaf Aljohani, Hend Althobaiti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 349-355
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33373

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a very common comorbidity worldwide, and it is associated with a wide variety of complications. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of these complications that increases the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Multiple studies indicated that lifestyle modifications are very beneficial for these patients in terms of decreasing the symptoms or preventing the progression of the disease. Therefore, a thorough search was conducted to study and shed light on the effects of lifestyle interventions, such as physical exercise, and pharmacological treatment on DPN. A total of 100 studies were found and 32 were selected based on whether or not they support the aim of the study. It was concluded that lifestyle interventions such as regular exercise, healthy diet and weight loss, which will all in turn improve the patient’s glycemic control, play a major role in controlling the disease and preventing its complications. Moreover, the aim of pharmacological interventions is a 30% reduction in pain intensity, however pharmacological interventions are limited in DPN, up till now the FDA approved only three medications that help in the reduction of the pain intensity. These medications are antidepressant duloxetine, anticonvulsant pregabalin, and the opioid-like analgesic tapentadol.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia B-Cell

Prerana Sakharwade, Ankita Watmode, Bibin Kurian, Khushbu Meshram, Sonali Kolhekar, Achita Sawarkar, Madhuri Shambharkar, Vaishali Tembhare

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33338

Introduction: B- Cell lymphoblastic leukaemia of blood cancer that influences B- Lymphocytes, which are white blood cells that create within the delicate marrow of your bones (marrow) [1]. When healthy blood cells start to alter and expand out of control, this is called leukaemia. ALL is a tumour of immature lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are white blood cells that help the immune system function. Acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) is also known as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. ALL is most visits in youthful children and people over the age of 50, but it can influence anybody at any age [2].

Aim: To acquire the knowledge regarding a case of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Clinical findings: Abdominal discomfort, fever high grade, chills, Weakness.

Diagnostic Evaluation: Blood Test: Hb-5.5%, Total RBC count-2.21million/cu.mm, Total WBC count- 27400/cumm, RDW- 14.8%, HCT-17.7%, Monocytes-02%, Granulocytes-28%, Lymphocytes-68%, AST(SGOT)-110U/L.

Peripheral Smear:  RBC: Total RBC Count- Decreased on smear, Haemoglobin- Decreased Predominantly normocytic with few micro showing moderate lymphomia, Platelets- Decreased on smear No hemoparacites are seen, Peripheral smear is suspicious of severe viral infection.

Ultrasonography: Splenomegaly. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. B-cell lymphoblasts (immature white blood cells) are found in the bone marrow

Therapeutic intervention: Blood Transfusion-30 times, Inj Levofloxacin, Inj. Piptaz, Inj. Pan, Inj. Emset, Inj. Doxy, Inj. Hydrocort, Inj. Avil, Tab prednisolone, Tab Dolo.

Outcome: After Treatment, The patient shows improvement. His fever and abdominal discomfort were relived and his Hb% increased from 5.5% to 6% after blood transfusion.

Conclusion: B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is one of the most common types of leukemia in children but is rare in adults. My patient was admitted to medicine ward no-30, AVBRH with diagnosed of Acute Lymphatic Leukaemia and he had complaint of fever and abdominal discomfort. After getting appropriate treatment his condition was improved.

Open Access Case Study

Bilateral Hydronephrosis with Grade 3 To 4 Vesicoureteral Reflux

Mayur B. Wanjari, Hina Rodge, Deeplata Mendhe, Pratibha Wankhede, Sampada Late

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 121-124
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33348

Introduction: Bilateral hydronephrosis is the enlargement of the parts of the kidney that collect urine. Bilateral means both sides. Bilateral hydronephrosis occurs when urine is unable to drain from the kidney into the bladder. Hydronephrosis is not itself a disease. It occurs as a result of a problem that prevents urine from draining out of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder. VUR grade 3 is similar to grade 2 where urine travels up the ureter and enters the part of the kidney where urine is collected before it drains to the ureter (renal pelvis). However, in grade 3 the ureters and renal pelvis appear abnormal in size or shape.

Case Presentation: A 3 Years old female child is a known case of bilateral vesicoureteric reflex with bilateral hydroureteronephrosis with the developmental delay with sickle cell anemia came to the hospital for further management. As narrated by mother-child was apparently alright till 6 months of age after the child developed excessive passing of urine and in increased more times.

Conclusion: After taking treatment for the bilateral vesicoureteric reflex with bilateral hydroureteronephrosis patient was hemodynamically stable hence the patient is being discharged.

Open Access Short Research Article

Variations in the Histogenisis and Morphometry of Human Fetal Submandibular Salivary Gland

S. Nedunchezhiyan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 290-293
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33365

The average weights of submandibular glands of group I, II & III were 23.5mg, 54.6mg & 109.7mg respectively. The increase in ductal proliferation, lobulation and connective tissue septa formation caused an increase in the size and weight of the gland from 12 weeks to full term was observed. In the present study, in group I the gland was just behind the mylohyoid, group II the mylohyoid muscle just entering the interlobular fissure and in group III the muscle occupies half of the interlobular fissure. . About 15 to 18 tubules were found in the form of small round cluster of cells. Until the 10th week, no lobulation, no organised duct pattern and no canalised acini were seen. Canalisation of tubules starts at 12th week and reached maximum in 16th week (group I). Connective tissue was more prominent. Increase in canalised tubules from 75% to 90% in this group, also proved the fact that the ductal proliferation was more.

Open Access Short Communication

Hair Transplant: Challenges, Solutions and Guideline for Beginners

Mayur J. Gawande, Shallu Bansal, Akshay Daga, Parul Nimbalkar, Simona Joseph, Rishabh Agrawal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 185-194
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33355

The aim of this article is to summarize the challenges which might have to be faced by the beginners while setting up a hair transplantation practice. Hair transplantation is one of the most rapidly evolving procedures in aesthetic surgery that is steadily gaining attention in dermatology practice in the recent times. It is a very time‑consuming and tedious procedure to be performed even by the trained practitioner.Hair transplantation is a procedure which needs highly skilled professional and helping labor. Hand and eye co‑ordination are also utmost important to perform such delicate surgeries.Alcohol is a diuretic, meaning it will dehydrate you. This can prolong your recovery time and increase your risk of discomfort. Moreover, it can elevate your blood pressure to an unsafe level and reduce the supply of blood and crucial nutrients to your head. Avoid alcohol for the first five days after your procedure.

Open Access Short Communication

Analytical Profile of an Unparalleled Drug Tinospora crispa W.R.T Guduchi

S. Lekshmipriya, M. R. Pandya, Bijal Prajapati

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 195-203
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33356

Introduction: Guduchi is a highly potential drug which is mentioned in Ayurveda classics. The clinical utility of this drug is widely known. The Tinospora species are wrapped under the broad spectrum Guduchiin the Ayurveda classics. Tinospora is one of the important genera of the family, consisting of about 15 species. Some medicinally important species includes T. cordifolia, T. malabarica, T. tomentosa, T. crispa, T. uliginosa, T. crispaetc. In the current article the drug Tinospora crispa is considered in detail.Tinospora crispa is used irrationally by the society owing to its various therapeutic benefits. Tinospora crispa (L.) Hook. f. & Thomson (Menispermaceae), found in the rainforests or mixed deciduous forests in Asia and Africa, is used in traditional medicines to treat numerous health conditions.

Materials & Methods: A detailed review of the drug has been carried out through the available literature. After considering the review the analytical profiling of the drug has been done.The phytochemical analyses review of T. crispa revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and flavone glycosides, triterpenes, diterpenes and diterpene glycosides, cis clerodane-type furanoditerpenoids, lactones, sterols, lignans, and nucleosides. The literary review showed that the crude extracts and isolated compounds of T. crispa possessed a broad range of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, cytotoxic, antimalarial, cardioprotective, and anti-diabetic activities.So, in the current research study a sincere attempt has been made to study regarding the drug Tinospora crispa through its analytical profile.

Results: Through this research article able to make out the available literature and the analytical profile of the drug Tinospora crispa.

Discussion: The current analytical profile reveals the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins etc which directly connects to the various activities like Anti-pyretic, Anti- inflammatory, Antioxidant etc of the drug Tinospora crispa.

Conclusion: The current research study points towards the review of the drug and the analytical profile which is beneficial to carry out the next phase of research studies in connection with this drug Tinospora crispa.

Open Access Minireview Article

Methotrexate Toxicity: Molecular Mechanisms and Management

Riyadh S. Almalki, Hala Eweis, Fatemah Kamel, Dina kutbi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 204-217
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33357

Methotrexate (MTX) is the most widely used drug in cancer chemotherapy and is considered to be the first-line drug for the treatment of a number of rheumatic and non-rheumatic disorders. The pulmonary toxicity, hepatotoxicity of MTX are two of its major side effects. Other toxicities such as endocrinological toxicity, GI toxicity, cutaneous toxicity, hematological toxicity, fatal malfunction or loss, and malignancy can also occur, but at a significantly lower rate of prevalence. This review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of methotrexate toxic effects and Lastly, we discussed the management of this toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Planned Teaching Programme on Knowledge Regarding Reproductive Health among Adolescent Girls in Selected Higher Secondary Schools in Kollam, District

S. Sindhu, C. C. Linson

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9 - 15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33335

The adolescent stage of life marks the transition from childhood to maturity. These are the formative years, when the most physical, psychological, and behavioural changes occur. The primary goal of the current study was to examine the effects of PTP on knowledge of sex education among teenage females. The study's objectives are to examine adolescent girls' awareness of specific elements of sex. To create and carry out a structured teaching programme on certain parts of sex education for teenage females. To assess the efficacy of the intended educational programme. To determine the relationship between pre-test knowledge scores and specified demographic characteristics. The study used an evaluative research technique with a one-group pretest-post-test design. The study's sample size was set at 50 teenage females. The study's sample approach was simple random sampling, which is a sort of probability sampling. A standardised questionnaire on sex education knowledge was utilised to collect pertinent data. Following the administration of PTP, there was a noticeable rise in knowledge scores in all categories considered in the research. Thus, it was proved that PTP was effective teaching method for creating awareness on importance of sex education and STI, STD and HIV/ AIDS transmission and focusing the reproductive health hazards like preventing sexual violence among youths.

Open Access Original Research Article

Safety Evaluation of Acute and Subacute Dermal Toxicity Potential against Penoxsulam Herbicide in Wistar Rats

Vidushi Chaurasia, Madan Lal Aggarwal, Manoj Chandra Garg

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 16-28
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33336

Aims: The present experiment was conducted (comparative study) to determine the effect of single and repeated exposure of Penoxsulam herbicide by topical route.

Study Design: To assess acute toxicity, rats were topically exposed by Penoxsulam at 2000 mg/kg body weight and all the animals were observed for 14 days experiment period while, in Subacute toxicity , the rats were topically exposed with Penoxsulam at three multiple dose levels; 200, 500, 1000 mg/kg body. weight once daily for 28 days.

Place and Duration of Study: Toxicology department, Shriram Institute for Industrial Research, Delhi (INDIA), June 2018 and June 2019.

Methodology: Acute study was carried out in 10 wistar rats and in subacute study the wistar rats were divided into 4 groups i.e., control group, low dose group, middle group, high dose group; 5 male and 5 female rats/ group at the age of 2-3 kg were exposed over a period of 28 days. After dose application the patch was removed and the test site were cleaned with cotton moistened with distilled water.

Results: In both toxicity study found that there were no clinical signs of skin reactions (Draize method) and no significant P>0.05 changes were observed in Bodyweight, Biochemistry, and Histopathology among the treated as well as in control group of animals. Therefore, data of this study supports that topical exposure of Penoxsulam in rats were shown normal histology of liver, kidney, and skin at the multiple doses besides this; Penoxsulam does not have potential to produce acute and subacute adverse systemic toxic reaction to the animals.

Conclusion: Therefore, data of this study supports that topical exposure of Penoxsulam in rats were shown normal histology of liver, kidney, and skin at the multiple doses besides this; Penoxsulam does not have potential to produce acute and subacute adverse systemic toxic reaction to the animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Synthesis and Characterization of Thiophene Substituted Chalcones for Possible Biological Evaluation

Mejo Joseph, S. Alaxander

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 55-79
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33341

Development of new antimicrobial agents is a better solution to rectify drug resistance problems in society. In this circumstances new functionalized sulphur bearing heterocyclic moiety were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity. The present work encompasses the designing novel series of thiophene substituted analogous linked to para amino acetophenone and different aldehydes were successfully synthesized and biological activity was predicted using various computational software’s such as Chemsketch, Molinspiration, and admetSAR. Among the synthesized thiophene substituted chalcones T-IV-I and thiophene T-IV-B displayed significant activity against Streptococcus auresis. Compounds T-IV-J, T-IV-H and T-IV-C bearing sulphur moiety possess better activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover T-IV-C and T-IV-J exhibits good antibacterial activity against E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In general, most of the synthesized compounds exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity due to the presence of sulphur atom in the heterocyclic moieties as well as its lipophilic characters. Molecular docking studies indicated that the synthesized compounds are potent inhibitor of microsomal enzyme Glutathione-S-transferases (PDB ID: 1GNW) also find the different interacting residues, bond distanceand nature of bondingbetween the target and the ligand molecules. The results provide important information for the future design of more effective antibacterial agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Clinicopathological Study of Malignant Tumors of the Uterine Corpus in a Tertiary Care Center

Irene Sara Binu, K. Nithin Diwagar, Ganthimathy Sekhar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 89-96
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33343

Aim: To study the clinicopathological spectrum of malignant tumors of the uterine corpus in a tertiary care center and classify it according to the latest WHO classification.

Methods: A 2 year study was conducted on 22 diagnosed cases of malignant tumors of uterine corpus. Retrospectively clinical and histopathological details were collected and analyzed.

Results: In our study majority (40.90%, 9 of 22) cases belong to the age group of 51-60 years. Abnormal uterine bleeding was the most common clinical presentation. A large share (81.81%) of the tumours was of epithelial origin, followed by mixed and mesenchymal tumors. Nearly 94% of the epithelial tumours were Endometrioid Adenocarcinomas. Majority of the cases were at pT1a stage (42.1%) at the time of diagnosis, followed by pT1b stage (31.57%). Very few cases (21%) presented with nodal metastasis. All the cases with nodal metastasis showed Lymphovascular invasion in the tumor proper and were usually high grade tumors.

Conclusion: The prognosis of the patients with malignant tumors of uterine corpus depends on stage, grade, myometrial invasion, tumor size, lymphovascular invasion etc. Clinical findings in these tumors are not specific, so Histopathological examination plays a vital role in diagnosing and assessing the prognosis of these tumors. Classifying these tumors according to the recently proposed molecular classification will aid in patient specific targeted therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Functional Outcome of Shaft of Humerus Fractures Managed Surgically by Dynamic Compression Plating Technique

Midhun Krishnan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 101-104
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33345

The study analyzed 20 cases of fracture shaft of hummers treated with Dynamic Compression Plate. There was a male preponderance in our study 17 (85%). Almost Also 13% of patients treated by functional bracing end up with cosmetically unacceptable angulation of>15%, whereas all operative procedures achieve good alignment of the fractured bone was observed. The rate of union in Plate osteosynthesis is 93% and the time of union is 16 - 20 weeks, and more than 90% united in 18 weeks and 7% went for non union.

Open Access Original Research Article

“Prevalence and Source of Various Types of Workplace Violence among Healthcare Professionals in the Public Hospitals of Karachi” A Cross-Sectional Survey

Jai Dev Maheshwari, Sidra Zaheer, Greesh Kumar Maheshwari, Kiran Khan, Syeda Batool, Syed Mohsin Turab

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 111-120
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33347

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of violence among medical doctors in public sector hospitals of Karachi relating to physical violence, psychological violence (verbal and bullying/mobbing), sexual harassment and racial harassment).

Methods:  A cross-sectional study was carried out in three public sector hospitals in Karachi (JPMC, Civil Hospital and Sindh Government Lyari General Hospital Karachi). Medical doctors of any age and gender who worked in outpatient departments, wards, and emergency departments were eligible to participate in the study. A validated WHO-designed questionnaire was used, with questions about exposure to violence, the source and types of violence, and socio-demographic information. In descriptive statistics, frequencies and percentages were reported for all categorical variables. The Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to investigate the relationship between workplace violence and other types of violence.

Results: 350 questionnaires were distributed to qualified medical doctors in total. Only 300 of them responded, for an 85.7 percent response rate. The majority of respondents were under the age of 40, and male gender was slightly more exposed to violence. The majority of the doctors were subjected to verbal abuse as well as bullying and mobbing.

Conclusion: It was then concluded that any type of violence was common in doctors aged >35 years and male gender was more exposed to any violence as compare to female gander. The main type of violence was verbal violence in our study, whereas racial harassment and sexual harassment was also seen.

Open Access Original Research Article

2019-nCoV2: An Overview of Awareness about Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases and Sustainable Development: A Retrospective and Cross-sectional Study

Arbi Guetat, Ahmed S. Alshrari, Taha Chebbi, Abdelrhman T. Abdelwahab, Marwa A. Abdelfattah, Ahmed S. Alenazi, Faraj Al-Ghamdi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 125-139
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33349

The doctrine of Sustainability is known to be a holistic approach and there is an increased recognition that Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are linked to one another. Within less than two decades, the present pandemic (COVID19) is the third emerged highly pathogenic and deadly human coronaviruses. Hence, risk of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) is a key component of the sustainable development approach.  In order to determine knowledge, awareness and attitude, an online questionnaire-based survey was conducted in a total of 114 members of Saudi Arabian’s staff. Results about knowledge and awareness varied between 98.2 % and 38.59%. About 77.21% (Mean value) of the participants are well awarded about the subject of the study. The constant collation of the showed that the majorities of the correlation between variables were very strong (20.87%) or strong (38.46%). Synthetically, themes such as human impact on the environment, human health and global stability, SDGs and pandemics, human susceptibility for diseases and uses of drugs were found to be interdepend in the perception of the academic staff in the Saudi Arabian universities. It is suggested that there is a need to introduce time-oriented policy, and implement awareness plans in the country for the future generation.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Assess the Knowledge and Providing Booklet Regarding Health Hazards of Spitting in Public Places among General Population

Darshana Kumari Wankhede, Suwarna Ghugare, Nikita V. Zade, Payal C. Bansod, Khushbu K. Kamdi, Nutan R. Dewale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 140-145
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33350

Background: Smokeless tobacco consumption, which is widespread throughout the world, lead to oral sub mucous fibrosis (OSMF), which is a long-lasting and disturbing condition of the oral cavity with the potential for malignancy. Mainly focus on the consumption of smokeless tobacco, such as pan and ghutkha the role of these substances in the instruction of OSMF and ultimately oral cancer. It was established using the finding tools provide. The continuous chewing pan and swallowing of ghutkha cause progressive fibrosis in sub mucosal tissue. Generally, OSMF occurs due to multiple risk factors, especially smokeless tobacco and its mechanism, such as betel quid, Areca nuts, and slaked lime, which are used in pan and gutkha. The incidence of oral cancer is higher in women than in men in the South Asian country.

Objective: 1 To assess the existing knowledge regarding health hazards of spitting in public places among the general population. 2. To develop Information booklet regarding health hazards of spitting in public places among the general population.

Material and Method:

Research Design: Pre experimental research design,

Research Approach: Survey approach,

Setting of Study:  Rural population Sawangi (Meghe) Wardha district,

Sample: The sample for the present study comprised of 100,

Sample size: The sample size selected for this study was 100 sample,

Sampling Technique: A convenience sampling technique.

Result: After the complete analysis, this study lead to the following result  that the mean knowledge score in pre-test was 6.61±2.30 and in post test it was 11.68±1.45 and mean percentage of knowledge score in pre test was 44.06±15.33 and in post test it was 77.86±9.70.

Conclusion: After the conclusion of the study it is exposed that the most of the knowledge are gained by providing the booklet and it is  most effective result are occurred to provide the same information about the splitting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Statistical Analysis of Determinants of Institutional Delivery Service among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia

Mekonin Abera Negeri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 146-153
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33351

Health care services during pregnancy and during delivery are important for the survival and wellbeing of both the mother and the infant so that increasing institutional deliveries is a basic concern for reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. This article was focused on assessing the trend of institutional delivery service and identifying associated factors using basic statistical tools. The analysis was based on the hypothetical data of 5753 women in reproductive age carefully managed from Ethiopian Mini Demographic and Health Survey (EMDHS) 2019. The trend of institutional delivery revealed a sharp increase from 26% in 2016 to 49.92% in 2019 based on DHS data of the respective years. The study identified variables such as region, place of residence, education level, sex of household head, wealth index, number of living children and antenatal care as highly significant determinants of institutional delivery service in Ethiopia. Institutional delivery service increases with better access to education, living in urban, being in better off wealth category, and following antenatal care visit. The study recommended that there should be well equipped health facilities for pregnant women at each stage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Collagen-Chitosan Composite Powder as a Novel Biomaterial for Chronic Wounds in Hansen Disease-A Clinical Study

Pombala Suresh Babu, Harini Srinivasan, B. Sai Dhandapani, C. Rose

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 154-165
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33352

Aims: Natural biomaterials are more suitable than synthetic biomaterials for in vivo applications for treating damaged tissues. Collagen and chitosan are abundantly available natural biomaterials for wound dressings for tissue/wound repair. In this context, collagen-chitosan composite powder has been used to treat chronic wounds in Hansen disease (HD) patients.

Place and Duration of Study: CSIR Central Leather Research Institute, Sardar Patel Road, Adyar, Chennai 600021, Southern Railway Headquarters Hospital, Constable Road, Ayanavaram, Chennai 600023, and Gremaltes Hospital, India between June 2013 and July 2020.

Methodology: Collagen extracted from bovine rumen, a waste product of meat industry, and a commercially available chitosan were prepared as a composite powder (COL/CS) and applied to chronic wounds in HD patients after debridement and the wound contours were measured by planimetry. Biochemical parameters in blood samples were periodically assessed. Histopathology of wound tissue with Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson’s Trichrome staining was studied. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) levels before and after treatment were estimated.

Results: Wound healing of 64.2% was obtained with COL/CS treatment and formation of granulation cells was observed early. Hemogram studies have been reported in a regression model with 95% confidence intervals. Histopathology revealed dense collagen fibres and continuity of sub-epithelial layer on 8th day. MMP-9 levels showed collagen integrity after treatment.

Conclusion: The novel biocompatible, biodegradable COL/CS wound dressing is a promising biomaterial for management of chronic wounds in Hansen disease patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Characterization of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Cinnacalcet HCl

Sudhanshu Bhusan Routray, Ch. Niranjan Patra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 173-184
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33354

Objective: The objective of the present research is to formulate solid lipid nanoparticles of cinnacalcet HCl to improve its oral bioavailability.

Methods: Cinnacalcet hydrochloride exhibits poor oral bioavailability of 20 to 25 % because of low aqueous solubility and first pass metabolism. The formulations were optimised using Box-Behnken Design. Solid lipid nanoparticles formulation was prepared using hot homogenization and ultra sonication method.

Results and Discussion: Precirol ATO 05, Soya lecithin and poloxamer 407 were selected as lipid, surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. For optimistaion the desirable goal was fixed for various responses entrapment efficiency, particle size and (time taken for diffusion of 85% drug) T85%. The optimized single dose of solid lipid nanoparticle obtained using box behnken design consisting of 30 mg of cinnacalcet HCl, 200 mg of precirol ATO 05, 250 mg of soya lecithin and 0.2% w/v of poloxamer. 407. The pharmacokinetic study revealed that optimized formulation was found to increase the oral bioavailability nearly 3 times compared to aqueous suspension of pure drug.

Conclusion: Thus optimized solid lipid nanoparticle explicated the potential of lipid-based nanoparticles as a potential carrier in improving the oral delivery.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship of Perceived Body Image, Body Mass Index and Physical Activity with Weight Status among Students at King Abdulaziz University Hospital

Futoon S. Alobiri, Roaa A. Alharbi, Mohammed R. Algethami, Raghdah H. Ateeq, Aseel M. Badurayq, Razan A. Almuhyawi, Wisam H. Jamal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 218-227
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33358

Aim: Identify the relation between poor esteem for body image and weight-related behaviors. The results will help increase awareness and improve students’ lifestyles to have a better body image and achieve ideal body weight.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among King Abdulaziz University medical students (n= 460) between July to the end of August 2019. Data was collected using the International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), figure rating scale (FRS) and analyzed using SPSS software.

Result: The results showed that the average Body Mass Index (BMI) was 24.80 ± 11.89. Participant sex was an important factor influencing the prevalence of obesity; male students were more obese than female students with a significant difference (p<0.001). The level of body satisfaction was also affected by gender. Students in preclinical years were more likely to gain weight more than clinical years students.

Conclusion: The results show a significant relationship between body satisfaction and gender (P<0.0001) despite having diverse BMIs. Overweight and obese males and females' participants had the lowest body satisfaction. Females who were too thin and had low BMIs described themselves as normal, while males describe themselves as too thin. Conversely, females with high BMIs described themselves as too fat, while males described themselves as normal. This could be due to different factors. Also, underweight females and males have high body satisfaction, which can lead to dangerous behaviors to maintain low body weight which cause negative health consequences.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histopathological Effect of Emzolyn Codein Cough Syrup on Lungs and Its Oxidative Stress Biomarkers

Nnaemeka Okorie, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Adaobi Doris Nnamani, Ugomma Agwu Ude, Uchechukwu Nelson Agada, Ihuoma A. obi, Gideon Ama Ibiam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 228-240
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33359

Despite the dangers associated with the increased use of codeine drugs, limited researches have addressed the specific effects of emzolyn codeine on the lung. The aim of this study was to assess the histological effects of emzolyn codeine cough syrup on the lung of Wistar rats and its oxidative stress. Twenty one (21) Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups labeled T1, T2 and T3. Group T1 served as control and was given distilled water and diet for 42 days, group T2 was treated with 0.1 mg/g bodyweight emzolyn codeine cough syrup for 21 days while group T3 was treated with 0.1 mg/g bodyweight emzolyn codeine cough syrup for 42 days. At the end of the duration, the wistar rats were sacrificed under anaesthesia and the lungs were collected after dissection and transferred into 10% buffered formalin. Sections of the lungs were obtained and processed for histological studies using Hematoxylin and Eosin stain, Periodic acid Schiff’s solution, Phosphotungstic acid Haematoxylin stain and Methanamine Silver stains. Results from the study suggested that acute and chronic exposure to emzolyn codeine cough syrup produced significant (P<0.05) decrease in body weight, edematous  aveolar space with marked type 11 pneumocyte, marked hypertrophy (H) of the septa and marked inflammatory cells. The levels of total antioxidant status (TAS) was also determined using standard spectrophotometric techniques. The mean MDA of the exposed groups were significantly higher while the mean levels of SOD, GPx, CAT, and GSH were significantly lower than the control group. In conclusion, this study confirmed the risk of increased oxidative stress, pulmonary toxicity and decreased body weight due to emzolyn codeine cough syrup administration. Thus, indiscriminately and prolong use emzolyn codeine drug should be avoided and antioxidant supplements are advised as a prophylactic supportive therapy for adequate measures in preventing development of oxidative stress-associated complications among exposed individuals.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Anti-radical, Cytoprotective, Anti-proliferative, Anti-inflammatory and Toxicological Assessment of Metallo-porphyrins Isolated from Fresh Leaves of Spinacia oleracea L.

Debashree Das, Shailendra Patil, Asmita Gajbhiye

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 241-256
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33360

Aim: Synthetic lead molecules are associated with host of adverse effects while medicinal molecules isolated from natural sources are blessed with both safety as well as efficacy. The ancient doctrine of Ayurveda ardently advocates the therapeutic virtues contained in green leaves of Spinacia oleracea L. The principal constituent of the leaves is the class of metalloporphyrin chlorophyll, which is also the floral counterpart of faunal heme. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and chlorophyll-b (Chl-b) are the cardinal members of the chlorophyll family.

Study design: Herein, we have explored the anti-radical, cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative efficacy of Chl-a and Chl-b in reference to standard drug and crude extract of Spinacia leaves. The current study is aimed to establish, naturally mined metaloporphyrins as safe and efficacious replacement of synthetic leads that are associated with a wide range of toxicological issues.

Methodology: Using a combination of Silica Gel-G column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, the two principal green metallo-porphyrins (Chl-a and Chl-b) were sequentially extracted and isolated from crude extract of Spinacia oleracea L leaves. Antiradical efficacy, of the isolated green porphyrins was quantified by DPPH and Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay. Cytoprotective efficacy was evaluated using ex-vivo hemolysis assay and anti-inflammatory potency was attested employing carrageenan induced paw edema bioassay. To enumerate on the anti-proliferative potency, MTT assay was employed, while toxicology of the isolates was evaluated employing OECD 420 acute toxicity guidelines.

Findings: The study confirmed that isolated green porphyrins Chl-a and Chl-b as well as crude extract all exerts significant anti-radical, cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative efficacy however while potency of Chl-a was at par with that of reference standard and superior to the crude extract, Chl-b clocked in a value inferior to both. Furthermore, acute toxicity study indicated that even at p.o. dose of 2000mg/Kg b.w, no toxicity was manifested in either of the metalloporpyrin treated groups thus ascertaining the safe nature of the naturally mined metalloporphyrin entities. Also naturally mined Chl-a is not only a safer alternative to synthetic medicine but it is more potent and safe than its parent extract popularly used in herbal medicine.

Conclusion:  The results of the study indicates that Chl-a having a more profound structural resemblance to heme than Chl-b can be further modulated as a cost-effective and safe anti-radical alternative to synthetic leads in inhibiting inflammation and untoward cell proliferative while extending cyto-protection from pathological ROS generated in diseased states.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health Care Professionals’ Quality of Life during COVID-19 Pandemic

Nehad J. Ahmed, Faisal Z. Alkhawaja, Mohammed K. Alghazwani, Menshawy A. Menshawy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 257-262
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33361

Aim: The present study aimed to describe health care professionals’ quality of life during COVID-19 pandemic Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: The cross-sectional study included a survey that was prepared using the world health organization quality of life assessment instrument (WHOQOL). To provide a good quality of care and to achieve patient satisfaction on the care received, it is important to know how satisfied health care personnel are with their quality of life and job because the personnel with a good quality of life offer better services than those with poor quality of life.

Results: The present study showed that the quality of life of about two third of the health care providers was good. Nonetheless, about one third of them had a poor quality of life. 

Conclusion: There is a need to implement long term programs aimed at improving the emotional well-being of health care specialists and improving their quality of life.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Assess the Parents Reported Causes of Physically Abuse Children the Age Group of 6 to 12 Years

Savita Pohekar, Ranjana Sharma, Ruchira Ankar, Arti Raut, Vaishali Tembhare, Samruddhi Gujar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 263-271
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33362

Introduction: Child maltreatment and neglect are considered important issues in the US. However, parental-child violence is not studied enough to provide a comprehensive understanding of the underlying causes.

Aim: To determine the parent's reported causes of actual children who are abusing the age bracket of 6 to 12 years.

Methods and Materials: The descriptive survey study design was used with a quantitative research approach conducted in a selected community area of Wardha town. The sample size was 200 parents with children aged 6 to 12. Pre-tested and validated structured questionnaires were used. The data gathered was registered into the Microsoft Excel sheet. The statistical analysis ended up being done SPSS. The frequencies and percentages of categorical variables had been provided.

Results: The parents reported causes for physical abuse among children of 6 to 12 years were seen into 4 categories, once in a week, sometimes, twice in a week, and never respectively. 37.5% of the parents reported twice in a week and 62.5% of them never reported causes.

The mean score of parents who reported causes of physically abuse children in the age group of 6 to 12 years was 44.58 ± 4.66 and the range of the score was 32 to 56.  Demographic variables such as age in years, gender, monthly income, education, area of residence, and relationship with parents were statistically associated with their reported causes.

Conclusion: Community-based methods, such as house visits, are incredibly efficient in changing the behavior of parents at risk of misuse. Targeted programs for moms with mental disorders and substance abuse are also shown to be effective in stopping emotional abuse [1].

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method Simultaneous Estimation of Aspirin and Ticlopidine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulation

B. Wankhede, S. S. Jangam, H. M. Nimje, D. S. Khobragade, P. D. Parkhe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 301-310
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33367

Objective: The combined dose tablet formulation containing aspirin and ticlopidine hydrochloride is used to reduce the formation of harmful blood clots in blood vessels which helps in preventing a heart attack or stroke in people with heart disease. The objective of the present work was to develop an accurate, precise, economical and less time consuming UPLC method and subsequently validate the method as per ICH guidelines, for routine quality control of combined dose tablet formulation containing above mentioned drug.

Methods: The present work describes development and validation of ultra performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous quantitation of aspirin and ticlopidine hydrochloride in tablets. The chromatographic separation was carried out using Supelcosil LC-18 (3.3 cm × 4.6 mm × 3 µm) column using mixture of Potassium Phosphate buffer (0.01M) and Acetonitrile (20:80 v/v) as mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.6 ml per minute, total run time was 3 minutes. The detection and quantitation of chromatographic peaks was carried out at 230 nm.

Results: The retention time for aspirin (ASP) and ticlopidine hydrochloride (TPH) was 0.529 minutes and 1.530 minutes, respectively. The linearity of detector response was observed in the concentration range of 20 – 60 µg/ml and 50-150 µg/ml for ASP and TPH, respectively. The LOD and LOQ for ASP and TPH was found to be 0.399 & 1.209 and 3.385 & 10.260, respectively. The accuracy of the method was found in the range of 99.92 – 100.58 % and 98.91 – 100.52 for ASP and TPH, respectively. The relative standard deviation for intra-day and inter-day precision studies was below 2 % indicating that the method is precise. The robustness of the proposed method was evaluated by varying the chromatographic parameters and the effect of these changes on retention time and tailing factor was studied. The % RSD for retention time and tailing factor was below 2 % indicating that the method is robust. The forced degradation studies were carried out to evaluate the specificity of the method. As the method was able to quantitate ASP and TPH selectively in presence of degradation products, the method was found to be specific. As the results of validation studies were within standard limits, the method was successfully applied for simultaneous estimation of ASP and TPH in marketed tablet formulation.

Conclusion: The method has distinct advantages over reported UV and HPLC methods and hence the developed UPLC method can be used for routine quality control of Aspirin and Ticlopidine hydrochloride combined tablet formulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment Swot on Performance of Micronized Itraconazole against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger for Superior Health Security

N. V. S. Venugopal, K. Bujji Reddy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 311-319
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33368

Background: Antifungal medication is used in adults to indulge infections caused by fungi. This includes infections in any part of the body including the lungs, mouth or throat, toenails, or fingernails. The widespread fungal pathogens causing stern insidious infections surrounded by immuno compromised patients are Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Itraconazole, is an antifungal medication used to treat a number of fungal infections. Itraconazole undergoes rapid metabolism to form hydroxyitraconazole, which also contributes to the anti-fungal activity exhibited by the parent compound. In the present study the assessment of plain Itraconazole and micronized Itraconazole material for increasing health safety and its biological evaluation by using Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger was reported.

Methods: The determination of particle size of the micronized material which is a very fine powder and its characteristics was carried out by Dynamic light scattering(DLS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM).Structural identification was done by UV-spectroscopy and Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR).

Results: An active pharma ingredient having antifungal activity was selected and micronized using Microniser to reduce the particle size as small as possible. The product antifungal activity was reviewed between untreated material(large particle size, 200 microns) and reduced particle size(micro particles, 2.72 microns). Size reduction showed an increased efficiency of antifungal activity

Conclusion: The antifungal activity of Itraconazole can be enhanced if the coarse large particles are micronized to significantly (>70 folds) smaller particles.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rapid Urease Test vs Histopathological Examination: A Prospective Study to Compare the Accuracy of Both Tests in the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

R. Karthikeyan, B. S. Sundaravadanan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 320-325
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33369

Background: Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium that causes chronic gastritis and plays important role in peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. The main aim and objective of the study were to study the incidence of H. pylori. To find the efficacy of rapid urease test (RUT) and histopathological examination of gastric biopsy in diagnosing H. pylori organism.

Methods: This study was conducted at saveetha medical college and hospitals for 6 months. A comparative study between rapid urease test and histopathological examination to diagnose H. pylori infection. Some 100 patient with gastritis was taken for this study.

Result: A total No of patients 100 (100%) were taken for this study in which 64 patients were detected positive for H. pylori by RUT method and 63 patients were detected positive for H. pylori by HPE method.The total no of cases positive for both RUT and HPE is 60.An association between RUT and HPE finding in the study group with the sensitivity being 95.24%, specificity being 89.19%, positive predictive value 93.75%, negative predictive valve 91.67% and accuracy 93.00%.

Conclusion: Our study shows when comparing rapid urease test and histopathological examination. RUT and HPE show the same level of accuracy in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Since the rapid urease test is a rapid technique to perform so it is a good alternative for histological examination in a resource-poor environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Regenerative Endodontic Therapy Using Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) and Amelogenin for the Treatment of Non-vital Immature Permanent Teeth with Apical Periodontitis: An Animal Study

Turki Y. Alhazzazi, Fatma M. Rashed, Moustafa A. Matar, Dania F. Bogari, Maha M. F. Mounir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 326-334
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33370

Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRR) was proposed to serve as a possible scaffold model for regenerative endodontic therapies. However, its treatment outcomes are still controversial. Amelogenin protein has been shown to induce stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the addition of amelogenin to PRP in non-vital immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis can improve their treatment outcomes. Methods: Root canals of both maxillary and mandibular premolars in 8 mongrel dogs (n= 128) were instrumented and left open. After 14 days, in a second surgical procedure, canals were cleaned, irrigated, and treated with PRP (n=64) and PRP + amelogenin (n=64). After 1 and 3 months, animals were killed, and treated teeth were evaluated for histological and immune detection for nestin markers. Results: After 1 and 3 months post-surgery, PRP-treated canals showed full closure of opened apexes but minimal cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL), and bone regeneration. Importantly, no pulp regeneration was recognized. In contrast, PRP + amelogenin-treated canals at 1 and 3 months showed full closure of opened apexes, significant deposition of cementum, bone, regeneration of PDL, and pulp-like tissue regeneration compared to PRP-treated groups (p<0.001). By the 3-month period, full regeneration of all the lost dental-pulp complex tissues was seen, including vascular pulp-like tissue. Conclusions: PRP alone did not achieve the desired treatment outcomes, but after addition of amelogenin protein, it induced pulpal regeneration and regenerated the whole attachment apparatus. This combination could serve as a novel approach for regenerative endodontic therapy in non-vital immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. However, additional research is warranted to further evaluate the effect of such a combination in different animal settings before administrating this approach in clinical cases. 

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Prevalence of Anemia among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Rural Health Centre (RHC) and Hospital, Jabalpur City, M.P.

Jyoti Tiwari, C. C. Linson

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 335-342
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33371

Weakness is a wholesome lack issue, and 56 percent of the women living in developing countries are pallid (World Health Organization). Iron deficiency is the second leading cause of maternal death in India, accounting for 20% of all maternal deaths. To focus on the incidence of sickliness in pastoral expecting women and investigate the factors coupled with paleness. The review focused on pregnant women, who visited the Maternity Clinic of the Rural Health Preparation Center and saw a clinic in India. The study will last one year, beginning on September 1, 2021, and ending on September 7, 2021. According to World Health Organization guidelines, iron insufficiency was designated. The total number of participants was 269, as determined by a pre-planned and pre-tested survey. The review subjects ranged in age from 20 to 30 and above 30. We've also found iron deficiency in the first, second, and third trimesters. Continuous renal sickness and postpartum drain were restricted as of late blood bonded. The conclusion of iron deficiency was attempted using a fringe blood smear analysis and a conventional haemoglobin analysis using Shale's approach. The prevalence of iron insufficiency is 58.36 percent across 269 individuals, including mild, moderate, and severe weakness. The mother's age, education, socioeconomic standing, equality, and food preferences were discovered to be profoundly important determinants. Family structure, size, and menarche completion were not found to be significant predictors of illness. The significant incidence of iron deficiency (58.36 percent) indicates that the National Nutrition Anemia Prophylaxis Program is not being implemented properly.

Open Access Original Research Article

L-asparaginase Produced from Cow’s Milk Isolate of Lactobacillus plantarum Shows Potent Anti-cancer Activity on Cervical Cancer Cells

Sivasankari Mathiyalagan, Amutha Raju

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 343-348
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33372

Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women, occurring in more than a quarter of the developing countries of the world, with a slightly higher incidence in India. Many microbes producing L-asparaginase (ASNase) are used for the treatment of various cancers. However, previous studies have documented that long-term use of enzymes produced from these commercial strains triggers hypersensitivity in patients. Therefore, there is a need to find new microorganisms that produce L-asparaginase with anti-cancer properties, which can be used commercially in enzyme production. In the present study, of the 7 isolates, a single isolate of Lactobacillus plantarum had the highest enzyme production capacity. Purified enzyme can be obtained from fermented production medium by dialysis, thus showed a dose-depended cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells, as determined by MTT assay. The IC50 of the enzyme value was 0.75 IU µg/mL. This result indicates that L. plantarum producing L-asparaginase may be used for cancer treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assess the Stress Level among Spouses of Alcoholics and Spouses of Non- Alcoholics in a Hospital at Avadi, Chennai

A. R. Bharathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 356-365
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33374

The addiction leads to the usage of unconscious purposive abused substances like alcohol and these harms to the self, family and society also. Most of the abuse substances result in mental instability such as depression, major personality disorder, anxiety disorders and dysthymia. The alcoholism is the predominant abused compound and makes very harder life in India and throughout worldwide. Among them, their spouses are most affected beings than any others and they face severe negative impacts on mental and physical health. The present study aimed to analyses the stress created and the successive management in alcoholic spouses compared to the wives of non- alcoholics. The non-experimental, comparative study was includes totally, 70 women (alcoholic and non- alcoholic spouse, 35 each) using non-possibility convenient sampling method at a government hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.The analysis was done using geographical, demographical variations and stress was assessed based on the Sheldon Cohen parameters. The data was collected and statistically evaluated. The study was framed based on Betty Newman system theory. The study also showed that the spouses of alcoholics faced severe stress level due to domestic violence. This study also showed that .they need adequate medical and psychological care from society.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of Silver Diamine Fluoride on Oral Health Related Quality of Life (Ohrqol)-A Literature Review

Zohra Jabin, Iffat Nasim, V. Vishnu Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33334

Introduction: Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) has emerged as an effective agent for arresting and preventing caries. It offers an immediate inhibition of caries process thereby reducing pain and suffering in those who lack access to quick restorative /prosthetic rehabilitation. It may impact oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL).

Aim: This literature review is aimed at reviewing the SDF versus other standard care therapies and exploring their impact on OHRQoL.

Methodology: Literature was searched by two independent reviewers to recognise the English language papers in the four most commonly used databases: Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Scopus. Search included 11 randomised controlled trials that used SDF as an intervention either alone or with comparative agent/treatment for caries arrest and studies that considered oral health-related quality of life as an associating factor.

Results: Two studies used application of SDF solution or placebo as intervention, few adopted use of comparator agent or/and alternative treatment and some adopted single sample pre-post designs with isolated SDF use. Different versions of Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) was used by most studies for assessment of oral health-related quality of life. While two studies (Ruff et al, Hiremath et al) used the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP).

Conclusion: SDF application may increase the quality of life of children as perceived by their parents and SDF staining is not a concern for both of them.

Open Access Review Article

The Hazardous Effects of Dental Amalgam Fillings in Human Body: A Systematic Review

Laila Mohammed Alanazi, Zahra Helal Alqallaf, Waad Mohammad alghamdi, Ahmed Mufadhi Alanazi, Salihah Muslih Alqarni, Mohammed Alfozan, Sara Ibrahim ghabban, Lujain Salem AlZahrani, Dalal jumah Alturaif, Ahmed Mohamed Elmarakby, Fatima Sultana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-54
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33339

The Dental amalgam used in the dental fillings is basically an alloy of mercury (Hg). The amalgam is one of the most commonly used and versatile restorative material. Since more than 150 years this alloy of mercury, that is amalgam is used for it been economical, easy to use, durable, high strength and bacterio-static characteristics. Due to environmental pollution, detrimental health its use is decreasing in recent times. Also its not so appealing like the other materials used that resemble the tooth color. The tooth coloured restorative materials are recommended by both the doctor and the patient. Many researchers suggested that over the period of time the mercury from the filling might leach into the mouth. Thus in this study a detailed review of all the literature available online is done to understand the hazardous effects of dental amalgam fillings in the human body. The systematic literature search using Scopus, PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science electronic databases was done using PRISMA. The experiments conducted in Sheep and monkey suggested the penetration of amalgam into the jaw bone of the patient with dental restorations. Constant exposure of mercury at lower levels can also lead to multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Most commonly reported renal dysfunction due to the dental amalgams are Tubular and Glomerular damage of the kidneys.

Open Access Review Article

Diagnosis and Treatment Planning for Dental Implants – A Review

. Saransh, Yasir S. Khan, Nikita Jain, Divya Dubey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 80-88
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33342

Establishing and arriving at a diagnosis is the key to treatment planning and often practitioners tend to create a treatment plan overlooking the fundamental principles that must be taken into consideration prior to performing implant surgeries. The sequential process of clinical examination, laboratory tests, radiographic analysis, diagnostic protocols, casts wax ups, along with the treatment needs and desires of the patient have to be factored in for the overall diagnosis and prognosis of implant therapy. A step-by-step methodology has been created to help the implant practitioner with a checklist that aims to create the optimal treatment plan for each case.

Open Access Review Article

A Review of Indian Perceptions on Condom Use

Pratibha Wankhede, Mayur Wanjari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 97-100
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33344

In the late 1960s, India's National Family Planning Programme introduced condoms as one of the family planning methods. Since its inception, the condom has been promoted as a method of family planning through social marketing. With the rising prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as HIV/AIDS, the condom has been promoted as a dual method of protection against both unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. Despite different initiatives at various levels, overall condom use among Indian couples remains low. In this paper, we examine the research on condom perception among Indian couples. The report specifically evaluates research and strategies designed to enhance condom usage among couples; predictors of condom use; reasons for not using a condom; and perception versus the experience of condom failure. Non-acceptance by partners, perceived ineffectiveness, reduced comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol usage, depression, and anxiety, and not being accessible at the time were among the reported condom-related issues. The importance of the media in promoting condom use was mentioned as a significant strategy to raise awareness and use. Acceptance of male condoms would be aided in a variety of ways.

Open Access Review Article

Localised Aggressive Periodontitis – A Review

Milind Wasnik, Suryakant Kumar, Arun Sajjanar, Niharika Gahlod, Sneha Khekade, Miranda George, Durga Bhattad, Pratima Kolekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 166-172
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33353

The term “periodontal diseases” includes any inherited or acquired disorders of the tissues that are supporting the teeth i. e Gingiva, Cementum, PDL, and Alveolar bone. The periodontal disease can be either localized or generalized. Localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP) patients have interproximal attachment loss on at least two permanent first molars and incisors, with attachment loss on no more than two teeth other than first molars and incisors. In children and adolescents LAgP occurs without clinical evidence of systemic disease and it is characterized by the severe loss of alveolar bone around permanent teeth [10]. Most commonly the disease is localized to the permanent first molars and incisors.

Aim: The aim of this review article is explain in details about aggressive periodontitis including different management aspect of the same.

Methods: This paper presents a review of the aggressive periodontitis in children. An electronic search was conducted using Pub Med®/MEDLINE, and Google search using the terms: Periodontium, Localized Aggressive Periodontitis, Children and periodontal health, periodontal health in adolescents, gingival disease in children, periodontal disease in children,  gingivitis, periodontitis, gingival disease and its prevalence, periodontal disease and its prevalence.

Open Access Review Article

Folklore Herbal Plants as a Safe and Natural Hair Depilatories

Kalakotla Shanker, Shamshe Shaik, V. Vijayanandhan, Tamatam Sunilkumar Reddy, Rabiatul Basria S. M. N. Mydin, S. P. Dhanabal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 278-289
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33364

Hair is one of the distinguishing characteristics of mammals, and it serves a variety of functions including protection from external forces, production of sebum, apocrine sweat, and pheromones. However, the unwanted hair growth is always a worrying aspect among teenage girls and women. The present study is the need of selecting herbal depilatories over chemical depilatories due to its high efficacy, safety and lesser side effects. The various types of hair removal process, herbs showing depilatory action and their composition for herbal cream are studied. According to statistics, the use of depilatories has been steadily expanding, and the global hair removal products market was valued at USO 2.2 billion in 2018, with a CAGR of 5.5 percent predicted from 2019 to 2025. Depilatories are the cosmetic preparation which is used to remove the hair from skin, in chemical depilatories the main active ingredients are salts of thioglycolic acids, sulphides and stannites which can produce rashes and side effects on long time usage, whereas herbal depilatories include active ingredients like Turmeric, Indian neetle, Neem, Tanner’s cassia, Apple cider vinegar, Paw-paw extract etc. which are tremendously safe to use. Hence in this study we have been discussed about importance of few folklore herbal medicine and preparation methods of both chemical and herbal depilatories.

Open Access Review Article

Updates in Diagnosis and Management of Croup

Mohammed Hussen Sheikh, Haya Jamal M. Albalawi, Yazeed Ali S. Albalawi, Mohammed Abdulhafith R. Alotaibi, Sultan Makki M. Alsharef, Ali Abdulrahman A. Alshehri, Ahmed Saad A. Albalawi, Abdulaziz Saed A. Albalawi, Mohammed Abdulwahed H. Alamri, AlTurki Abdulrahman Mohammed, Sultan Suliman Q. Al-Ruwaili, Mohammad Alqrafi, Sarah Awad Muhammad Alenzi, Rahaf Saad D. Alharbi, Heba Homoud H. Alomrani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 294-300
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i49B33366

Croup is a common respiratory disease that affects 3% of children aged six months to three years. It represents 7% of annual hospital admissions for fever and/or acute respiratory disease in children under the age of five. Boys are more susceptible than girls to the condition, with an overall male/female predominance of 1.4/1. Viruses are detected in up to 80% of patients with croup with identifiable pathogens. The onset of symptoms is usually sudden and usually occurs at night: stridor, hoarse voice and respiratory distress are often seen due to upper airway obstruction. Croup is a clinical diagnosis, children with an uncertain diagnosis, anterior and lateral soft-tissue neck radiographs may be useful to support an alternative diagnosis. Management includes: general care, humidified air, heliox, corticosteroids, and epinephrine, Objective: This study aimed to discuss croup in terms of its etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, assessment, and finally management.