Open Access Case Report

Oral Findings in Patients with COVID-19 Infection: Report of Two Cases and Review of Literature

Arpita Rai, Ansul Kumar, Apoorv Rana, Shradha Singh, Deborah Sybil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 265-273
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33123

Few reports have been published highlighting oral findings in COVID-19 patients. Since the outbreak of the recent pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, it is important to illustrate in the very near future how recurrent these oral findings are in the symptomatic COVID-19 patients in contrast to those asymptomatic ones, as there are multiple findings reported. This case study reports a new combination of oral findings in two COVID-19 patients from India, one symptomatic, and other asymptomatic. Cases presenting oral findings in asymptomatic COVID-19 patients are the rarest. Moreover, till now, petechial or purpuric lesions, solely as theoral findings without any associated skin lesions and oral mucosal hyperpigmentation of our patients are the rare oral findings to be reported in COVID-19 patients. These cases provide evidence for a deeper understanding of the oral alterations seen in COVID-19 patients that need to be addressed at present.

Open Access Case Study

A Case of Budd-Chiari Syndrome – As an Unusual Early Manifestation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosis with Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Deep Vein Thrombosis

Gitanjali Dasari, S. Selvamani, E. Dhivya, V. R. Mohan Rao

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 17-21
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33090

Budd-Chiari syndrome occurs due to obstruction of hepatic venous out-flow which in turn produces intense congestion of the liver. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), which is an auto-immune disorder has protean manifestations such as easy fatiguability,  arthralgia, photosensitivity, malar rash, fever, alopecia but our case had an unique  association of  ascites and hepatosplenomegaly due to Budd Chiari syndrome stemming from the root cause of Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APLA) is very rare. SLE accounts for 40% of the cases of APLA. SLE presenting with Budd-Chiari syndrome as an early manifestation is unusual and is rarely reported in the literature. Here we report a rare case of a young female who presented with abdominal distension, abdominal pain and fever diagnosed to have Budd-Chiari syndrome as a presenting feature of SLE and on further evaluation she was also found to have  antiphospholipid syndrome secondary to SLE.

Open Access Case Study

Huntingtons Disease: A Case Report

Khushbu Meshram, Tabbassum Sheikh, Pooja Kasturkar, Jaya Khandar, Shital Sakharkar, Prerana Sakharwade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33093

Background: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative illness characterized by progressive nerve cell degeneration in the brain, mainly in the basal ganglia. It often manifests itself between the ages of 30 and 40. The disease is including inherited genetic genes, which means that the affected person inherits the gene from a parent who also has the same genes. In populations of western European origin, the incidence of inherited genetic diseases is 3-10 per 1,00000. In India, it is far less common.

Case Presentation: This is a case of a 57 -year-old female schoolteacher who was brought to our institution with a trembling movement all over the body and imbalancing while walking. The clinical presentation of characteristics such as difficulty controlling his hands and fingers due to involuntary, uncontrolled motions is used to make the diagnosis He walked without a cane and seemed to be in good physical shape, yet when asked to sit, he slumps heavily into the chair. CT or MRI scans indicate lacunar ischemic foci in bilateral periventricular white matter. Mild cerebral and cerebellar atrophy was present. Complete blood testing were also carried out.

Conclusion: There are currently few therapies available. The emergence of treatment methods capable of directly targeting HTT, on the other hand, signals a new phase in HD research. There is now more than ever a serious possibility of modifying and preventing HD.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Patent Ductus Arteriosus: Large PDA 4mm with Left Right Shunt

Anushri Kale, Bibin Kurian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 125-130
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33102

Background: In full term newborns, the Ductus arteriosus closes functionally within of birth, and it normally closes structurally between 2 to 8 weeks. Complete conclusion of the ductus in untimely babies may not happen until a half year old enough, and in exceptional cases may not happen until adulthood. Is medical term that afterwards birth, the ductus arteriosus fails to close, allowing oxygenated blood to travel back to the lungs from the left heart Changed Word Structural Changes Thesaurus via the pulmonary artery, which has a higher pressure. Increased laboured breathing and failure to gain weight at a normal rate are frequent later in the first year of life. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can lead to pulmonary hypertension and right-sided heart failure if left untreated.

Case Report Information: A 2 years 6 months old child brought by the parents in Aacharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital on 22/12/2020. An patients parent’s verbalization, the child was apparently alright at 8 months of age. When he started having fever, cold and cough and decreased feed intake. Then they took the child to local doctor where 2D ECHO was done. Suggestive of patent ductus arteriosus. Patient is referred to Aacharya Vinoba Bhave hospital for further management.

Conclusion: The patient was admitted in AVBRH with complaints of fever, cold and cough, decreased feed intake. Then the report mainly focused on surgical management and quality nursing care due to which patient was discharged without any further complication and satisfaction.

Open Access Case Study

Osteosarcoma of the Right Proximal Tibia: A Case Report

Shalini Patiye, Arati Raut

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 210-214
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33114

Osteosarcoma occurs mostly in adolescence, this being the primary bone tumor (malignant) formed by the production of immature bone. Immature bone cell's production occurs from the premature bone cells. The commonly used treatments form is lesions removal. Chemotherapy is also used to treat metastasis of the osteoid cells (cancerous). Sometimes the micro metastasis can't be diagnosed in time to can be cured with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Pulmonary metastatic disease is the most common complication of the osteosarcoma (musculoskeletal cancer). I have presented a case of osteosarcoma of right proximal tibia in an18year old boy who come to the hospital for swelling and pain which were increasing during walking. Before that he hadn't any complaints in his knees. Magnetic resonance imaging was done by which the diagnosis was confirmed. After that, tumor resection was performed and post-operative chemotherapy was administered. The case report states that the adolescents age group should be properly monitored because they have the highest risk of suspicion by premature bone growth of osteoid.

Open Access Study Protocol

Effectiveness of Self-Instructional Module on Knowledge Regarding Selected Habit Disorders in Children among Mothers of Preschooler

Aditi Badwaik, Archana Maurya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 140-145
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33104

Background: A child is unique individual. The childhood era is critical for the socialization process, which involves the transmission of attitudes, customs, and behaviour through the influence of family and community. The promotion and maintenance of a child's health is influenced by the family's cultural and religious beliefs, educational level, and lifestyle. Improved child health requires better education, nutrition, family planning, improved health behaviour, and increased use of health services. The form of the caregiver interaction has a significant impact on a child's behavioural development. Parents, especially women, who are emotionally present, sensitive, perceptive, and effective in satisfying their child's needs are more likely to have securely connected children who are more likely to meet crucial behavioral milestones as they grow up.


  • To assess the existing knowledge regarding selected habit disorders in children among mothers of preschooler.
  • To assess the effectiveness of self-instructional module on knowledge regarding selected habit disorders in children among mothers of preschooler.
  • To determine the posttest knowledge score regarding selected habit disorder in children among mothers of preschooler with demographic variables.

Methodology:  A study will be based on Evaluatory research approach with one group pretest and posttest research design. The impact of self instructional module on knowledge regarding selected habit disorders in children among mothers of preschooler will be assessed using non probability convenient sampling technique. selected 60 mothers of preschooler will be assessed knowledge regarding selected habit disorder in children by structured questionnaires and then self instructional module will be given to the selected sample developed by researcher as intervention.

Expected Results: The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of self-instructional module on knowledge regarding selected habit disorders in children among mothers of preschooler. Self instructional module will be useful in improving the respondents' knowledge.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Cross-Sectional Study to Assess Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Research Opportunities and Challenges among Medical and Dental Interns in Central India

Prachi Jawade, Amit Reche, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Priyanka Paul Madhu, Vedanti Kitey, Gunjan Hiware

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 146-149
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33105

Background: Access to research and knowledge in medical and dental schools are useful for encouraging critical thinking, turning practitioners into researchers, and initiating training for new medical researchers.

Objectives: To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice about the research challenges and opportunities among medical and dental interns.

Methodology: This study is an online based cross-sectional study. The participants of this study include 300 interns from institution in Central India. 

Expected Results: Dental and medical knowledge is highly dependent on underlying, clinical and transitional conditions to provide clinicians with new early detection methods, better preventive treatments and effective intervention strategies. The knowledge and perception of the students regarding research will determine the interest and their innovative skills towards the future development of medicine. Hence, the implication of this study will promote having comprehensive ideas towards quality research among the students during their basic academic level.

Conclusion: The questionnaire had good trustworthiness and showed that there are average opportunities for medical and dental interns.

Open Access Study Protocol

To assess the Effectiveness of Positive Parenting Teaching on the Development of Self-Esteem among Primary Caregivers of Pre-Adolescence

Shabnam Sayyad, Jaya Gawai, Pooja Kasturkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 162-169
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33108

Background: Scientific research agrees that parenting, especially during their early childhood years, is one of the greatest influences on children. Early childhood interactions form the basis of brain construction and scientists now realize that the contact between infants with their parents or guardians is a significant component in this brain growth process. Parents who are trained to support the wellbeing and wellbeing of their young child with the awareness and expertise they need. The multi-disciplinary and transnational parenting literature explicitly shows that parents are one of the most important variables in the growth of infants.

Aim: The study aim is to assess the effectiveness of positive parenting teaching on the development of self-esteem among primary caregivers of pre-adolescence.

Methodology: It is an interventional study and the primary giver of preadolescence are the participants of this study with intervention and control group. The primary giver of preadolescence will be selected as per inclusion and exclusion criteria and the sampling technique will be selected as non-probability convenient sampling technique. Data will be collected by demographic variables of participants and the modified self-esteem scale will be used to assess the self-esteem level of primary caregivers and preadolescence.

Sample Size: 100(50-intervention group and 50-control group).

Results: For statistical analysis of demographic figures will be going used frequency and mean, mean percentage, standard deviation, descriptive and inferential statistics. Positive parenting teaching may be very effective for the development of self-esteem among primary caregivers of pre-adolescence. 

Conclusion: The conclusion will be drawn from the statistical analysis.

Open Access Study Protocol

To Assess the Effectiveness of Planned Teaching on Knowledge Regarding Angelman Syndrome among Nursing Students

Pallavi S. Dhulse, Shalini Lokhande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 170-174
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33109

Background: The first scientific paper reporting children with Angelman Syndrome was written by Dr. Harry Angelman, an English physician at Warrington General Hospital. Based on Dr. Angelman's previous discoveries, Happy puppet syndrome, also known as Angelman Syndrome, was initially seen by Dr. Charles William and Dr. Jaime Frias of the University of Florida Colleges of Medicine .Children with Angelman Syndrome are known for their joyful, energetic demeanor, which includes constant smiling, laughing, hand-wringing, Hyperactivity, a short attention span, and a strong fascination with water are all frequent characteristics. Most of the youngsters who are afflicted also have more difficulties sleeping than usual.

Objective: 1. To assess the existing knowledge regarding Angelman syndrome among nursing students. 2. To assess the effectiveness of planned teaching on knowledge regarding Angelman syndrome among nursing students. 3. To associate difference between knowledge score of nursing students with their demographic variables.

Materials and Methods: A one group pretest and post test research design study will undertaken to assess the effectiveness of planned teaching on knowledge regarding Angelman Syndrome among nursing students of selected nursing colleges .In this study a total 60 number of students who fulfill the inclusion and exclusion criteria will be included.

Expected Results: There will be significant association between pre-test and post-test knowledge regarding Angelman syndrome among P.B.Bsc nursing students.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Study on Post Operative Pain Assesment on Arrival Using Vas Score among Urological Procedures after general Anaesthesia vs. Regional Anaesthesia

K. S. Jaya Madhumithra, Mohana Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 630-635
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33164

Background: A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) is a measurement that tries to measure a characteristic or attitude that is believed to range across a continuum of values and cannot easily be directly measured [1]. The 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) score is widely used to measure pain intensity after surgery. The main objective here is to compare the effectiveness and safety of general anaesthesia (GA) vs. regional anaesthesia (RA) in urological procedures with the help of VAS.

Methods: We enrolled a sequential, unselected cohort of fifty-two patients on arrival from surgery and used a VAS to quantify pain intensity. We compared changes in the VAS among patients who received either GA or RA for urological procedures. Patient’s comorbidities, vitals, pain visual analogue scale (VAS) are evaluated. Intraoperative and post-operative complications were recorded.

Results: Vital parameters were maintained at safe values throughout the procedure in both groups. Visual analogue pain score was lower in regional anaesthesia  till one hour mark of post-operative period as compared with GA cluster (P <0.05). Patients in regional anaesthesia recorded lower consumption of analgesics during the post-operative day-0 as compared with GA cluster (P < 0.05). Post-operative shivering was higher in RA cluster  than GA cluster (8% vs. 2%) whereas nausea and fever was higher in GA cluster than RA cluster (5% vs. 2% and 4% vs. 1% respectively). However, Patients in GA cluster recorded higher overall satisfaction scores than RA cluster.

Conclusion: Both GA and RA were effective and safe in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy. It is observed that PCNL under RA was associated with significantly shorter operative time and hospital stay. Furthermore, postoperative pain scores were low, lower nausea and/or vomiting, and reduced analgesic requirements were noted in the RA group. However, GA provides heaps of satisfaction for patients.

Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Magnesium Sulphate Nebulization on the Incidence of Postoperative Sore Throat in Patients Requiring Endotracheal Intubation for General Anesthesia

Vivek Chakole, Kota Sneha, Shilpa Shankar, Sheetal Madavi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 292-297
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33127

Background: Post-operative sore throat (POST) is one of the most common anesthesia related complication. It is one of the undesirable post-operative events. Several Non pharmacological and pharmacological methods tried to reduce POST. we planned to study the efficacy of magnsesium sulphate nebulization in reduction of post operative sore throat.

Study Design: Prospective, comparative observational study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of anesthesiology, AVBRH, from June 2020 to November 2020.

Materials and Methods:  observational study of 60 cases divided into two equal groups. Patients included in the study were of either gender belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status 1 or 2 undergoing elective surgery of approximately 2 h or more duration requiring tracheal intubation. Patients in Group N were nebulized with 3 ml of normal saline and the patients in Group M were nebulized with 3 ml of 225 mg isotonic nebulized magnesium sulfate for 15 min. The incidence of POST at rest and on swallowing at 0, 2, 4,12 and 24 h in the postoperative period were evaluated.

Results: No significant difference in postoperative sorethroat was observed on swallowing in between magnesium sulphate and normal saline at zero and 2nd hour. significant difference was observed at 4th,12th and 24th hour between magnesium sulphate and normal saline in reducing the incidence of post-operative sore throat.

Conclusion: MgSO4 significantly reduces the incidence of POST compared to normal saline.

Open Access Short Research Article

Genetic Alterations in HSPA Family of Genes and their Putative Association with HNSCC

M. Laksita, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini, A. S. Smiline Girija, P. Sankar Ganesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 364-375
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33136

Introduction: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive life-threatening disease associated with high mortality rates. Several genes related to stress response have been studied extensively to reveal their possible association with HNSCC. Members of the HSPA (heat shock protein family A) family are exclusively expressed under stress conditions suggesting that these are specialised to function in the stress response.

Aim: The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the genetic alterations in the HSPA gene family and their putative association with HNSCC.

Materials and Methods: The source of the patient's data was procured from the cBioportal database. The TCGA Firehose Legacy comprised 528 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cases. Oncoprint data analysis can be used to derive a putative association between the disease phenotype and genotype, to identify the variations and to identify any novel variations which can be associated with the disease phenotype. The gnomAD data analysis was used to compare between the observed variants documented in the present study with that of reported variants deposited in the gnomAD repository.

Results and Discussion: The HSPA1A&HSPA1B genes harboured high frequency of amplification and deep deletions. The expression of two genes HSPA8 and HSPA13 was found to be up-regulated in the primary tumor sample in comparison to normal tissues. In Kaplan Meier analysis, HSPA8 gene expression was compared with gender, here, high expression in females shows low survival rate. Similarly, HSPA13 gene expression was compared with race, here low expression in africanamerican population shows low survival rate.

Conclusion: The present study provides preliminary data on the involvement of the HSPA family of genes with HNSCC, which has to be validated using experimental evidence in other populations.

Open Access Short Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Nanoemulsion using Tazarotene and Curcumin

Parmita Phaugat, Suchitra Nishal, Aparna Khansili

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 807-815
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33187

Aims: To formulate and evaluate nanoemulsion of Tazarotene and Curcumin
Study Design
: Ultrsonication Methods.

Place and Duration of Study, Sample: Swami Dayanand Postgraduate Institute of Pharmaceuticals Sciences, University of Health Sciences, Rohtak; 2020-2021

Methodology: Oleic acid, tween 80, and propylene glycol were selected as oil, surfactant, and co-surfactant, respectively. The ratio of oil: surfactant: co-surfactant was selected based on a ternary phase diagram using the aqueous titration method. The selected ratio was employed to develop eight formulations of Tazarotene-curcumin by ultra-sonication. The formulations (F1-F8) were characterized using several physicochemical methods like pH, viscosity, particle size distribution, zeta potential, drug content, and in vitro release. The optimized formulation was selected based on the results of characterization.

Results: The formulations (F1-F8) were formulated by using the ultrasonication (high energy) method. The optimized formulation possessed particle size 121, 0.382 PDI, and -20.1 zeta potential. The in vitro release of F6 was found to be 90.9 ± 3.1 at 24 hours. It also passed the thermodynamic stability tests.

Conclusion: The current investigations conclude that Tazarotene-curcumin nanoemulsion can be used as an alternative to the oral route of tazarotene and is also useful in reducing the adverse effects associated with oral. The physicochemical evaluation of the formulation showed that the nanoemulsion had the necessary properties for a topical formulation.

Open Access Short Research Article

Analysis of Heart Diseases in Pregnancy

Sharadha S. Ragavi, . Sirisha, . Parimala

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 871-874
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33195

Introduction: Cardiac diseases complicate 1% of all pregnancies. It is one of the 3 major indirect causes of maternal mortality in India.

Methodology: This qualitative study was conducted at Saveetha medical college and hospital.  Out of 1320 women who delivered between June 2020 to June 2021, 15 women had heart disease and they were included in the study. All the 15 women were asymptomatic.

Results: A total of 15 pregnant women were included in the study. There were no twin pregnancies. In total, 2 women presented with congenital heart disease and 13 women with acquired heart disease. Out of the 15 women, 4 delivered vaginally and the remaining 11 had undergone LSCS.

Discussion: During pregnancy, major changes occur in the cardiovascular system to meet the increasing metabolic needs of the mother and fetus. If these changes are not met with, it can lead to maternal and fetal morbidity. Failure to make normal adjustments can worsen an existing heart condition or early manifestations of a previously unknown condition, and therefore pregnancy is a natural stress test. The changes that occur during pregnancy and the physiology of pregnancy itself will enhance some pathological processes of the heart. Understanding these changes is important, and adjustments may vary from person to person.

Conclusion: A developing cardiovascular disorder should be detected as early as possible and also it should be a priority in pregnancy monitoring, and if a disorder is identified, the cardiologist team should be involved immediately. Many groups dedicated to managing heart problems during pregnancy, is recommended as it leads to better clinical outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Antigenotoxic Potential of Methanolic Leaves Extract of Triticum aestivum in Mice

Gaurav Jain, Shailesh M. Kewatker, Govind Nayak, Amit Nayak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33088

Mutations are changes to the nucleotide sequence of the genetic material of an organism. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in process like mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and aging by their ability to damage cellular DNA. Inhibition of mutagenesis or carcinogenesis is generally not based on one specific mechanism. Protection against cancer can occur at different stages of the complicated processes of carcinogenesis. Naturally occurring antioxidants have been extensively studied for their capacity to protect organisms and cells from oxidation. Triticum aestivum (T. aestivum) have revealed its medicinal potential for some human diseases; therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of methanolic extract. To accomplish this, the methanolic extract of T. aestivum was evaluated for its antigenotoxic effect using the chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus assay of bone marrow cells of mice.T. aestivum extract has shown significant protection against Cyclophosphamide induced micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberrations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simultaneous Determination of Tinidazole and Lidocaine in Pharmaceutical Preparations by HPLC with Photodiode Array Detection

D. Gonullu Ayhan, S. Saglik Aslan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33089

A selective, simple and new reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of tinidazole (TIN)  and  lidocaine (LID) in the ovule  dosage form in this study. Developed method was performed with gradient elution by getting C18 (250x4.6mm,5µm) reversed phase HPLC column, mobile phase containing 10mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH3.0), acetonitrile at 1.0 mL/min. Temperatures for  column  and autosampler were adjusted at 25Cº. The chromatographic separation was carried out at 220 nm  wavelength. Retention times were found as 6.5 min for LID and 8.2 min. for TIN. The purity of each substance was evaluated  getting a photodiode array detector. The  linearity ranges  were 75.0-195.0 µg/mL for TIN and 25.0-65.0 µg/mL for  LID. The  limit of dedection (LOD) and  the  limit of quantitation (LOQ)  results were  0.05625 µg/mL and 0.225 µg/mL for TIN,  0.01875 µg/mL and 0.075 µg/mL for LID, respectively.  The simple, sensitive and reproducible method was applied for simultaneous determination of TIN and LID in pharmaceutical preparations successfully.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Associated with Missed Nursing Care at a Tertiary Level Public Sector Hospital (Nurses’ Perspective)

Mehar Ali, Khalida Naz Memon, Shanti Chouhan, Sindhu Almas, . Heeralal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33092

Background: Missed nursing care is the least researched aspect in nursing practice & research. There is a long list of determinants of this phenomenon; the current study is an effort to highlight various factors playing a pivotal role in missed nursing care. The research is carried out to evaluate missed nursing care and related socio-demographic determinants at a tertiary care hospital.

Study Setting & Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study at Dr. Ruth K.M Pfau Civil Hospital Karachi.

Study Population, Sample Size & Sampling Technique: Total 163 nurses were selected through convenient non-probability sampling.

Data Collection & Analysis: A three-section questionnaire containing socio-demographic determinants, work related factors and elements of care were used to collect data.  Frequencies & percentages were computed for socio-demographic variables and their associations with missed nursing care were sought by applying Chi-square test.

Results:  Mean age of the respondents were 38 ± 8.54 years.  The male: female ratio of respondents was 1:2.26; sixteen percent of the respondents reported frequently missed nursing care activity while doing assessment of patients. The assessments of the patients’ hygiene status were missed frequently by 21.5% of subjects. There was statistically significant association between age of the respondents & missed nursing care (p=0.04). The shortage of staff nurses was most frequently reported factor for missed nursing care (61.3%).

Conclusions: The study reveals hygiene care of the patients as the most neglected element of nursing care. The 10% of participants significantly missed to fulfill the basic medical needs of patients. The 61.3% nurses reported shortage of nurses in a hospital as the determinant of missed nursing care.  Imparting necessary health education to patients was statistically significantly associated to professional educational level of the nurses (p=0.04).

Recommendation: The study gives a guideline for hospital administrators regarding carrying out improvement in provision of optimal nursing care in relation to improved patient safety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Xylanase Production from Aspergillus spp. under Solid-state Fermentation Using Lemon Peel as Substrate

Veeranna S. Hombalimath, Sharanappa Achappa, Laxmikant R. Patil, Anil R. Shet, Shivalingasarj V. Desai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33094

Xylanase is an enzyme that acts on xylan and degrades it into xylose. Xylanase may be produced by several different microbes such as bacteria and fungi. Xylanase has significant applications in  food industries for improving dough handling and improving the quality of baked products in the extraction of starch, coffee, and plant oils. Xylanase, along with pectinase and cellulose, has enormous application in the clarification of fruit juices. In the present study, xylanase was produced by solid-state fermentation using lemon peel as substrates. Aspergillus Niger was induced to produce xylanase by frequent sub-culturing on a medium containing 2% xylan.  OFAT was analyzed by using several fermentation parameters such as moisture content, particle size, incubation period, incubation temperature, peptone concentration, and pH of the extraction buffer. Under optimized conditions, the maximum xylanase activity was found for particle size of 1.7mm, moisture content of 80%, peptone concentration in nutrient solution at 0.3%, and extraction pH of 7.0. Hence, xylanase can be further subjected to down streaming processes and therefore for various applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Acute Toxicity Studies on Methanolic Extracts of Citrus medica L. and Citrus hystrix D. C. Fruits

Dollyca Ningombam, Hidangmayum Deliza, Bachaspatimayum Debkumari, Maibam Damayanti Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-67
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33096

Aim: The present study aims to investigate the phytochemical, antimicrobial and acute toxicity assay of methanol extract of Citrus medica L. fruit (CMF) and Citrus hystrix D.C. fruit (CHF).

Place and Duration of Study: Fruit samples were collected between February to August 2018, at the Department of Life Sciences, Manipur University.

Methodology: Phytochemical studies were conducted using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), HR-LC-MS (High Resolution-Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry), Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS), and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) respectively. The standard filtered disc-diffusion method was used for antimicrobial assay. Acute toxicity was performed using 423-OECD guidelines.

Results: GC-MS and HR-LC-MS analysis showed presence of Ranitidine, 4-Methylesculetin, Diosmin and Avobenzone in CMF whereas 9-Octadecenamide, Gamma-Sitosterol, n-Hexadecanoic acid, 2-Methoxy-4-Vinylphenol, Rhoifolin, Diosmin and Phytosphingosine in CHF. GF-AAS and ICP-OES study prominently showed Pb content in both the samples. Highest element in CMF was Pb (4.26±0.120 ppm) while in CHF was Cr (4.35±0.70 ppm). Antimicrobial study exhibited highest inhibitory effect of CMF against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia while CHF against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus than Gentamicin (p<0.05). No toxicity behaviour and mortality in mice were observed during acute toxicity study period even at a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. Changes in serum constituent level were observed however, no genotoxicity was recorded.

Conclusion: We concluded that CMF and CHF cultivation site selection should be the first step to avoid Pb content. The CMF and CHF have many health beneficial constituents. From this study also concluded that CMF and CHF may be a potential source of antiulcer, antimicrobial, antiarthritic, diuretic, antiinflammatory and anticancer effects. However, further study to understand whether changes in serum constituent level for prolonged period usages as medicine or nutraceuticals is highly recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders among Antenatal Women in a Rural Area Adjacent to Chennai

Jayashree Kannappan, Abilash Kannappan Mannam, K. Vaishali, Shanthi Dinakaran, P. S. Jikki Kalaselvi, B. Kalaiselvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 89-95
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33099

Aim: Antenatal anxiety and depression are major health problems all over the world. Research conducted during pandemics found that pregnant women are more vulnerable psychologically. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of anxiety level during the COVID-19 pandemic among pregnant women

Study Design: A Cross sectional study design

Place and Duration of Study: was done on pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at the rural area adjacent to Chennai, India between april 2021 to October 2021.

Methadology: This study was conducted among 74 pregnant women coming for antenatal checkups in the Rural area adjacent to Chennai. Hamilton – Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) was applied after initial psychiatry work up to all women who were selected for the interview. The statistically significant P value was < 0.05.

Results: The sociodemographic variables have been found as significant contributors in explaining the variability of the prevalence rates of antenatal depression. According to the findings, less than 1/3rd of pregnant women experience depression as a result of life circumstances such as economic crises in order to support their families. These were identified as significant risk variables (P>0.05). And also, this study identified those who receiving insufficient socioeconomic assistance were more likely to experience multiple psychological discomfort [atleast 1] than women who got appropriate economic support. (r = -0.112, P < 0.001)

Conclusion: COVID-19 infection during pregnancy was associated with increased levels of generalized anxiety scores. Patient-tailored psychological support should be a mainstay of comprehensive antenatal medical care in order to avoid anxiety- related complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Synthesis, Anti-inflammatory & Anticonvulsant Activity of Substituted Heterocyclic Compounds

Prajakta V. Adsule, Anuruddha R. Chabukswar, Rajesh Nanaware

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 96-111
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33100

Aim: To design, synthesize, anti-inflammatory & anticonvulsant activity of substituted coumarin acetohydrazide derivatives.

Study Design: Experimental work related to Anti-inflammatory & Anticonvulsant activity.

Methodology: Coumarin acetohydrazide derivatives were synthesized by reacting substituted isatin with 7-hydroxy-4-methyl-coumarin in glacial acetic acid to determine their anti-inflammatory & anticonvulsant activities. Molecular docking study was performed against the COX enzyme for anti-inflammatory activity & carbonic anhydrase II enzyme for anticonvulsant activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was done by carrageenan induced paw edema method in rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. Anticonvulsant activity was studied in rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight; in the maximal electroshock (MES) induced seizures model.

Results: (Z)-2-(4,8-dimethyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)oxy)-N-(5-nitro-2-oxoindolin-3-ylidine) aceto-hydrazide and (Z)-2-(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7yl) oxy)-N-(1-methyl-2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene) acetohydrazide showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity as compared to Celecoxib after 5 h with 71.94 to 77.96 % inhibition. Most of the compounds displayed anticonvulsant activity in the MES screen at a dose 200 mg/kg. Out of twelve compounds (Z)-N-(5-chloro-2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)-2-((4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl) oxy) acetohydrazide and (Z)-2-((4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7yl) oxy)-N-(1-methyl-2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene) acetohydrazide shown most significant activity with remarkable protection (67%) against MES induced convulsions. The structure-activity relationship concluded valuable pharmacophoric information, that the substitution on isatin ring has a significant effect on preventing inflammation & the seizure formation.

Conclusion: From the molecular docking study & biological activity determines that all synthesized coumarin acetohydrazide derivatives shows anti-inflammatory activity as compared to Celecoxib & anticonvulsant activity as compared to Phenytoin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Methylene Blue Dye Degradation Using Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Andographis Paniculata Leaves Extract

. Noorafsha, Shraddha Shukla, Anil Kashyap, Anupama Kashyap, Damini Vishwakarma, Anju Maholiya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 131-139
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33103

Today, the ejection of hazardous dyes from textile industries in water reservoirs like rivers, lakes and groundwater has become a severe problem. To remove these pollutants is challenging by classical water treatment procedures. Thus, for effluent treatment, we need a more convenient method. Here, we describe use of green synthesized silver nanoparticles in the degradation of precarious dye like methylene blue. The silver nanoparticles synthesized from leaves extract of andographis paniculata which act as a nanocatalyst. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the reduction of silver ions are studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy (Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy) and FT-IR spectroscopy (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy) respectively. Organic compounds are responsible for the capping and reduction of silver nanoparticles, according to Fourier Transform infrared spectra. The report accentuate that the AgNPs examined to be an effective catalyst for reduction of precarious dyes nearly 84% at 16 hrs of exposure time.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Assess the Level of Anxiety and Coping Strategies Adopted by Antenatal Mothers

Roshani Warghane, Shalini Moon, Manjusha Mahakarkar, Archana Teltumade, Vaishali Taksande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 150-156
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33106

Background: Premature birth, a higher risk of developing hypertension and preeclampsia, and an increased risk of miscarriage or stillbirth have all been linked to general prenatal stress, according to numerous research. The link between pregnancy-related anxiety and negative pregnancy outcomes is well-established. Anxiety disorders are seen in 10% and 25% of pregnant women in industrialised and developing nations, respectively.

Objective of the Study: 1.To assess the level of anxiety among antenatal mothers. 2. To assess the level of coping strategies among antenatal mothers, 3. To correlate anxiety and coping strategy of antenatal mothers. 4. To associate anxiety and coping strategy among antenatal mothers with demographic variables.

Materials and Methods: A Descriptive research design study was undertaken to assess the level of anxiety and coping strategies adopted by antenatal mothers. In this study a total number of 100women who fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected. Modified anxiety rating scale and modified coping strategies scale was used.

Results: This study conclude that 3% antenatal mothers have mild severity, 82% antenatal mothers have the moderate severity of anxiety and 15% antenatal mother have the moderate to severe severity. It means maximum antenatal mother have the moderate severity of anxiety.

Conclusion: There is negative correlation was found between coping strategy and anxiety score of antenatal mothers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cytotoxic Potential of Ficus palmata Extracts on Lung Cancer Cell Lines (A549)

Mohammed Alsaweed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 175-182
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33110

Cancer accounts for 10 million deaths globally whereas the treatments available either have several side effects or non-effective due to multi-drug resistant property of cancer cells for long term use. Therefore, it is utmost important to find safe therapeutic drugs that have cytotoxic potentials against cancer cells. Medicinal plants are believed to have lesser side effects with huge therapeutic efficacy. One such species is Ficus palmata which is known to have several medicinal properties and great antioxidant potentials. Earlier it was reported that methanolic extract of leaves (FPLM) and aqueous extract stembark (FPBA) of this plant have decent antioxidant properties. Therefore, the anticancer potentials of these plant extracts have been evaluated in addition of hydroxyl radical scavenging property. The results shown that FPBA represents higher antioxidant (IC50 value= 242.46±11.26 µg/ml) and anticancer effects against lung cancer (A549) cell lines (IC50 value= 69.74±2.12) whereas this plant extract have lower toxicity (IC50 value= 249.61±7.31) on normal cell lines (3T3-L1) which indicate that FPBA can be a potential therapeutic option for cancer and oxidative stress. The study concluded that the stem bark aqueous extract having therapeutic properties against lung cancer. It is to be recommended that the bioactive compound responsible for its therapeutic properties need to explore against cancer cell by evaluating various other parameters such as apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and toxic effect on cell morphology.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Assessment of the Relationship among Bilirubin in Cord Blood and Venous Blood during the Intensive Care Unit Stay of Infants with Jaundice

Amina Shabbir, Sheeza Tahir, Ansa Mehmood, Fatima Maham Iqtidar, Iza Babar, Muhammad Arslan Babar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 195-199
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33111

Aim: Newborn babies who are released from the hospital at a younger postnatal age are more likely to be hospitalized to the nursery due to neonatal jaundice. This readmission is undoubtedly a significant source of strain in the nurseries, but it may be addressed by adequate assessment prior dismissing the newborn. The purpose of this study was to see if there was a link among cord blood bilirubin and vein bilirubin on the third day of life.

Methods: On 120 healthy term newborns, a cross-sectional description research was conducted. Blood was drawn from the child's cord right after birth, whether vaginally or through caesarean surgery, for total serum bilirubin, unconjugated serum bilirubin levels, and conjugated serum bilirubin levels. On the third day (72 hours), a second serum blood sample is obtained from peripheral venous blood, and total serum bilirubin, unconjugated serum bilirubin, and conjugated serum bilirubin levels are measured again. The research was carried out over a one-year period, from March 2020 to February 2021.

Results: The babies were divided into two groups: those with hyperbilirubinemia and those without. The findings acquired from aggregate and stratified samples demonstrate a significant association 0.542 and P-value 0.001 among serum cord blood bilirubin and peripheral venous blood bilirubin.

Conclusion: There is a link among elevated bilirubin levels in normal infants born and serum cord blood bilirubin levels. The increase in serum cord blood bilirubin levels correlates with both the increase in peripheral venous blood bilirubin on the third day of life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Visible Quantitative Methods for the Estimation of Furosemide in Pure form and Pharmaceutical Formulations

Basima A. A. Saleem, Enaam A. Hamdon, Sahbaa Y. Majeed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 200-209
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33113

Aims: Design of technical methods for the determination of Furosemide in its pure and pharmaceutical dosage form using spectral methods.

Study Design: planned and executed to estimate Furosemide by using Visible spectrophotometric in pure and pharmaceutical dosage form.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Analytical Research, chemistry department, college of Science, University of Mosul ,Mosul-Iraq, during the period of April 2021 to August 2021.

Methodology: Furosemide, the commercially known drug Lazix, which is important in the treatment of heart diseases and high blood pressure. This study was carried out using JASCO V – 630, double-beam computerized UV-Visible spectrophotometer, with 1 cm matched cell, and HANA pH meter was used for reported pH readings.

Results: The reaction between Furosemide and bromo-phenol blue, xylenol orange, and chromazorol S. The decreasing in the intensity of the resulted colored complex was measured using bromo-phenol blue, xylenol orange, While the increasing of the color intensity was measured in the method (C). These three methods were based on charge transfer reaction. The limits of Beer's law for method (A) 0.4-32µg. mL-1, method (B) 1-32 and method (C) were 0.8-32 depending on the level of concentration, while the values ​​of the molar absorption coefficient 1.4×104, 2.1×104 and 1.57×104 for the first, second and third method respectively. Sandel's significance also was calculated for these three methods, 0.0157 μ for the first method, 0.0236 μ for the second method, while the third method was 0.0210 μ The method has been successfully applied for the determination of furosemide in its pure form and in some of its pharmaceutical preparations

Conclusion: The proposed methods were validated in terms of linearity, range, Accuracy, precision, Specificity, Robustness. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the estimation of Furosemide in pharmaceutical dosage form, method (B) was experimentally considered as a best method depending on the best values of molar absorptivity, stability of the resulted complex, and the linearity of the method (B) .

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Healthcare Professional’s Knowledge and Attitude towards Telemedicine in Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh

Prerana Dongre, Aparna Nimmagadda, Meenal Kulkarni, Shivani Jadhav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 215-224
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33115

Introduction: In India modern service delivery technologies like telemedicine are emerging promptly in healthcare sector. Successful implementation and utilization of novel technology hinges on several significant aspects together with knowledge, and attitude regarding technology and its user operating environment.

Aim: Primary objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude of health professionals towards telemedicine in Vijayawada division of Andhra Pradesh state of India.

Methods: A randomized survey was conducted among healthcare professionals. A total of 123 respondents from medical and para-medical departments have participated in the study. A well-defined questionnaire was utilized to determine the knowledge and attitude of respondents about telemedicine. Data is entered and analysed using MS Excel 365 and SPSS 20.  Pearson Correlation test was used to test the correlation between knowledge and attitude and Chi-Square test to assess the significant differences amongst gender and respondent’s knowledge, and between gender and attitude of respondents about telemedicine. < 0.05 was considered as significant P-value.

Results: 52.57% respondents had good knowledge level, of which 54.34% were males, there was no significant difference between respondent’s gender and their level knowledge with respect to telemedicine. Regarding attitude towards telemedicine 57.45% respondents had positive attitude towards telemedicine. Also, there was no significant difference between gender and attitude of respondents towards telemedicine. The Pearson Correlation value 0.699 indicates that a positive correlation exists between Knowledge and Attitude.

Conclusion: Outcomes of the analysis indicate that though the respondent’s knowledge about telemedicine is average. Majority of respondents had positive attitude about telemedicine. COVID 19 has brought more light on telemedicine, and at this period it is very important to consider creating awareness and training the users as abundant knowledge and optimistic attitude towards the technology are significant factors to for any healthcare professional to implement and practice telemedicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Baclofen Prescribing in the Outpatient Setting in Al-KhArj

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 225-229
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33117

Aim: This study aimed to know the prescribing pattern of baclofen in the outpatient setting in Al-Kharj.

Methodology: This retrospective study was conducted to know the prescribing pattern of baclofen in the outpatient setting in Al-Kharj in 2018. The data were collected and analyzed using Excel and represented as frequencies and percentages.

Results: From January to June 2018, about 30.43% of the prescriptions were prescribed by orthopedic department, 28.99% were prescribed by emergency department and about 78.26% of the prescriptions were prescribed by residents. More than 76% of the prescriptions were prescribed by residents in the second phase of the study between July/2018 to December/2018. Moreover, about 40.71% of the prescriptions were prescribed by emergency department and about 26.43% were prescribed by orthopedic department.

Conclusion: Baclofen use is uncommon in our regionin contrast to the global increase in the use of baclofen. It is important to increase the awareness of health care providers about the appropriate use of baclofen and they should educate the patients about its correct use.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Frequency of Diabetes Related Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes a Case Study of Tertiary Care Hospital

Nadeem Baloch, Ali Gul, Waseem Sarwar Bhatti, Inayatullah Magsi, Yaser M Alahmadi, Abdulaziz Jafar Almusalam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 230-235
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33118

Introduction: The peoples suffering from diabetes are at greater risk for leading to diabetes related complication due to improper glycemic control resulting in micro or macrovascular complication.

Methods: A descriptive survey based study was conducted. A total of 400 patients were interviewed by purposive sampling with their written information using series of questions with the help of a structured questionnaire. All the data was evaluated and results were given on percentage basis through SPSS20.00. 

Inclusion criteria were all diabetic patients having age between 30 years to 80 years.

Exclusion criteria were diabetic patient with chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease, alcohol misuse, pregnancy, lactating mother.

Results: 306 (76%) patients were visit the hospital with some diabetic associated complications. 74 (24%) from diabetic nephropathy, 76 (26%) with diabetic retinopathy and 153(50%) with diabetic neuropathy.

Conclusion: Diabetic Associated Complications were more in patients who were taking oral hypoglycemic agents as compare to insulin.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Compliance of Healthcare Providers to Care Bundles in a Tertiary Hospital in Riyadh Region

Nehad J. Ahmed, Abdul Haseeb, Amer H. Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 236-241
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33119

This study aimed to describe the compliance rate of healthcare providers to care bundles in a tertiary hospital in Riyadh Region. The overall compliance rate of hand hygiene was low (less than 80%). The overall compliance rates of urinary catheter bundle, central line insertion bundle, and central line maintenance bundle were high (more than 95 %). The compliance rate to SSI bundle, ventilator bundle, safe injection practice, and using personal protective equipment was high. It is important to increase the compliance rate of the care bundles elements to 95 percent or greater, particularly the compliance to hand hygiene to improve patient care.

Open Access Original Research Article

Plasma Level of Macromolecules and Mathematical Calculation of Potential Energy in Type 2 Diabetic Individuals at NAUTH, Nnewi, Nigeria

Uchenna Modestus Ezugwu, Chinedum Charles Onyenekwe, Nkiruka Rose Ukibe, Joseph E. Ahaneku, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 242-248
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33120

Diabetes mellitus is associated with neutered metabolism and higher Energy Expenditure. This study aimed on the use of Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), AcetylCo-enzyme A (ACA) and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NADH) as an index of energy utilization, storage and energy balance in Diabetic individuals. This is a longitudinal, prospective, case-controlled study involving seventy seven (77) diabetic individuals newly diagnosed attending diabetic clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) aged 18-60 years both male and female not on anti-diabetic drug, were enrolled in the study as test subjects and thirty six (36) apparently healthy non-diabetic individuals both male and female as control subjects. ADP, FAD, ACA and NADH were estimated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while, energy balance from macromolecules was determined by calculation. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software application (version 21.0) and the results expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The Plasma Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), AcetylCo-enzymeA (ACA) and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NADH), were significantly lower (P<0.05) in both Diabetic pre-treatment and diabetic post-treatment group compared with control groups. Furthermore, the plasma level of ACA and NADH were significantly lower (P<0.05) in DM pre-treatment group compared with DM post-treatment group. While, the plasma concentration of ADP was significantly lower in DM post-treatment groups compared with DM pre-treatment groups. However, the Calculated energy from Macromolecules was lower (P<0.05) in DM groups compared with control group. Meanwhile, the calculated energy from Macromolecules in DM pre-treatment was significantly lower (P<0.05) compared with DM post-treatment. In conclusion, the significant changes in the biochemical parameters measured suggest altered metabolism, increased energy expenditure and energy deficit/energy imbalance in diabetic subjects resulting from increased energy expenditure. Hence, energy from macromolecules such as ADP, FAD, ACA and NADH can be used to predict early energy deficit and manage energy imbalance in diabetic individuals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Sargassum wightii Methanolic Extract on L-Methionine Induced Experimental Vascular Dementia like Syndrome in Albino Wistar Rats

Sradhasini Rout, Bandana Rath, Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Ishani Rath, Anjan Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 255-264
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33122

Sargassum wightii is brown seaweeds with high nutritive value with natural bioactive compounds having diverse therapeutic activity. In recent years, research on Sargassum wightii has gain much interest in neuropharmacological field. Basing on neuroprotective effect of Sargassum wightii against Parkinson’s disease animal models, the possible protective effect on dementia is hypothesised. Addressing this question the present study was designed to investigate the effect of S. wightii on L-methionine induced vascular dementia like syndrome in male wistar albino rats. Vascular dementia was induced by oral administration of L-methionine (1.7 g/kg) per body weight for 4weeks S. wightii was given from day1 to day32. The neurobehavioral assessment was performed by Morris water maze test for learning and memory ability and blood sample was collected for serum nitrite and homocysteine analysis. The whole brain content was subjected to a series of biochemical analysis that included brain cholinesterase, malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and histopathological examination. L-methionine impaired learning and memory, increased serum homocysteine and decreased serum nitrite level significantly (p<0.001). It also increased brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione and increased acetylcholinesterase activity significantly (p<0.001). Sargassum wightii at 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weight reversed the L-methionine induced learning and memory deficits (p<0.01) and (p<0.001) respectively. The L-methionine induced biochemical alterations in serum and brain as well as histopathological aberration in cortex and hippocampus were restored by Sargassum wightii (p<0.01). This study concluded that Sargassum wightii ameliorated L-methionine induced vascular dementia like syndrome and provided a new concept in anti-dementia therapy as a neuroprotectants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitory Potential of Combination of Macrolide Antibiotic with Conventional Chemotherapeutic Agent Sorafenib on Growth Rate of Cancer Cell Population

Dabeeran Zehra, Shumaila Usman, Kauser Ismail, Syed Saud Hasan, Urooj Zafar, Syed Faizan Ali Rizvi, Nabila Rasheed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 274-279
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33124

Over the past few years great progress has been achieved in anticancer therapy, but development of resistance and unavoidable side effects have incapacitated these fulfilments. Keeping in view this demanding condition, numerous drugs with unique antitumor mechanisms are under investigations including antimicrobials which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and cytotoxic effects. In this regard, both conventional and novel antimicrobials are being studied to explore their anticancer potential along with underlying mechanisms which may render them as effective anticancer drugs in near future. Moreover, the new approach of drug repurposing is also being encouraged especially in cancers in order to reduce cost and limit adverse effects. In recent times a cumulative number of studies have laid stress upon the antitumor properties of antimicrobials. Consequently, this study has been conducted to see comparative inhibitory effect of Sorafenib and its combination with a macrolide antibiotic Azithromycin on growth rate HepG2 cell line. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation the Effects of Phenylephrine on Oxytocin-Induced Hemodynamic Changes in Women Undergoing Cesarean Section

Lida Nouri, Niloofar Bakhtar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 280-286
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33125

Pregnancy is considered as one of the most important events in every woman's life, which is not a pleasant event for all women, and in cases where the stages are not managed properly, it can cause a lot of stress on the mother and her family. For this reason, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of phenylephrine on oxytocin-induced hemodynamic changes. This study was conducted on a group of pregnant women referred to Ayatollah Taleghani Hospital in Ilam and those undergoing cesarean section were included in the study. The objectives of the study explained to the women participating in the study, whether the participation was voluntary or not to participate in the intervention, compliance with the Helsinki and Belmont Declaration, and confidentiality of information. The women included in the study were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The checklists of the researchers were completed by observing and asking the patients from the time the patient entered the hospital until the end of the surgery. The variables expected by the researchers were evaluated before the intervention and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 minutes after the intervention. In the experimental group, 12 (30%) patients had no nausea, 18 (45%) patients had low nausea, 8 (20%) patients had moderate nausea and 2 (5%) patients had severe nausea. While in the control group, 5 (12.5%) patients had no nausea, 13 (32.5%) patients had low nausea, 14 (35%) patients had moderate nausea and 8 (20%) patients had severe nausea. Also, a significant difference was between in the experimental and control groups in terms of nausea (P = 0.02). The study results showed that using phenylephrine can be effective on improving blood pressure, heart rate, nausea and vomiting in patients, which for this reason it is recommended to use this drug to improve the health of women undergoing cesarean section.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Prescribing of Artificial Tears Eye Drops in the Outpatient Setting

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 287-291
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33126

Aim: The aim of the present study was to describe the prescribing of artificial tears eye drops in the outpatient setting in Al-Kharj.

Methodology: This was a retrospective study that was conducted at the outpatient setting in a public hospital in Al-Kharj city. The study included reviewing the outpatient electronic prescriptions.

Results: Most of the prescriptions that include artificial tears eye drops between January/2018 to June/2018 were prescribed by residents (88.06%) and about 86.57% of the prescriptions were prescribed by ophthalmology department. In the period between July/2018 to December/2018, About 94.12% of the prescribers who prescribed artificial tears eye drops were residents and about 84.56% of the prescriptions were prescribed by ophthalmology department.

Conclusion: Artificial tears were prescribed frequently in the outpatient setting and could cause adverse events for some patients. So, it is also important to increase the awareness of healthcare providers and patients about the appropriate use of artificial tears.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determining the Glycemic Index of Nutritional Product for Diabetes Mellitus- Np through Measuring Glycemic Responses to Reference Food (Glucose) and Test Food (Nutritional product -Np)

Nguyen Thi Diep Anh, Nguyen Trong Hung, Tran Thi Tra Phuong, Le Thi Hang, Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy, Vu Thi Thu Hien, Bui Thi Thuy, Ngo Thi Thu Huyen, Le Thi Tuyet Nhung, Nguyen Thi Luong Hanh, Tu Thi Mai, Truong Tuyet Mai, Nguyen Hong Truong, Le Danh Tuyen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 298-307
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33128

The objective was to determine the glycemic index (GI) of Nutritional product for Diabetes Mellitus through measuring glycemic responses to reference food (Glucose) and test among nutritional product 13 participants. The study was a self-controlled clinical trial with 13 qualified participants (8 men and 5 women). They were required to go through the study protocol with reference food and test food. For each individual, seven blood samples were taken in the fasting state and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ingestion. Our results show that at all measurement points, the blood glucose levels after consumption of test food were lower than after consumption of reference food. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) and a GI value of Nutritional product (NP) were calculated for each meal. Mean ± SD of GI value was calculated for test food for the combined group of subjects. Mean iAUC and GI value of Nutritional product were 62,1 ± 12,5 mmol·min/L and 44,9 ± 7,2, significantly lower to those of reference food, which were 132,6 ± 14,8 mmol·min/L and 100, respectively. Finding from the study demonstrated that Nutritional product (GI = 44,9) would be classified as a low – GI food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Level of Anxiety among the Mothers of Preterm Newborn Admitted in Nicu Ward

Rupal Patel, Nirali Soni, Krishna Patel, Mahima Patel, Mansi Patel, Megha Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 308-312
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33129

Background: Premature birth has a great impact on the parents. In India, 27 million babies are born each year out of which 3.5 million babies are born premature. This study included premature infants <37 weeks of gestation. Preterm birth may have a negative impact on parents’ experience as well In fact, the premature birth of the baby suddenly interrupts the building of parents’ mental representations and expectations.

Aim and Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the level of anxiety among the mothers of preterm newborn admitted in NICU ward and to find out the association between the level of anxiety among the mothers of preterm newborn with their demographic variable.

Design and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out on 50 mothers of premature newborn.  Who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of selected hospital, vadodara. Purposive sampling technique was used to collect the data. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyses the data by using SPSS-20 software. The samples in this study was selected by non randomised sampling technique. Mothers anxiety regarding the newborn were determined by Hamilton anxiety rating scale. Data was collected by applying Inclusion Criteria like Mothers of preterm who were willing to participate , who were admitted in the hospital.

Results: The majority of mothers the study finding of qualitative data reveals that the mothers level of anxiety 10% mild, 10% moderate, 22% severe, 58% very severe. The linear regression analysis showed that anxiety level was at significance of 0.05 level. Association between age and birth weight in demographic variables.

 Conclusion: The present study concluded level of anxiety 10% mothers of having mild anxiety, 10% were having moderate anxiety, 22% were having severe anxiety, 58% were having very severe anxiety. The linear regression analysis showed that anxiety level was at significance of 0.05 level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Awareness about the Connection between Lifestyle and Dementia among Adolescents

Dev Arora, R. Gayatri Devi, A. Jothi Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 313-321
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33130

Background and Aim: Dementia is a group of symptoms characterized by memory loss, judgemental loss, forgetfulness. Dementia cannot be cured; but can be prevented. There are seven stages of Dementia, no cognitive decline being the first stage to very severe cognitive decline being the seventh stage. Healthy lifestyle is important for lower risk of Dementia. Smoking, consumption of alcohol, negative thinking, depression, stress, anxiety, lack of sleep, unhealthy diet causes Dementia. Diet plays a very important role in prevention of dementia; foods such as red meat, sugar, fatty foods can increase the risk of dementia whereas foods rich in fibres, fruits can reduce the risk of Dementia. The main aim of this study is to assess the knowledge about lifestyle and dementia.

Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional survey. 121 adolescents of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai participated in the survey which was conducted through Google forms in February 2021. The questionnaire consisted of 19 questions. The data was analyzed with the help of SPSS software and chi-square test was done for the correlation between gender and awareness. Chi-square test was done for the correlation of gender with awareness among the population. ‘p-value’ was calculated and value < 0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: Out of that 62 were females and 59 were males. Females were more aware about healthy lifestyles and its connection with dementia than males. 92.56% of people were aware that physical activity promotes a healthy brain. 69.2% agreed that depression can increase risk of Dementia. Majority of them agreed that physical exercise can promote a healthy brain.

Conclusion: This study revealed that lifestyle is highly associated with dementia among adolescents. Healthy lifestyle leads to lower risk of dementia even if there’s high genetic risk. Females were aware about the diet which is healthy for lower risk of dementia and more smoking affects the memory. However, most of the people were neutral about the relation between BMI and Dementia.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation of Visual Perception Visual Memory Cognitive Functions and Emotional Status among Genders in Elderly Subjects

A. Ruhina, G. Sridevi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 330-336
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33132

Background: Gender differences in visual memory and perception and cognitive test performance have been significantly influenced by factors like sex

Objective: The current study aimed to evaluate the gender differences in patterns of cognitive test performance and visual perception in healthy elderly individuals.

Methods: Cognitive functions and visual perception was analyzed using clock drawing test and picture identification test in 20 elderly men and women (10 each) and their emotional status was assessed using depression scale

Results: The results revealed that females had a better visual memory and depth perception compared to men and the value was statistically significant at p<0.05. Females performed better than men on tests of Picture identification and were better in phonemic verbal skills compared to male men and the value was statistically significant at p<0.05

Conclusion: The present study concluded an innovative finding that women were better in their performance related to visual depth perception and cognitive functions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Histopathological Changes on Testes, Liver, Kidney and Brain Tissues in Acute Boric Acid Administration

Dursun Figen Emeksiz Ayranci, Unal Ozelmas, Unal Ayranci

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 337-346
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33133

Introduction: In recent years as a result of the observation that the toxic effects of boron and its products have increased intensive studies have been initiated in our country and in the world regarding its effects, especially in the central nervous system, digestive system and reproductive system. The aim was to determine the histopathological changes caused by boric acid in rat testis, liver, kidney and brain tissues by light microscopy after oral administration of toxic dose of acute boric acid.

Material and Methods: In the study, 1000 mg/kg/day boric acid was given orally for 7 days to 12-week-old 30 male albino SpragueDawley rats in total with an average weight of 285 g. Twelve male albino Sprague-Dawley rats of approximately the same weight and age were used as controls. At the end of the seventh day testes, liver, kidney and brain tissues were isolated from the animals.

Results: At the end of the experiment, it was determined that the experimental group had significant body weight loss compared to the control group. Likewise, testicular, liver and kidney weights of the experimental group were decreased compared to the controls. In the histopathological examination performed with light microscopy in the testis, liver, kidney and brain tissues taken, congestion in the vascular bed of the testicular tissue and cellular degeneration at different rates were observed in paraffin sections and semi-thin sections.

Conclusion: It was observed that acute boric acid administration, together with its widespread toxic effect, caused histopathological changes by inhibiting spermatogenesis, especially in testicular tissue.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Awareness on Effect of Air Pollution on Children among Parents

B. Ashwin Krishna, R. Gayatri Devi, A. Jothi Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 347-354
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33134

Introduction: The World Health Organisation [WHO] recommended that breathing clean air reduces the risk of diseases such as Asthma and Lung cancer. Inhaling low quality of air causes several health problems such as headaches, nausea and tiredness. The main aim of this study is to create awareness among parents about the effect of air pollution on children.

Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional survey study. The standard questionnaire was prepared and distributed as Google forms to nearly 100-120 parents. The population was randomly selected. A self-administered structured questionnaire was prepared based on Knowledge attitude and awareness on effects of air pollution on children among parents. It was circulated to participants through an online platform (google forms). The statistics were done using SPSS software, chi square test was used to check the association and P value of 0.05% was said to be statistically significant.

Results: 78.53% of the populations were aware that air pollution affects cognitive ability. 50.98% of the population responded that exposure of polluted air to pregnant female’s cause’s premature birth. 45.28% of females were aware that air pollution affects neutron development in the brain. As a result of this study most of the parents were aware about air pollution and its effects on their children.

Conclusion: In this study females were slightly more aware about air pollution than males. If this awareness persists among all the people in the society many harmful effects such as air pollution and other related problems can be solved.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Tactile Sensation by Two Point Discrimination among 18 Years Old People

K. Uma Maheswari, R. Gayatri Devi, A. Jothi Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 355-363
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33135

Two point discrimination (TPD) is used to distinguish the two point discriminative sense. TPD is most commonly used as neurosensory tests in clinical settings. In tactile sensation, the sensory receptors from the skin reach the somatosensory system and stimulate mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, pain receptors, and proprioceptors to give the response to the respective stimuli. The present study was aim to assess the value of tactiles sensation by two point discrimination test among 18 years people. 18 years old people among the normal population were selected, consisting of 17 males and 33 females. 6 sensory areas were selected for the test. Test performed on six regions of the body like fingertips, fingers, palm, forehead, forearm, back of palm. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed by independent t test. The ability to distinguish the two point discrimination was estimated in millimeters by using a simple hand operated device. The main findings of the study are that females were more sensitive than males in TPD perception.TPD perception was more among 18 years old. The TPD values are more in females when compared to males. The normative values of two point discrimination among 18 years people were established. This study concluded that fingertips in females were more sensitive than other parts of the body.

Open Access Original Research Article

Virtual Screening to Identify the Protein Network Interaction of Triclosan in Red Complex Pathogens

N. V. Hemanth Ragav, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini, A. S. Smiline Girija, P. Sankar Ganesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 376-383
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33137

Background: Antimicrobial drug resistance is the major problem encountered world-wide. Novel therapeutic leads have been identified and are regularly tested for their activity against microbial pathogens.

Aim: To identify the protein network interactions of triclosan in red complex pathogens.

Materials and Methods: The present study follows an observational study design which aims to screen for the interaction of triclosan in red complex pathogens. The interaction was analyzed using the STITCH v.5 pipeline. The functional class of proteins identified were assessed using VICMPred and VirulentPred softwares. The microbial pathogens Treponema denticola ATCC 35405, Tannerella forsythia ATCC 43037, Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 are the strains of red complex pathogens that are included in the present study.

Results and Discussion: Several proteins were found to interact with triclosan. Among the protein interactions, interactions of triclosan with virulent proteins seems to have a greater impact. The NAD-dependent nucleotide-diphosphate-sugar epimerase [PGN_1370], Putative NAD dependent epimerase [PGN_1886], GDP-fucose synthetase [PGN_1079], Probable oxidoreductase [PGN_1360] of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Conserved hypothetical protein [TDE_2401],  Epimerase/dehydratase family protein [TDE_1439] of Treponema denticola, NAD dependent epimerase/dehydratase family protein [BFO_2919], Hypothetical protein [BFO_1782],  Nitroreductase family protein [BFO_1604] and Nitroreductase family protein [BFO_1516] Tannerella forsythia were found to be exhibit virulence nature.

Conclusion: This study identifies the molecular targets of triclosan on red complex pathogens. As triclosan interacts with the red complex pathogens, in future it can be used as a primary medicine for periodontitis and some oral conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey on HBV Immunisation Status among the Dental Practitioners

R. N. Arun Kishore, N. P. Muralidharan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 391-403
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33139

Introduction: There are more than 2 billion people worldwide who have evident recent or past HBV infection and chronic cases. Hepatitis B, C and D are transmitted by parental contact with infected body fluids including blood, semen, saliva , sweat and tears , invasive medical procedures using equipment which are contaminated with the virus , vertical transmission. Hepatitis B vaccine is a vaccine that prevents hepatitis B. The first dose is recommended within 24 hours of birth with either two or three more doses given after that. This includes those with immunisation such as from AIDS/HIV and those born premature. It is also recommended that health-care workers be vaccinated. In healthy people routine immunisation results in more than 96% of the people being protected.

Aim: The aim of this study is to know the immunisation status and knowledge and awareness among dental practitioners.

Materials and Methods: A survey was designed to analyse the result. The questionnaire was prepared in Google Forms (online survey link) and was distributed to 100 dental practitioners. The responses were then collected and statistically analysed using SPSS software.

Results and Discussion: After discussing the results of the present study, it was seen that many were aware of hepatitis B vaccine. Limitations of this are that the population is small. Limitations seen in this study can be included in future research for better spread of awareness among the general public.

Conclusion: From the study we can conclude that the majority of the dental practitioners are aware of hepatitis B vaccine and are aware of their vaccination status of hepatitis B.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Structured Teaching Programme on Prevention of Malnutrition among Mothers in Kota, Experimental Study

Shailvina D. Masih, C. C. Linson

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 404-413
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33140

The mother is the sole provider of primary care for her child for the first five years of his or her life. Her ability to provide treatment is primarily dictated by her knowledge and understanding of basic nutrition and health care. The numbers would improve dramatically if mothers were made more aware of infant feeding strategies and other health-care practices. Impact of STP on knowledge and prevention of malnutrition among mothers of children under the age of five in selected areas of Kota (C.G.). The convenient sampling technique and interview schedule was used in the study. The findings are about 58% of mothers of under-five children were less than 20 years of age, 65% of the mothers of under-five children belong to Hindu religion, 52% mothers of under-five children were taking mixed diet, 75% mothers were from the joint family, 62% of the mothers had a family income of 1000-3000 per month, 65% mothers took primary education, 92% mothers had one child in the family, 88% children were partially immunized, 30% mother got the knowledge from the mass media. In pre-test 5 (10%) of mothers had moderately adequate knowledge and 45 (90%) had inadequate knowledge regarding prevention of malnutrition among under five children. In the post-test 36 (78%) mothers had moderately adequate knowledge where as 12 (24%) had inadequate knowledge regarding prevention of malnutrition among under five children. This shows that there is significant increase in post test knowledge score of mothers. Hence, STP is proved to be significantly effective in improving the knowledge of  mothers of under five children regarding prevention of protein energy malnutrition. Study concluded that H0 was rejected.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assess the Awareness on Ill Effect of Electronic Waste on Health among General Population of Selected Urban Community

Julie Vanlalsawmi, Pratibha Wankhede, Madhuri Shambharkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 426-430
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33142

Background: "Electronic wastes" are discarded electrical or electronic devices which includes used electronics which are destined for reuse, resale, salvage, recycling, or disposal [1] Per year approximately 20-50 million tons of Electronic Waste are disposed of globally [2]. The effects of these electronic materials are far worse in counties liked India where most of the people are having poor economic status that leads to engagement in picking up and recycling of trash cans and other dumps and they are not equipped with any proper protective measures [3]. Electronic waste is emerging as a serious public health and environmental issue in India. India is the "fifth largest electronic waste producer in the world"; approximately 2 million tons of e-waste are generated annually and an undisclosed amount of e-waste is imported from other countries around the world [4]

Objectives: 1. To assess the awareness on ill effect of electronic waste among general population of selected urban community. 2. To associate the awareness on ill effect of electronic waste on health among selected urban community with a selected demographic variable.

Material and Methods: Research Approach: Quantitative Research Approach.

Research Design: Descriptive Research Design.

Setting of the study: The study was conducted at Aarvi Naka, Wardha. Population- General population of Aarvi Naka.

Sampling Technique: Non-Probability Sampling Technique.

Sample Size- 100.

Result: The result shows that 18% of the general population had poor level of awareness score, 38% had low level of awareness, 30% had average level of awareness and 14% of general population had high level of awareness score. Mean awareness score was 9.51±3.98 and mean percentage of awareness score was 47.55 ± 19.94. While dealing with the association of awareness score with their demographic variables, age in years of general population from selected urban community is statistically associated with their awareness score (p=0.05). Conclusion: In this study the findings of the study shows that there is no significant association of awareness level on ill effect of electronic waste on health with the demographic variables like gender, educational status, religion, occupation, monthly family income, marital status and home ownership; but there is a significant relationship with age of the corresponding samples.

Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Analysis of a Novel Peptide Vaccine against Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

R. Sundar, P. Sankar Ganesh, A. S. Smiline Girija, J. Vijayashree Priyadharshini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 414-425
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33141

Background : Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is a major global health problem and the most serious type of viral hepatitis. It can cause chronic liver disease and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer. HBV is found in highest concentrations in blood and in lower concentrations in other body fluids.

Methods: Target protein was retrieved from the swissprot database. Epitopes were predicted using the BCEPRED server. After running the BLAST algorithm for the target protein, the template with the best identity was selected. After modeling, target protein is verified by using the swiss model workspace and after this process the obtained target protein is allowed to interact with the MHC which is studied by using patchdock, finally these results were viewed by using the deepview tool.

Results: The target protein for vaccine development was downloaded from the SwissProt database. Its SwissProt ID was p29178. The protein was isolated from hepatitis B virus genotype G. The virus was isolated from the United States of America. The length of the target protein was found to be 195 amino acids. To confirm that the target protein could be used for vaccine development, the Presence of epitopes in the protein was confirmed using the BCEPRED tool. Results from the SAVS server showed 95.80 of the residues of the protein had an average 3D-1D score greater than 0.2. The protein attained a pass with an ERRAT value of 90.299.

Conclusion: The present investigation recognized the promising complex formed between the HBV peptide and MHC molecules. All the downloaded MHC molecules were found to interact with the target protein through the formation of hydrogen bonds. Since these interactions are necessary during an immune response to invading pathogens, the target protein would ultimately trigger an immune response if it is administered as a vaccine for Hepatitis B virus genotype G.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Compare the Efficacy of Betamethasone Gel and Lignocaine Gel Applied over Endotracheal Tube to Reduce Post Operative Sore Throat and Cough

S. Imayaval, K. V. L. Sanjana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 469-475
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33145

Background: Post-operative sore throat, cough and hoarseness of the voice are often common, uncomfortable sequelae after tracheal intubation with inflammation being the most common pathogenesis. Post operative sore throat and cough has a multifactorial aetiology that includes patient-related factors such as age, sex, and smoking, as well as intubation factors such as technique, duration, tube size, intracuff pressure, cuff design, trauma to the pharyngolaryngeal mucosa and various factors.

Objectives: To compare the incidence of post operative sore throat, cough after endotracheal tube intubation when applying betamethasone gel and lignocaine jelly.

Materials and Methods: At Saveetha Medical College and Hospital in Thandalam, Chennai, a prospective controlled double blinded study was done among patients who were scheduled for elective procedures under general anaesthesia with orotracheal intubation. The study comprised 60 patients who met the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria. The 60 patients were divided into two study groups each enrolled with 30 patients. Before the study could begin, approval from the institutional research board was required. Before the study began, an informed, written consent was obtained. The method used was Qualitative observational randomised double blind study by using a computer-generated random number table and the sealed envelope approach, patients were assigned to one of two equal groups.

Following a pre-anaesthetic evaluation, 60 patients of either sex, aged 18 to 60 years, with an ASA physical status of I or II, who were undergoing elective surgery (likely to last up to 240 minutes) under general anaesthesia with orotracheal intubation and met the above inclusion criteria were included in the study. The differences between the study groups were analysed by chi square test and the “p” value used as a cut off for estimating statistical significance between groups is 0.05.

Results: The incidence and severity of post operative sore throat and cough after endotracheal intubation during 6 and 24 hours was found to be statistically significantly in patients in whom betamethasone was used. The results are significant at p<0.05.

At 6 hours the incidence of post operative sore throat for betamethasone and lignocaine was 12% and 30% respectively. At 24 hours the incidence of post operative sore throat for betamethasone and lignocaine was 9.36% and 25.2% respectively.

At 6 hours the incidence of post operative cough for betamethasone and lignocaine was 8.4% and 24%.At 24 hours the incidence of post operative cough for betamethasone and lignocaine was 7.2% and 21.6% respectively.

Conclusion: The use of 0.05 percent betamethasone gel to lubricate the endotracheal tube before intubation helps to reduce the time it takes for symptoms to resolve.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Anti-inflammatory Properties in Various Extracts (Ethanol, Chloroform and Aqueous) of Kaempferia galanga Linn Rhizome

Hooriyah Laiq Ahmed Khan, G. Sridevi, J. Selvaraj, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 476-481
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33146

Introduction: Kaempferia galanga is a medicinal plant belonging to the family Zingiberaceae: ginger family. It is treated as a folk traditional herb. Anti Inflammatory property refers to the ability of a substance to reduce inflammation or any of its 5 cardinal signs.

Aim: To assess and compare in vitro the anti-inflammatory properties of various extracts (ethanol, chloroform and aqueous) of Kaempferia galanga L Rhizome.

Materials and Methods: Protein Denaturation Inhibition was carried out in vitro and statistical analysis was done using ONE WAY -ANOVA and Duncan Multiple Range Tests. The test was done in triplicates.

Results: Chloroform extract of Kaempferia galanga rhizome has the best anti-inflammatory potential followed by Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of the rhizome.

Conclusion: With further in vivo and clinical research, the chloroform, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Kaempferia galanga can be recommended as a novel, innovative and potent anti-inflammatory drug in the market as it’s natural and doesn’t have side effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Comparative Study of Effect of Two Different Doses of Phenylephrine on Spinal Induced Hypotension during Cesarean Section

S. Hiruthick, K. V. L. Sanjana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 482-489
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33147

Background and Aims: During Cesarean section, hypotension occurs in the most of parturients, following spinal anesthesia. This prospective observational study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of two different Bolus Doses of Phenylephrine for Prevention of Spinal-Induced Hypotension during Cesarean Section.

Materials and Methods: A total of 120 parturients undergoing cesarean section were divided into two groups of group A and group B with sixty in each group. Group A received phenylephrine 75 mcg IV bolus, while Group B received phenylephrine 100 mcg IV bolus, immediately after giving spinal anesthesia. For the next 20 minutes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DSP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded every 2 minutes, and APGAR scores at 1 and 5 minutes were recorded.

Results: There was no difference between the two groups in terms of preventing hypotension, with 16.6% in Group A and 16.6% in Group B. In the first 2–6 minutes, however, the rise in systolic pressure in Group B was higher than in Group A. Group B (46.66 %) had a higher rate of bradycardia than Group A (25 %).

Conclusion: Both phenylephrine dosages were equally effective in preventing hypotension following spinal anesthesia. However, Prophylactic bolus dose of phenylephrine 75 mcg was found to be effective for the management of spinal-induced hypotension and should be preferred over 100 mcg which causes significant bradycardia and reactive hypertension.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Opuntia ficus-indica Seed Oil

Naz Fathima Raj Mohamed, R. V. Geetha, P. Sankar Ganesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 490-496
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33148

Introduction: Opuntia ficus-indica is a well adapted cactus to extreme climatic environments. In the usual diet and food industry, it is an interesting source of food ingredients. In general, the protective role of prickly pears has been due to their antioxidant components, phenolic compounds, and some minor components present in the content of seed oil and seed protein and the oil from cactus pear seed has been found with high levels of unsaturated fatty acids ,with antioxidant  and antimicrobial activity as well as cardioprotective, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antiarrhythmic, hypolipidemic, and antihyperglycemic effect.

Aim: To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil against Streptococcus mutans.

Materials and Methods: Broth microdilution assay was performed by following modifications: Brain heart infusion (BHI) broth was prepared and sterilise at 121c for 15lbs, the 100 microlitre of streptococcus mutans inoculated at freshly prepared broth and incubated at 37c for 24 hours. Then BHI broth prepared with sucrose and serial two fold dilution were done with 160microlitre broth and 40 microlitre prickly pear seed oil. Then 20 microlitre of culture was added. Column 11 contains BHI using sterile micro pipettes and the plates were incubated at 30 c for 18 hours. The growth of bacteria was visualised and lowest concentration with no visible growth was recorded as MIC.

Results: This study results shows that, by broth microdilution method at concentration ranging from 10%-0.039% v/v, Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil potentially inhibits the growth of streptococcus mutans at the concentration of 0.03% (v/v).

Conclusion: From the study, the results demonstrated that Opuntia ficus-indica seed oil shows noticeable antimicrobial activity against streptococcus mutans. Use of essential oils against oral pathogens can be an alternative to other antimicrobial agents which could be cheap and effective modules used in control of bacteria which are responsible for oral infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and Its Control with Medical Nutritional Therapy among Antenatal Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in a Semi Urban Area

M. Shafaiyaz, G. Rohini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 497-505
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33149

Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus is a condition in pregnancy which can cause foetal and maternal complications. After delivery the newborn may have life threatening metabolic complications and later in life may suffer from obesity, glucose intolerance and Diabetes in early adulthood. The mother might also be at the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus. So, the knowledge among the antenatal women will result in disease prevention and early detection.

Aim and Objective: The present study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and its control with medical nutritional therapy among antenatal patients in a tertiary care hospital in semi urban area.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Saveetha Medical College and hospital, Chennai, with a participation of 190antenatal patients attending the hospital for regular antenatal check up and admission for delivery. The study was conducted between the months of January and June of 2021.

Results: In total of 190 study participants, 38(20%) participants acquired the knowledge about Gestational Diabetes Mellitus from family, 73(38.42%) participants acquired from friends, 47(24.73%) participants acquired from medical professionals and 32(16.85%) participants from neighbour.

Conclusion: There was a paucity of knowledge among pregnant women about GDM and its complications. Attitude and practices of antenatal women should be improved through various programs and channels for better antenatal outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation on Use of Stress Ball Exercise on Stress Management among Student Population – A Cross Section Study

R. Srivarsan, G. Sridevi, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 506-514
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33150

Background: Stress ball is a new favourite gadget people like to use to fight stress, reduce tension. But there are not many scientific reports on the benefits of stress ball exercises.

Objective: the present study aimed to investigate the level of stress among student population and the effectiveness of the use of stress ball exercises among student population.

Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted through a convenience sampling method. The participants were administered with a self developed questionnaire consisting of 17 questions. The responses were collected using google forms. Descriptive statistics, frequency analysis and chi square test was used to analyze the data.

Results: Males are more stressed than female in college environment and after stress ball exercise students feels reduced irritability and nervousness thus using stress ball exercise during stress management is more significant.

Conclusion: The study concluded an innovative finding that Majority of the student population were stressed due to academic reasons and respondents feel that stress ball users showed a satisfactory recovery from their stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross Sectional Study to Assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Health Care Seeking Behaviour towards Dysmenorrhea among Female Students in a Medical College, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu

B. Tanushree, . Akanksha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 530-537
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33152

Background: Menstruation is a normal physiological process that occurs throughout the reproductive years of every woman[1]. Most of the women experience mild pain and discomfort during menstruation. Dysmenorrhea is defined as cramping pain in the lower abdomen accompanying menstruation.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and healthcare-seeking behavior towards dysmenorrhea among female students in a medical college, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 292 female students in Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used and data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 16.0 and were presented in tables reporting frequency counts and percentages. Statistical significant tests were conducted using chi-square.

Results: The dysmenorrhea was reported in 243 (83.2%) of them. Out of which 206 (70.54%) had primary dysmenorrhea and 37 (12.67%) had secondary dysmenorrhea which was categorized on the basis of onset of pain. A statistically significant relationship was seen between the type of menstrual cycle and dysmenorrhea (P=0.013).

Conclusion: Many women consider dysmenorrhea to be a normal part of the menstrual cycle and thus fail to seek help. The consequences of untreated dysmenorrhea include poor concentration, highest incidence of absenteeism, resulting in loss of work hours and economic loss and social withdrawal. Therefore, interventions such as education programmes on effective management of dysmenorrhea can be planned with intention to improve the quality of life among the female students.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Improved and Plant Viable Synthesis of Vitamin K1

Prasad Panchabhai, Neelakandan Kaliaperumal, Gopalakrishnan Mannathusamy, Anbuselvan Chinnadurai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 538-547
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33153

An improved and simplified process of vitamin K1 preparation. The article confers the new reagent BF3. Acetic acid complex as a condensation reagent for phytol with compound III in vitamin K1 synthesis, which eludes the use of ethereal reagent and make the process hazard free. Further innovation presents base catalyzed synthesis of vitamin K1 which is an oxidative product of compound IV. Sodium methoxide base is used in synthesis which eliminates use of metal oxidant, costly and hazardous reagent. The new approach ensures the non-generation of epoxide impurity (V) which tends to form during Ag2O catalyzed synthesis. Finally, article also focused on formation and conformation of 7R and 11R diastereomeric centers and ensure the formation of vitamin k1 with desired stereochemistry also article submit proof of concept and supporting literature survey for desired stereochemistry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Short Term Memory and Perception among Homemakers and Office Going Ladies

Fharreeha Fathima Anees, G. Sridevi, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 548-555
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33154

Background: Short term memory is the capacity of holding but not manipulating a small amount of information in the mind which is readily available in an active state for a short period of time. It is essential to analyze the frequency of short term memory and perception in working women and homemakers.

Aim: To comparatively evaluate short term memory and perception changes in home makers and working women

Materials and Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study was done alone in home makers and working women under the range 25- 57years assess the frequency type duration of exposure to stress at home and work environment, stress symptoms and short-term memory changes.

Results: The results of the present study showed that respondents were homemakers and had high amounts of stress which led them to have low short term, memory and perception. Working women have better short term memory and perception and respondents in the age group of 46-56 years had better short memory and perception

Conclusion: The study concluded an innovative finding that stress is more in home makers compared to working women and are prone to memory loss, which they are ignorant. A proper education and awareness of stress relaxation reduction methods can help them to improve their quality in life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Possibility of Using Bacteria-Destructors for Cypermetrin Degradation

Diyorbek Kosimov, Lyudmila Zaynitdinova, Roxila Jo’rayeva, Svetlana Kukanova, Rustam Ergashev, Azimjon Mamadrakhimov, Lukmonjon Mutalliev, Farkhod Eshboev

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 556-563
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33155

From soils artificially contaminated with cypermethrin, 3 isolates were obtained that were resistant to cypermethrin concentrations of 40 mg/kg soil, and their morphological, cultural and biochemical properties were studied. On the basis of the obtained strains, a bacterial consortium was developed, which consists of the cultures of Pseudomonas sp., Bacilus sp. and Ochrobactrum sp. Laboratory experiments on the decomposition of cypermethrin showed the effectiveness of this consortium, within 28 days the decomposition of cypermethrin (40 mg/kg) was 100%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Immuno Dominant Peptides against pgaB of Acinetobacter baumannii

M. Indumathi, A. S. Smiline Girija, P. Sankar Ganesh, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 564-574
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33156

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram negative non-motile coccobacillus, which was considered as a low priority pathogen with low virulence. Recently, it was declared as the priority pathogen under the critical category of the most dangerous pathogen by WHO. Acinetobacter Baumannii is an inhabitant of oral biofilms, and it also increases the risk of refractory periodontitis. It causes nosocomial infections with pgaB, a part of pgaABCD operon which is involved in the biofilm formation.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to detect the immunodominant peptides against pgaB of Acinetobacter baumannii using bioinformatic tools and databases.

Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out using immune informatics. The protein sequence of the pgaB protein from A.baumannii was subjected to assess allergenicity, secondary structure, antigenicity and stability prediction of selected T cell epitopes, physico-chemical analysis, Identification of MHC class 2 binders, Final selection of B-cell epitopes was done with IEDB B-cell epitope tool

Results: Final docking of the peptides were interpreted by hydrogen bonds and interac- tion scores with TLR-2. Promising scores on antigenicity, instability were obtained. Based on the combinatorial scores, one vaccine peptide (LNLTLGLAL) was suggested to be a promising vaccine candidate against pgaB of A.baumannii.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest epitope LNLTLGLAL as a promising vaccine candidate against pgaB of A.baumannii. The vaccine peptides targeting the pgaB Gene in A.baumannii using an immune-informatics approach suggests promising results in the present study. However, the predicted epitope peptides need further experimentation in animal models for its application against A.baumannii.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study to Evaluate the Quality of Life of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

P. Amulya Reddy, K. Saravanan, A. Madhukar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 575-585
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33157

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the QOL of patients with Diabetes Mellitus.

Study Design: This was a prospective, observational study.

Duration of Study: The study was conducted from August 2019 to January 2021 in Yashoda Hospital, Hyderabad.

Methodology: Patients of either sex with ≥1year history of diabetes willing to give the consent were included in the study. Patients of either sex with <1year history of DM, Pregnant/lactating women and patients not willing to give the consent were excluded from the study. Data on Blood glucose levels (FBS, PPBS) and HbA1C was also obtained and assessed. QOLID questionnaire was administered to the patients and assessed which consisted of a set of 34 items representing 8 domains such as Role limitation due to the physical health, Physical endurance, General health, Treatment satisfaction, Symptom botherness, Financial worries, Mental health, and Diet satisfaction).

Results: A total of 200 patients were analysed in the study,108(54%) were males and 92(46%) were females. The average age of the patients was 58.5 years with majority being 51-70years (73.5%) of age. Patients with higher age and females had poor QOL compared to others. The correlation between various categorical variables with that of scores of QOL in various domains was assessed, Age of the patients influenced QOL score in various domains like RLPH (p value-0.038), PE (p value-0.0183), and SB (p value-0.0002), Gender has influenced QOL score in domains like RLPH (p value-0.0008), PE (p value-0.0106), TS (p value-0.0005) and Educational Qualification has influenced QOL score in RLPH (p value-0.0008), GH (p value-<0.0001), TS (p value-<0.0001), E/MH (p value-<0.0001).

Conclusion: The results concluded that overall QOL was noticeably low in Diabetic patients especially in Women and elderly thus indicating that Diabetes management is not restricted to treatment but also requires attention on QOL of patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Regulation of Chloride Intracellular Channel Protein 1 and Caspase -3 mRNA Expression by Hydroethanolic Extract of Aegle marmelos Fruit Human Breast Cancer Cell Line-MCF-7

S. Dhivya, R. Gayatri Devi, J. Selvaraj, A. Jothi Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 586-593
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33158

Introduction: Cancer is the second leading cause of death all over the world where among all types of cancer breast cancer is said to be the leading cancer followed by lung cancer. The aim of this study is to find the regulation of chloride intracellular channel protein 1 and caspase -3 mRNA expression by hydroethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos fruit human breast cancer cell line-MCF-7.

Materials and methods: MCF-7 cells were collected from NCCS Pune, India. It is stored in Dubecos Modified Eagle's Medium. The Aegle marmelos fruit was collected from the herbal department and its extract was prepared. The extract of Aegle marmelosis used in treating MCF-7 cells at different dosages in in vitro.  Isolation of total RNA from MCF-7 cells. The cells will be mixed with total RNA isolation reagent, sonicated and RNA will be isolated as per the standard method. c-DNA conversion and real time polymerase chain reaction. The c-DNA will be synthesized using reverse transcription by commercially available (RT-PCR) kit. Two microlitres of c-DNA will be used for amplification of clic-1 and caspase-3 using gene specific primers by commercially available RT-PCR kit (SyBr kit) and comparative CT method will be used to see the expression of genes. Untreated MCF-7 cells were compared with MCF-7 cells treated with various concentrations of the extract (10, 20 and 40ug). The statistical data’s were collected from the SPSS software version 21.

Result: The given extract inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 cells therefore said to have antiproliferative activity. Different doses of extract were tested (200ug-500ug) out of which 400ug of extract were preferred.

Conclusion: The given plant extract has anti proliferative properties and hence can be used as a drug to treat breast cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Aegle Marmelos Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract on Expression of Antiapoptotic Markers in Human Melanoma Cells

S. Bhavesh, G. Sridevi, J. Selvaraj, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 594-601
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33159

Background: Aegle marmelos commonly known as Bael is a herbal plant. Itis from a family called Rutaceae. It has many medicinal uses: anti-diarrheal, anti- microbial, anti-viral, anti-cancer, chemo-preventive, Ulcer healing and many others.

Aim: To study the effect of Aegle marmelos hydroethanolic leaf extract on expression of antiapoptotic markers in human melanoma cells.

Objective: The present study investigated the effect of Aegle marmelos hydroethanolic leaf extract on expression of antiapoptotic markers in human melanoma cells.

Materials and Methods: DMSO and MTT chemicals were purchased from Sigma chemical Pvt Ltd. Trypsin EDTA, FBS, RPMI 1640 medium and PBS, Real time PCR kit was purchased from Canada. Human melanoma cell line (A375) was purchased from NCCS, Pune, India.

Results: The data was analysed statistically by ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple range test with a computer based software (Graph Pad Prism version 5). The percentage of cell viability decreases with the increase in dosage of Aegle marmelos leaf extract. 

Conclusion: The study concluded that Aegle marmelos hydro ethanolic leaf extract a novel and innovative herbal drug has a significant effect on the expression of antiapoptotic markers in human melanoma cell lines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Retrospective Analysis of Patients Undergoing Total Thyroidectomy for the Last Three Years in a Tertiary Care Hospital

K. Mahalakshmi, R. BarathChinnaswami, V. Shruthi Kamal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 602-608
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33160

Background: The incidence of thyroid disorders has increased in the past decade in South India and the increase may be attributed to the phenomenon of overdiagnosis. The thyroid gland secretes hormones, which have various metabolic effects in the body. Most commonly the patients with thyroid disorders present with symptoms of hyperthyroid, hypothyroid and at times, though euthyroid, they may develop a swelling in the neck that has been caused by a goiter (single/multiple), thyroiditis, Grave’s disease, or thyroid carcinoma. In these conditions where there is an associated hyperthyroid or hypothyroid state, it is essential for the consulting physician to provide appropriate management with the aim of bringing the thyroid gland to a euthyroid state prior to further surgical methods. These benign and malignant conditions are initially medically managed but, surgical interventions are indicated sometimes. Total thyroidectomy, subtotal thyroidectomy, partial thyroidectomy, hemi thyroidectomy are the most common surgical procedures performed. Among these procedures, the total thyroidectomy procedure has been gaining an increase of incidence in the past decade.

Objectives: The aim of the study is to analyze the indication rate of various conditions requiring total thyroidectomy surgery, to analyze the most affected age group and sex and to know if the incidence rate coincides with the known international standard. The post-operative complication incidence is also analyzed.

Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted over a period of three years at Department of General Surgery, Saveetha Medical College, Thandalam.

Results: The study shows an increased occurrence between 21-40 years old age group, mostly affecting the female population. Nodular goiter is the most common indication for total thyroidectomy surgery, carcinomas are the second most common. Among carcinomas, papillary is the most common type observed in this study.

Conclusion: Total thyroidectomy is effective in treating several thyroid disorders and the risk of recurrence in subtotal, partial or hemi thyroidectomy outweighs the risk of complication during surgery in total thyroidectomy.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Tecoma stans and Abutilon indicum Leaves: An In vitro Study

M. Binigha, R. Gayatri Devi, J. Selavaraj, A. Jothi Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 609-615
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33161

Tecoma stans is a flowering plant belonging to the family Bignoniaceae. It is the floral emblem of the Bahamas. Abutilon indicum belongs to the family Malvaceae. It is also called Indian Mallow. Tecoma stans and Abutilon indicumhave antimicrobial activity and can be used in producing antibiotics. There is an urgent need to produce new antibiotics as there is an increase in the development of pathogen resistant drugs. The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Tecoma stansand Abutilonindicum leaves. E.faecalis bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar slopes. The powder of the two herbs, were subjected to extraction by Soxhlet extractor and was concentrated to dry residue by Agar well diffusion method. The nutrient broth was inoculated with bacterial strains. The culture was adjusted to 0.5McFarland turbidity standard. Lawn culture was done in Muller-Hinton agar plate and then the plates were dried. A 6 mm diameter well is bored for different concentrations. The extracts were introduced into the well and allowed to stand for 24 hrs. The antibacterial activity was determined by measuring the zone of inhibition. The present finding on the antimicrobial potential of Abutilon indicum and Tecoma stands showed that the two plants have growth inhibitory activity against oral pathogen E. faecalis. Abutilon indicum has a zone of inhibition greater than Tecoma stans. Abutilon indicum exhibited better activity compared to Tecoma stans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Oligohydramnios and Its Perinatal Outcome in Tertiary Hospital, India

S. M. Sindhuja, . Meenakshi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 616-620
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33162

Introduction: Oligohydramnios is an extremely rare condition where the liquor amnii is deficient in amount to the extent of less than 200 mL at term.

Methods and Materials: This study is a retrospective study conducted in Saveetha Medical college from JAN2021- MAR2021 done by random sampling method and 50 patients with oligohydramnios were taken as study population after satisfying inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Results: In the current study, 78 percent of patients received emergency LSCS, while only 22 percent had a normal delivery, in this study, approximately 20% weighed less than 2 kg, The most common cause of Oligohydramnios in this study was idiopathic.

Conclusion: Oligohydraminos is now being identified more frequently in regular USG examinations. Oligohydraminos is linked to a higher likelihood of pregnancy problems, as well as a higher rate of death and morbidity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biosynthesis of Copper Nanoparticles using Mucuna Pruriens and its Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activity

Shifa Jawahar Ali, R. V. Geetha, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 621-629
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33163

Introduction: The field of Nanotechnology has gained importance since last century. Nanoparticles can be used in medicine due to its increased interaction with microbes and has less side effects than drugs. Antioxidant compounds scavenge free radicals and inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to degenerative diseases. There is a growing number of diabetes patients all over the world. Wide varieties of synthetic drugs are being used for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, most of them possess side effects in the long run such as hepatotoxicity, abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea. Therefore, there is a need for a search of an alternate antidiabetic agent

Aim: The aim of the study is to synthesize Copper nanoparticles from Mucuna pruriens and to evaluate its antioxidant and antidiabetic activity.

Materials and methods: Plant extract of Mucuna pruriens was prepared and filtered by Whatman No 1 filter paper. Copper sulphate was added to the plant extract and kept in a magnetic stirrer for nanoparticle synthesis. The synthesized nanoparticle was preliminarily analysed using UV visible spectroscopy. Finally the left over solution was taken to calculate antioxidant activity and antidiabetic activity.

Results: Antioxidant activity was calculated by DPPH method and the percentage of inhibition of copper nanoparticles synthesised from Mucuna pruriens was 58.5% for 10µL, 59.6% for 20µL, 67.5% for 30µL, 71.4% for 40µL and 72.3% for 50µL. Antidiabetic activity was calculated by alpha-amylase inhibitory assay and the percentage of inhibition of copper nanoparticles synthesised from Mucuna pruriens was 66% for 10µL, 69% for 20µL, 73% for 30µL, 79% for 40µL and 80% for 50µL.

Conclusion: We can conclude that copper nanoparticles synthesised from Mucuna pruriens are a potent antioxidant and antidiabetic agent. Since it shows a good activity in free radical scavenging, copper nanoparticles can be used in a clinical therapeutic application and also in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study to assess the Stress Buster among Working and Non-Working Women

Z. Fathima Hinaz, R. Gayatri Devi, A. Jothi Priya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 636-644
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33165

Introduction: Stress is the body’s response to the daily events that occur in one’s life. Everyone experiences stress. Stress can be positive and motivate women to achieve notable goals. But stress can also be negative and destructive, taking its toll in many life areas. When stress becomes chronic or excessive, it becomes harder to adapt and cope. Chronic stress builds up so that stress seems like a normal way of life for some women. Women have undergone various different stresses, which vary from person to person. The objective of this study is to assess stress buster among working and non-working women.

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey study carried out among working and non-working women. The total sample size was 103. A self administered questionnaire was used for the survey and was distributed through an online platform. Data was collected and analysed by Pearson and chi-squares test and p-value of 0.05 was said to be statistically significant.

Result: When compared to non working women, working women stress level was higher and they search for stress busters. Majority of the women population feel stressed, irritable, grouchy and anxious. Majority of the population also prefer listening to songs and also prefer to sing to overcome their stress.

Conclusion: Both working and non-working women are equally stressed, while non-working women tend to overreact to situations. Majority of the women population prefer listening to songs to overcome stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Virtual Screening to Identify the Protein Network Interaction of Berberine with Red Complex Pathogens

S. Abinaya, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini, A. S. Smiline Girija, P. Sankar Ganesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 645-652
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33166

Introduction: Periodontal disease is an infection of the tissues that hold your teeth in place. It's typically caused by poor brushing and flossing habits that allow plaque, a sticky film of bacteria, to build up on the teeth and harden. Elimination of these pathogens from the site of infection remains a perplexing task, which demands the use of antibiotics. The emergence of drug resistant forms has spurred interest into identifying novel therapeutic targets against these pathogens.

Aim: The present study employs virtual screening method to identify the protein network interaction of berberine with red complex pathogens.

Materials and Methods: Computational tools were used to identify the targets, assess their functional role and virulence property. Further, the peptide epitopes present in the virulence factors were identified using the BepiPred tool. The subcellular location of the virulence proteins was also elucidated using PSORTb.

Results: Berberine was found to target vital protein transporters such as TetR family transcriptional regulator and MerR family transcriptional regulator, which is known to play a crucial role in the survival of bacterial cells.

Conclusion: Hence the present study provides preliminary data on the protein targets of berberine against red complex pathogens. However, in vitro studies using the compound is warranted to further confirm the efficacy of the compound.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Kabasura Kudineer Extract on Inflammatory Cytokines [Interleukin-6 and Tumour Necrosis Factor-α] in Lung Cancer Cell Line A549

M. Afrin Nisha, S. Preetha, J. Selvaraj, G. Sridevi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 653-660
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33167

Background: Kabasura kudineer is widely known for its anticancer efficiency. Kabasura kudineer is a customary formulation used by siddha practitioners for effectively managing common respiratory illness. Herbal medicines are acknowledged as a great approach to lung cancer therapy. Aim of the study is to know about the anticancer property of Kabasura kudineer extract on inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in lung cancer cell line (A549).

Materials and Methods: Human lung cancer cell line (A549) was purchased from National Centre for Cell Sciences (NCCS), Pune, India. Cell viability test was done by MTT assay. Gene expression analysis was done by Real Time-PCR. The obtained data were analysed statistically by one-way analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test with Graph Pad Prism version 5 to analyse the significance. The significance was considered at p<0.05 level in Duncan’s test.

Results and Discussion: Kabasura kudineer caused a marked increase in cell death in dose dependent manner. AT the end of 48 hours, maximum inhibition was at 400 and 500 μg/ml. Kabasura kudineer extract reduced the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α compared to the control cells.

Conclusion: This study concluded that Kabasura kudineer extract has anticancer activity on lung cancer cell lines (A549).

Open Access Original Research Article

Putative Role of Monoaminergic Systems in Antidepressant and Anxiolytic Effects of Naringin in Mice: An Interaction Study with Receptor Antagonists

G. E. Anyanwu, V. O. Atuadu, B. Ben-Azu, E. A. Esom, J. N. Nto, A. U. Katchy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 661-676
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33168

Aim: Stress-related disorders like depression and anxiety represent one of the greatest therapeutic challenges globally. Although previous studies have revealed the antidepressant-like potentials of naringin, the neurotransmitter receptor interaction mechanisms of action have not been studied, hence, this study was carried out to evaluate the role of neurotransmitter-receptor antagonists in the antidepressant-like effects of naringin in mice.

Method: Male Swiss mice were subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) apart from mice in the control group. The mice were then pretreated with different neurotransmitter antagonists; metergoline (4 mg /kg i.p.), a 5-HT1 - and 5-HT2 -receptor antagonist; propranolol; (0.2 mg/kg i.p.), β1,2-noradrenoceptor antagonist or haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg i.p.), D 2 -dopaminergic receptor antagonists prior to the administration of naringin or vehicle (10 mL/kg). The antidepressant-like and anxiolytic effects of naringin were evaluated 30 min later using the tail suspension test (TST), open-field test (OFT), sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests paradigms.

Results: Administration of naringin following CUMS significantly decrease immobility time and locomotion activity in TST and OFT respectively, relative to control while increasing preference to sucrose in SPT, open arm entries as well as time spent in open arm in EPM, relative to control suggesting antidepressant-like property. Pretreatment with metergoline, propranolol, and haloperidol following CUMS increased immobility time in TST, locomotor activity in OFT and IOAA in the EPM. Reduced preference for sucrose in SPT, open arm entry and duration in EPM relative to control (p < 0.05), however, these effects were attenuated by naringin.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that the antidepressant-like activity exhibited by naringin might be mediated via interactions with 5-HTergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic receptors, while the anxiolytic effect might involve interaction with both 5-HTergic and noradrenergic receptors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Virtual Screening to Identify the Protein Network Interactions of Triclosan with Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis

T. K. Hariprasanth, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini, A. S. Smiline Girija, P. Sankar Ganesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 677-683
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33169

Introduction: Triclosan is considered to be an important ingredient in toothpastes and mouth rinses. Several studies have reported contradictory results regarding the antimicrobial effect of triclosan. Hence, the present in silico study intends to identify the potential targets of triclosan in two common dental pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis.

Aim: To identify the protein network interactions of triclosan in Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis by virtual screening method.

Materials and Methods: The STITCH v5.0 database was initially used for identifying drug-protein interactions followed by VICMPred and VirulentPred which was employed to identify functional class of the proteins and its virulence property. Finally, BepiPred v1.0 Linear Epitope Prediction tool was used to identify the potential epitopes of the virulent proteins.

Results: Triclosan was found to interact with crucial proteins in S. mutans and E. faecalis which could contribute to severe forms of periodontitis and endodontic diseases.

Conclusion: Taken together, the present study provides the preliminary data on the potential targets of triclosan in common dental pathogens. Further experimental validation is warranted to provide concrete evidence on the molecular targets of dental pathogens. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Cymbopogon (Lemongrass) on Enterococci

A. Sai Sanjith, N. P. Muralidharan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 684-690
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33170

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus bacteria.

Materials and Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the Broth Dilution Method. The antibiotic susceptibility test against the test organisms was performed by the Disc Diffusion Method.

Results and Discussion: Antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon oil was examined against common Enterococcus bacteria using broth microdilution assay and the disc diffusion method. Zone of inhibition was seen when Cymbopogon oil was kept with enterococcus bacteria, this proves to be bacteriostatic.

Conclusion: Lemongrass oil proved to be bacteriostatic against Enterococcus, further research to be done to implement Lemongrass oil as an antibacterial agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards COVID-19 Infection during Pregnancy among Antepartum Women

Sivasundari Maharajan, Shifa Shahina Nijamudeen, Dhanvarsha Sumaldha Subbiah Ramkumar, Nimrah Amthul

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 691-697
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33171

Background: Pregnant women are more susceptible to developing severe cases of COVID-19. They need to be more careful during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods to prevent untoward outcomes. As no definite treatment for COVID- 19 has yet been proven,  the only effective approach to prevent unfavorable outcome is by increasing awareness of  COVID-19 among pregnant women and by encouraging them to follow the necessary prevention methods. This study was done to know, if the adherence to the recommended preventive practices were influenced by the knowledge and attitude of the mothers and whether having a good knowledge and attitude led to better adherence to prevention methods. It also aims to assess if current knowledge on the effects of COVID-19 infection on pregnancy among antenatal women is sufficient or if more efforts have to be taken to educate the mothers regarding the same.

Aims: This research aims to assess the knowledge, attitude, and precautionary measures taken towards COVID-19 infection in pregnancy among antenatal women attending the outpatient clinic.

Materials and Methods: It is a descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted in Saveetha Medical College Hospital from January 2021 to March 2021. All antenatal women attending the obstetrics outpatient clinic were included in the study. After obtaining their consent, each woman was given a semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire to solve on the spot. The statistical analysis used were descriptive analysis, proportions, percentages, chi-square test, and Pearson correlation coefficient.

Results: Among the 465 pregnant women included in the study, 86.02% had good knowledge of COVID-19 and its impact on pregnancy, 89.89% of women held a positive attitude towards battling the pandemic and 98.92% had good prevention practices against COVID-19 infection. There was a significant association between age and knowledge and a significant association between socioeconomic status with the knowledge, attitude, or preventive practices of the patients and between education level and attitude of the women at p<0.05. Knowledge, attitude and prevention were found to be strongly positively correlated indicating that with an increase in the knowledge there is an increase in attitude and practice of preventive measures by pregnant women.

Conclusion: The women included in this study had adequate knowledge and a good attitude towards the impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy and lactation. They also take necessary precautionary methods to safeguard against acquiring COVID -19 infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decoding the Genetic Alterations in Genes of Fibroblast Growth Factor Family and Their Possible Association with HNSCC

A. Akshaya, J. Vijayashree Priyadharsini, A. S. Smiline Girija, P. Sankar Ganesh, Nidhi Poddar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 698-710
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33172

Introduction: HNSCC is a type of cancer in the oral and pharynx region. Several mutations/variations are observed in these cancer phenotypes. Fibroblast growth factor belongs to the family of heparin binding growth factors. FGFs are multifunctional proteins with a wide variety of effects; they are most commonly mitogens. Their expression pattern correlates with invasion of HNSCC.

Aim: To assess the genetic alterations in genes of the fibroblast growth factor family and their association with HNSCC.

Materials and Methods: The demographic data and samples of 528 HNSCC patients was collected from the cBioportal database. Oncoprint analysis was done to assess the amplification and genetic alterations of the members of the FGF gene family. String analysis was performed to evaluate the protein-protein interaction. The information about previous reported mutation and correlation with novel and reported mutation was obtained using GnomAD analysis.

Results and Discussion: FGF3,4 and 19 genes showed maximum variation (25%). FGF4 and FGF19 genes showed maximum amplification in addition to deletion mutation. Excitingly FGF3, FGF4 and FGF19 genes showed similar amplification patterns in most of the HNSCC patients. Statistical significant difference in the gene expression of FGF3 9.578 x 10-3 observed between normal and primary tumour. S.  Findings showed many novel mutations and also 4 reported mutations ie:FGF1, FGF12, FGF20, FGF21

Conclusion: Our present study concludes that more evidence is required to confirm their association with HNSCC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Incidence of Inguinal Hernia among Obese and Normal Individuals: A Retrospective Analysis

Mandar Zade, Sivaram Sridharan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 711-714
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33173

Objective: The objective of the present study was to verify whether obesity is associated with the occurrence of inguinal hernia.

This is a cross-sectional study carried out in a tertiary hospital, including 84 patients, with clinical diagnosis of inguinal hernia, who underwent hernia mesh repair during a 6-month period (January 2021 to June 2021). Demographic, anthropometric and diagnostic data for inguinal hernia were taken from the patients' medical records.

The Chi-square test was used to calculate the significance of association.

Results: A total of 84 patients were included in this study. The age of patients varied between 39 - 75 years, averaging 54.8 years.

The study showed an association between BMI and two factors, namely: Age (P = .023) and size of the defect (P = .005). However, hernia type (P = .797) and its content (P = 0.061) did not show such an association.

Conclusion: In conclusion, these results may be a useful guide for future studies about the relationship between BMI and hernia and may provide foundation for better understanding of the pathophysiology of hernia is obese.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Symplocos racemosa Using Protein Denaturation Assay

K. Janani, R. V. Geetha, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 715-720
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33174

Introduction: Recently there is considerable awareness and interest in the field of herbal medicine due to its natural origin and lesser side effects compared to Allopathy. Selected herbal plants like Symplocos racemosa, commonly known as lodhra, are found mainly in plains and lower hills of Bengal. The word ‘Lodhra’ means ‘Propitious’. Symplocos racemosa is an important Indian traditional drug used in many Ayurvedic and herbal formulations for treatment of liver as well as uterine disorders and leucorrhea. Ethnobotanical Literature indicates use of Symplocos racemosa in treatment of eye disease, skin disease, ear disorders, liver and bowel complaints, tumours,uterine disorders, spongy and bleeding gums, asthma, fever, snakebite, gonorrhoea and arthritis.

Aim: To analyse the anti-inflammatory activity of Symplocos racemosa using protein denaturation assay.

Materials and Methods: 2 g of Lodhra bark powder is mixed with 100 ml distilled water & boiled for 20 min at 50°C. The extract is filtered using whatman filter paper & concentrated to 10 ml.1 ml each of Bovine serum albumin is added to various fixations of plant extract (10μL - 50 μL) and the anti - inflammatory activity was evaluated by analysing the percentage inhibition.

Results: From this study, it is evident that Lodhra has significant anti-inflammatory activity. At 50μℓ concentration, the plant extract shower higher anti- inflammatory activity of 76%.

Conclusion: Symplocos racemosa extract has proved to exhibit effective anti- inflammatory activity. Further studies have to be carried to analyse the other properties of this herb, which can be incorporated successfully in the pharmaceutical industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Serum Protein, Haemoglobin, and BMI as Predictors of Postoperative Morbidity and Mortality in Major Surgeries

Karen Jaison, G. Muthukumaran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 728-735
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33176

Background: Pre-operative nutritional assessment is necessary for all patients undergoing surgery in order to prevent post-operative complications. This is because wound healing is an anabolic process requiring adequate protein stores in our body. Serum albumin levels has been found to be a reliable tool in assessing the nutrition when used along with two other parameters namely, haemoglobin and body mass index. It is necessary to provide adequate nutritional support prior surgery for better clinical outcome post-operatively.

Objectives: To assess role of pre-operative serum albumin, haemoglobin and BMI as predictors of post-operative morbidity and mortality in major open surgeries.

Materials and Methods:Sixty patients more than 18 years of age posted for elective and emergency laparotomy in the general surgery ward were included in this study based upon the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Detailed history, clinical examination, anthropometry and nutritional assessment with pre-operative serum albumin, haemoglobin and BMI were done. Post-surgery the details of the procedure, anaesthesia, duration of surgery, duration of hospital stay and early post-operative complications were studied. The patients were followed up till they got discharged from the hospital. The data obtained was analysed.

Results: Maximum number of post-operative complications were in the age group of 40-59 years (36.66%). Seroma followed by surgical site infections were the two most common complications seen among the study population. Most of the complications were seen among patients with                serum albumin <3.5gm/dl. Patients with hypoalbuminemia and anaemia had a tendency to develop more post-operative complications and this was found to be statistically significant. (p value <0.05) There was no significant relationship between abnormal BMI and complications in the present study.

Conclusion: Pre-operative hypoalbuminemia <3.5gm/dl and anaemia were found to be independent risk factors for post-operative morbidity and mortality in major open surgeries. Although the relationship between BMI and complications was not found to be statistically significant, it is also essential to stabilise BMI prior to surgery for better clinical outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Incidence of Hydroureteronephrosis among Pregnant Women of a Tertiary Care Hospital

S. Rithanya, M. Sivasankar, M. Griffin, P. S. Premanand, V. Kamaraj, N. Muthulatha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 736-745
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33177

Background: Some degree of dilatation of the upper two-thirds of the ureter and the pelvicalyceal system is observed in physiological hydroureteronephrosis. It may be present in 90% of pregnancies and is more pronounced on the right side. It develops as early as 6-10 weeks of gestation and disappears a few weeks after birth. Smooth muscle-relaxant effects of progesterone and mechanical compression have been postulated as contributing factors. Ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice. Most of the cases resolve with conservative measures.

Objectives: The study aimed to assess the incidence of hydroureteronephrosis in pregnancy using ultrasound, to assess the laterality of hydroureteronephrosis in pregnancy and to assess the proportion of subjects with hydroureteronephrosis in pregnancy requiring intervention.

Materials and Methodology: A prospective study was conducted among the pregnant women presenting to the department of obstetrics and gynecology in a tertiary health care hospital from January 2021 to April 2021. A simple random sampling technique was employed, 40 subjects were identified for the study. The relationship between hydroureteronephrosis and gestational age, urinary tract problems and parity were compared.

Results: Unilateral right-sided hydroureteronephrosis was present in 7 (36.8%) of the study subjects with hydroureteronephrosis. Hydroureteronephrosis was observed in 22.5% and 15% of the study subjects on the right and left side respectively during the second trimester. Hydroureteronephrosis was observed in 30% and 15% of the study subjects with urinary tract problems on the right and left side respectively. Hydroureteronephrosis was observed in 13 (52%) of the study subjects with no previous delivery.

Conclusion: The incidence of hydroureteronephrosis was found to be 47.5%. Differentiation of physiological and pathological hydroureteronephrosis is necessary. A coordinated approach between obstetricians and urologists is essential to provide the best care for the mother and the fetus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attenuation of Quorum Sensing Controlled Virulence Factors and Biofilm Formation by Edible Fruit Extract of Coccinia indica against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

R. Shruthi Devi, P. Sankar Ganesh, A. S. Smiline Girija, J. Vijayashree Priyadharshini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 756-764
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33180

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic human pathogen that mainly infects immunocompromised individuals and patients with urinary tract infection and chronic infections of the respiratory pathways, including cystic fibrosis. Many quorum sensing (QS) controlled components such as bio surfactants and swarming motilities play an important role in the establishment of biofilms. Targeting these factors through anti-QS strategies prevent biofilm formation and treating infections. Coccinia indica commonly called little gourd is used to treat diabetes, wound, burn infections and has antioxidant, antibacterial and antitussive properties.

Methods: The methanolic fruit extract of C. indica was prepared and screened for anti-QS and anti-biofilm formation activity. Pyocyanin inhibition, rhamnolipid, crystal violet staining assay tests was performed and the extract was observed under fluorescent microscope.

Results: The results obtained are as follows - the fruit extract inhibits the pyocyanin at 58.13% and 42.27% at 0.5 mg/ml and 1.0 mg/ml, biofilm at 69.86% and 49.06% at 0.5 mg/ml and 1.0 mg/ml, inhibits rhamnolipid assay and under fluorescent microscope it is seen scattered whereas control produce biofilm matrix like appearance.

Conclusion: Since less study has been made on the quorum sensing and biofilm activity of C.indica our study aimed to fulfil it and it was found that it exhibits good biofilm formation and thus can be used for treating infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Modifiable Risk Factors among Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital

I. Mariraj, M. Naveen Kumar, N. S. Ani Rubitha, R. Rameshwar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 765-772
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33181

Background and Objectives: Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is one of the major causes for mortality and morbidity among the cardiovascular diseases in India. In this study the modifiable risk factors leading to ACS are considered and its prevalence in a Tertiary care hospital is studied.

Materials and Methods: This is a prospective type of study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 100 patients diagnosed with ACS were taken in this study. Their data was taken, and results were formulated in excel data sheet.

Results: Among the UA patients, 65% were found to be dyslipidaemic, 60% as obese, 45% as diabetics, 47.5% as hypertensive and 40% as smokers. Among the NSTEMI patients, 66.67% were found to be dyslipidaemic, 52.78% as hypertensive, 44.44% as smokers, 30.56% as diabetics and 27.78% as obese. Among the STEMI patients, 37.50% were found to be dyslipidemic, 25% as both diabetic and obese, 20.83% as hypertensive,12.5% as smokers.

Hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking and obesity showed significance.

Conclusion: The prevalence of modifiable risk factors is a major concern for developing ACS and when they are modified there will be a great reduction in the incidence of ACS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Azadirachta indica Bio-Compounds against KpsM Protein of Acinetobacter baumannii

V. Thiru Kumaran, A. S. Smiline Girija, P. P. Sankar Ganesh, J. Vijayashree Priyadharshini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 773-780
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33182

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii was considered as a low priority pathogen earlier, and is been now reported as a priority pathogen causing nosocomial infections. Selection of natural compounds to target the organism is the need of the hour.

Aim: This study is aimed to target the KpsM protein of A. baumannii with the bio-compounds from Azadirachta indica using in-silico docking analysis.

Materials and Methods: KpsM protein was retrieved and optimisation of protein was done. After that optimization and ligand preparation was carried out. It was continued by molinspiration assessment of the molecular properties of selected compounds. It was followed by docking simulation and docking visualisation.

Results: Out of the 7 compounds of Azadirachta indica, dihydro diisoeugenol is the best compound to act on the KpsM protein of Acinetobacter baumannii and a binding energy of -6.83Kcal/Mol.

Conclusion: The findings of the study reports isoeugenol with more binding energy than other compounds towards the selected protein KpsM of Acinetobacter baumannii. However it requires further experimental studies to understand the mechanism of its actions and safety.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Study the Association of Total Serum Calcium Level in Assessing the Severity of Pancreatitis

V. Lingesh Kumar, Saravanan Sundaram

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 781-785
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33183

Background: Pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition that affects the pancreas and may also affect other tissues or distant organ. In this study our aim is to see if blood calcium level can be used as a prognostic marker in determining the severity of acute pancreatitis because hypocalcaemia is linked to higher mortality and hospitalization.

Method: A retrospective study was conducted in the medical records department of a tertiary care health facility. A total of 75 participants were included in the research. .demographic details of all patients were collected .Patients above 18 years who presented with of epigastric pain, pre-Diagnosed gallstones, alcoholism were included int this study. The lowest total calcium levels were collected in order to examine total calcium as a predictive factor for severity. All of these information were collected and analyzed to get the appropriate findings.

Results: A total of 75 patients were included in the research. The age of patients in each severity grade did not differ significantly (p value>0.05). The gender distribution of the two groups did not differ. (P >0.05). For mild and severe acute pancreatitis, mean total calcium levels were 7.98 and 6.67, respectively, which was statistically significant (p< 0.05).

Conclusion: The total serum calcium level is a useful indicator for assessing  pancreatitis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Cognitive Function among Indian Obese and Non-Obese Middle-Aged Subjects

Srivarsha Ranjeet, G. Sridevi, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 786-794
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33184

Background:  Obesity has become one of the common problems encountered by people of the present day. This condition is often accompanied by cardiovascular problems like hypertension, hyperlipidemia, is chemic heart disease. Also, that the relationship between obesity and cognitive impairment plays an important role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. But reports on the association between obesity and working memory lack scientific evidence. So, the present study planned to assess the influence of obesity on cognitive functions and compare among obese and non - obese individuals.

Objective: This study evaluated the changes in cognitive functions comparative between samples of obese and non-obese individuals from India.

Methods: Based on the Body Mass Index (BMI), the participants were classified into 2 groups. Cognitive screening was done using MINI MENTAL STATE EXAMINATION and the parameters like level of orientation, registration, recall, language, copy art skills were analyzed and scores were calculated. The data was statistically analyzed using SPSS version 23 and the independent sample t test was used to analyze the differences in cognitive functions.

Results: The study reported that there was statistically significant decline in language, recall and copy art skills in obese individuals compared to non-obese group.

Conclusion: The study concluded an innovative finding that obesity is associated with impaired cognitive performance pertaining to recall, language and copy art and overall decreased MMSE scores indicating that accelerated cognitive decline and neurodegenerative pathologies such as dementia in later life is influenced by changes in body weight. Interventions that target mid-life obesity may be helpful in reducing the cognitive risks associated with obesity.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of Patients with Periarthritis Shoulder on Treatment with Analgesics Only and Analgesics Plus Exercises

Nikita Rajgadia, R. Kalanithi, Damodharan Vasudevan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 795-799
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33185

Background: Frozen Shoulder is known to be a painful condition affecting the shoulder joint that results in significant loss of range of motion. A number of published comprehensive studies have suggested the different modalities of treatment. In this study, we focussed on the effect of exercise on enhancing the restricted motion and reducing the severity of pain.

Objective: The objective is to study the influence of exercise on range of motion and pain severity in Frozen shoulder patients.

Materials and Methods: Thirty patients diagnosed with Periarthritis Shoulder were selected from orthopaedic outpatient in Saveetha Medical College, Chennai. These patients were randomly divided in two groups, receiving analgesics as well as exercises and another receiving only analgesic. They were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale for the severity of their pain and range of motion with a Goniometer and results noted.

Results: The group receiving exercise in addition to analgesics showed greater reduction in pain severity and range of motion.

Conclusion: Physical exercise of the Shoulder joint helps in restoring the mobility and relieves stiffening of the muscles and hence should be added as the mainstay of treatment with pain relief.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti Carcinogenic Activity of Trifolium pratense on Oral Cancer Cell- An in vitro Study

V. A. Muralidharan, R. V. Geetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 800-806
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33186

Introduction: Trifolium pratense also known as the red clover is widely distributed in the tropics and in the subtropical regions. It is generally consumed in the form of tea by the northern states of India and some tribal people of Nepal and Bhutan. Studies reveal that it is rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. It is due to the presence of unique isoflavones found in Trifolium pratense are Biohanin A and formononetin.

Aim: The main aim of the study is to find out whether Trifolium pratense extract has antiproliferative activity against oral squamous carcinoma cells.

Materials and Methods: The  dried buds of Trifolium pratense flowers  were purchased commercially and then powdered  Then MTT assays  was carried out to find out it’s inhibitory activity against oral carcinoma cells

Results and Discussion: From the assay it is evident that it shows a potent inhibitory activity against oral squamous carcinoma cells. Linear regression analysis revealed that the IC50 was found to be at 53.13µg/ml which is higher than that of other species of this family.

Conclusion: From the above study it is evident that Trifolium pratense has a very good inhibitory activity and hence can be used in the treatment of oral cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti Inflammatory and Cytotoxic Effect of Copper Nanoparticles Synthesised Using Seed Extract of Mucuna pruriens

P. Anushya, R. V. Geetha, S. Rajesh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 816-824
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33188

Introduction:  Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing interdisciplinary area that has brought enormous changes in dentistry. Copper nanoparticle made from plant extract would be an environmental friendly, convenient and dependable way for providing therapeutic agents that are safe, free of side effects and useful for a wide range of diseases. Mucuna pruriens seed extract was selected for our study, due to its due to its anti- bacterial, anti-diabetic, anti- Parkinson, anti-cholesterol and anti- oxidant properties.

Aim: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of Mucuna pruriens, the green synthesis, characterization of CuNPs, and screening of their cytotoxic activity.

Materials and methods: The collection and preparation of Mucuna pruriens extract was done and stored for further use. Synthesis of Cu nanoparticles was done with 30 milli molar of copper (II) sulfate. Centrifugation was done and characterisation of Copper nanoparticles using ultraviolet (UV)-visual spectrophotometer.  Cytotoxic effect and anti-inflammatory activity of copper nanoparticles with Mucuna pruriens seed extract were assessed using Brine Shrimp Assay at 5µL, 10µL, 20µL, 40µL and 80 µL and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) at 5 µL, 10 µL, 20 µL, 30 µL, 50 µL.

Results: The anti inflammatory activity of Copper Nanoparticles with Mucuna pruriens, increased with increase in concentrations. Percentage of inhibition was 17% at 10 µL concentration, 24% at 20 µL, 43% at 30 µL and 54% at 40 µL and highest at 50 µL (71%). Cytotoxicity of Copper Nanoparticles with Mucuna pruriens, at 5 µL concentration there was a death of 10% of nauplii, at 10 µL there was a death of 20% of nauplii, at 20 µL and 40 µL there was a death of 30% of nauplii and at 80 µL there was a death of 40% of nauplii. As the concentration increased, the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles increased.

Conclusion: Based on the results of the current study, it is concluded that Mucuna pruriens mediated Cu Nps can be used as a potential source of anti inflammatory agent and also as an anti cancer drug for the treatment of tumours and cancers.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Therapeutic Effect of Music on Oxidative Stress Markers and Anxiety in Hypertension

Elsa Mathew, J. K. Mukkadan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 825-833
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33189

Objective : Cardiovascular disease is amenable to mortality and morbidity in India and worldwide. The asymptomatic nature of hypertension made it a silent killer. Evidence suggests the role of oxidative stress and anxiety in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Lifestyle modification can control hypertension and, thus, can prevent complications. Music therapy is a non-invasive, non-pharmacological, and economic practice used for the management of hypertension, anxiety, and oxidative stress. The present study aims to evaluate the therapeutic effect of Raga Ananda Bhairavi on oxidative stress and anxiety in hypertensive patients.

Materials and Methods: This randomized control study comprises of a total of 120 participants of age between 30-60years. All the study participants were divided into an experimental and control group. The instrumental music of Raga Ananda Bhairavi was provided to the experimental group for three months. The anthropometric measurements, blood pressure assessment, and estimation of oxidative stress parameters were done in all subjects before and after three months of intervention.

Results: The systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, anxiety levels, and oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde significantly reduced after music therapy, and the superoxide dismutase level significantly improved after the intervention.

Conclusion: Music can be used as an adjunct therapy for the management of hypertension.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Property of Maranta Arundinacea using Protein Denaturation Assay - An In vitro Study

Shilpa Merlyn Jose, R. V. Geetha, S. Rajeshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 834-840
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33190

Introduction: Maranta arundinacea is a perennial plant which is seen in Mexico, central and South America. It was introduced and cultivated for its starch rich root which is known as arrowroot. It is gluten free and good for digestion. It also boasts metabolic rate and healthy sleep. Arrow root aid in lowering cholesterol which decreases the risk of heart diseases. It is a good substitute for breast milk because it’s loaded with magnesium, zinc and iron which promotes the growth and development of infants. Arrow root extract is previously known for its antibacterial and antifungal activity and also it gives relief from skin rashes, acne and skin sores.

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of Maranta arundinacea using protein denaturation assay.

Materials and Methods: Maranta arundinacea (Arrowroot) was purchased commercially. Extract was prepared by adding 50 ml of distilled water and boiled at 50 degree Celsius and filtered. The extract was concentrated up to 10ml and the anti-inflammatory property was checked using protein denaturation assay and the readings were noted using a calorimeter.

% of inhibition= ControlO.D-sampleO.D ∗100/ControlO.D.

Results: It showed good anti inflammatory activity and thus it can be used as a potent alternative for anti inflammatory drugs.

Conclusion: Maranta arundinacea extract showed good potential for anti-inflammatory activity. Thus in future more research can be done for formulations of eco-friendly treatment methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Femoral Neck-shaft Angle on Plain X-rays and its Clinical Implications

N. Adhishwar Kumaran, B. Jagadeesh, Ashok Kumar, K. P. Niveditha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 841-844
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33191

Background: Femoral neck-shaft angle is an important parameter for evaluating the biomechanics of the hip joint. It plays a pivotal role in surgeries for developmental dysplasia of the hip, neuromuscular disorders of the lower limb, proximal femoral fractures, Total Hip Arthroplasty, Perthes disease etc., It is also considered to hold an extensive bearing while designing orthopaedic implants.

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the femoral neck-shaft angle of proximal femur on plain radiographs of our local population

Study Design: Retrospective study

Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at Saveetha medical college hospital, a tertiary care institute in Chennai. 50 pelvic X-rays of patients aged between 30 to 70 who presented to the outpatient or emergency care department were used in the study.  Using a goniometer the femoral neck shaft angle was measured in the plain X - ray.

Results: The mean age of the population in our study was 47.12. And the mean femoral neck shaft was 132.6 in males and 124.9 in females.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Lung Functional Status among People Living in Different Type of Housing in Chennai City

E. Revathy, G. Sridevi, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 845-852
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33192

Background: Different housing has its influence on the health of the residents. The high rise apartment is a type of living adapted by people in urban areas of India. It becomes inevitable and poses much convenience and economy without occupying much land area. It is known that the floor of residence is related to the pulmonary function of the individuals.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the lung functional status among the people living in high rise apartments and individual houses in Chennai                               city.

Materials and Methods: The study included 20 healthy individuals, 10 residents from Individual houses and 10 residents from high rise apartments from the 10th to 15th floor. The lung function was measured using RMS Helios 702 spirometer. They were assessed for a lung function test using RMS Helios 702 spirometer. The parameters such as FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, PEFR, FEF25-75 were assessed, and the statistical test used was independent t test.

Results: The mean of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, FEF 25-75, PEFR were maximum in high rise apartment residents compared to individual house residents. Statistically significant change was observed in the FEF25-75 value among the two groups.

Conclusion: The study concluded an innovative finding that subjects living in high rise apartments showed innovation in finding better lung functions and this may be attributed to the pollution free zone in high floors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Surgical Site Infection in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

V. Kartthick, P. B. Sudarshan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 853-859
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33193

Introduction: Surgical site infections [SSIs] are the Third most common nosocomial infections, According to the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance, patients who are hospitalized account for 15 to 18 percent of all nosocomial infections .increased mortality and morbidity rates associated with Surgery.

Surgical wounds are divided into four categories: clean, clean-contaminated, contaminated and dirty wounds.

Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study, done throughout for two years period, from June 2018 to May 2020 .785 patients underwent surgery in the Dept. of General Surgery in Saveetha Medical College and Hospital, Thandalam.

Were taken as part of this study. Elective surgical procedures were performed on 495 patients. And 290 were taken to the hospital for emergency treatment. An in-depth examination of these cases was conducted, taking into account the date of admission, clinical features, history, types of surgery [emergency or elective], pre-operative preparation, drain used, and its type and postoperative findings.

Results: Surgical Site Infections were found in 58 cases out of 785 surgeries. In elective clean and contaminated patients, the overall postoperative SSI rate is 4.34 percent of all cases, whereas emergency cases account for 12.41 percent. According to the research, that the most prevalent type of surgical site infection is superficial surgical site infection accounting for 72.1 percent of all SSIs in elective cases and 61.11 percent in emergency cases, and deep surgical site infection accounting for 23.25 percent of elective cases and 30.55 percent of emergency cases.

Conclusion: The most common bacteria found in elective surgical wounds are E. coli. Proteus mirabilis is the most prevalent organism isolated from emergency surgical wounds. A shift in the pre-operative period antibiotics may even diminish the occurrence. Pre-existing medical conditions like diabetes mellitus wound type, operation time, emergency procedures, and wound contamination all had a significant impact on the development of surgical site infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation of Boerhaavia diffusa Mediated Selenium Based Mouthwash-A Comparative Microbial and Cytotoxic Effect

Pravalika Arunkumar, R. V. Geetha, S. Rajesh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 860-870
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33194

Introduction: The extract of Boerhaavia diffusa root, a plant used in Indian traditional medicine, has significant immunomodulatory Potential. Selenium, a nutrient element that has a massive function in biological systems, is one of the interesting compounds to integrate with antibacterial agents. Recently several studies have pointed out the ability of selenium nanoparticles to exhibit anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial and antibiofilm properties.

Aim: To analyze the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of Boerhaavia diffusa mediated selenium nanoparticles based mouthwash.

Materials and Methods:   1 g of Boerhavia diffusa was added in 100 ml of distilled water. It was boiled; the plant extract was filtered using Whatman’s no.1 filter paper. In 250 ml conical flask, 60 ml of 20 millimolar sodium selenite was prepared and 40 ml of the filtered plant extract was mixed. This flask was kept in a magnetic stirrer. The nanoparticle solution was centrifuged at 8000rpm to prepare nanoparticle pellets. The nanoparticle pellet was dried in a hot air oven at 80 degree celsius. The dried powder was sent for Characterization. A mouthwash is prepared.

The prepared mouthwash was tested for cytotoxic activity by brine shrimp lethality assay and antimicrobial activity evaluated the zone of inhibition of agar well diffusion method.

Results and Discussion: It was proved that cytotoxic activity of selenium bound mouthwash was less compared to the commercial mouthwash. The antibacterial activity of the selenium bound mouthwash against C. albicans and S. mutans was significant when compared to the standard antimicrobial agent.

Conclusion: Based on the results, this mouthwash has the required qualities to be commercially be used. Therefore further studies can be done to prove that this mouthwash can be used commercially.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Lymph Node Involvement in Carcinomas during Precovid and Covid Era

P. Manasvi, V. Rishi Gowtham

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 875-881
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33196

Background: This is a clinicopathological study comparing the involvement of lymph nodes in various carcinomas before and during the COVID-19 period. During the pandemic the access to healthcare and timely detection and intervention of carcinomas were severely affected. This delay in treatment has led to the progression of malignancies and metastasis to lymph nodes.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of 40 patients (20 from 2019 and 20 from 2021) with carcinomas who were treated by surgical excision of tumour combined with lymph node resection. Histopathological examination of the nodes was done to detect malignant metastasis and the average node positivity rate was calculated.

Results: Lymph node metastasis was observed in 10 patients in 2019 (50%) and 16 patients in 2021 (80%). The average node positivity rate is significantly higher in 2021 than in 2019, in 2019 it is 31% and in 2021 it is 43%. Lymph node metastasis is expected to increase by 43% in 2021.

Conclusion: In the Covid-19 pandemic, a significant decrease and delay of patients presenting to the OPD for neoplasms, resulting in a delay in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced-stage neoplasms that manifest as metastases in the regional lymph nodes.  Surgeons need to be vigilant and extensively explore the all draining affected lymph nodes and resect them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infestations among Children in a Tertiary Care Centre

J. S. Danish, P. Vasanth, V. Subramanian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 882-886
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33197

Introduction: Intestinal parasitic infestations are more common in developing countries and an important cause of morbidity in pediatric age group. It causes abdominal pain, diarrhoea, anemia, impaired cognitive function, growth retardation and poor academic performance among school going children.

Objectives: To analyze age, gender and most common parasitic infestations among children in a tertiary care hospital in south India.

Materials and Methods: Stool samples of pediatric patients in a tertiary care hospital is analysed for a period of one year for detection of prevalence of parasitic infestations.

Results: In our study, 115 stool samples were analysed and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was found to be 7.82% (9/115).There were five different parasites encountered. The most common parasite identified was Giardia lamblia(4/9)(44.44%) followed by Entamoeba histolytica(2/9)(22.22%), Ascarislumbricoides(1/9)(11.11%), Trichuris trichiura(1/9)(11.11%), and Hymenolepis nana(1/9)(11.11%).

Conclusion: Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica were found to be the most common organism in our study. Awareness about proper hygiene, sanitation and prophylactic anti-protozoal medications is important to prevent the occurrence and complications of intestinal parasitic infestations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Profile and Outcome of Diabetic Foot Ulcer in Teritary Care Hospital

S. Kavipriya, Khalilur Rahman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 887-893
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33198

Background: The goal of this study was to estimate the disease burden of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) admissions in a tertiary care hospital in a developing country in terms of clinical profile and outcome.

Method: In this descriptive study, the data were collected from the medical record of diabetic patients with foot ulcer who were treated in Saveetha medical college and hospital between the period of February to November 2020. The demographic characteristic, type of foot lesion, etiology, isolated microorganism, treatment, and outcome were reviewed.

Results: There were 180 admissions with diabetic foot problems involving 100 patients. All of the patients had type 2 diabetes, and there was no gender bias. The average age was 50, and diabetes control was poor. The majority of patients had no knowledge what had caused their symptoms. In 56 % of cases, ulcers were neuropathic, 25% were neuro ischemic, and a smaller fraction were pure ischemia. More than 70% of ulcers were Wagner grade 3 or higher, with infection occurring in nearly every patient. Gram-negative bacteria were the most prevalent isolates from culture. A total of 30 lower extremity amputations (LEAs) were performed at various levels of the foot.

Conclusion: Diabetic foot problems are a source of morbidity, a reason for LEA surgery, and a cause of death in people who have diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Cognitive Functions and Emotional Disturbances in Elderly Patients using Smart Phone Mobiles

. Mufeetha, G. Sridevi, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 894-902
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33199

Background: Research shows that smartphones can lead to brain affects which slowly ability and start to store information remotely outside the brain brings mental laziness. When people are given smart- phones they reduce the memory storing. So, the present study planned to evaluate the Emotional disturbances and cognitive functions and language skills among android mobile non-users and users

Methods: A study population involved 20 adults in the age group of 50-70 years. They were divided into two groups. Group 1- Subjects who were not using any mobile phone but were using landline Group 2-Subjects on regular use of Smartphones. Battery cognitive tests were assessed using MINI mental state examination and the levels of orientation, memory, attention, language, abstraction and recall was analyzed. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using an independent sample t test. The emotional status was assessed based on a cross-sectional study using a depression questionnaire performed among 100 elderly subjects in the age group of patients from private dental colleges. The data was collected and analyzed using SPSS software version 23.

Results: As the result of mobile phones as it causes diseases. Apart from cancer, mobile phones influence our brain and nervous system. They may cause decreased attention, sleep disorders, headache, shortness of temper, and depression, mostly among elders.

Conclusion: The study concluded an innovative finding that Mobile phone usage causes more cognitive changes in middle aged and they must be educated with the harmful effects of more and frequent usage of mobile phones. And they should impact with their family and relatives

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Malignancy in Solitary Thyroid Nodule-A Retrospective Study

A. Kavya, K. R. Manoj Prabu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 903-907
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33201

Background: Solitary thyroid nodule is defined as discrete mass palpable in an otherwise apparently normal thyroid gland.  Solitary nodule is the common presentation of thyroid disorders.

Objective: This study aimed to look into the prevalence of malignancy in clinico-radiologically detected solitary thyroid nodule and to correlate the findings in pre-operative fine needle aspiration cytology(FNAC) and post-operative histopathological examination(HPE).

Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in our Institute for a period of 6 months using the data obtained between 2018-2020 of patients who were clinically and radiologically diagnosed as solitary thyroid nodule in the Department of General Surgery.

Results: Out of 30 cases of clinically detected solitary thyroid nodule 7(23.3%)cases was found to be malignant. The mean age of presentation was 41.2 years with male female ratio of 1:9. 25(83.3%)cases was reported as benign nodules according to pre-operative FNAC out of these 2(6.6%)cases turned out to be malignant on post-operative histopathological examination.

Conclusion: It is concluded that from the present study the prevalence of malignancy in clinically detected solitary thyroid nodule is 23.3%. FNAC being sensitive, cost effective and reliable tool in the preoperative assessment of solitary thyroid nodules and HPE in post operative evaluation of clinical specimen both playing a vital role in management of solitary thyroid nodule thus helping in early diagnosis and proper surgical intervention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sustained Isometric and Isotonic Exercises on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability – A Comparative Study

S. Sneha Harshini, G. Sridevi, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 908-915
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33204

Introduction: Isometric exercises are contractions of a particular muscle which doesn’t noticeably change length and the affected joint doesn’t move [1]. Isotonic exercises involve contracting muscle shortens against a constant weight, as when lifting as weight [2,3]. These two different types of exercise have profound changes in the body affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular systems [4]. Studies comparing the effectiveness of isotonic and isometric exercises on blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV) were scanty [5].

Objective: The present study planned to investigate and compare the efficacy of isometric as well as isotonic exercises on changes in blood pressure, heart rate and HRV.

Materials and methods: 10 normal healthy subjects in the age group 17-20 years of both genders participated in the study. All the subjects were assessed under three different conditions: Resting state, After isotonic exercises (20 repetitions of straight leg raise) and After isometric exercises 2 mins of sustained abdominal exercises). After each procedure, blood pressure and heart rate variability were calculated.

Results: Isometric exercises cause reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure while pulse rate increases significantly. Isotonic exercises increase the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure significantly. The result is statistically significant with p<0.050.

Conclusion: Thus it can be concluded an innovative finding that isometric exercise causes profound decline in blood pressure and increased heart rate variability thus showing a negative impact on cardiovascular health. So it can be concluded that isotonic exercise improves the circulation and supports the cardiovascular system and strengthens the muscle, improves bone density and boosts cardiac function

Open Access Original Research Article

Short Term Outcomes of Early Term Neonates in a Tertiary Care Centre: A Descriptive Study

P. Ragasudhin, Harish Sudarsanan, J. Kumutha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 916-920
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33207

Introduction: The number of babies delivered between 37 weeks to 38 weeks and 6 days has been on the rise with increase in lower segment caesarian section (LSCS). These early term neonates have increased risk of developing respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, transient tachypnoea, prolonged hospital stays, hypothermia, and feeding difficulty, when compared to a term neonate. An audit of early term neonatal short-term outcomes was undertaken at our institute.

Methodology: A retrospective descriptive cross- sectional study was carried out between July 2020 and December 2020 at a private medical college Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Neonates with a gestation age of 37 weeks and 0 days to 38 weeks and 6 days born were included.

Results: A total of 137 early term delivery data were obtained. Hypothyroidism (23%) and gestational diabetes (23%) were found to be the most common associated antenatal problems. The most common morbidity out of 137 early term neonates was neonatal jaundice 91(66.4%) followed by respiratory distress which affected 38 (28%) neonates.

Conclusion: This study establishes the high incidence of neonatal jaundice and respiratory morbidities in early term neonates. Hence it is better to avoid elective LSCS before 39 weeks of gestation provided there are no medical indications for the same.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemiology Clinical Profile and Outcome of Patients with COVED-19 Admitted in a Tertiary Health Care Hospital

Fahima Thasleem Fazlur Rahman, Shami Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 921-927
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33208

The knowledge of epidemiology and clinical profile is essential to understand the severity of the disease and to come up with timely intervention and proper treatment to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by it. Severe Acute Respiratory SyndromeCoronavirus2 (SARS-CoV-2) the cause of Novel Coronavirus caused an outbreak in December 2019 in China, Wuhan. COVID-19 was declared to be a global pandemic on 11 March 2020 and it was found to cause pneumonia. This is a retrospective study done by reviewing the medical records of patients admitted to the COVID ward of a tertiary health care hospital in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. This study is focused on the epidemiology, clinical features and outcome of the patients. Patients were admitted based on RT-PCR results, patients aged between 0-17 whose RT-PCR for COVID-19 was positive were included in this study. Furthermore the disease severity, co-morbidities and treatment have also been analysed in this study. Out of 68 children tested 50 of them were positive for COVID-19, whose extensive histories regarding various details were recorded. Among various age groups, the most affected age group was found to be between 5-10 years and between 1-5 years. There was found to be male predominance in our study. Most of the patients were from the urban area and were from lower socioeconomic status. The mode of transmission in the paediatric age group was straightforward, the disease was contracted from a family member or from travelling to an endemic area. Mild symptoms were predominantly noticed in these children. Fever and sore throat were the chief complaints of most patients. Children with co-morbidities such as asthma, obesity etc… was given special attention as these conditions might increase the risk of severity of the disease. All the children admitted were given symptomatic treatment and a repeat RT-PCR test was taken before being discharged. The conducted study demonstrates that disease severity was mild in children than in adults. Further studies are required to understand the clinical course and early and late complications in children.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphometric Analysis of V2 Segment of Vertebral Artery in Patients with Symptomatic Neck Pain in South Indian Population – A CT Angiography Based Study

S. G. Mathupriya, P. S. Arun Vignesh, S. Vishnu Raj, Abhinav Gandra, Nitesh Kumar Rathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 928-932
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33209

Objectives: The morphometric changes in the vertebral artery are essential for various interventions. Inadequate details about it can lead to risk of vertebral artery injury and other complications. This study explains the normal anatomical course of V2 segment of vertebral artery which is more prone for iatrogenic injury.

Materials and Method: 25 adult patients with symptomatic neck pain were involved in the study. Various measurements were made from seventh cervical vertebra (C7) to the third cervical vertebra (C3) that included Distance from midline to VA, Distance from medial margin of Longus Colli to VA, Perpendicular distance from anterior margin of transverse process to center of VA, Horizontal distance from anterior tubercle to VA, sagittal and coronal diameter of the transverse foramen and vertebral artery.

Result: Distance from midline, Distance from medial margin of Longus Colli, Perpendicular distance from anterior margin of transverse process to center of VA and Horizontal distance from anterior tubercle were increased towards right compared to left side. The sagittal and coronal diameter of the transverse foramen and vertebral artery decreased from C6 to C3 vertebra. Vertebral artery dominance was seen on left side in all cases.

Conclusion: Preoperative assessment by computed tomography angiography helps to know the course of the vertebral artery, understand its patterns and assess various abnormalities thereby aids in preventing complications in future surgeries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychological and Emotional Changes among Students Undergoing Different Teaching Strategies- A Survey

Srivaths Mukka, G. Sridevi, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 933-941
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33215

Background: Stress is a common and serious threat that affects different populations in various age groups. Students belonging to professional courses in medical and dental colleges are subjected to higher levels of stress.

Objective: The objective of the present study was to assess stress associated with different teaching strategies in students of various professional colleges and its influence on academic, social and health-related factors.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 students of medical, dental and engineering colleges from the urban area of Chennai city using a convenience sampling technique. A self-developed questionnaire consisting of 18 questions was used for the data collection to analyse the level, frequency, reason for stress, stress symptoms, type of education they undergo, stress relief methods followed. This questionnaire was circulated by Google forms and the responses were collected. Analysis was done using frequency analysis and chi-square test.

Results: Results revealed that the majority of participants about 57.7 % are undergoing regular education, 23% of students are undergoing express education and 18% of students are undergoing online education. About 70% of respondents stated that they feel stress. Majority of participant in the regular mode of education responded that they took antidepressant drugs (23%), music (16.5%) for the habit of fighting against stress and the association was found to be statistically significant.

Conclusion: The study concluded an innovative finding that most of the students underwent regular education and were better at academic performance and stress pertaining to academics was dealt with habit of hearing music and intake of antidepressant drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability among Non-vegetarians and Vegetarians

S. Samudhrasri, G. Sridevi, S. Preetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 942-949
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33216

Background: Dietary approaches to regulate blood pressure should be an important strategy of cardiovascular health. There is extensive study demonstrating multiple individual dietary components and several dietary patterns that affect blood pressure.

Aim: The present study planned to investigate the influence of dietary patterns on cardiac functions.

Materials and Methods: 20 healthy subjects belonging to regular consumption of vegetarian and heavy non vegetarian diet among the student population were analysed for changes in blood pressure (SBP, DBP, PP, MAP), Pulse rate and heart rate variability (HRV).

Results: The results of the study revealed that non vegetarians showed a significant increase in systolic blood pressure (p=0.030) (p>0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.033) (p>0.05) and insignificant decrease in heart rate variability in comparison with the vegetarians. 

Conclusion: Thus the study concluded that there is a positive interaction of diet preference and changes in blood pressure among vegetarians and non vegetarians.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Routine Ultrasonography in the First Trimester of Pregnancy

T. Saravanan, Hephzibah Kirubamani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 950-958
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33217

Introduction: In the early stages of pregnancy, ultrasound is an extremely specific method for examination. This article reviews how the normal development of a baby in the first trimester of pregnancy relates to ultrasound findings.

Aim: To highlight the importance of routine ultrasonography in the first trimester of pregnancy in detecting and dating gestation, its viability and early detection of anomalies and complications

Methods: This descriptive study involved 100 pregnant women within 12 weeks of gestation attending antenatal clinic at Saveetha Medical college, during the study period

Inclusion Criteria: Pregnant women with history of amenorrhea <12 weeks of gestation.

Exclusion criteria: Individuals with history of pain abdomen and bleeding per vaginum

Results: A total of 99 pregnancies were intrauterine of which 1 was anembryonic and 2 had early pregnancy failure, 15 pregnancies were redated. One ectopic and one fibroid complicating pregnancy were aslo found.

Conclusion: Ultrasonography is an effective method to detect and date pregnancy, identify nonviable pregnancies, fetal abnormalities and early trimester complications. Hence it is ideal to use it routinely as screening tool during the first trimester of pregnancy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Smokeless Tobacco on the Histology and Functioning of Proximal Convoluted Tubules of the Kidneys of Female Albino Rats

Syna Pervaiz Singha, Abroo Fatima Qazi, Amir Derick Isaac

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 959-965
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33218

Aims: The consumption of oral form of smokeless tobacco has increased rapidly. Its use is associated with increased risk of chronic diseases like diabetes, myocardial infarction, liver disorders, cerebrovascular accidents and many other health issues. Use of tobacco in any form either smoked or chewed form leads to the absorption of nicotine which spontaneously moves into the bloodstream where it is circulated throughout the body system. Hence through this study an effort is being made to evaluate the effects produced by the locally available brand of smokeless tobacco on the histology and functioning of proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys of the female Swiss albino rats.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Sindh Agricultural University, Tandojam and further lab work was carried out in Isra University Hyderabad.

Methodology: 30 adult female Swiss albino rats were randomly selected. They were divided into three groups (n=10). Group A were taken as control. Group B&C comprised of rats which were given 5 %& 10% of smokeless tobacco respectively along with their chow diet. The feed and water were given ad libitum. Animals were sacrificed on 31st day and their kidneys were removed and weighed. The specimens were processed routinely for examination under light microscope. The sections were stained using H & E stains and examined under light microscope. Blood samples for analysis of creatinine and urea were collected.

Results: A significant decrease in the weight of the kidneys, an increase in the levels of creatinine and urea were observed (P value = 0.001). Kidneys of both B & C groups showed edema, congestion and presence of cast cells when compared with the kidneys of the control group.

Conclusion: From these observations, it can be inferred that the exposure of female Swiss albino rats to the smokeless form of Tobacco is associated with structural and functional damage of the kidneys.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Profile of Acute Cerebrovascular Accidents

R. M. Bala Ashwathy, N. Deepthi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 966-973
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33219

Background: Acute cerebrovascular disease or stroke is one of the most leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Due to change in dietary habits and life style factors, there is increase in co-morbid conditions like diabetes and hypertension. This in turn increases the risk for developing stroke.

Aim: To study the cerebrovascular accident patients by analyzing and comparing their clinical profile.

Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in stroke patients. The type of stroke, associated risk factors and prognosis of the patients were studied.

Results: A total of 50 patients were included in the study, for a period of 4 months from January 1, 2021 to April 30, 2021. Both male and female were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 56.86 years. Thrombotic stroke was the most common (50%) followed by embolic and hemorrhagic stroke. Hypertension was the most commonly associated risk factor (80%), followed by diabetes (60%), smoking (52%), dyslipidemia (34%) and alcohol (28%). The comparatively higher incidence of cerebrovascular accidents in age less than 60 years is attributed to the rise in risk factors in the young age (P<0.05). The average duration of hospitalization was 6.58 days. There is no in-hospital mortality.

Conclusion: With prevalence of risk factors on rise, younger individuals are also affected. Proper risk factor management will help in preventing stroke and its recurrence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anticipatory Guidance in Childhood Safety: How do Parents Fare? A Survey from a Tertiary Hospital

Kishore Narayan, Daniel Paul Pragasam, P. Kesavaraj, Balamma Sujatha, S. Rajesh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 974-981
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33220

Unintentional home injuries are a major cause for childhood morbidity and mortality.

Aims and Objective: To find the KAP among mothers about common home injuries and methods to prevent them. To assess how safe the houses of the study population is.

Materials and Methods: 200 mothers attending the paediatric OPD of a tertiary care hospital in a sub-urban area of South India were enrolled. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Details regarding socio-demographic aspects, knowledge, attitude and practices about common household accidents and ways to prevent were asked. The safety aspects of their homes were also noted down. The collected data were analysed with sigma plot 13(system software, USA). In the above statistical tools the probability value <0.05 was considered as significant.

Result: The mean age of mother was 28.82 ± 4.93 years and age at marriage, 21.7 ± 3.55 years. 54% belonged to lower middle class and nearly 20% each in upper lower and upper middle class. Fall from height, Road traffic accidents followed by electrical injuries were the commonest accidents known by mothers. Socioeconomic status and educational levels had statistical correlation with few of the variables.

Conclusion: Knowledge about home accidents is poor in the study population. Most of the houses are not child safe. Parent education about home injuries and training on first aid should be part of newborn follow up.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study to Compare the Efficacy of Back Strengthening Therapy in Patients with Lower Back Pain on Analgesics to that of those on Placebo in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Chennai

R. Nehaapriya, Damodharan Vasudevan, K. Gunalan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 982-987
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33221

Aim: Isometric and Core strengthening exercises for lower back pain provides relief to patients, whereas combing it with analgesics also provides relief of pain, thereby in this study the efficacy of isometric and core strengthening exercises alone is evaluated.

Method: A cross-sectional study involving 200 subjects was conducted in the OPD of department of Orthopaedics, Saveetha Medical college and hospital. Assessment of lower back pain was done using ODI (Oswestry Disability Index) among patients receiving Isometric and Core strengthening exercises with and without analgesics for a period of 3 months.

Results: There is no significance difference in the reduction of pain among group A who received analgesics along with isometric and core strengthening exercises and group B who received only isometric and core strengthening exercises.

Conclusion: Isometric and core strengthening exercises alone is as effective as its combination with analgesics.

Open Access Review Article

Legislation and Regulation for Import Manufacture Distribution and Sale of Cosmetics in Sri Lanka

Akhilesh Akki, P. Subhash Chandra Bose, M. P. Venkatesh, K. Divith, Gorthi Nihar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33095

The goal of cosmetics regulation is to provide Sri Lankans with safe and high-quality cosmetics that are equivalent to those in other nations. To accomplish these regulators and industry should collaborate to achieve common objectives. This category includes skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, nail polishes, and eye and lip cosmetics. Face makeup, shampoos, permanent waves, hair colours, teeth pastes, deodorants, and any other cosmetics Ingredient intended for use in cosmetic items and gadgets, soap making Cosmetics that do not state that they are for human use are not considered cosmetics under the law. According to the Sri Lankan government, cosmetics must be registered before they can be manufactured, supplied, distributed, or sold. The regulations' goal is to provide guidance and inform marketing authorization holders and consumers about the regulatory authorities' procedures and criteria for determining aesthetic suitability, as well as the requirements for registration and how applications should be made, and how to import, manufacture, distribute, and sell cosmetics in Sri Lanka [NMRA].

Open Access Review Article

An Ayurvedic Perception of Primary Amenorrhea for a Blissful Womanhood

R. Annapurna, Shyny Thankachan, Bhagavan G. Kulkarni, M. Girija Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 68-75
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33097

Amenorrhea is the absence of a menstrual period in a during woman's reproductive age. About 3 to 4%of adolescent girls suffer from primary amenorrhea. Primary amenorrhea is not a life-threatening disease condition, but can result in significant complications. Primary amenorrhea can leads to calcium loss which will result in osteoporosis. Osteoporosis manifests with no clinical symptoms, until there is a fracture and results in a reduced quality of life. 

Amenorrhea is considered as Anartava in Ayurveda. The concept of Anartava is explained in different contexts. By analyzing those contexts, we can infer that the main causes are Mithyahara and vihara (Improper diet and regimens of mother during the pregnancy period and the girl/woman during her reproductive period), Beeja dosha (Genetic deformities/abnormalities) and Dushtartava (Hormonal imbalance). 

Ayurveda is a science that focuses on the quality of living, aims not only in curing the disease rehabilitating but also in preventing it. A good progeny of procreation is a real bliss. In the present scenario, the Primary amenorrhea is one of the gynecological issues which affects the quality of life of a woman and has a wider impact on her physical, psychological and social well-being.  Because of the physical, psychological and social impact, it is very necessary to have a look at its causes for the better prevention and management. This promises a generation with better reproductive health.

Open Access Review Article

Vesicular and Stealth Vesicular Drug Delivery – A Review

Bandaru Lakshmi Narayana Rao, S. Parimala Krishnan, Challa Balashekar Reddy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 76-88
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33098

Vesicular systems (liposomes), one of several potential novel drug delivery systems, provide an advanced technology for delivering active compounds to the site of action, and numerous formulations are currently in clinical use. Liposome technology has developed from typical vesicles to sterically stabilised vesicles, which produce long-circulating liposomes by varying the lipid content, size, and charge of the vesicle. Several compounds, such as glycolipids, have been used to create liposomes with changed surfaces. The addition of the synthetic polymer poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in liposome composition was a crucial milestone in the creation of long-circulating liposomes. PEG on the liposomal carrier's surface has been found to increase blood circulation time while decreasing mononuclear phagocyte system uptake (Stealth Liposomes). As a consequence of this technique, a vast variety of liposome formulations encapsulating active compounds have been developed, all of which have excellent target efficiency and activity. Stealth liposomes can also be actively targeted with monoclonal antibodies or ligands thanks to a synthetic alteration of the terminal PEG molecule. This article focuses on vesicular drug delivery as well as stealth technology and presents preclinical and clinical data for the most common liposome formulations, as well as discussing developing developments in this promising technology.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Role of Circadian Rhythms in Management of Prostate Cancer

Shilpa P. Chaudhari, Dhanaji S. Suryavanshi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 112-124
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33101

The circadian clock is a molecular evolutionary mechanism that controls the time of physiology to maintain homeostasis. Circadian disorder in particular has been identified as an independent risk factor for cancer and has been classified as a carcinogen. The circadian rhythm regulates several biological pathways, including oncogenic tumors, metabolism, and cell reproduction. The new data examined in this article suggest that circadian regulatory functions play a key role in various aspects of cancer, including cell proliferation control, cell death, DNA repair, and metabolism. Circadian irregularities are incorrect input signals, such as exposure to night light, variability in circadian rhythm genes, and output changes that regulate circadian behavior, including melatonin. Night work, shift work, workday changes, urinary melatonin levels, and insomnia put older men at risk for prostate cancer. Melatonin has anti-cancer properties. Men with lower melatonin levels in the morning had a higher risk of advanced or fatal prostate cancer. Melatonin, a hormone found in the pineal gland, plays an important role in the functioning of the circadian function. The integration of circadian biology into cancer research opens up new avenues for more effective cancer treatment, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of this destructive disease. This review examines the role of the circadian clock in tumor formation and cancer symptoms, and examines whether pharmacological changes in circadian clock genes may lead to new treatment options.

Open Access Review Article

Effect of Yoga on Primary Dysmenorrhoea among Adolescent Girls – A Literature Review

Sandhyakumari R. Rajbhar, Ruby Singh, Mamta Sangada

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 157-161
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33107

Menstrual pain affects most of today female adolescents and this is a leading cause of school absenteeism/ college absenteeism. The researcher reviewed the various literatures to evaluate the effect of yoga on primary dysmenorrhoea and about prevalence through various sources such as Printed material, conference papers, Books as well as electronic sources which are Pubmed, CINHAL, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, Science Direct and etc. Primary dysmenorrhoea is menstruation cramps which is common, recurrent and without any pathological condition. In India 50 to 87.8% adolescents had complaints of primary dysmenorrhoea, while equalling occurrence of primary dysmenorrhea from other countries, Ethiopia reported 70%, Malaysia 6.8% and Jordan reported 55.8%. There are many factors which make pain worse include heavier, irregular or longer, menstrual cycle; lack of exercise; mental or social stress; drinking alcohol; smoking; being overweight and other factors. Most of studies show that yogic practices like different yogasana such as Bhujanagasana, Matsyasana, Vajrasana, Dhanurasana, Apanasana and Shavasana, relaxation techniques, pranayama’s and meditation have proven very beneficial in the treatment of primary Dysmenorrhoea. After reviewing literatures its concluded that yoga is effective to decrease menstrual pain and it will also increase productivity in daily living activity by enhance self-confidence level.

Open Access Review Article

A Systematic Review on Machine Learning and Deep Learning Based Predictive Models for Health Informatics

Saleh Abdullah Aloyuni

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 183-194
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33112

Health informatics (HI) has become a significant research area due to the massive generation of digital health and medical data by biomedical and health research organizations. The health data sources are available in different forms namely electronic health records (EHRs), biomedical imaging, bio-signals, sensor data, genomic data, medical history, social media data, and so on. The structured health data can be utilized for HI and effective predictive modeling of health data assists in the decision-making process. The recently developed artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and deep learning (DL) techniques pave a way for effective predictive modeling on health data. Numerous existing works have been presented in the literature depending upon the ML and DL based HI for various applications. With this motivation, this study aims to review the recent state of art ML and DL based predictive models for health sector. This survey primarily identifies the difference between the ML and DL architectures with their significance in health sector. In addition, the existing works are extensively reviewed and compared in terms of different aspects such as objectives, underlying methodology, input source, dataset used, performance validation, metrics, and so on. Finally, the open challenges and future scope of the HI are examined in detail. At the end of the survey, the readers find it useful to identify the present research and possible future scope of the ML and DL based predictive models for HI.

Open Access Review Article

Overview on Causes and Updated Management of Favism

Mohammed Hussen Sheikh, Ahlam Shary J. Hazazi, Ashwaq Nafea O. Alanazi, Ibtisam Shary J. Hazazi, Amal Abutaleb M. Qaysi, Yara Abdulrahman Alali, Badaya Awadh M. Alshehri, Ohoud Abdullah Almutari, Rawan Hamdi Bedaiwi, Rawan Hamoud M. Alatawi, Rahf Mohammed Alqarni, Alanoud Abdullah Alharbi, Rawan Ahmed H. Alshehri, Rinad Rasheed M. Alrashidi, Mona Awad O. Al Balawi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 249-254
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33121

Favism is most common in those who have G6PD deficiency from the Mediterranean region. As hemolytic anaemia is the most common complication of G6PD deficiency, and it can be life-threatening in certain people. Infection, hyperglycemia, certain meals, and certain drugs can all cause hemolysis therefore, the most prevalent enzymopathy is glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, which affects an estimated 400 million individuals, globally. Exposure to some medicines might cause hemolytic anaemia. The most important management technique is to avoid oxidative stresses by avoiding a hemolytic crisis. Also, avoidance of exposure to food and medicines that causes  hemolytic anaemia episodes

This review looks at etiology, epidemiology, pathopysiology, evaluation and management of the disease.

Open Access Review Article

Interrelation between Sleep Bruxism and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Literature Review

Nabiel Alghazali, Mohammed I. Malki, Mesfer Ibrahim A. Alshehri, Wafa H. Alfaifi, Afnan J. Khardali, Hessah M. M. Majrashi, Shaima M. A. Al-hussein, Hala M. Maghrabi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 322-329
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33131

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a clinical risk factor for sleep bruxism (SB). Although no clear causative link has been defined, both conditions are inter related to sleep-related arousal reactions [1]. A literature review was conducted on PubMed and ScienceDirect databases for 2000–2021 period. The majority of studies revealed an association between OSA and SB events.

Open Access Review Article

Prevalence, Causes and Management of Obstruction of Common Bile Duct: Review Article

Mohammed Elnibras Abdelrahim Mohammed, Sultan Suliman Q Al-Ruwaili, Faisal Saeed A. Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Abdullah S. Alasmari, Muath Sulaiman G. Alhamdi, Khaled Abdullah S. Alasmari, Sultan Abdulrahman S. Alamrani, Bandar Mohammed A. Abu murad, Bedour Eid H. Alatawi, Abdullah Mohammed Alrofydi, Razan Ahmed F. Aljuhani, Mariyah Ihab Alzayer, Abdalah Emad S. Almhmd, Faisal Ibrahim S. Alsukairan, Mona Awad O. Al Balawi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 384-390
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33138

Gallstones cause biliary obstruction in about 5 out of 1000 people, whereas 10 to 15% of the adult population in the United States will have gallstones at some point in their lives. Gall stones, also known as cholelithiasis, are the precursor of choledocholithiasis, which occurs when gall stones pass through the cystic duct and lodge in the common hepatic ducts, causing an obstruction. Routine labs and some specialized labs are used in the diagnosis of biliary blockage. Severe complications can happen if left unchecked such as damaging the hepatic dysfunction, renal failure, nutritional deficiencies, bleeding problems, and infections. Treatment depends on the causing effect of bile duct obstruction. Sphincterotomy with lithotripsy, choledochotomy, choledochoduodenostomy, choledochojejunostomy, or cholecystectomy are the most used for large gall stones treatment. This review looks at the prevalence, etiology and management of the disease.

Open Access Review Article

SARS-COV2 Associated Oral Lesions- A Review

Das Moumalini, Banerjee Abhishek, Singh Dharvind Kumar, Karar Chandan Kumar, . Abhinandan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 431-468
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33143

Introduction: COVID-19 disease is caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus and it was declared pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11,2020. The coronavirus infection has an affinity for ACE2 receptors and by attaching to them, the virus enters the host cells. Along with many body organs like lungs, kidney, liver, upper respiratory tract, nervous system, skeletal muscles, ACE2 concentration is also found in abundance in epithelial cells of tongue and salivary glands.

Materials and Methods: Recent studies, researches, documents and case reports published in the world medical literature in the year 2020-2021 were searched and documented in our study. The search engines used were PUBMED, google scholar, WEB OF SCIENCE etc.

Results: Dysgeusia, xerostomia, sore throat, aphthous and herpetiform ulcers, candidiasis, enanthema, Kawasaki like lesions were the most common among various oral manifestations. Others includes plaque like changes, gingival inflammation, necrotizing gingivitis, erythema -multiforme, angina-bullosa like lesions, Melkersson-Rosenthal Syndrome, Oral mucormycosis etc.The sites of infection mainly include tongue, gingiva, hard and soft palate, buccal and labial mucosa etc.

Conclusion: The etiopathogenesis of such lesions cannot be directly corelated with COVID-19 and factors such as stress, immunosuppression, co-infections, secondary lesions, opportunistic infections, systemic diseases, poor oral hygiene etc. must be considered. Management of stress is an important factor. In this review article various oral lesions are discussed in COVID-19 infection states in detail. The importance of earliest diagnosis of oral lesions is to be kept in mind to prevent further complications.

Open Access Review Article

Systemic Review: The Pathogenicity of Plasmodium berghei in The Liver and Spleen of the Experimental Mice

Haleema H. Albohiri, Najia A. Alzanbagi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 515-529
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33151

Malaria is still one of the most prevalent tropical and parasitic diseases throughout the world representing a global health concern. Even with all efforts to restrict disease transmission and national malaria control programs, malaria infection continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in resource-poor countries. Malaria infection occurs in two stages, the Exoerythrocytic and Erythrocytic stage. The exact biology of malaria parasite in human hosts is likely relatively similar, with the main differences being attributable to the human immune response, the number of previous infections and the exposure profile. The disease severity can be determined by the balance between the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Although, research about the clinical characterization and histology of malaria has shown some information regarding the pathogenesis, the actual mechanisms by which malaria parasites produce severe disease, the immunity defends against infection is remained unknown. Studies in animal models can reveal details about the processes of severe malaria infection and human defense mechanisms. Because of its similarities to the Plasmodium species that cause human malaria, Plasmodium berghei is used as a model organism for the experimental research. In addition, of affecting the central nervous system, Plasmodium berghei infection in the Swiss Webster mouse causes systemic damage, and affects numerous organs including the liver and lymphoid organs. The infected spleen demonstrations includethe splenomegaly, re-modelling and other basic changes consist of the red pulp’s expansion, marginal zone’s slight damage, enlarged vasculature and the barrier cells activities. Moreover, the liver shows hyperplastic Kupffer cells, fatty change, portal tract inflammation, cholestasis, liver cell necrosis, sequestration of Parasitized Red Blood Cells (PRBCs) and deposition of hemozoin pigments. 

Open Access Review Article

Thrombosis in COVID-19 Patients

S. Rakshana, Laya Mahadevan, A. S. Arunkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 721-727
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33175

The magnitude of thrombosis in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is yet to be understood fully. Thrombosis in COVID-19 patients depends on multiple factors like the severity of the disease, presence or absence of prophylactic anticoagulants, and the number of anticoagulants prescribed. Histologically, lung tissues from COVID patients show florid capillary endothelitis with microthrombi formation in alveolar capillaries and small pulmonary vessels. Inflammation and diffuse alveolar damage, extensive pulmonary macrophage activation and diffuse interstitial inflammation play an important role in microthrombi formation in the pulmonary vessels. If antithrombotic therapy is already prescribed before the diagnosis of COVID-19, it should be continued. For all hospitalized pregnant patients, prophylactic anticoagulant therapy is prescribed unless contraindicated. Anticoagulant therapy during labor requires special care. Appropriate therapeutic and prophylactic anticoagulant regimens must be initiated as and when required including in the post discharge phase.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Steroids and Other Immunomodulators in Treatment of COVID-19

M. Rakshna, A. S. Arunkumar, Laya Mahadevan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 746-755
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i47B33178

Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID- 19), the newly discovered infectious disease is caused by an infection with a novel virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2(SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2-infected cells produce substances that can induce injury to lung cells as the focus of initiation of COVID-19 during the incubation period. These substances bind to receptors on the target cells. Corticosteroids bind to specific intracellular cytoplasmic receptors in target tissues.  The receptor hormone recruits co-activator or co-repressor proteins after dimerizing. In severe COVID-19 patients develop a systemic inflammatory response that leads to lung injury and multisystem organ dysfunction. Even though evidence consistently supporting the use of steroids in ARDS and pneumonia is hard to come by the potent anti-inflammatory effects of steroids are postulated to prevent the deleterious effects of the severe inflammation seen in COVID pneumonia. A monoclonal antibody cocktail consisting of Casirivimab and Imdevimab is another promising therapeutic option in patients at high risk of deterioration. Used early in the disease process they prevent hospitalization and further morbidity.