Open Access Case Report

Ameloblastic Transformation of a Primarily Diagnosed Dentigerous Cyst of Jaw- A Rare Case Report

Bose Surajit, Bhakta Ipsita, Karar Chandan Kumar, Singh Dharvind Kumar, Banerjee Abhishek

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 90-94
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32919

The separation of the follicle from around the crown of an unerupted tooth causes formation of dentigerous cyst. It may undergo metaplasia in several cases. In this case a 30 year old female patient reported with a history of dentigerous cyst with respect to impacted 48. The swelling started growing gradually causing facial asymmetry. On intraoral examination the swelling seem to extend from 48 to 46 region and cortical plates were expanded. The histopathological examination revealed the sample to be cystic ameloblastoma (mural variety). This paper sends a message that the potential of a cyst should never be understated, instead it must be kept in an observation or understanding the biological behavior over a course of time.

Open Access Case Report

A Cumulative Approach on Rare Case of Infantile Tremor Syndrome

Siddharth Sunil Zabak, Ashish Ramesh Varma, Jayant Vagha, Anuj Ramesh Varma, Sakshi Pritam Arora

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 374-378
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32951

Infantile Tremor Syndrome (ITS) is categorically determined as a self-limiting clinical presentation which is characterized by anaemia, tremors, pigmentary skin disease, muscular hypotonia, and mental development regression. The presenting tremors are coarse in nature which are either decreased or vanished during sleep and takes 4-6 weeks duration for complete resolution following its natural course. The aetiology for ITS has been hypothesized for various factors like metabolic, infectious, nutritional but remained inconclusive for effective statement. But the precipitation is on the developing deficiency of Vitamin B12 but it remained controversial in terms of different factors. As the aetiology remained undefined, the line of treatment for children with ITS has been considered as per the treatment for undernourished child which included nutritional management with external supplementation of trace elements like iron, magnesium, calcium, vitamin B12 along with other such multivitamins.  The administration of tremors is most commonly managed with the administration of propranolol or phenytoin, phenobarbitone, and carbamazepine.
An 8 months old male child was brought by parents with complaints of fever since 8 days, decreased appetite and vomiting since 3 days. The course of hospital followed by physiotherapy which helped in regaining the normal functional activity of the baby.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

The Association of Interleukin 1 Beta in Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis – A Systematic Review

R. Deepa Viswasini, Pratibha Ramani, Gheena Sukumaran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32913

Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a chronic ulcerative disease with a complex aetiology and a strong immunological basis. The prototypical pro-inflammatory cytokine is interleukin-1 (IL-1). IL-1alpha and IL-1beta are the two subtypes of IL-1. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta is a key mediator of inflammation which affects cell proliferation and differentiation.

Aim: To systematically review the association of Interleukin 1 beta with the recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

Methods: A comprehensive search was done using electronic data bases such as PubMed Central, Google Scholar and direct web search. The title scan was used to find relevant articles, which were then read and appraised for inclusion. This review analysed all research that investigated the use of IL1 beta with RAS.

Results: Electronic database search identified 31 articles. After evaluating the title, abstract, and full text of these articles, only 2 were selected for the present systematic review. A final of 2 studies were included based on the inclusion criteria to meet the research question.

Conclusion: This current study shows that IL1 beta is not a significant reliable indication of RAS. The association of IL1 beta and RAS varies due to a variety of confounding variables.

Open Access Case Study

Severe COVID-19 Case with HRCT Score of 25/25: A Survival Story

Param Shah, Satish Mahajan, Sunil Kumar, Sourya Acharya, Mona Vohra, Charan Bagga, Dhruv Talwar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 148-153
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32926

With the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS-CoV2, the incidence of the disease is increasing each day with a higher infectivity rate and unpredictable morbidity and mortality. The second wave in India has higher morbidity and mortality compared to the previous wave of SARS-Cov2. With the increasing trend of screening hypoxic patients with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of thorax, treatment modalities, and investigational approaches have changed drastically. Here we report a case of a 31-year-old female who presented to a tertiary care centre in the rural area with a history of fever five days back and a history of breathlessness of 3 days duration and dry cough of 3 days duration. She was hypoxic on admission and later on diagnosed with SARS-Cov2 infection. HRCT thorax revealed a CT severity score of 25/25. She was treated according to standard treatment protocols. The patient was discharged after 46 days with normal oxygen saturation on room air. The aim of this case study is to emphasize the wholesome approach in the management of COVID-19.

Open Access Case Study

A Case Report of Complete Heart Block

Sonal Dhobe, Seema Singh, Ranjana Sharma, Ruchira Ankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 546-550
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32974

Introduction: Complete Heart Block (CHB) occurs when the electrical signals can’t pass normally from the atria, the heart’s upper chambers, to the ventricles or lower chambers. This condition can develop because of congenital or secondary to cancers, myopathies or heart ischemia, infectious or endocrinological disorders and it needs comprehensive work-up to be excluded.

Background: In the United States, the prevalence of third degree atrioventricular (AV) block that is  complete heart block is 0.02 percent.  The prevalence of third-degree AV blocks worldwide is 0.04 percent. With advancing age, the rate of AV conduction defects rises, resembling the age-related incidence of ischemic heart disease.

Case Presentation: A case of 68 year old female admitted in cardiac ward on date 11 january 2021 with the chief complaint of breathlessness on exertion, restlessness, chest pain and loss of appetite since 2 month. The patient is a known case of hypertension since 5 year, Ischemic heart disease sine 1 year. after physical examination and other investigation like ECG, electrocardiogram the  she diagnosed as a complete heart block with third degree.

Interventions: The patient was treated by placing permanent pacemaker on dated 18 january 2021. After that started the antibiotic like inj. targocid, inj. ceftriaxone, tab. linezolid, tab. orabest, tab. telmed H  and taking  also the anticoagulant therapy. She also under the care of cardiologists and monitor by hourly, also monitor the electric activity of pacemaker. Provide health education about healthy diet, life style modification, yoga and exercised, control over blood pressure and regular follow up.

Conclusion: This study mainly focusing on the medical and placement of permanent pacemaker which help the heart to do their normal function and passing a normal electrical signals throught the heart rhythm. A good nursing care needed for the patient who have complete heart block and surgical implementation in permanent pacemaker  for continue monitored, no any complication can occur during or after pacemaker implantation. the patient response for the treatment was good and she recover rapidly.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on ANC Mother Two Month with Severe Anemia

Roshani Shankarrao Warghane, Kavita Gomase, Manjusha Mahakarkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 551-554
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32975

Introduction: Human body creates extra blood throughout pregnancy to support human baby's growth. If you don't get enough iron or certain other nutrients, human body may be unable to manufacture the necessary number of red blood cells to produce this extra blood. When you're pregnant, it's typical to experience mild anemia [1].

Case Presentation: A case of a 26-year-old female admitted in the ANC ward  on date 24 November 2020 with complaints  of burning micturation, pain in abdomen, weakness, fever, breathlessness, in acharya vinoba bhave rural hospital. She had low hemoglobin level which was 5.9 gm/dl and she looks very lethargic.

Intervention: The care is providing in ANC ward blood transfusion was done. The goals during this phase are improving the hemoglobin level, maintaining the body temperature, minimize the abdominal pain, saving a life, maintaining and protecting the airway, and preventing or correcting the complication.

Outcomes: Over the short course of treatment, the patient significantly improved her hemoglobin level after blood transfusion, improved breathing pattern, reduced abdominal pain and maintained normal temperature. Make even more progress toward her aim of returning home.

Discussion: Although the patient reacted well to treatment, further interventions could be used in the future to help the patient achieve even better results [2].

Open Access Pre-protocol Article

Comparative Study of Efficacy of Muscle Energy Technique and Positional Release Therapy in Post ACL Reconstruction in Young Adults: A Randomised Clinical Trial

Gunjan D. Ingale, Deepali S. Patil, Om Wadhokar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 163-167
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32928

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), it is a dense connective tissue band originating from the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyl and inserts into the middle of the intercondylar region on the tibia. It is regarded as a crucial component in the knee joint because it resists anterior tibial translation and rotational load. Young athletes who participate in sports that demand turning, decelerating, and jumping are at high risk for ACL injury. People who participate in Pivoting sports are likely to have them (e.g. football, basketball, netball, soccer, European team handball, gymnastics, downhill skiing). Environmental (e.g., high friction between shoes and the playing surface) and anatomical variables are also risk factors for ACL injury (e.g. narrow femoral intercondylar notch). Knee instability causes a reduction in activity, which can result in a decrease in knee-related quality of life. ACL injury risk factors have been classified as either internal or external to a person. Type of competition, footwear and surface, and environmental conditions are all external risk factors. Anatomical, hormonal, and neuromuscular risk factors are all internal risk factors.

Aim and Objective: to compare the efficacy of Myofacial Release Technique versus Positional Release Therapy on range of motion post ACL reconstruction.

Methodology: In this study total 45 patients with post ACL reconstruction will be divided into two groups, one group will receive muscle energy technique and other group will received positional release therapy. The treatment will be given for 5 sessions per week for six weeks. The assessment will be done at day one of treatment at the end of treatment at the end of first week and at the end of six week.

Discussion: This study will find the better technique for improving Range of motion Post ACL reconstruction.

Conclusion: Conclusion of the study will be drawn after the statistical analysis of the data gathered from the individuals enrolled in the study.

Open Access Pre-protocol Article

A Research Protocol on Effectiveness of Sub Occipital Myofacial Release on Functional Disability in Temporomandibular Dysfunction with Neck Pain: A Randomized Control Trial

Om C. Wadhokar, Deepali S. Patil, Pratik Phansopkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 180-185
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32930

Background: Temporomandibular joint dysfunction is one of commonest joint that gets affected in females, studies shows that the altered posture of cervical spine lead to mandibular retrusion and hence in long term leads to Temporomandibular dysfunction, the tightness of sub-occipital muscle leads to pulling of the ligaments around the joint in course causing retrusion or malocclusion. The common symptoms of temporomandibular joint dysfunction includes clicking, reduced mouth opening, headache. Alteration in the function of TMJ leads to poor quality of life of the individual as this joint is involved in basic activities like talking, eating, laughing and kissing. The sub-occipital muscles are the group of muscle extending from spinous process of C2 vertebrae to inferior nuchal line of occipital bone. Tightness of this muscle lead to extension of upper cervical spine and flexion of lower cervical spine. The common causes of temporomandibular dysfunction includes injury to jaw, overuse, inflammatory condition like arthritis and bruxism. Our aim is to find out the efficacy of sub-occipital Myofacial Release versus conventional physiotherapy on functional disability of TMJ. The clinical trial registry-India (CTRI) registration number for this trial is CTRI/2021/05/033493.

Methodology: In this study the total of 60 patients with mild to moderate Temporomandibular dysfunction with neck pain were divided into two group one group received MFR and other group received stretching exercises followed by conventional physiotherapy. The treatment was given for two week 5 session in each week. The assessment was done at day one of treatment and the end of first week and at the end of second week.

Discussion: This study was done to find out the effectiveness of suboccipital Myofacial release and stretching exercises in mild to moderate Temporomandibular joint dysfunction with neck pain.

Conclusion: Conclusion of the study can be made based on the effect of both technique on functional disability in patient with mild to moderate TMD and opt for more specific treatment for rehabilitation of patient with TMD.

Open Access Pre-protocol Article

Efficacy of Self Myofascial Release Technique to Reduce Frequency and Severity of Noctural Leg Cramp in Older Adults

Samiksha V. Sonone, Deepali Patil, Om C. Wadhokar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 193-197
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32932

Background: Nocturnal leg cramps (NLC) are involuntary muscle contractions of the calf muscles, hamstrings, or foot muscles that occur unexpectedly, episodically, and are unpleasant. Night time cramping affects about one-third of adults. Leg cramps can strike anyone at any age, although they are more widespread and often more severe as grow older. The majority of cramps are idiopathic, and the physiological cause behind them is unknown. Muscle cramps appear to be triggered by neuromuscular structures in muscle, tendons, and nerve fibres, according to some writers. Musculoskeletal issues linked to a sedentary lifestyle, as well as job postures, prolonged standing, and the western habit of sitting rather than squatting, have been implicated of generating cramps, particularly NLC. Patients with cramps have a higher risk of peripheral vascular disease than individuals without cramps. Stretching before bedtime can help older persons lessen the frequency and severity of nocturnal leg cramps. Stretching treatments, like as Myofacial Release, can help relieve NLC. Self-Myofacial release (SMFR) is a sort of Myofacial release (MFR) that is accomplished by the person rather than a therapist, and it is usually done with the help of a tool. Self-MFR is a low-cost, easily accessible approach for people to relieve muscle and fascia pain while also maintaining flexibility. Foam rollers and roller massage are two of the most used devices for self-MFR. MFR is used to treat a wide range of musculoskeletal disorders; it is used to treat a wide range of problems, and many types of treatment, such as trigger-point therapy and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, fall under the myofascial umbrella.

Aim and Objectives: To study the main impact of Self Myofascial Release (SMFR) to decreasing the duration of pain and improving Quality of Life in patients with NLC.

Methodology: In this study total 30 patient with nocturnal leg cramps will receive Self Myofascial Release technique (SMFR), it will be including exercise which will be performed for 4 weeks twice a day and each for 5-10 mins.

Discussion: This study is done to find out the effectiveness of Self Myofacial release in individual with nocturnal leg cramps (NLC).

Conclusion: Conclusion of the study can be made based on the effect of Self Myofascial Release technique on patient with nocturnal leg cramps. 

Open Access Study Protocol

Evaluation of the Knowledge and Practice of N95 Respirators (3 Layered) for Preventing COVID 19 among Health Care Workers in Central India- A Coss Sectional Study

Ekta Kurhade, Priyanka Paul Madhu, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Amit Reche, Dhanashree Rathi, Shreya Chambhare

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 435-438
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32958

Background: After the COVID 19 epidemic, acknowledgement of adequate effects, side effects, factors and risk factors faced by health care workers and effective practices of using N-95 respirators among health care workers are necessary. As a result, we set out to assess health-care personnel in central India's knowledge and practice (K and P) of N-95 respirators.

Objective: To find out how well health care personnel in central India know about N-95 respirators and how they use them to avoid COVID 19.

Methodology: Workers in the health-care industry in Central India will be picked at random. The study will include all health-care employees who are working during the COVID 19 epidemic.

Expected Results: In light of the COVID 19 epidemic, it's critical to think about the COVID safety and health implications of the use of N95 masks by health-care professionals. COVID 19 infection can be prevented with this understanding and practice of utilising N 95 respirators.

Conclusion: Although N95 respirators proved to have a protective benefit over surgical masks during the COVID pandemic, there are some impacts and side effects of using N95 respirators, therefore sufficient understanding and practice with N95 respirators are required among health care professionals.

Open Access Study Protocol

Prevalence of Nutritional Anemia and Its Causes among Adolescent Girls

Sonal Dhobe, Seema Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 485-490
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32965

Background: Nutritional anemia is a disorder that cause due to a lack of one or more vital nutrients, such as iron, protein, vitamin B12, and other vitamins and minerals. In this condition hemoglobin content in the blood is lower than usual. Nutritional anemia has been described as correlated with reduced childhood emotional, physical, and cognitive function and is a major risk factor for maternal mortality.

Objective: 1. To assess the prevalence of nutritional anemia among adolescent girls. 2. To assess the causes of nutritional anemia among adolescent girls. 3. To associate the demographic variable with prevalence and causes of nutritional anemia among adolescent girls.

Methodology: This is a cross sectional observational study will be conducted among the adolescent girls where age is between 10-14 years, the sample size can be calculated statistically by using the prevalence of previous studies which done in India and the sample size is 220 adolescent girls selected in a particular rural community area of Wardha district. Non-probability convenience sampling will be using for sample collection. The standard haemoglobinometer (Accusure HB meter) for analyzing the haemoglobin according to WHO criteria and structure questionnaire scale is made upon the causes behind the nutritional anemia. According to some previous studies, the prevalence rate has been shown high in the adolescent age group so this study help to find the prevalence rate in a particular community and the causes of nutritional anemia among adolescent girls.

Expected Results: In this study the researcher evaluate the prevalence and its causes of nutritional anemia among adolescent girls, this study will show the rate of prevalence in the particular community area and also the causes of nutritional anemia among adolescent girls.

Conclusion: The conclusion will be drawn from the results.

Open Access Short Research Article

Increase of Nonspecific Immunity and Productivity of Piglets when using the Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri

Ovcharova Anastasiya, Ostrenko Konstantin, Kutin Ivan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 121-127
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32923

The stress of weaning piglets negatively affects all factors of the body. First of all, this affects the violation of nutrition and a decrease in the activity of the immune system. The use of probiotics allows to reduce the negative consequences caused by weaning from a sow. The aim of the study was to study the effect of probiotics based on Lactobacillus reuteri on the indicators of nonspecific resistance and productivity of piglets. The obtained data showed a high efficiency of the use of probiotics. In the experimental group, the phagocytic activity of neutrophils increased by 4.4%, the phagocytic index was 6.6% higher, and the bactericidal activity increased by 29% compared to the control group. In piglets treated with Lactobacillus reuteri, body weight increased by 9.3%, and the average daily gains in the control group increased by 15.8%. The use of probiotics in the period of stress after weaning allows you to activate the immune status.

Open Access Short Research Article

Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System and Rheumatic Diseases: Prevention and Rehabilitation in Modern Conditions

Ragif Kalimovich Mutalimov, Karina Valeryevna Kravtsova, Amina Magometovna Bairamkulova, Sherifat Magometovna Bairamkulova, Alena Olegovna Voynova, Vitaly V. Goncharov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 419-424
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32956

The article examines approaches to the prevention of diseases of the musculoskeletal system and rheumatic diseases, as well as to the rehabilitation of such patients. It is this type of disease that has a negative impact on the quality of life of most people, since it not only makes it difficult for them to move in space, but also worsens the general state of health due to pain, which may manifest to a greater or lesser extent.

Treatment of diseases of the musculoskeletal system is a rather long-term process, for this reason, the prevention of such diseases seems very relevant, since it not only allows the patient to avoid prolonged pain, but also reduces the financial burden in the field of insurance medicine, since the need for expensive medical and physiotherapy treatment for such patients is eliminated. Rehabilitation of patients with this diagnosis also makes it possible to reduce the time to restore their health and return to a full life.

Accordingly, the tasks set in the work meet the requirements of today and will contribute to improving the effectiveness of preventive measures for patients suffering from diseases of the musculoskeletal system.

Open Access Minireview Article

COVID -19 in Geriatric Population

Pratiksha S. Thakare, Samruddhi Gujar, Shakib Sheikh, Vrushali Dighikar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 499-504
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32967

The causative factors of Coronavirus disease mainly the viruses. Through news we aware that pneumonia cases seen recently in Wuhan city, China. Due to unknown causes. Coronaviruses that cause illness such as a common cold. The Coronavirus infection identified with respiratory symptoms and pneumonia, the severe form of coronavirus infection mainly associated with death and low immune system patients. It is very important for us to more focus on geriatric people because in our countries, geriatric group people facing health problems at this present situation. According to articles Clinical Pathology, Pathogenesis, Immunopathology, and Mitigation Strategies, in that said geriatric people and low immune system patient with symptoms related history are more prone to COVID infection. But according to recent information by WHO all people are at risk of coronavirus but mostly geriatric people facing more risk of developing a severe respiratory infection. Geriatric people easily get coronavirus syndrome due to physical changes that occur as increasing age. There were 95% of these deaths seen in geriatric people above 60 years older. Above 50% of all fatal conditions occurred in geriatric people between 60- 80 years ago. There having disease control and prevention center, which indicate that rates of hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions and mortality reported among COVID-19 cases in the United States are substantially higher among patients older than 45 years compared with younger patients, with case-fatality rates exceeding 1.4% among patients aged 55 to 64 years and exceeding 2.7% among those aged 65 to 74 years.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Docking, ADMET and PASS Prediction Studies of Novel Chromen-4-one Derivatives for Prospective Anti-Cancer Agent

Shami Ratra, Arif Naseer, Umesh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32909

In-silico analysis is being used nowadays as an efficient method for drug design to address the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug under study and also to predict the optimized orientation of the ligand against a specific drug target by docking software. It is a cost-effective and time saving technique that requires limited manpower. In this present study a library of substituted benzimidazolyl chromen-4-one chalcones and substituted benzimidazolyl pyrimidinyl chromen-4-one derivatives were designed, molecular docking was accomplished using AutoDock Vina and in-silico ADMET were estimated using online tools. Out of 16 analogues having lower binding energy only 12 were selected on the basis of “Lipinski Rule of Five” as orally bioavailable lead compounds. PASS (Prediction of activity spectra of substances) was also performed on the selected compounds. The pharmacokinetic information and molecular docking patterns of compounds obtained in this study can give an important lead in development of novel COX-2 inhibitors with safer pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Proximal Junctional Kyphosis in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Correction Fusion using Pedicle Screw Versus Hook Plus Screw Pedicle Instrumentation

Mohamad Hossein Tabatabaei Nodushan, Ali Andalib, Mohammad Reza Etemadifar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32911

Introduction: Spinal instrumentation in idiopathic adolescent scoliosis (AIS) aims to correct spinal deformity, and maintain spinal stability. Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a relatively common postoperative complication. Posterior-only fusion using diverse instruments such as pedicle screw and hybrid hook plus screw is favored to correct spinal deformity. The current study aims to compare PJK incidence between pedicle screw versus hybrid hook plus screw.

Methods: This non-randomized clinical trial has been conducted on 71 AIS patients undergone posterior-only spinal deformity fusion using pedicle screw only (n=42) or hook plus pedicle (n=29) implantation in 2015-20. The proximal thoracic (PT), main thoracic (MT), T5-T12 sagittal Cobb angles and proximal junctional angle (PJA) were evaluated through radiographies taken at baseline, immediately postoperative, within 6 and 18 months. PJK was defined as PJA >10 degrees. 

Results: Using both pedicle screw only and hook plus pedicle have led to significant improvement in MT, PT, PJA and T5-T12 angles (P-value<0.05); however, the two groups were not statistically different (P-value>0.05). Seventeen cases (23.9%) presented PJK among which 11 (26.2%) and 6 (20.7%) ones were in the predicle screw versus hook plus screw implantation groups, respectively (P-value=0.54). The comparison of PJA and T5-T12 Cobb angles revealed significant difference between the PJK versus non-PJK cases (P-value<0.05).

Conclusion: AIS instrumentation was accompanied by satisfying outcomes using pedicle screw or hook plus screw. However, none of the applied instruments was superior over the other; PJK occurred in fewer cases undergone posterior-only approach of AIS correctional surgery using hook and screw.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating of the Clinical Profile, Laboratory Parameters and Outcome of Covid-19 Patients in Najran City - Saudi Arabia: A Descriptive Analysis

Abdullah I. Aedh, Ali Dhafer Al-Swedan, Abdulaziz S. Alshahrani, Eisa Yazeed Ghazwani, Salem Ali S. Alatef Sultan, Naif Ahmed Y. Mahnashi, Ali Hadi M. Alyami, Ahood Ahmad A. Mahjari, Asaad M. A. Babker, Hatem Mohamed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 53-60
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32914

The unprecedented pandemic has been causing devastating damage to the human life and livelihood. The SARS CoV-2 viral strains are currently responsible for the serious of infection waves and high mortality rate. The management of disease requires well developed medical infrastructure such as central oxygen suction, ventilator facility to support the patients with severe complications. Therefore, early diagnosis and monitoring are mandatory in order to control the disease progression and its clinical complications. Current study, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical parameters of the COVID-19 positive patients, and found that the body mass index ratio, oxygen saturation level and the neutrophil, lymphocyte ratio were continuously monitored. Any significant increase in the above said parameters may be correlated with adverse disease progression and patient mortality rate. In this way, developing countries could cut down the necessity for medical infrastructure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Toxoplasma gondii on Some Physiological Indicators in Women's Patients with Diabetic Mellitus Type 2

Sukayna Jabbar Mushattat, Nawras Noori Beshboosh, Leena Adeeb Mehdi, Adhraa Baqir Hassan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 61-65
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32915

Aims: Diabetes mellitus is thought to be caused by infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, although this is still debated, In order to better understand the potential link between toxoplasmosis and diabetes mellitus

Study Design: China's prevalence rate of diabetes has been gradually growing in recent years, as a result of the country's rising living standards.

Place and Duration of Study: 40 patients who suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus who were randomly chosen from the Diabetes Mellitus clinic in Al-Sadder Teaching City in Al-Najaf governorate.

Methodology: Prior research "on the link between T. gondii infection and diabetes mellitus has been conflicting, we performed matched case-control studies to see whether T. gondii seropositivity is linked" to type 2 diabetes, more research is required. To investigate T. gondii seroprevalence and recognize risk factors and potential transmital pathways of T. gondii infection in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), forty women's blood samples have been gathered and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG, IgM, and SOD. T. gondii seroprevalence in T2DM patients as a whole. Patients' information was collected through a questionnaire that included their age, weight, and blood pressure. Each patient and control participant had five milliliters of venous blood samples collected using a disposable needle and plastic syringes.

Results:  Patients ranged in age about from (35 to 65) years old. The current investigation was performed on 40 patients who suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus, Diabetic and T. gondii patientshad a significantly higher compared with control and Diabetic patients only. Also, there were significant differences between patients of diabetic mellitus and control.

Conclusion: Blood was permitted to clot for 10 minutes at room temperature before being centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 10 minutes, after which serum was extracted and transferred into fresh disposable tubes. An ELISA test was performed on the blood samples earlier using commercially available kits (EIA-3519 IgG and IgM Germany) and SOD kits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Antibiotic Prescribing Pattern in the In-Patient Surgery Department of Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital Using WHO Indicator

Mamta Naagar, Aishwarya Gangwar, Akhilesh Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 66-72
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32916

Aims: The evaluation of antibiotic agents conveyed is critical for guaranteeing that the quality and fittingness of therapy. The study's purpose was to assess the use of antibiotics on the basis of WHO indicator in surgery department.

Study Design: A prospective observational study was carried out in the surgery inpatient department for a period of six months after the approval of the ethical committee in tertiary care hospital.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, National Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS), Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital Jaipur, Rajasthan, between Feb 2019 and July 2019.

Methodology: The information was gathered in a predesigned performa from the clinical case sheets, drug charts of patients.  Descriptive statistics were applied to the gathered information and dissected utilizing Microsoft Excel programming.

Results: A total of 190 prescriptions were collected of which 995 drugs were prescribed. The total number of antibiotics in prescription was found to be 263. The percentage of antibiotics was found to be 88.42% which was found to be higher on comparing with the WHO marker. Various class of antibiotics was prescribed in which cephalosporin with a total of 120 (45.62%) followed by penicillin 33 (12.54%), macrolide 1 (0.38%) fluoroquinolones 23 (8.75%), nitroimidazole 39 (14.82%), aminoglycoside 38 (14.44%) and other classes 9 (3.45%).

Conclusion: The adequacy of anti-microbial is undermined by the worldwide ascent in bacterial resistance and antimicrobial resistance is currently perceived as a significant medical issue. The study shows that the pattern of antibiotics was found to diverge from the WHO recommendation and also practice was lacking in terms of selection of antibiotics as there was no culture sensitivity test was performed. There gives off an impression of being an urgent requirement for the improvement of recommending rules with regards to the use of antibiotic agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacokinetic and Phytochemical Appraisal of Trigonella foenum and Andrographis lineata in Dimethylnitrosamine Induced Injury in Albino Rats

Sara Zahid, Asma Ahmed, Hasan Akbar Khan, Fatima Zahid, Zeeshan Akbar, Hafsa Waheed, Ambreen Abbas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 73-79
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32917

Trigonelline is a plant alkaloid and Andrographolide is a diterpene lactone, both exhibiting anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activity of the above said compounds in Dimethylnitrosamine induced toxicity in albino rats. Extraction of Trigonella foenum and Andrographis lineata was carried out by using methanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and ethanol assisted with suitable temperature, followed by DPPH scavenging activity (IC-50) of these extracts.Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, CL, Vd and AUC were evaluated as pharmacokinetic parameters by using calibration curves of Andrographolide and Trigonelline. Extracts of T. foenum-graecum and A. lineate have antioxidant activity by inhibiting DPPH (IC50 value was 69.04±3.65% and 71.76±6.99%, respectively) comparable with ascorbic acid (53.99±4.88%). Phytochemical analysis of T. foenum-graecum and A. lineate was found with maximum number of phenols in them, with least recovery in the ethyl acetate extract while maximum phenols were found in T. foenum graecum. All the pharmacokinetic parameters of trigonelline and andrographolide administered in low dose (200 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg respectively) confirmed the better antioxidative activity than that of ascorbic acid used as a potent antioxidant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Limiron Granules for Iron Deficiency Anemia in School going Children

C. R. Swapnil, Hemant Toshikhane, Shreehari Taklikar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 80-89
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32918

Background: Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) is leading cause of the health derangements in school going children of India. Supplementation with iron preparation has been the integral part of our primary health policies still prevalence of childhood IDA is alarmingly high even though     nationwide national program and policies are implemented by GOI. Ayurveda traditional         system of medicine defines the different herbo-mineral combination to treat IDA.                    Limiron Granules (LG) the proprietary Ayurveda medicine developed by SG Phyto Pharma Private Limited, Kolhapur Maharashtra India is used in this clinical trial for the management of childhood IDA.

Aim: Clinical trial to evaluate the role of Limiron granule in children with IDA.

Methods: Single arm Phase 3 clinical trial of this medicine has been carried out at Parul Ayurveda Hospital, Limda Vadodara, Gujarat, India. Total 104 children were enrolled in this study from rural and urban sector of Vadodara, Gujarat. Limiron granules were administered for 90 days and results were observed. 

Observation and Results: Statistically significant (p < 0.01) results were obtain in subjective parameters of IDA like Pallor, fatigue, anorexia, stomatitis etc. while statistically significant result were observed in blood indices like MCH, MCH, MCHC with average increment of Hb 3 g/dL and increment in Sr. Iron level.

Discussion and Conclusion: A Limiron granule is herbomineral combination containing iron in Fe2O3 form with Calcium in hydrate form, and natural phytosteroids. All these drugs help to promote the growth and improving the blood indices in children with IDA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy Profiling of Stenosiphonium russellianum Nees

G. Mahalakshmi, B. Kavitha, N. Balachandran, S. Kavimani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 95-104
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32920

Stenosiphonium russellianum Nees. is rarely known species belongs to the family Acanthaceae and it is a shrub, found above 500m on slopes of mountain. It was traditionally used for wound healing in and as blood purifier. The current study designed to provide the requisite pharmacognostical and phytochemical properties of Stenosiphonium russellianum. Pharmacognostical studies like microscopic and macroscopic analysis of the leaves were carried out. Physiochemical parameter and preliminary phytochemical screening for secondary metabolite were also performed. Extracts were taken from nonpolar to polar solvants like hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, alcohol and water. Their extractive values are calculated. GCMS analysis of hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and ethanol extract of the leaves of Stenosiphonium russellianum were studied. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation showed the presence of alkaloids, phytosterols and glycosides. GCMS analysis revealed the presence compounds like lupeol, gamma sitosterol and stigmasterols. In conclusion, the information obtained from these studies can be used as markers in the identification and standardization of this plant as an herbal remedy and also towards further pharmacological activity estimation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity between Medical Plant Extracts and Antibiotics against Bacterial Isolates from Tonsillitis

Angham Najah Al-Khafaji

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 105-115
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32921

Objectives: Acute tonsillitis is an inflammatory process of tonsil tissue and is usually infectious. Acute tonsillitis starts suddenly and usually disappears within one to two weeks. This study aims to isolate bacteria from patients with infectious tonsillitis and determine the antibacterial activity of Mentha piperita L, Citrus aurantium, banana peel extract and antibiotics including penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, meropenem, tobramycin, gentamicin, levofloxacin, and clarithromycin against bacteria.

Methods: Were Collected 60 clinical samples of sputum and throat swabs from patients with tonsillitis admitted to AL-Furat Alawsait Hospital in Najaf. The samples were cultured in blood, MacConkey agar, and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours, and then the Vitek2 system was used for diagnosis to detect G + ve and G-ve bacteria.

Results: It was found that out of 60 sputum samples and throat swabs, 15 cases were gram positive bacteria, while 45 gram negative bacteria. As revealed by the in vitro agar well diffusion method, it was found that the aqueous extracts of these plants, especially Mentha piperita, have strong antibacterial activity against a variety of pathogens. The results show that Mentha is very effective at all concentrations used in this study (125, 250, 500, 1000) mg / ml in all bacteria isolated from tonsillitis. The zone of greatest inhibition of Mentha, Citrus anrantium and banana peel extract was 30, 28, 25 mm at concentrations of 1000 mg / ml respectively. Used eight selected antibiotics, including (penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, meropenem, tobramycin, gentamicin, levofloxacin, and clarithromycin).  To shows the susceptibility of  all bacteria isolates used in this study, the best antibiotics to sensitive for all bacteria (Meropenem and Levofloxacin ), while the resistance to oxacillin.

Conclusion: The selected commonly used aqueous extracts have been tested for their antibacterial activity against multi drug-resistant bacteria, and it is believed that their extracts can be used for multi drug-resistant bacteria that can cause nosocomial and community-acquired infections.

Open Access Original Research Article

Routine Replacement versus Clinically Indicated Replacement of Peripheral Venous Catheters through Assessment of Incidences and Grades of Phlebitis in Patients with IV Cannula at a Tertiary Care Hospital, Mumbai

Bhavnani Namrata, Ahire Neha, Prakash Kalke, Shrikrishna Dhale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 116-120
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32922

Background: The current study assesses the incidences and grades of phlebitis among patients with IV cannula to determine the association of grades of phlebitis. The purpose of the study was to study the feasibility of Routine replacement versus Clinically indicated replacement of peripheral venous catheters. The study observes the incidences of  removing peripheral intravenous catheters when clinically indicated compared with removing and re‐siting the catheter routinely.

Methods: An observational study was conducted in the tertiary care private hospital of Mumbai, India. The study was conducted over 5 weeks from May -June 2020. Purposive sampling was considered during the collection of data. The sample size of the study was 117 patients admitted having peripheral venous catheters. The standard visual infusion phlebitis (VIP) score was used as a tool for data collection. Descriptive analysis was done. 

Results: Out of 117 patients (VIP score 0 -56, Score 1- 49, Score -12 no cases with score 3, 4, and 5). Routine replacement of IV cannula after every 5 days is judiciously followed, 45 healthy lines were replaced at score 0; which is the major concern (Rs. 633/- the total cost of replacing 1 PVC line). 

Conclusion: Following the routine practice of IV cannula replacement based on VIP score to avoid phlebitis is equally good but simultaneously clinically indicated replacement of IV cannula is advisable to make it cost-effective and reduced number of a prick to the patients; this will help to improve patient satisfaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Discovery of 5-Chlorobenzimidazole-based as Promising Inhibitors of Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium Strains: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, Molecular Docking and Computational Studies

Jean Paul N’Guessan, Songuigama Coulibaly, Abdulrahim A. Alzain, Drissa Sissouma, William Yavo, Mahama Ouattara

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 136-147
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32925

Background: To overcome drug resistance to current antimalarial drugs, we propose the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of the antiplasmodial activity of a series of 5-chlorobenzimidazolyl-chalcones against chloroquino sensitive (CQ-S) and chloroquino resistant (CQ-R) strains of P. falciparum.

Objective: This study aimed to establish through structure-activity relationship studies and docking, the structural elements essential for antiplasmodial activities.

Methods: The antiplasmodial activity of these benzimidazolylchalcones was carried out according to the Rieckmann microtest technique, followed by the determination of the concentrations inhibiting 50% of the production of parasitic HRP2 antigens (IC50) by ELISA. Chloroquine was used as a reference molecule with a sensitivity threshold set at 100 µM. Molecular docking was performed using sensitive (PDB ID: 1J3I) and resistant (PDB ID: 4DP3) dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase proteins (PfDHFR-TS).

Results: All benzimidazolylchalcones tested expressed antiplasmodial activities especially against chloroquine resistant isolates (IC50 = 0.32-44.38 µM). The best profile against both isolates was the methoxylated derivative (3e) with an IC50 ranging from 0.32 to 1.96 µM. This compound had the best antimalarial activity against CQ-S isolates. On CQ-R isolates, the unsubstituted 5-chlorobenzimidazole derivative (3b) had exalted activity (IC50 = 0.78 µM).  We selected a weakly active non-chlorinated derivative 3a and chlorinated derivatives 3b, 3d, 3e and 3f) with IC50< 3µM against the chloroquine-resistant strain to perform docking studies. These revealed that the pyrrolic nitrogen of benzimidazole and the ketone of propenone are the main chemical entities involved in the interaction at the receptor. Moreover, ADMET studies showed favorable pharmacokinetic properties.

Conclusion: Molecular docking studies confirmed the experimental findings and revealed the possible interactions pattern. Derivatives 3b and 3e, which showed promising binding affinities against PfDHFR-TS, can be proposed as lead compounds for the development of antimalarial drug candidates.

Open Access Original Research Article

High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Mobocertinib in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form and Study of Its Degradation

Gunturu. Raviteja, Kantipudi Rambabu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 154-162
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32927

Aims: New validated method for the estimation of Mobocertinib using HPLC and study of its degradation.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, RVR & JC College of Engineering, Chowdavaram, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, between February 2021 and August 2021.

Methodology: Using an X-bridge phenyl column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 3.5 µ), acetonitrile, and 0.1 percent ortho phosphoric acid (OPA) (60:40 v/v) as a mobile phase, the proposed method successfully achieved effective chromatographic separation with a flow rate of 1 mL/min and a wave length of 224 nm. Mobocertinib had a retention time of 2.271 minutes. The isocratic chromatography was performed at room temperature and took approximately five minutes to complete.

Results: Analysis was achieved within 5 min over an honest linearity within the concentration range from 6-90 µg/ml of Mobocertinib. Using a mathematical process, the suitability parameters of the system were investigated, and the results were found to be in acceptable limits. In a linear analysis, stages with regression coefficients of 0.999 were used. LOD and LOQ values were 0.075μg/ml and 0.248 g/ml for Mobocertinib. The drug was recovered at a rate of 98-102 percent, which means that the recovery is within reasonable limits.

Conclusion: The validation results were satisfactory, and the approach was found to be suitable for bulk and formulation analysis. The recommended procedure was found to be warranted according to ICH guidelines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nephroprotective Activity of Sophora interrupta bedd. against Gentamicin Induced Acute Renal Toxicity in Wistar Rats: An Experimental Study

Jyothi Basini, G. M. Sasikala

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 168-179
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32929

Background: Based on ayurvedic/folklore medicine majority of the medicinal plants are used for treatment of different ailments. Sophora interrupta as traditional medicine focused to do the research work for protection of renal injury.

Aim: The present study was investigated the nephroprotective activity of Sophora interrupta bedd. against gentamicin-induced acute renal toxicity in wistar rats.

Study Design Rats have received gentamicin (40 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for 5 days of the study to induce nephrotoxicity along with test extract of Sophora interrupta bedd. at a dose of 200 &400 mg/kg, p.o. for 21 days. Urinary parameters like Creatinine, Urea, and Uric acid; Biochemical parameters like Alanine transaminase (ALT), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), Creatinine, Total protein, and Albumin were measured along with tissue parameters and histopathological observations were carried out.

Results: The test extracts Sophora interrupta bedd. showed a prominent protective role against the gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity with significant (P=.001) restoration in abnormal plasma & urine biomarkers as compared to the gentamicin-induced group. Treatment with both the doses (200 & 400 mg/kg) of Sophoria extract showed significantly (P=.001; P=0.01) modified levels of antioxidant enzymes when compared to gentamicin-induced animals evidenced by structural restoration of the kidney.

Conclusion: These findings concluded that, Sophora interrupta bedd. exhibits a protective role against Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity of Red and Purple Rosella Flower Petals Extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Mareetha Zahra Shafirany, Iin Indawati, Lela Sulastri, Asman Sadino, Anggun Hari Kusumawati, Maulana Yusuf Alkandahri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 186-192
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32931

Aims: This study aims to test the antioxidant activity of red and purple H. sabdariffa flower petals extract and conduct qualitative phytochemical screening.

Study Design: Antioxidant potential of red and purple H. sabdariffa flower petal extract analyzed by spectrometric assays.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at School of Pharmacy Muhammadiyah Cirebon, Cirebon, West Java, Indonesia from the year of 2020 to 2021.

Methodology: Red and purple H. sabdariffa petals extracted with 70% ethanol. The extract was then examined for its antioxidant activity using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method, after the qualitative phytochemical screening.

Results: In this study, the concentration of red and purple H. sabdariffa petals extract dependently demonstrated the ability to scavenge DPPH. In the DPPH radical scavenging activity test, the red and purple H. sabdariffa petasl extracts designating IC50 values of 63.77 and 37.19 µg/ml and fall into the category of strong and very strong antioxidant activity. Meanwhile, phytochemical screening tests showed the existence of flavonoids and polyphenols in the extract of red and purple H. sabdariffa petals.

Conclusion: This study shows that the red and purple H. sabdariffa petals extract has potential as a promising natural antioxidant agent for the treatment of oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Atherogenic Plasma & Triglyceride-Glucose Indices and Monocyte/HDL-C Ratios in Colon Cancer Patients

Utku Dönem Gündoğdu, Funda Karabağ Çoban

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 213-217
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32935

Colon cancer is a tumor of the large intestine. It is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States. However, most people with colon cancer get better if the cancer is found early. The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, are strongly associated with atherogenesis of the coronary artery however, studies on its relationship with cancer are limited in the literature. This study aimed to investigate the association of the AIP, TyG index, and Monocyte/HDL-C with colon cancer patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Biological Activity of Alkyl Derivatives of Tetrahydroisoquinolines

Umida Khamidova, Ekaterina Terenteva, Mukaddas Umarova, Jaloliddin Abdurakhmanov, Sabirdjan Sasmakov, Artyom Makhnyov, Valentina Vinogradova, Abdusalom Saidov, Zaynat Khashimova, Shakhnoz Azimova

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 238-246
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32938

A row of 1-alkyne (C6-C17) derivatives against tetrahydroisoquinoline have been synthesized. 1-alkyne (C6-C17) derivatives cytotoxicity against three lines of cancer cells and two lines of normal cells was studied. It was found that 1-tridecyl-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline exhibits a high cytotoxic effect with low toxicity to healthy cells. Antimicrobial activity of 1-alkyne (C6-C17) derivatives against 5 strains of bacteria and fungus was studied. It has been found that 1-nonyl-6,7-dimethoxy-1,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline exhibits strong antibacterial and antifungal effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Mechanism of Changes in Gene Expression of Cytosolic Cu/Zn SOD, Lipid Peroxidation and Hepatic Function Impairments during Experimental Fluorosis

A. Shashi, Sukanya Thakur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 247-265
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32939

Background: Long term intake of high amount of fluoride leads to fluorosis causing metabolic, functional and structural damages affecting many tissues and organs including dental and skeletal manifestations. The liver is the most susceptible organ to fluoride toxicity because of its active and major role in digestion and detoxification.

Aim: The present study aims to elucidate the effects of sodium fluoride on hepatic function biomarkers, lipid peroxidation and gene expression of Cu/Zn SOD in albino rats.

Materials and Methods: Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to three groups. The control rats were given 1 ml deionized water orally for 40 days. Groups II and III were administered 300 and 600 mg NaF/kg b.w. /day for the same period. Animals were sacrificed under anaesthesia, liver tissue was excised and used for biochemical and molecular analysis. The level of fluoride and lipid peroxidation (MDA) as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) content was determined. The activities of cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), aminotransferases (ALT and AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the hepatic tissue were determined. The analysis of gene expression of Cu/Zn SOD in the liver was determined using Real-time PCR.

Results: The results revealed significantly (P<0.0001) higher concentration of fluoride and MDA in the liver of rats exposed to fluoride when compared to control. The GSH content reduced significantly (P<0.0001) in fluorotic rats. The activities of hepatic function biomarkers viz; ALT, AST, LDH and ALP elevated significantly (P<0.0001) compared to the control. An elevation of 108.60% (ALP), 121.45% (AST), 33.77% (LDH) and least 24.40% (ALT) was found in rats treated with 300 mg/L fluoride and maximum elevation of 226.20% (ALP), 211.52% (AST), 57.75% (LDH) and least 56.79% (ALT) was registered in rats exposed to 600 mg/L fluoride in drinking water. The activity of cytosolic Cu/Zn SOD decreased significantly (P<0.0001) in fluorotic rats. Pearson’s bivariate correlation and simple linear regression analysis exhibited strong positive correlation between level of hepatic tissue fluoride and activities of ALT (Pearson r= 0.85), AST (Pearson r= 0.94), LDH (Pearson r= 0.89), ALP (Pearson r= 0.86) and in MDA (Pearson r=0.984) while negative correlations existed between levels of fluoride and GSH (Pearson r=-0.93) as well as activity of Cu/Zn SOD (Pearson r= -0.99). The gene expression of cytosolic Cu/Zn SOD was significantly (P<0.0001) reduced in fluorotic rats.

Conclusion: The present study revealed that fluoride declined the antioxidant activity of hepatic Cu/Zn SOD at biochemical as well as molecular level which leads to oxidative stress and tissue damage. This further affirms by increased activities of hepatic function biomarkers in correlation with high fluoride level during experimental fluorosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Site-Specific Drug Delivery System of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Using Response Surface Methodology

S. Parimala Krishnan, Cinnayyagari Mahesh Reddy, Challa Balashekar Reddy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 273-286
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32941

Aims: The aim of present study was to develop a stomach specific formulation of Imatinibmesylate to increase the fraction of drug absorbed in stomach.

Study Design: Development and Optimization of Microspheres for site specific delivery..

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, between October 2020 and July 2021.

Methodology: Ionotropic gelation method with Sodium alginate and Chitosan were used to formulate the mucoadhesive microspheres with calcium chloride. The formulation was optimized using Box – Behnken design to study the effect of independent variables, Amount of Sodium Alginate (X1), Amount of Chitosan (X2) and concentration of Calcium Chloride (X3) on dependent variables Particle Size (Y1), Entrapment Efficiency (Y2) and In-vitro drug release (Y3).

Results: Particle size of prepared microspheres varied from 458.25 to 810.75 μm, entrapment efficiency from 64.87 to 82.63% and in-vitro release from 69.22 to 83.50%. The optimized formulation was found using point prediction, and formulation showed optimum results. The drug release was controlled for more than 12 h.

Conclusion: Stomach specific formulation of Imatinibmesylate was successfully optimized by a three-factor, three level Box – Behnken design.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reproductive Organ Activities of Morinda lucida Ethanol Root Extract on Male and Female Albino Rats Tramadol HCL Induced Infertility

Nkiruka Millicent Amadi, Peter Uwadiegwu Achukwu, Nonyelum V. Anoh, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Ngozika O. Achukwu, Ogechukwu Florence Odo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 287-295
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32942

Infertility is a serious issue disturbing reproductive ages in all society now and calling for solution for continuity. Infertility were induced on groups of animals with separate sexes; M, M1, M2 and M3; F, F1, F2 andF3 with daily subcutaneous administration of 20 mg/kg body weight tramadol HCl for 42 days before respective ethanol root extract administrations of (500, 1000, 1500) mg/ kg body weight for 10 days. The animals were anaesthetized and sacrificed; uterus, ovaries, testes, epididymis were dissected out for histomorphological studies. There is evidence of dose treatment of infertility among treated groups. From the organ weight study, both the male and the female organ weight in the groups remained significantly unchanged. There are dose dependent treatments with the male and female tramadol treatment. The result is more pronounced in the increased dose of ethanol root extract (1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/ kg) body weight treated testicular cells. This study indicated that Morinda lucida has a prophylactic effect against tramadol-induced testicular damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Different Proteins as a Carrier Protein to Obtaining Morphine-Protein Conjugates for ELISA Diagnosis of Drug Addicts

Farkhod Eshboev, Elvira Yusupova, Galina Piyakina, Sabirdjan Sasmakov, Jaloliddin Abdurakhmanov, Shuhrat Khasanоv, Oybek Ashirov, Sherali Kuziev, Durdona Toshpulatova, Shakhnoz Azimova

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 296-303
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32943

Drug addiction is one of the biggest problems of medicine because diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction are difficult compared with some other socially significant diseases. In this study, synthesis and evaluation of four carrier protein-morphine conjugates were experimented. These conjugates were evaluated based on ELISA; soybean protein-based conjugate was selected for further analysis. The total soybean protein was isolated from the local soybean variety and; it was fractioned by the gel-filtration method and their amino acids compositions were studied. After that, the ELISA drug addicts were conducted based on soybean protein-morphine conjugates synthesized with soybean protein fractions. The high molecular weight soybean protein- morphine conjugate showed the highest quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Regulatory Procedure of Post Approval Changes and Comparative Requirements of EU and USA Regulatory Regions

Trivedi Ankit, Deshpande Shrikalp, Zaveri Maitreyi, Jain Praveenkumar, Kolhe Kiran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 304-317
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32944

Aim: The current research paper describes the “Regulatory procedure of post approval changes and comparative regulatory requirement of EU and USA regulatory regions”.

Study Design: The present study is a type of Retrospective analysis of Regulatory requirements and the reviewed data was subjected to systemic review. Understanding of the same led to several observations regarding regulatory requirements of EU and USA regulatory regions.

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was carried out at Amneal Pharmaceutical Ltd., Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India from January, 2021 to April, 2021.

Methodology: Several guidelines were profoundly reviewed to compare the requirements of post approval changes in EU and USA regulatory regions. Various regulatory review aspects were focused i.e. requirements for manufacturing sites addition/or Transfer, process parameters, container and closures, packaging and labelling of medicinal products.

Results: The post approval changes in manufacturing sites of solid or semisolid dosage form considered as a major change for USA while considered as Moderate change for EU. The transfer of manufacturing section is major variation for USA while it is a minor but immediate inform type for EU. Change in manufacturing processes, containers, labelling section of sterile products considered as major variation for both. Semisolid and solid categories are falling under the same type of variation for EU and USA regulatory regions.

Conclusion: This work demonstrated that the drug approvals in US, EU are the most demanding globally and the available guidance and procedures for the triggered changes are clear in both countries. Applicant should have scientific rationale to any change pertaining to Approved product ; Since the all change control are falling under the scope of Audit, so Applicant should maintain the all the records online.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prescription Patterns for Empagliflozin among Adults with Diabetes Mellitus in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Diponkor Kumar Shill, Sadia Jahan, Md. Shahjalal Reza, Shahriar Mohammad Shohan, Joy Chandra Rajbangshi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 318-324
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32945

Objective: To evaluate the prescribing pattern of empagliflozin with respect to other concomitant prescribed drugs in a diabetic patient.

Methods: The present research study was conducted in Dhaka from May 2021 to July 2021 at National Healthcare Network (NHN), Dhaka (Jurain, Uttara and Mirpur Branch).  A total of 139 were included in this study by following a simple random procedure.

Results: According to the research criterion, 198 prescriptions were collected and 139 were assessed for the study. 78 (56.12%) were male and 72 (51.8%) belonged to the age group 30-64 years, and 67 (48.2%) were in the age group of 65-79 years. 57 (41%) had normal weight, followed by 33 (23.74%) who were overweight, and 49 (35.25%) patients were obese. Approximately 73 (52.52%) of prescriptions prescribed empagliflozin alone, whereas 76 (54.68%) of prescriptions prescribed the combination of empagliflozin and metformin. Among 202 co-prescribed anti-diabetic preparations other than empagliflozin (either monotherapy or combination therapy), 142 (70.30%) were oral hypoglycemic and 60 (29.70%) were insulin preparations. Apart from anti-diabetics, 396 medications were prescribed in this study, including anti-hypertensives (n=47;11.87%) and lipid-lowering drugs (n=43;10.86%). The number of protein pump inhibitors (PPIs) and nutritional supplements were 106 (26.77%) and 84 (21.21%) prescriptions respectively.

Conclusion: Empagliflozin is one of the most often recommended anti-diabetic medications in Bangladesh to treat diabetes with or without cardiovascular and obesity-related complications. Other drug classes are prescribed as well, with no apparent contradictions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Disposal of in-Home Medication among Community in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

Mohammad Daud Ali, Ayaz Ahmad, Latha Subarayan Kannan, Sharell Lewis, Zainab Salman Al Suliaman, Fatimah Dyia Almanasif, Zainab Abdulmonem Abdrab Alnabi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 325-334
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32946

Aim: Current study conducted with aims to assess general public knowledge, attitude and    practice towards disposal of in-home medication among community in Eastern province, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted from 1st September 2019 to 31st October 2019 among the community in Eastern province, Saudi Arabia. A validated self-administered questionnaire was distributed to easily approachable 1400 participants through social media in which 916 respondents were completely filled the survey form. Chi square test were used for the calculation of variance among the group. P-value less than and equal to 0.05 is considered statistically significant.

Results: The response rate of survey was 65.42%.The mean age of the survey respondents was 30.34 ±9.95 years. Among all the respondents 225(24.56%) respondents were male and 691(75.43%) respondents were female from community of Eastern province, Saudi Arabia. The majority of the respondents 709 (77.4%) (p<0.05) purchased the medicines on prescription. The majority of the respondents 763 (84.8%) (p<0.05) answered that improper disposal of unused and expired medicines causes damage of environment and health. The results revealed that the most common Over the counter (OTC) drugs as follows, analgesics with 456 (49.78%)(p<0.05), Vitamins & Minerals 272 (29.69%), Cold and flu Drugs 84 (9.17%), Food Supplements 56 (6.11%) and in the last Digestive drugs with 48 (5.24%).

Conclusion: Gaps persist in practices, hence vigorous, safe and cost-effective pharmaceutical waste management program reinforced campaign is required. Healthcare providers (HCPs) and community pharmacists (CPs) should organize training to educate customers on standard medicine disposal practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Study and In-vivo Predictions of Valsartan and Amlodipine Capsules through Micro Tablets

K. Binuraj, Maya Sharma, Sandip Zine

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 335-349
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32947

Aim: The present research work was carried out to develop Valsartan and Amlodipine capsules using micro tablets and to evaluate the in-vitro drug release characteristics. The study was targeted to determine the systemic concentrations using in-vivo prediction.

Study Design: The in vivo parameters along with the marketed Valsartan and Amlodipine product was predicted using WinNonlin® software external prediction method.

Place and Duration of the Study: The present work was carried out at Pacific Academy of Higher Education and Research University, Udaipur between the duration of February-2019 to November-2019.

Methodology: The dissolution studies were performed for test and reference products in 900ml Phosphate buffer (pH 6.8), and the USP Type II apparatus at 50 RPM with a sinker. The in vivo pharmacokinetic prediction was performed using WinNonlin® Software. A mechanistic oral absorption model was built in Phoenix® WinNonlin® 8.2 software (Certara, Princeton, NJ, 08540, USA).

Results: The in-vitro dissolution studies were comparable between the test product and the reference product. The Similarity factor achieved was 61.7 and 84.8 for Amlodipine and Valsartan test product in comparison with the reference product. An average percent prediction error for Cmax and AUC for both Valsartan and Amlodipine achieved was less than 10% for all IVIVC models.

Conclusion: The relatively low prediction errors for Cmax and AUC observed strongly suggest that the Valsartan and Amlodipine IVIVC models are valid. The average percent prediction error of less than 10% indicates that the correlation is predictive and allows the associated dissolution data to be used as a surrogate for bioavailability studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Re Mineralise the Demineralised: How Knowledgeable and Aware are our Dentists in Kashmir Related to this Minimally Invasive Technique

Mohsin Sidiq, Sana Farooq, Nazia Lone

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 350-356
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32948

The principles of minimal invasive dentistry clearly dictates the need for developing effective measures to remineralize the early enamel caries lesions.

Aim: The aim of the study was to access how knowledgeable and aware the dentist in Kashmir were related to the minimal invasive dentistry.

Methodology: A cross sectional study was done on 60 interns and junior residents of Government Dental College Srinagar who were prescribing medicines in the OPD.This survey was to assess how knowledgeable, aware the dentists are while prescribing the re mineralising agents and do they detect the incipient carious lesions early.

Results: 80% had observed a white spot lesion as a hypomineralization spot while examining the patient.67% of the dentists said that Fluoride based remineralising agents are the most easily available remineralising agent in the market.

Conclusion: Dental caries pathophysiology is not a simple continual cumulative loss of tooth minerals but also a dynamic process characterised by alternating periods of demineralization and re mineralisation and can be reversed by the application of various remineralising agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnostic Evaluation of Autism Spectrum Disorders, A Health Professional Survey

Khadija Saleem, Muhammad Sikander Ghayas Khan, Aayeshah Firdous, Iqra Naseer, Amna Rashid, Sadia Saleem, Alia Naseer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 357-364
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32949

Background: Since the prevalence and awareness AutismSpectrum Disorders (ASD) is growing day by day, it is crucial to correctly allocate diagnosis of ASD. According to the guidelines, there should be a multi-agency strategy group for diagnosis of ASD.

Aim: To find out the diagnostic practices of ASD among different Health Professionals.

Place and Duration of Study: Riphah International University, Lahore campus. The study was conducted from October 2017 till March 2018.

Methodology: Data was collected from 116 professionals which included Speech-Language Pathologists, Pediatricians, Psychiatrists, Psychologists and Occupational Therapists by using questionnaire. A cross-sectional survey was carried out by using the technique of convenient sampling. Researcher collected the data from Riphah International University in person and some professionals were sent questionnaires online.

Results: Majority of professionals provide diagnostic service i.e. 84.4% as a part of multidisciplinary team whereas 15.6% are sole practitioners for giving diagnosis; 51.1% collaborate with other professionals to make a consensus diagnosis and the most frequently used tool by professionals for diagnosing ASD is Childhood Autism Rating Scale CARS (76.7%) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders V/IV (DSM V OR IV) criteria (67.8%).

Conclusion: The professionals in the current study are using multidisciplinary approach for diagnosing ASD and a small number are sole practitioners. The most frequently used tool for diagnosing ASD are CARS and DSM V OR IV criteria. However, very few practitioners use the diagnostic tool Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule ADOS and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised ADI-R. The professionals who provide diagnosis of ASD are Speech and language Pathologists, Psychologists, pediatricians, psychiatrists and Occupational therapists.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Effect of Percutaneous Tibial Nerve Stimulation (PTNS) with Medical Treatment in Patients with Overactive Bladder

Mohammadreza Nikoo, Lobat Majidi, Amirmohammad Heidari, Babak Jafarvand, Danial Aghabozorgi, Nikta Nikbakht

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 365-373
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32950

Introduction: Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common problem that involves therapeutic challenges. Therefore, finding new and effective treatment modalities in these patients is essential. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic effect of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) with drug therapy in patients with OAB.

Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 74 patients with OAB were randomly divided into two groups: PTNS (twice a week for 12 weeks) and drug treatment (Solifenacin 10 mg daily for 12 weeks). OAB Symptom Score, q-OAB and Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (HRQL) were completed and then compared at the beginning and end of the study for the two groups. Findings were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.

Results: The drug intervention group consisted of 33 (89.2%) females and 4 males (10.81%), and PTNS group consisted of 31 females (83.8%) and 6 males (16.21%), (P = 0.496). Mean quality of life score, mean OABSS score, OAB screening score and urinary incontinence in both groups before the intervention did not show a statistically significant difference. After treatment, the mean quality of life in both groups increased significantly compared to before the intervention, but this increase was significantly higher in PTNS when compared with other group (74.2±6.9 vs. 68.9± 7.3). The mean OABSS score, OAB screening score and urinary incontinence in both groups decreased significantly compared to before treatment, but the mean OABSS score and OAB and urinary incontinence screening scores showed a significant decrease in PTNS group compared to drug treatment.

Conclusion: Based on the findings, PTNS was found to be more effective than drug treatment in increasing the quality of life and controlling symptoms of OAB.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Prospective Observational Study on Evaluation of Therapeutic Efficacy of Antiplatelets in Coronary Artery Disease with Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty

C. Bhargava Reddy, T. Akhila Saila Sree, K. Samyuktha, D. Kranthi chaitanya, R. E. Ugandar, C. Madhusudhana Chetty

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 379-385
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32952

Coronary artery disease otherwise named as Coronary heart disease. Coronary Artery Disease means narrowing of the coronary arteries. This narrowing causes reduction of blood flow to the heart muscle by buildup of plaque in the arteries of heart. A common symptom of Coronary artery disease is chest pain or chest discomfort which can travel to the shoulder, arm, back, neck or jaws. Other symptoms may include Shortness of breath, palpitations and even fatigue. Majorly antiplatelets are given in the treatment of CAD and followed by angioplasty for the clearing of plaques in the coronary artery. Collected a sample size of 200 patients, among them 126 are males and 74 are females. Patient with age group of 51-60 are more prone to CAD in both males and females. Chest pain is majorly seen in males compared to females. Chest pain, Sweating and shortness of breath is seen in both males and females and the number of male patients are more when compared to females. Patients with only shortness of breath are less when compared to other chief complaints. Social history includes Smokers are 26 (47.2%), alcoholic are 48 (57.14%).. Among all these patients the length of hospital stay of patients treated with combination of aspirin and clopidogrel is less when compared with ticagrelor, aspirin, clopidogrel.Based on the follow up observations we may consider that combination of antiplatelet therapy is effective in CAD patients undergone with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Wound Healing Activity of Different Leaf Extracts of Rhynchosia rothii in Rats

Sharad D. Tayade, Narendra Silawat

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 386-393
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32953

Aims: The aim of the present work to perform phytochemical screening and wound healing activity of different leaf extract of Rhynchosia rothii.

Place and Duration of the Study: The present work has been carried out at Oriental University, Indore between the duration of November-2020 to January-2021.

Methodology: Rhynchosia rothii dried leaf powder was subjected to continuous extraction with a soxhlet extractor using various organic solvents. Preliminary phytochemical screening with various qualitative chemical tests revealed the presence of Alkaloids, Tannins, Flavonoids, proteins, and mucilage present in Rhynchosia rothii leaf extracts. Wister rats of both sexes weighing 150-200 g were used for experimental purposes. The animals were kept in polypropylene cages at room temperature and with a light/dark cycle of 12:12 hours.  All the test extracts at a different dose level and standard were administered topically once daily from day 0 to the day of complete healing or the 21st postoperative day, whichever occurred earlier.

Results: A significant increase in wound healing activity was observed in animals treated with alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Rhynchosia rothii leaves at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight, compared to control treatments. Both methanolic and standard extracts of Rhynchosia rothii (200 mg/kg body weight) showed a dose-dependent increase in the rate of wound contraction. The methanolic extract of Rhynchosia rothii at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight showed an increase in the percentage of wound contraction from 40.08% to 88.90% from day 3 to 12. The aqueous (standard) extract of Rhynchosia rothii at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight showed an increase in the percentage of wound contraction from 46.02% to 100% from day 3 to 12.

Conclusion: From the previous results it was concluded that the Wound represents a serious health problem, both in terms of morbidity and mortality. Wound healing is a critical response to tissue integrity. Therefore, the wound healing property of Rhynchosia rothii can be attributed to the phytoconstituents present in it, which may be due to its individual or additive effect that accelerates the wound healing process. Since Rhynchosia rothii is grown in abundance in India and rest of other part of world, it could be a fairly good and easily available therapeutic agent due to its naturally occurring tendency for healing wounds as a healer, as well as controlling abnormal healing.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Validated Method for the Estimation of Capecitabine and Docetaxel Using RP-UPLC

Potturi. Rama Devi, Kantipudi Rambabu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 394-401
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32954

Aims: Study on degradation of Capecitabine and Docetaxel based on a new, validated method using UPLC.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, RVR & JC College of Engineering, Chowdavaram, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, between February 2021 and August 2021.

Methodology: With a flow rate of 1 mL/min and a wave length of 255 nm, the proposed method successfully separated the target metabolite using a Symmetry C18 column (150 mm x 4.6mm,3.5 µm), acetonitrile, and 0.1 percent ortho phosphoric acid (OPA) as the mobile phase. The retention times for Capecitabine and Docetaxel were 1.223 minutes and 1.864 minutes, respectively. The isocratic chromatography procedure took about ten minutes to complete at room temperature.

Results: The analysis was completed in three minutes with a concentration range of 5-75 µg/mL capecitabine and 2-30 µg/mL docetaxel that was honest in linearity. The system's suitability parameters were examined mathematically, and the outcomes fell within acceptable ranges. Stages with regression coefficients of 0.999 were used in the linear analysis. Capecitabine's LOD and LOQ concentrations were 1.5 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL, respectively, while Docetaxel was 0.6 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL. 98-102% of the drug was recovered, which means the recovery was within acceptable limits.

Conclusion: The approach was found to be suitable for bulk and formulation analysis after the validation results were satisfactory. According to ICH guidelines, the recommended procedure was found to be justified.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Formulation of Anticancer Agents for Colon Cancer

Dipti Patel, Krishna Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 402-418
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32955

Aims/Objective: To develop and estimate enteric-coated capsules containing mucoadhesive Microspheres of Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin to treat Colon cancer.

Study Design: Box Behnken.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutics, Parul Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Parul University, Vadodara, between 2017 to 2021.

Methodology: Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin are used as antineoplastic agents and can be delivered via the oral route of administration. For the estimation of drugs Analytical method has been developed by HPLC. Box Behnken design has been used to optimize Drug: polymer ratio (1:2), Inlet temperature 170ºC, and crosslinking agent with a 0.5 ml 1% Gluteraldehyde solution.

The microspheres were successfully prepared by using the spray drying technique and evaluated.

Results: The results of optimized Capecitabine microspheres were obtained as Particle size 87.91 µm ± 0.274,% yield 57.21± 1.5,% Mucoadhesion 57.21± 1.5,% entrapment efficiency 82.16± 0.725. The results of optimized Oxaliplatin microspheres were obtained as Particle size 99.88µm±0.034,% yield 56.0± 0.088,% Mucoadhesion 87.0± 0.80,% entrapment efficiency 82.61±0.085. The drug content of Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin in the filled capsule was 94.67% ±0.32 and 93.45%±0.712, respectively. % Drug release of Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin in Phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was found to be 94.83±0.22 and 96.94±0.11 respectively after 8 hrs. Stability study at 400C±20C / 75 ± 5 % RH revealed that there was no significant change in disintegration time, drug content and % CDR during 6 months. So, prepared formulation was stable during stability study.  MTT assay has been performed on the formulation of Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin microspheres for assessing the % viability of both the drugs on the Caco-2 cell line.

Conclusion: The present study confirmed that prepared mucoadhesive microspheres filled with enteric-coated capsules have an antitumor effect on colon cancer cells. The formulation induced high cell death within 48 hours, and less cell viability was obtained compared to API. Six months accelerated Stability study indicates that formulation is fairly stable at storage conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Practice of Breast Cancer and Its Screening Methods among Girls Attending an Engineering College in Ahmednagar

Yogita Autade, Grishma Chauhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 425-434
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32957

The rising incidence rate of breast cancer at a younger age is an alarming sign that future              mothers will need to be empowered to recognise breast cancer warning symptoms at an early stage.

Aim and Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practice breast cancer and its screening methods, to determine the relationship between knowledge and practice, and its association with demographic variables among engineering girls.

Method: Quantitative research approach with cross sectional study conducted at engineering College of Ahmednagar, 100 engineering girls of various branches participated in the study. Responses were recorded on a pretested questionnaire and self-reported practices through online mode and participants were agreed to participate in the study. Knowledge aspects consisted general information of breast cancer, risk factors and signs and symptoms, whereas self-reported practice for breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and mammography. Data was analysed with mean, SD, Chi Square test and Karl Pearson Co-efficient correlation.

Result: Mean age of participants was 21 years. Maximum girls from 34% Information and Technology and 25% Electronics and Telecommunication. Maximum engineering girls had good 62%   to average 22% and 16 % poor knowledge. Majority 63% had poor and 36 % average breast cancer screening practices measures. Poor practices for breast self-examination followed by clinical breast examination and mammography. Knowledge was directly associated with education of mothers and Source of information is associated with practises with a significance level of p < 0.05. Knowledge and practises had a positive correlation of “r” =.270.

Conclusion: engineering girls had average knowledge and poor practices of breast cancer screening measures.  Knowledge was directly associated with education of mothers and source of information were significantly associated with practices. Future mothers should be empowered through hands on training for breast self-examination and enhanced BSE and CBE will help for early detection for breast cancer among younger girls in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Validated Capillary Zone Electrophoretic Determination of Avanafil and Dapoxetine Hydrochloride in their Pure form and Pharmaceutical Preparation

Mohamed B. Ali, Wael Talaat, Gamal A. Omran, Hassan A. M. Hendawy, Samir Morshedy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 446-459
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32960

Aims: In this study, a simple, green, and rapid capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) was applied for the analysis of avanafil (AVA) and dapoxetine hydrochloride (DAP) as a binary mixture using vardenafil (VAR) as an internal standard (IS) in pure form and pharmaceutical formulation.

Methodology: The separation was done using fused silica capillary (58.5 cm total length, 50 cm effective length, and 50 μm internal diameter) and the running background electrolyte (BGE) was 100 mM acetate buffer at pH 3.6. During the separation process, the applied voltage was 30 KV, while the temperature was 25 °C. The sample injection was applied at a pressure of 50 mbar for 10 s, and detection was carried out at 210 nm for DAP and 248 nm for AVA and VAR.

Results: Analysis of the tested drugs and the internal standard was carried out in less than 6.5 min, where the migration times were 4.29, 4.90, and 6.02 min for IS, DAP and AVA respectively. The proposed method showed linearity in the concentration range 5-80 and 5-70 μg/mL with correlation coefficients 0.9996 and 0.9999 for AVA and DAP respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.523 and 0.531 for AVA and DAP respectively, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.585 and 1.608 in respective order.  The Peak purity and identity in the proposed method were validated by DAD.

Conclusion: The proposed CZE method was validated according to ICH guidelines and applied successfully for the estimation of AVA and DAP in their combined pharmaceutical preparation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of SIM on Knowledge Regarding Childbirth Care among Upcoming Fathers

Suwarna Ghugare, Archana Maurya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 460-465
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32961

Background: In the decade that followed since the original clinical report on the fathers role was published by the American Academy of Paediatrics in May 2004, there has been a surge of attention and research on fathers and their role in the care and development of their children.

Methods: For this research, true experimental pre-test post-test research design has been adopted. The study was conducted in selected hospital of Wardha district. Pre experimental one group pre-test post-test research design was used and sample size was 60.Non probability purposive sampling technique was used.

Results: 13.33% of upcoming fathers had poor knowledge level and 51.67% of upcoming fathers had average level of knowledge score in pre-test, 35% upcoming fathers had good level knowledge score in pre test. In post test 1.67% of upcoming father had good level of knowledge score, 55% of upcoming father had very good level of knowledge score and 61.67% of upcoming father had excellent level of knowledge score and none of them had poor and average level of knowledge score.

Conclusion: It is concluded that self instruction module was found to be effective in improving the knowledge of childcare among upcoming father.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antileishmanial Activity of Cassia fistula L., Morus nigra L. and Ziziphus jujuba Mill., Plant Extracts

Kashif Iqbal, Eshwa Dar, Abdul Rashid Shaikh, Samar Akhtar, . Marvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 466-471
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32962

Aim: To investigate the different antileishmanial activities of extracts of Cassia Fistula L., Morus Nigra L. and Ziziphus Jujuba Mill.

Methodology: In this method, three (03) plants having concentrations between 500 – 2000 µg/mL were subjected to KWH23 strains of L. tropica in which Standard drug was Amphotericin B and have negative control for 24 – 48 hours. To check the in-vivo studies, plant extract was tested on BALB/c mice (Iqbal et al., 2016).

Results: It showed that inhibition (mean) of KWH23 strains at 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 µg/mL after 48 hours were 92.1 ± 0.02, 95.00 ± 0.05, 97.09 ± 0.07 and 98.05 ± 0.05 % respectively. It decreased the lesion size (mean) from 0.8 ± 0.1 mm to 0.40 ± 0.2 mm having significance value p < 0.01 after 8th week, and cure at 200 mg/Kg against intracellular amastigotes in BALB/c mice was 90.00% (95% Cl = 80.05 – 97.00).

Conclusion: The result shows that Ziziphus jujuba Mill. leaves possess significant antileishmanial activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Risk Status of Antenatal Mothers Attending Selected Hospital at Mangaluru

Rosily Sebastian, T. Vinaya Kumary

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 472-476
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32963

Background: All pregnancies are at risk even though most of the pregnancies and childbirth worldwide are uneventful. Almost 15% of all the pregnant women can develop potentially life-threatening complications which might require skilled care with some requiring major intervention for survival. Complications can occur anytime during the course of the pregnancy and childbirth, which in turn can affect the health and the overall survival of mother and the fetus. Hence there is a need to identify those high risk pregnancy groups for whom a greater degree of care is required. This study aimed to identify the risk status among antenatal mothers thus enhancing the mother to have a clear understanding about health. 

Methods: A quantitative research approach with descriptive survey design was used to assess the risk status of pregnancy among antenatal mothers. The study was conducted among 100 antenatal mothers in a selected hospital, Mangaluru.

Results: The present study revealed that maximum number of antenatal mothers (33.7%) were in the age group of 25-30 years and 31-36 years.41.6% antenatal mothers had high school education,24.8% had PUC education.41.6% of antenatal mothers were from nuclear family and 40.6% belongs to second trimester. The maximum number of antenatal mothers (39.6%) belongs to second gravida.75.2% of antenatal mothers belongs to above poverty line. Analysis of the association between risk statuses of pregnancy with selected demographic variables reveals that there is significant association between risk status of pregnancy with age in years and gravida status of antenatal mothers at 0.05 level of significance. In this study 55% of antenatal mothers belong to high risk pregnancy status and remaining 45% were at low risk status.

Conclusion: The study reflects that most of the pregnant women are in high risk status of pregnancy. The overall findings of the study clearly showed that there is significant level of risk status of pregnancy among antenatal mothers.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Silico Drug Discovery of 4-Hyroxypanduratin A, 6-Gingerol and Luteolin Targeting Nipah Virus

Anurag Verma, Piyush Mittal, Milind S. Pande, Neelanchal Trivedi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 477-484
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32964

Nipah Virus is a zoo tonic virus and has re-emerged again with more deadliness. NiV has infected many animals and humans worldwide and a huge loss to life has been faced. NiV contains a Fusion protein on its outer membrane which helps in the virus entry into the host cell. This fusion protein is a virulent factor and is a major anti-viral target. Many medicinal plants have been used against viral diseases, current research aims towards the potential of three daily dietary food elements that can be used as an anti-viral agent. In-silico studies are performed with 4-hyroxypanduratin A, 6-gingerol and Luteolin against the NiV-F and binding energies were calculated. It was reported that these phyto-compounds have good negative binding energies and they have the promising potential against Nipah Virus. Further in-vitro research can be performed with these phyto-compounds to design a specific drug against Nipah Virus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Azadiracta indica and Gardenia gummifera Plant Extract

Anurag Verma, Piyush Mittal, Milind S. Pande, Neelanchal Trivedi, Bhuvnesh Kumar, Prabhakar Vishwakarma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 491-498
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32966

In material science, nanotechnology is considered as most common active area of research. Nanotechnology deals with the nanoparticles having a size range of 1-100nm used in medicinal chemistry, atomic physics. Nowadays, the use of metal nanoparticles in areas such molecular diagnostics and drug delivery, imaging, sensing has been of great scientific interest as a result of their peculiar optoelectronic and physicochemical properties. Thus synthesis of metal nanoparticles through effective, environmental friendly and cheaper approach is very important in nanotechnology research. In the current study Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were incorporated utilizing Azadiracta indica and Gardenia gummifera plant separate alongside their antimicrobial action. Silver had been a subject of interest from past a very long time because of its physical and chemical properties. Further depiction of mixed nanoparticles was finished by using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The combined AgNPs were found with the size scope of 60-80nm. Antimicrobial movement of AgNPs was considered in contrast to S. aureus, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus the results indicate that the AgNPs may have an application in medical science.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Activity of Flavonoid Isolated from Lindernia crustacea (L) F. Muell against Traditionally Claimed Dermatophytes

Smriti Rekha Chanda Das, Abdul Baquee Ahmed, Dibyendu Shil, Trishna Das, Faruk Alam, Jashabir Chakraborty

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 512-521
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32970

Aim: The present study was aimed to establish antifungal activity of flavonoid isolated from Lindernia crustacea (L) F. Muell.

Methods: Potent bioactive constituent from benzene extract was isolated through flash chromatography with solvent Toluene and Acetic acid (4:1). Isolated compound was structurally established by spectroscopic method. Antifungal potential of benzene extract as well as isolated compound was tested by disc diffusion method against two fungal strains Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum).

Results: The isolated compound from benzene extract was found to be flavonoid. Benzene extract as well as flavonoid were shown remarkable zone of inhibition against both fungal strains which indicates strong antifungal activity.

Conclusion: The experimental results concluded that Lindernia crustacea (L) F. Muell have significant anti fungal activity due to flavonoid content. It is expected that the results of the present research work would be beneficial in establishing the scientific basis of the traditional claims of medicinal values of Lindernia crustacea.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study Based on Controlled Drug Release by 3D Printed Aloe-Vera Bi-Layer Tablet

Anurag Verma, Piyush Mittal, Milind S. Pande, Neelanchal Trivedi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 522-531
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32971

Aloe-Vera or Aloe barbadensis (botanical name) is a plant with many medicinal properties and have great importance in Ayurveda. Its leaves are succulent, erect, forming a thick rosette. The internal translucent pulp of Aloe-Vera is bound to a waxy crust or cuticle, and its vascular tissues transport minerals as well as water from the soil. Aloe Vera is being used as a major skin rejuvenating product, although it has varied medicinal properties also. In the present study, an attempt to make a method to create bi-layer tablets of Aloe-Vera, utilizing 3D printing techniques is presented. The method created doesnt affect the integral functional characteristics of the tablet. The method here contains creating an immediate release and sustained release tablet for making the Aloe-Vera to be used directly by the person for its numerous health effects. The tablet is designed so to be consumed by vegans as well since it is completely herbal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Kangaroo Mother Care in Weight Gain among Newborn Babies in AVBRH Hospitals of Wardha

Archana Maurya, B. Lakhakar, Bibin Kurian, Switi Besekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 532-537
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32972

Introduction: Kangaroo Mother Care is a simple and feasible intervention; acceptable to most mothers admitted in hospitals. There may be benefits in terms of reducing the incidence of hypothermia with no adverse effects of Kangaroo Mother Care. Kangaroo Care infants showed improvement in regular breathing patterns and virtually no periodic breathing, weight gain in low birth babies, suggesting  that Kangaroo Mother Care is safe for these infants.

Materials and Methods: Randomized control trai, l  experimental and control group design was used in study this study was conducted in post natal wards of AVBR Hospital. In this study samples were newborns that were fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria. 500 newborns were selected and it was equally divided into two groups as control 250 and experimental 250. Random sampling technique was used in this study. A checklist regarding the frequency and duration of KMC was prepared for the experimental group. 

Results: The mean weight gain in the control group at birth is 2.71, on discharge it is 2.53 and on follow up it is 3.07. The mean weight gain in the experimental group at birth is 2.74, on discharge it is 2.67 and on follow up it is 3.31. 

Conclusion: Significant difference was found in the mean weight gain between experimental and control group. Thus it is concluded that KMC is effective in increasing the weight of the newborn babies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Pharmacists towards Drug Interactions in Saudi Arabia

Mohamed S. Imam, Randa M. Abdel-Sattar, Othman AlOmeir, Hussain A. Mahzari, Sami M. Alhamdhi, Tariq Y. Alhazmi, Khalid Y. Hassani, Amr S. Alamri, Ali I. Alsubaihi, Fahad M. Alotaibi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 538-545
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32973

Background: Drug interactions, which are generally encountered in medical prescriptions, may lead to severe health issues. Pharmacists in both the public and private pharmacy setting are by profession in a unique position to gain and use their competencies to find and prohibit drug interactions.

Aim of the Study: To assess knowledge, attitude and practice of pharmacists toward drug interactions in Saudi Arabia.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self- administered questionnaire.

Results: Two hundred sixty-three pharmacists participated in the survey and results were expressed in frequencies and percentages. The mean age of participant pharmacists was (31.7) years showing a relatively young participant’s population. Males were (75.3%), while females were (24.7%). Majority of pharmacists (67.3%) were working in public sector. Half of them had a bachelor’s degree in pharmacy as their latest academic degree.

Participants’ averages of awareness, attitude and practice regarding drug interactions, correct knowledge of drug-drug, drug-food, drug-disease interactions were, (90.7%), (65.3%), (67.7%), (61.7%) respectively. Most (79.8%) of the participants asserted that the notified doctors usually agree with pharmacists’ opinion and decision. This percentage indicates a good cooperation when compared to other studies.

Conclusion: Pharmacists’ knowledge about drug interactions was inadequate. Lack of knowledge of drug interactions may lead to improper patient counseling and the appearance of adverse effects. There is a need to improve the knowledge and to uplift the level of awareness of pharmacists about the potential drug interactions that are clinically related.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effect of Blumera lacera in Rifampicin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Devendra S. Shirode, Bindurani L. G. P. Ram, Gaurav Jain, Ashwini Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 555-561
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32976

Tuberculosis is one of the bacterial infection caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis strain and the treatment for it involves the use of anti-tubercular drugs. Rifampicin is one of the common drug that is used for tuberculosis but it potentiates liver toxicity due to metabolism. Objective: The present study was designed to Check the a hepatoprotective agent from a natural source. The natural source was chosen to minimize the side effects that occur due to conventional or synthetic drugs. The hepatoprotective activity of 70% ethanol extract of Blumea lacera leaves (EEBLL) was evaluated against Rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening, acute oral toxicity, in vivo antioxidant activity, physical and Biochemical parameters were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed that flavonoids, tannin and saponins are present in EEBLL. Acute oral toxicity was performed as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines and selected doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. In rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in rats, the effect of EEBLL on the biochemical parameters (SGOT, SGPT, ALP, direct and total Bilirubin) was assessed. The increased levels of the above-mentioned biochemical indicators of hepatotoxicity were significantly normalized after the pretreatment with EEBLL (200 mg/ kg and 400mg/kg). The histopathological studies also supported above findings. It is concluded from this study that EEBLL possesses hepatoprotective properties which may be attributed to the polyphenolic compounds that are present in the plant. Further isolation and characterization are required to identify the potent compound as hepatoprotective.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Assess Awareness and Stress Level Regarding COVID-19 Pandemic among Banker

Archana Maurya, Vishakha Meshram, Khushboo Mungle, Viwek Nade, Payal Nanotkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 593-599
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32981

Background of Study: The World Health Organization has designated the outbreak as a global epidemic, requiring country to tighten its statewide lockdown in order to prevent the illness from spreading and to put an end to the outbreak in its several states. This study is designed to establish how many bankers are aware of the Corona Virus. Most of people are sensitive to fear of sickness or death, feeling hopeless, and being stereotype at the group level, just as they are at the individual level. The epidemic has a negative effect on public mental health, perhaps leading to psychiatric crises.

Objectives: To assess the awareness and stress level regarding covid-19 pandemic among bankers.

Materials and Methods: A Descriptive research design study was undertaken to assess awareness and stress level regarding covid-19 pandemic among bankers. In this study the total number of 100 who fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected banks in Wardha city.  The study was non-probability convenient sampling technique used and the tool was the structured questionnaires on awareness of covid-19 and also modify modify perceived stress scale. The data gathering process began based on the objectives and the hypothesis the data was statistically analyzed with various tests such as descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. 

Results: This study is planned to assess to assess awareness and stress level in bankers regarding covid-19 pandemic. The result are shows that the awareness of bankers, 6% of bankers had average, 83% of bankers had good and 11% of bankers had excellent level of awareness level. Minimum awareness score was 6 and maximum awareness score was 18. Mean awareness score was 13.51±2.01 and mean percentage of awareness score was 68.55±10.08. The stress level of banker’s shows that 7% of bankers had moderate stress, 80% had severe and 13% of bankers had extreme stress. Minimum stress score was 22 and maximum stress score was 65. Mean stress score was 37.59±10.50 and mean percentage of stress score was 59.48±12.75

Conclusion: To assess overall awareness and stress level in bankers regarding covid-19 pandemic. We conducted a survey with a representative sample of the Wardha city. Our research study concluded that the bankers have good knowledge related to covid-19 and suffer from high level of stress. One sensible option is to give expert counselling to reduce this unnecessary stress. We recommend that deep breathing exercise, meditation, yoga can also help people to eliminate stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Title: A Study to Assess the Knowledge among Parents Related to Aggression in School Going Children

Pratiksha Thakare, Kalyani Thakare, Chetan Supare, Gauraokumar Tembhekar, Neha Tarekar, Shalini Lokhande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 623-630
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32983

Background: School going is a period of life with health and developmental needs and rights. It this period the children develop knowledge and skills, learn to manage emotions and relationships. The WHO defines school going from age 10 to 19 years. Investing in the world’s 1.2 billion school going can break cycles of poverty and inequity, highlights UNICEF in its 2011 State of the World’s Children report. Aggressive behaviors can obstruct instruction and success in a variety of interventions, preventing progress in a variety of developmental domains.

Objectives: 1. To assess the knowledge among parents related to the aggression of school going children. 2. To determine the association between the knowledge score of parents with their demographic variables.

Materials and Methods: This study was based on a descriptive approach, In this study 80 parents of school going children were selected from the rural area of Sawangi Meghe,Wardha District by using tool such as structured knowledge questionnaire with non-probability convenient sampling method data was collected.

Results: The study showed that the mean percentage of knowledge score was 13.31±4.39 (44.36 %) according to the level of knowledge score regarding aggression among parents of school going children. 2.5% of the parents had poor, 42.5% had average, 45% had good knowledge score, 8.75% had very good knowledge score and 1.25% had excellent knowledge score.  

Conclusion: The present study is descriptive and aims to assess the knowledge regarding aggression among parents of school going children. Recommendation, we can study on Impact of the Aggression on student’s mental health and school performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study to Assess the Knowledge and Prevalence of Dialysis Induced Hypertension

Jineta Suthar, Daksha Yadav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 439-445
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32959

By knowing the level of knowledge of patients about risk factors of dialysis induced hypertension, we will be able to be aware that the patients reduce the risk factor affecting dialysis induced hypertension patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. So, the objective of the study were to assess the knowledge and prevalence of dialysis induced hypertension among patient’s undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. A qualitative research study was used. The participants was all the dialysis induced hypertensive patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis, data collection was done using a questionnaires and checklist, 100 were completed the data. Data were analysed by descriptive and inferential statistics. And according to statistical analysis results, there was no significant relationship between the knowledge and risk factor of dialysis induced hypertension patients.

Background: Intradialytic hypertension is an increase in blood pressure during or immediately after hemodialysis which results in post-dialysis hypertension, is often largely ignored. Patients undergoing hemodialysis will possibly raise blood pressure, because the role of the kidneys in blood homoeostasis is impaired, risk factors like chronic volume overload and a range of other risk factors might also contribute to high blood pressure.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows, 1. Assess the knowledge and prevalence of dialysis induced hypertension among patients undergoing haemodialysis.

  1. Find out the association between risk factors and knowledge of dialysis induced hypertension among patients undergoing haemodialysis.

Results: The clinical significance of dialysis induced hypertension lies in the fact that each of these possible risk factors may contribute to the development of dialysis induced hypertension, out of 100 participants 4 (4%) were in the age group of 21 to 30 years, 16 (16%) were in the age group of 31 to 40 years, 36 (36%) were in the age of 41 to 50 years, 44 (44%) were in the age group of the year above. As regard Gender, 63 (63%) were male and 37 (37%) were females. As regards 92 (92%) were Married and 08(08%) were Unmarried. Regarding prevalence 50 (50%) had hypertension before and 50 (50%) had hypertension after the dialysis. Out of 100 patients, all 100 samples were had increased dry weight, 13 were had volume overload, 77 were had poor dietary salt restriction, 24 were had a family history of hypertension, nil have pulmonary oedema, 03 were had hyperthyroidism, 15 were had diabetes, 04 were had the cardio vascular disorder, 08 were had anaemia. Out of the 100 samples, 15% of the samples had poor, 85 % of the samples had average knowledge on dialysis induced hypertension. Thus, dry weight was present in the entire patient undergoing hemodialysis. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the mean, frequency and percentage, inferential statistics like the Chi-Square test was used to test for association.

Open Access Review Article

Management of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Emergency: A Review

Hisham Mohammed Sonbul, Abdulrahman Mohammed S. Alabid, Fahad Ali A. Almarshad, Alqahtani, Ali Saad M., Rayan Ali Barakat, Abudeyah, Manal Ahmed K., Ameera Jassim A. Al Ramadhan, Muteb Bandar Binmohaiya, Alqarni, Alwaled Abdullah B., Hayash, Fatimah Abdulrahman H., Abdulelah Ahmed Alabdulwahab

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32908

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is life threatening disease it’s often associated with sepsis, which require ICU management. In individuals with sepsis, the risk of DIC is especially high, DIC affects 30 to 50 percent of these individuals. Also it affects only about ten percent of patients with solid tumors, trauma, or obstetric emergencies. Hematological malignancies, aneurysms, and liver diseases can also cause the disease, the treatment for DIC focuses on resolving the underlying problem that led to this condition in the first place. As a result, antibiotics for severe sepsis, delivery in the case of placental abruption, and exploratory surgical intervention in the case of trauma are the pillars of DIC treatment, Patients with active bleeding or a high risk of bleeding, as well as those who require an invasive surgery, should consider platelet and plasma transfusions. Other anti-coagulant drugs can also be used. Prothrombin complex concentrates should only be administered in an emergency, due to their possible dangers. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin rhTM it was developed and licensed for clinical usage in Japan in 2008, and it’s one of the novel treatments for DIC. Anti-Xa agents, Synthetic protease inhibitors, and antithrombin are another options for treatment. In this article we will be making overview of the disease, it’s etiology an what’s the current management options. 

Open Access Review Article

Overview on Glucose Tolerance Testing in Primary Health Care

Faisal Suliman Algaows, Hasan Taha Obaid, Saleh Mohammed AL Sharyah, Dhafer Ahmed Alshehri, Yazeed Hadi Alharbi, Haitham Ahmed Althawab, Abdulrahman Mustafa Adnan, Abdalrhman Nbil Bokhari, Mohammed Abduljalil Alkhamis, Abdulaziz Ahmed Alansari, Talal Saad Alharbi, Nadia Mubarak Alghamdi, Saeed Oudah Alasiri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32910

The glucose tolerance test can be performed in a variety of situations. To evaluate a person's capacity to manage a glucose load, a glucose tolerance test is utilised. The test can determine whether or not a person can metabolise a specific amount of glucose. and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has been the standard method for detecting prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes causes anomalies in glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism due to insulin's ineffective action on target tissues, so health care providers making this test to determine a person's ability to handle a glucose load. In this article we will be looking at the testing procedures, normal and abnormal results and primary heath care role's to improve the results and treatmentof prediabetics .

Open Access Review Article

Dynamic Reconstruction for Facial Nerve Paralysis

Hayat AL Zahiry, Futoon Jomman Ali Alomari, Abdullah Mohammed Alharbi, Mohannad Mohammad Almanea, Nehal Fahad Almasri, Mohammed Ahmed Sanguf, Ahmed Hakeem Al-Qarross, Ahmed Abdulaziz Alanazi, Ali Sami Alanazi, Elham Ahmed H. Hakami, Mohammed Sulaiman Alkathery

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32912

Dynamic and static reconstruction procedures are employed for facial reanimation in patients suffering from facial nerve paralysis. Denervation and paralysis of the facial nerves causes considerable psychological and functional damage. Facial paralysis can affect facial expressiveness, communication, smile symmetry, eye protection, and speech competence. Due to their presumed poor prognosis, patients requiring facial nerve repair in a head and neck cancer practice are historically the least likely to receive a nerve graft. Dynamic reconstruction, on the other hand, is the gold standard in neurotology since patients are unlikely to die from their underlying condition. Even with malignant pathology, extended preoperative palsy, proximal nerve injury location, radiation, or long graft length, the current series supports the use of dynamic reconstruction. Dynamic facial reconstruction should be preformed in most cases unless there’s health risk of the method.

Open Access Review Article

Co-Relation of Steriods in Diabetic and COVID-19 Patients

James Lalduhawma, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra, Amit Reche, Priyanka Paul Madhu, . Lalruatzela, Jonathan Lalnunsanga

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 128-135
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32924

An unusual rise in blood glucose linked with the use of glucocorticoids in a patient with or without a prior history of diabetes mellitus is referred to as steroid-induced diabetes mellitus. The term steroid refers to a group of chemicals that have varied physiological effects. Hydrocortisone are a class of hormones that comprises both lab-made and naturally occurring hormones. Steroids are naturally occurring hormones in the human body. Corticosteroids have a wide spectrum of effects, from solely glucocorticoid to solely mineralocorticoid, and steroid compounds are chosen based on their suitability for a particular therapy. A drug may have anti-inflammatory resources, it could also have mineralocorticoid action, which lowers blood pressure. Steroids are drugs that have been used extensively in a variety of conditions. Glucocorticoids, despite being frequently recommended for their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive characteristics, have a number of side effects, with hyperglycemia being one of the most common and representative. In diabetic individuals, corticosteroids are generally contraindicated due to the danger of altering glucose control and resulting in severe decompensation. However, if given early and in a well-controlled regimen, corticosteroid medication can be useful in some patients. With good knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of the glucocorticoid utilized, glucose disequilibrium after withdrawal can be predicted.

Open Access Review Article

Triggers and Diagnosis of Parasomnias in Children –A Review

Heba A. Fouad, Hussam Abdulshakour Jamaluddin, Mari Osman Alwadai, Ismail Zayed Alqahtani, Nawaf Abdullah AlGhuraybi, Abdulaziz Mohammed Kariri, Reem Mohammed Alshehri, Ibrahim Hassan Faqihi, Ali Mohammed Aleid, Khalid Abdulrahman Al Dakheel, Fahad Mohammed Saed, Moudhi Mohamed Alajmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 198-205
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32933

The occurrence of parasomnias, which are most common during childhood, is one probable early sign of psychosis vulnerability. 6–8 Frequent nightmares have long been thought to play a role in the development of psychosis. In the outpatient clinics, sleep problems are one of the most common presentations. In fact, maladaptive sleep patterns are linked to up to 50% of major complaints in primary care settings. The etiology of parasomnias is unknown because no obvious cause has been identified; nonetheless, a variety of explanations have developed. The majority of childhood parasomnias (confessional arousals, sleepwalking, sleep terror, and nightmares) are harmless, and most children outgrow them. As a result, reassuring and educating the parents can be beneficial in those situations without the need for medical assistance. With that being said there’s also serval medical approaches that address such a disease. In this article we will be looking at the disease epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment.

Open Access Review Article

History and Mental Status Examination in Primary Care in Saudi Arabia: A Review

Faisal Suliman Algaows, Anas Murad Abdou Elrahwan, Ashjan Fouad Gholam, Yasir Nasser Aloufi, Mohammed Abdullh Mutlaqah, Rajab, Hadeer Abdulhamid, Mohammed Mousa Alammari, A. Alyazidi, Abdulalziz Otaywi, Aiyed Hamoud Alanezi, Eman Ahmed Ensseran, Badriah Helal Alazmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 206-212
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32934

The mental state assessment is an important tool for doctors when determining psychiatric diagnosis. Physicians can better identify and differentiate psychiatric diseases if they are familiar with the components of the examination. A thorough medical history entails a more in-depth investigation into the patient's medical problems, including all diseases and illnesses that are currently being treated, as well as those that have left any lasting consequences on the patient's health. A major source of worry is the patient's health literacy, as well as how questions to acquire histories are asked in such a way that the patient understands and can respond appropriately. Medical record practices have a long history of criticism, despite their usefulness. Records that are untimed or outdated, use imprecise language or are illegible, lack a logical structure, are poorly synthesized, are difficult to access and prone to loss, lack information relevant to clinical treatment goals, or are plain incorrect are all common concerns. In this review we will be looking at approaches for mental and history examination, as well as the importance of such reports.

Open Access Review Article

Disorders of the Immune System and Susceptibility to Various Diseases in Children with Diabetes Mellitus

Seda Vakhaevna Mekhtieva, Magomedbeg Salahudinovich Ismailov, Bogdan Vladimirovich Pavlov, Marina Mikhailovna Krekova, David Robertovich Papinyan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 218-223
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32936

The article examines the features of emerging disorders of the immune system in children suffering from diabetes mellitus, as well as the susceptibility of such children to various diseases. The authors note that children with diabetes have some disorders of the immune system, which, combined with high glycemia, increase the risk of infections and their severity, and they should be immediately detected and treated.

Infections, even typical childhood diseases, significantly interfere with glycemic control. As a result of the infectious process, the level of counter-regulating hormones, cortisol, adrenaline and growth hormone increases, which leads to increased neoglycogenesis, glycogenesis and increased insulin resistance. This increase in insulin resistance requires adjustment of the patient's usual insulin dose, both basal and bolus. There are usually several hours or days before such a need arises, and it may take time to increase the dose, which can lead to hyperglycemia during this period.

The presence of an infectious condition, in turn, increases blood glucose levels and increases the risk of decompensation, so pediatricians should be warned against the need to strengthen monitoring and insulin therapy. Patients with diabetes are often not fully vaccinated against various diseases. Vaccines are vital for these patients, significantly reducing the risk of infections and exacerbating the development of the underlying ailment.

Open Access Review Article

The Gag Reflex: A Hurdle in Dentistry– Literature Review

S. Meenakshi, Shyla Dureja, G. C. Kavitha, M. Pallavi, K. N. Raghavendra Swamy, Aishwarya Kottur, Ramith Ramu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 224-237
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32937

Gagging reflex poses a hurdle in numerous dental procedures. It causes discomfort for the patient, extended procedure time for the clinician, compromised quality of treatment and along with a lot of physiological discomfort for both. The normal gag reflex is protective in nature, but few individuals elicit extreme response, leading to problems during the treatment procedures. It is extremely important for the clinician to identify the cause and severity of the condition so that it can be decided whether the patient can handle standard treatment techniques or whether alternative methods must be considered. There is no universal solution for successfully managing the gagging patient. Various modalities can be used according to the doctor’s assessment and patient’s conditions in order to control the gag reflex so that the patient can be comfortable and cope with the dental treatment. A wide range of management solutions are available, and many cases need a combination of therapeutic procedures. The main aim of the present article is to comprehensively report the clinical significance, etiology, symptoms and various management approaches used during prosthodontic treatments.

Open Access Review Article

Emergent Management of Thermal Burns in Emergency Rooms Saudi Arabia - A Review

Hisham Mohammed Sonbul, Mohammed Ali Mohammed Alqahtani, Abdullah Mohammed Bajebair, Ali Abdallah A. Aljameely, Saud Ali Aloudah, Mohammed Ali M. Alshamrani, Fayez Abdulaziz A Alharthi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 266-272
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32940

According to WHO statistics, over 300,000 people die each year by burns, and more dying from electric burns, scalds or other causes of burns. Burn injuries and wounds are typically fatal. And they can cause serious long-term implications for victims. The most important aspect in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with burns is to prevent them. Exposure of tissue to an external high temperature source causes thermal burns. Burns that occur at greater temperatures or over longer periods of time cause deeper and more serious injuries. Because burn patients are the most common trauma patients, the initial step in treating them should be to assess and stabilize their airway, breathing, and circulation according to ATLS standards. Supportive care should include crystalloid resuscitation, blood composition, and potentially endotracheal intubation. In this review we will be looking at thermal burns epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology and most importantly management.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Medicinal Properties of Jatropha gossypiifolia L.

Milind S. Pande, Neelanchal Trivedi, Bhuvnesh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 505-511
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32968

Jatropha gossypiifolia L. broadly addressed as bellyache bush, refers to therapeutic plant utilized all through Asian countries. A few human and veterinary utilizations in conventional medication are portrayed for various specifics and arrangements dependent on aforementioned plant. This paper give a cutting-edge review of conventional uses, pharmacology, and toxicology of J. gossypiifolia species, taking into account examination of its therapeutic worth and potential application in integral and elective medication. Pharmacological examinations have exhibited noteworthy activity of various concentrates elements as anti-microbial, mitigating, anti-diarrheal, anti-hypertensive, and anti-cancerous specialists, among different, supporting a portion of famous employments. No clinical preliminary was distinguished to date. Moreover investigations are important to test significant society utilizations, just as to discover naive bioactive atoms with pharmacological pertinence dependent on the well-known cases. Toxicological investigations related with phytochemical examination are critical to comprehend the possible lethal impacts that could lessen its restorative worth. The current review gives bits of knowledge to future research focusing on both ethnopharmacological approval of its famous use and its investigation as another wellspring of home grown medications and additionally bioactive characteristic items.

Open Access Review Article

Airway Management in COVID- 19 Patients

Sonal Dhobe, Ruchira Ankar, Roshani Dhanvijay, Vrushali Dighikar, Pratiksha Thakre

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 562-566
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32977

The first case found in 31 December 2019 in China, in Wuhan city but China reported this news to WHO in January 2020 after this corona virus can spread worldwide, and WHO declare this disease as a pandemic. As per survey now over the 4,444,670 cases of Covid-19 can identified in 188 countries globally and 1,588,858 can recovery rate of this disease worldwide.  Corona virus can caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a single standard ribonucleic acid that enclose to corona virus and it is very infectious and spreading all over the world. It can be transmitted or spreading by droplets and come to direct contact with the patients compare to airborne spread. There is no any specific treatment strategy for corona virus, only supportive therapies such as respiratory care to the severe or acute patients, it’s especially in severe condition.

Aim is to provide airway management to COVID 19 patients and what is the role of airway management in this patient condition. This can provide issues with the person who severely suffering from respiratory diseases in hospital settings. The COVID 19 predominantly causing infection like pneumonia. At the time of giving intervention for managing the patient with severe respiratory condition are managed by mainly tracheal intubation and forming a controlled ventilation. As far this disease condition can increase, there will be the many community people are not having any symptoms of COVID 19 but after few days or week, they showing symptoms. Then they patients come under the emergency services.

Open Access Review Article

Overview on Regulatory Requirements for Medical Devices in Srilanka - National Medicines Regulatory Authority/NMRA

Vishakharaju Motupalli, Subhash Chandra Bose, M. P. Venkatesh, Varsha Tiwari, Gembali Ramya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 567-576
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32978

In the health-care industry, medical devices are becoming increasingly significant. One of the most challenging aspects of developing and manufacturing medical devices is keeping up with regulatory regulations and incorporating them into the process Registration, licensing, manufacture, importation, and all other elements of medical devices shall be regulated and controlled by the National Medicines Regulatory Authority in accordance with the National Medicines Policy. In this article we discuss about regulatory overview and registration of medical devices in Sri Lanka. A “medical device,” as defined by the Act, is any instrument, apparatus, appliance, software, material, or other article, whether used alone or in combination, that is used in or on humans for the purposes of:  Diagnosis, prevention, monitoring, treatment, or alleviation of disease; Anatomy or physiological process investigation, replacement, or alteration, Conception control. Any change in product information should be reported to the NMRA as soon as possible during the evaluation process and after product registration, especially if it involves rejection/withdrawal, additional data on product quality, effectiveness, or safety, or the manufacturers' current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) compliance. The sample license will be produced in three copies, each of which will be valid for one year from the date of issue, and will be available for pick-up at the reception point. (An extra copy of the dossier will be included).

Open Access Review Article

Health Issues and Impact of Waste on Municipal Waste Handlers: A Review

Pratibha Wankhede, Mayur Wanjari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 577-581
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32979

Municipal solid waste (MSW) is hazardous to human health and the environment if not properly handled throughout all management processes, beginning with collection, separation, transfer, treatment, disposal, or recycling and reuse. The World Health Organization (WHO) has raised awareness of the dangers of improper solid waste disposal in terms of soil, water, and air pollution, as well as the health consequences for the people living in the surrounding areas. MSW production is predicted to reach 3.40 billion tonnes globally by 2050.  Inadequate waste management is one of the causes of the rise of infectious diseases. Most viruses, bacteria, and parasites that cause illness are found in blood, bodily fluids, and bodily secretions, which are components of bio-medical waste. This spreads through several human contacts, each of whom is a possible "receiver" of the illness. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and hepatitis viruses are at the forefront of a long list of illnesses and disorders that have been linked to biomedical waste. Other prevalent diseases spread owing to poor waste management include tuberculosis, pneumonia, diarrhea, tetanus, whooping cough, and others.

Open Access Review Article

Urinary Tract Infection – A Review on Its Prevalence and Recent Advances

Abhijeeth S. Badiger, K. R. Maruthi, Shrisha Naik Bajpe, Ramith Ramu, K. Jayadev

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 582-592
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32980

The Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a seasonal infection prevalent in coastal areas whose intensity varies among various age groups. Escherichia coli is one of the major causative organisms. The current study is to the frequency of UTI in the Coastal region; understand the recent advances in alternative treatment & their efficacy. The known medication for the UTI is quinolones and cephalosporin. Cranberry extract is the only medicine used from a plant source that is expensive and not native to India. The main cause of UTI to spread is a lack of hygiene, sexual intercourse, and inadequate consumption of water. Change in the pH of the urethra during puberty & menopause in women facilitates the growth of opportunistic Uropathogens. Innate immunity can also contribute to the resistance of the body but a recent study says that infection rate varies among individuals considering their age, immunity, and lifestyle. The pathogens causing UTI are developing resistance against multiple drugs. From this study, we understand that Cranberry is the only plant source for the treatment of UTI in combination with antibiotics. There is a need to understand the importance of improving innate immunity and to know the best treatment regime to treat UTI.

Open Access Review Article

Advances in Nanomaterials-Based Carrier System for the Treatment of Breast Cancer

Sandhya Rani Mandadi, Lankalapalli Srinivas, V. V. S. Rajendra Prasad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 600-622
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i46B32982

Nanotherapeutics for the cure of breast cancer remains unswervingly succeeding and being practiced to eradicate innumerable restrictions of conventional practice obtainable for the supervision of breast cancer. Nanoparticles offer an interdisciplinary extent for exploration in imaging, diagnosis and targeting of breast cancer. Through a progressive physicochemical features and improved bioavailability, they spectacle persistent blood circulation through effective tumor targeting. Nanoparticles remain capable to diminish cytotoxic consequence of the active anticancer medications through amassed cancer cell targeting in contrast to conventional preparations. Several nanoparticles-based preparations remain in the preclinical and clinical phases of progress; amongst them, polymeric drug micelles, liposomes, and dendrimer, remain the utmost common. In this review, we have conferred the role of nanoparticles through detail to oncology, by predominantly aiming on the breast cancer and several nanodelivery systems practiced for targeting action and signaling forces through further intracellular pathways in breast cancer.