Open Access Case Report

Severe Acute Respiratory Infection: A Case Report

Julie Vanlalsawmi, Mayur Wanjari, Sagar Alwadkar, Deeplata Mendhe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32586

Introduction: Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) is a disease of the respiratory system. It is a symptomatic disease with different types of causative agent, and whose definite treatment and cure depends on the type of pathogens, nature of onset, severity of symptoms and the host factors [1]. SARI is one of the major leading cause of disease among children and person with suppressed immunity. The National Health Profile 2019 recorded 41,996,260 cases and 3,740 deaths from Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) across India in 2018. In 2017, acute respiratory infections accounted for 69% of the total cases of communicable diseases and caused 23% of such death. There were as many as 40,810,524 and 3,164 deaths from such infections. Males and females are affected equally [2].

Case Presentation: A female patient of 72 years from Bodhadi, Kinwat, Nanded was admitted to Medicine Intensive Care Unit (MICU), Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital on 26th March 2021 with a chief complaint of breathlessness on exertion for 4 days high grade fever for 15 days prior to the date of admission. My patient is a known case of Hypertension and Typhoid and had undergone Left Nephrectomy.

Open Access Case Report

Leptospirosis Case Report with Renal Insufficiency

Savita Pohekar, Seema Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 169-172
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32603

Introduction: Leptospirosis is an international zoonotic condition relay and rising prevalencethe causes of the infection Leptospira spirochete with popular exhibition of polluted clean water.Most asymptomatic diseases, but the symptoms are moderate, autonomous, specific febrile and respiratory non-specific disorder high mortality rates of renal failure.

Case: A 33-years-old woman from rural area came to the hospital in casualty with a history of high grade fever (40 degree Celsius), with chilling, headache, stiff neck. Urinary retention along with productive cough for three days.

Intervention: The patient underwent inpatient management, which included tablet Ceftriaxone 1gm twice a day, Tablet Doxycycline 100 mg bd given and intravenous fluids 5% dextrose and dextrose/sodium chloride solution, Injection Furosemide20 mg intravenously twice a day were given to the patients.

Nursing management: monitoring the vital sign, maintain the O2 levels as well as the consumption and output. All basic nursing care has been provided. Her symptoms cured after two weeks of treatment, she was discharged.

Results: Fever has been minimized. The therapy is reacted to and restored.

Conclusion: Management was mainly aimed at protecting patient wellbeing, preventing complications and improving the quality of life. The patient received all medical therapy and the results show that the therapy and care was effective.

Open Access Case Report

Congestive Cardiac Failure: A Case Report

Julie Vanlalsawmi, Deeplata Mendhe, Pratibha Wankhede

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 209-212
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32608

Introduction: Congestive Cardiac Failure (CCF) is an anomalous clinical condition involving insufficient heart pumping and filling. Cardiac failure causes the heart to be unable to provide enough blood to meet the tissue's oxygen needs. Heart disease is the most common explanation why older people are admitted to hospitals or are in need of palliation. This puts a huge economic strain on the health care system. The dynamic, progressive nature of heart failure also leads to poor results, with hospital readmissions being the costliest. About half of those patient die within 5 years after diagnosis.

Case presentation [1]: A male patient of 62years from Aarvi Naka was admitted to Medicine Intensive Care Unit (MICU), AVBRH on 11th January 2020 with a known case of Ischemic Cardiomyopathy which was diagnosed itself at AVBRH on 22nd October 2018 and a known case of diabetes and hypertension for 10 years. My patient was brought to AVBRH Emergency Unit on 11th January 2020 with a chief complaint of breathlessness for 2 days, sweating over both feet for 5 days and generalized weakness for 2 weeks. He was having difficulty in breathing for about 2 days which eventually become severe on 11th January 2020 evening and was brought immediately to AVBRH and got admitted on the same day. The patient was delirious and vomit two times on admission.

Open Access Case Report

Nephrectomy in Patient of Chronic Pyelonephritis with Non Functioning Kidney on Left Side: A Case Report

Swapna G. Morey, Ranjana Sharma, Deepali Ghungrud

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 400-404
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32631

Introduction: There are two types of renal surgery i.e. partial nephrectomy and one other is total nephrectomy. Mostly, nephrostomy performs in malignant tumors of the renal. Sometimes it performs in kidney injury due to that no longer function and it may create any obstructive disorder in the renal system.

Patient Information: A 45-year-old male patient presented with complaints of pain in the abdomen since 4 months. The patient was advised to ultrasonography abdomen and pelvis. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) abdomen and pelvis were done. Previous treatment was undergone left-sided PCN for gross hydronephrosis of the left kidney. But after 4 months patient developed abdomen pain which was insidious in onset and progressive in nature. The pain was dull aching, in the left loin region, radiating to the back and intermittent. There are no aggravating or relieving factors associated with it and the patient is now referred to our hospital for further management patient was admitted to the male surgical ward. After the surgery planed left simple nephrectomy. Post-operative medication given, Inj. Revotaz (Piperacillin and tazobactam) 4.45 gm, Inj. Nirmet (Metronidazole) 100 ml, Inj Pantomay (Pantoprazole) 40 mg, Inj. Setron (Ondansetron) 4 mg, Inj tramadex (Tramadol hydrochloride) 100 mg, Inj temfix IV (Paracetamol) 100 ml.

Discussion: Nephrectomy is one of the urologists conducting the most common ablative surgery. A non-functional kidney or an irreversibly impaired kidney is the commonest sign for a nephrectomy. Chronic infection, obstruction, calculus disease and serious traumatic injury are other typical indications for nephrectomy.

Conclusion: In this case, the patient was on a closed monitor. To accomplish overall the situation during the time of surgery. Over all the patient response was positive for conservative and nursing management and after treatment the patient was discharged without any postoperative complications and satisfaction with full recovery.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Detection of Dental Caries Using Salivary Biomarkers – A Systematic Review

Krishnapriya Umashankar, Pratibha Ramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 125-134
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32598

Background: Saliva is a mixture of organic and inorganic components that comes in constant contact with the hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity. One of the most frequent disorders is dental caries, which is a multifactorial microbial disease of the tooth. Of which saliva plays a significant role in the process of dental caries.

Aim: To systematically identify and evaluate the ability of salivary biomarkers in detection of dental caries.

Methods: A comprehensive search was done using electronic data bases such as PubMed Central, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Google Scholar and direct web search. The title scan was used to find relevant articles, which were then read and appraised for inclusion. This review analyses all research that investigated the use of salivary protein biomarkers to detect dental caries.

Results: Electronic database search identified 16 articles. After evaluating the title, abstract, and full text of these articles, only 4 were selected for the present systematic review. A final of 4 studies were included based on the inclusion criteria to meet the research question. All the studies analyzed the salivary biomarkers in dental caries detection.

Conclusion: Salivary biomarkers are a significant indicator in detection of dental caries and can be used in determining the further treatment planning.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Prevalence of Genotype 3a in Different Regions of Pakistan: A systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Rehan Ahmad Khan Sherwani, Maria Aslam, Kanwal Saleem, Atif Khan Jadoon, Hafiz Muhammad Nawaz

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 376-382
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32628

The present study aims to explore the prevalence of genotype 3a under hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among all the provinces of Pakistan. It is alarming to note that Pakistan stands in the second position for having a large number of cases of HCV every year. Six major genotypes characterize HCV. To study the overall prevalence of HCV and its associated genotype 3a in all the provinces of Pakistan, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed using STATA version 14.2. The published studies conducted in all the regions of Pakistan reported the incidence of HCV genotype 3a were shortlisted. The pooled summary estimates were calculated along with their confidence interval by using the "Metaprop" command. The literature review showed that the prevalence of HCV genotype 3a is most common in all the provinces of Pakistan. It is revealed that the prevalence of HCV genotype 3a was 86.46% in Punjab, which is the highest among all the regions.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Assessing the Clinical Improvement in Patients with COVID-19 using Lopinavir-Ritonavir: A Systematic Review

Rania M. Magadmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 448-459
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32637

Aims: Globally the focus is towards finding an effective treatment for COVID-19 patients in order to suppress the spread of this pandemic disease. An antiviral combination of lopinavir-ritonavir is considered to be effective in treating COVID-19 patients. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the clinical improvements of lopinavir-ritonavir in COVID-19 patients.

Study Design: a systematic review study was conducted and articles published since December 2019 were included. The statistical analysis of quantitative data was performed using Review Manager (RevMan) to generate forest plots.

Results: The study showed that there was no significant difference in COVID-19 patients treated with lopinavir-ritonavir or in combination with anti-viral therapy or other conventional methods. Conclusion: the use of lopinavir-ritonavir resulted in greater adverse consequences among COVID-19 patients. It further recommends conducting meta-analysis studies with a greater number of studies to highlight the clinical improvement associated with the use of Lopinavir-ritonavir.

Open Access Case Study

A Case Report on: CA Bladder

Deepali Ghungrud, Ranjana Sharma, Swapna Morey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 107-111
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32595

Introduction: Urinary bladder cancer is a global health problem. Carcinosarcoma of bladder is a very rare abnormal growth of cells and tissues called as tumors and it consist of malignant epithelial and sarcomatoids components. It mostly occurs at aging. Presentation of disease with hematuria i.e. blood in urine and painful urination i.e. dysuria. Pelvic radiation and cyclophosphamide therapy are the risk factors responsible for carcinoma of bladder.

Clinical Findings: Severe abdominal pain, fever (Temperature- 1000 F), weakness, Anemia (Hemoglobin- 10.6gm %).

Diagnostic Evaluation: Blood test Hemoglobin -10.6 gram %, Total Red blood cell count- 3.4 million/cumm, Hematocrit- 21.45, Total White blood cells count- 12,000 per microliter. In ultrasonography it was found that, a mass present on the right lateral wall of the urinary bladder.

Therapeutic Intervention: Hemoglobin was raised by blood transfusion, Inj. Ceftriaxone 1gm Intravenously BD, Inj. Pantoprazole 40 mg Intravenously BD, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

Outcome: As compared to prior condition patient’s present condition show improvement. Fever was reduced and relieved abdominal pain by treatment and procedure transurethral resection of bladder tumor. With the help of blood transfusion Hemoglobin % increased from 10.6 to 11.5gm%.

Conclusion: My client was admitted to female surgery ward, at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha with an unknown case of Ca bladder. On admission her condition was poor. So on clinical manifestation, specific and routine investigation was done and after proper treatment her condition was found improved than previous. Here we have to emphasize on early diagnosis and proper treatment strategies helps to improve patient’s prognosis. It also helps to prevent morbidity and mortality.

Open Access Case Study

A Clinical Case Report on Mitral Stenosis with Mental Retardation with Anemia with Sepsis

Achita Sawarkar, Deepali kapase, Madhuri Shambharkar, Jaya Khandar, Prerna Sakharwade, Pooja Kasturkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 120-124
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32597

Introduction: Mitral stenosis (MS) may be a variety of valvular heart disease.  Mitral stenosis is characterized by a narrowing of the mitral valve's orifice. Rheumatic fever is the most common cause of mitral stenosis today, yet the stenosis may appear clinically important just once in a lifetime [1].  Intellectual disability, with a prevalence of approximately 1 chronicle, may be a lifelong neurodevelopment disorder that impacts international cognitive talents and function perform or daily living skills [2].

Clinical Findings:  Breathlessness, weakness, high blood pressure, pulmonary thrombus, anemia, disability to talk, face discoloration, not proper communication, weight loss.

Diagnostic Evaluation: Blood investigation Hb -9.1gm,mch-82.3fl,mch-29.6piegon,mchc-36%,  Total RBC count-5.31million/ RDW- 12.7% ,hct 35%, Total WBC count- 13, ,monocytes -4%, Granulocytes- 85%, Lymphocytes -10%, Esonophils-1%,Basophilis -0% , Total platelets conut-11.3, cu. mm. Urea 32mg/dl, creatinine-0.9mg/dl,sodium-131mmol/dl , potassium 5.1 mmol/L. Despite the fact that the patient was not diabetic, the random blood sugar test revealed a level of 160 mg/dL. RBC increase, 2D echo impression thrombus present in heart, Intellectual disabilities present, high blood pressure, urine albumin present,

Therapeutic Intervention: Blood transfusion, and medical treatment.

Conclusion: 48 years old female was admitted to medicine ICU diagnosed with the case of mitral stenosis with mental retardation with anemia with sepsis and she had complained of Breathlessness, weakness, high blood pressure, pulmonary embolism, anemia, disability to talk, face discoloration, not proper communication, weight loss. patient show great improvement after getting the treatment and the treatment was still going on still my last date of care. The patient and her family underwent psychological stress, which was resolved to an extent by being an active listener and providing proper counseling.

Open Access Case Study

Bullous Pemphigoid- A Rare Case report

Mayur B. Wanjari, Deeplata Mendhe, Pratibha Wankhede, Sagar Alwadkar, Hina Rodge

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 151-155
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32601

Introduction: The most severe autoimmune subepidermal blistering condition of the skin and mucous membranes is bullous pemphigoid (BP). In Europe, it is estimated to affect 1 in every 4,000 people. Currently incidence range between 2-22/1,000,000 worldwide. It primarily affects the elderly and is diagnosed using clinical, histologic, and immunologic criteria. Clinically, it appears as diffuse eczematous, pruritic, urticaria-like lesions with the later emergence of tense bullae or blistering lesions filled with clear fluid.

Case Presentation: Here, we report a case of a 50- years old female patient with a complaint of itchy lesions with wounds all over the body present with an 8-month of history. A subepidermal blister with eosinophils and neutrophils infiltration was discovered on histopathological evaluation. Salt-split indirect immunofluorescence revealed linear deposition of IgG at the dermo-epidermal junction. On further investigation, using diagnostic and Interventional aids a final diagnosis of Bullous pemphigoid.

Open Access Case Study

A Case Report on Single Vessel Disease

Monali Walke, Ranjana Sharma, Samruddhi Gujar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 341-345
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32621

Introduction: Coronary artery disease (CAD) involves the decrease flow of blood to  muscle of the heart because of the to build-up of plaque (atherosclerosis) in  arteries of the heart. It is one of the most common cardiovascular disease. Tiny branches off larger coronary arteries are get damaged and not able to dilate proper.  Small vessels need to expand and also providing oxygen-rich blood to heart. Coronary arteries are damaged, blood flow to the heart decreases.

Background: Coronary artery disease affected 110 million people and resulted in 8.9 million deaths. It makes up 15.6% of all deaths, making it the most common cause of death globally.  In the developed country risk of death from CAD decreased between 1980 and 2010.

Case Presentation: A case of 60 year old men admitted in the cardiac unit with complaints about the abdominal pain and Nausea, vomiting, weakness from the 2 days after examining and blood pressure is 110/70 mm of Hg. He had these complaints since 2 days.

Interventions: The patient was treatment started with orally Tab. Ecosprin 150mg, Tab.Ultracet, Tab. Pantop 40 mg, Tab. Augmentin 625 mg. Patient is also undergone PTCA(Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty). Treatment consisted of medication, therapeutic exercise, and health education.

Conclusion: In this study, we mainly focus on medical and surgical management and outstanding nursing care helped prevent further complication. Over all the patient response was good and improvement occur after PTCA.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Pott’s Spine

Arati Raut, Vaishnavi Shiwarkar, Ruchira Ankar, Pranali Wagh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 358-363
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32623

Introduction: Extra spinal infection causes Pott's illness, which is a spine infection. This condition is extremely rare. It is also called as tuberculosis spondylitis. Due to haematogenous spread over sites, it often involves the lungs and multiple vertebrae. It causes a kind of tuberculous arthritis of the invertebral disc space. The vertebral body's front part, near to the plate underneath the chondral i.e. subchondral plate, is the most prevalent location of involvement in the lower thoracic vertebrae. If anyone vertebra gets affected the disc is normal and if both it cannot receives nutrients, and collapses and spinal damage that results in kypotic spine deformity. 45 years old male patient admitted to AVBRH with the chief complaints of weakness of bilateral lower limb since 1 month, back pain, loss of weight, and loss of appetite.

Clinical Findings: Weakness of bilateral lower limb since 1 month, back pain, loss of weight, loss of appetite.

Diagnostic Evaluation: Generally, we examine medical history, symptoms, and physical examination of a patient. The patient has been undergone with the investigation like x-ray, MRI, CT scan, CBC, ESR and mantox test. Patient has elevated haemoglobin level i.e. 8.9%. RBCs – normocytic mildly hypochromic platelets. Patient also has elevated sodium and potassium level.

Conclusion: Patient has undergone surgical management i.e. spinal fixation. Patient showed minor signs of progress and thus he was asked to undergo the medical management and was kept under observation.

Open Access Case Study

Case Report on Schizophrenia

Samuel Vanlalpeka, Jaya Gawai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 364-369
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32624

Introduction: The psychotic state of Schizophrenia is characterized by a disruption in the existence of clear consciousness in the thought, emotion and faculties that typically leads to a social abrogation. In India, research found a prevalence 3/1000 individuals. It is more common in men, and when men begin to develop schizophrenia, they appear to be around five years younger by average than women.

Case Presentation: A male patient 30 years from Hariom Nagar, Sindhi Meghe, Wardha was admitted to Psychiatric Ward, AVBRH on 20th January 2021 with a case of Schizophrenia. Symptoms: Behavioral changes like muttering to self, smiling to self, aggressiveness, irrelevant talk, sleep disturbance, hearing of voices not heard by others. Non adherence to medication in the last 1 years.

Investigation: Hb% - 14.6 mg/dl; Glucose plasma random – 68 mg%; Monocytes- 3%, Granulocytes- 80% Lymphocytes- 15%; HIV, HCV, HBsAg, VDRL, all of these tests were negative. Surgical Management: Patient have no past surgical history.

Medical Management: Patient was treated with Tab. Risperidone Plus x HS and Tab Clonazepam 0.25mg.

Nursing Management: Assess for physical, psychological and social data. Aware for Impact of schizophrenia on physical health, emotions, thinking and natural capacity to cope. Remember that the defense mechanisms used, the nature or structure of the feeling, the suicidal risk, the capacity to work and the space accessible for social support services.

Conclusion: Patient was admitted to AVBRH and was diagnosed to have Schizophrenia. The patient got appropriate treatment and therapy and his condition has improved well.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assess the Patient’s Perspicacity Regarding Triple Vessel Disease and Its Management

Vrushali P. Dighikar, Seema Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 135-139
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32599

Background: The single greatest killer in both females and males globally is cardiovascular disease. Coronary artery disease, commonly known as ischemic heart disease, is described as “impairment of heart function induced by obstructive alterations in the coronary circulation to the heart, caused by inadequate blood flow to the heart relative to its needs.” There are 4.5 million persons in India who suffer from coronary artery disease.

Objective: In this study planned to determine the patient’s perception regarding triple vessel disease and its management and to associate the demographic variable with the patient’s perception regarding triple vessel disease and its management.

Methodology: It is a descriptive research design used in this research study conducted on patients are having triple vessel disease. The purposive sampling technique is used to select samples for analysis. This research study included 45 patients of a selected hospital in Wardha district. Patients must select according to requirements for inclusion and exclusion. For this study, patients who had triple vessel disease would mainly take.

Expected Results: The patients are having good perception or may be having bad perception.

Conclusion: The conclusion will be drawn from the results. The patient’s will be having good or bad  perception regarding triple vessel disease and its management.

Open Access Minireview Article

An Overview on Depression: An Approach to Disorder and Management

Kartik Pandya, Chintan Aundhia, Avinash Seth, Nirmal Shah, Dipti Gohil, Snehal Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 336-340
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32620

Central nervous system (CNS) disorder is the world’s leading cause of disability and account of more hospitalizations. Central nervous system disorders are a group of neurological disorder that affect the structure or function of the brain or spinal cord. Depression (major depressive disorder or clinical depression) is a common but serious mood disorder. It causes severe symptoms that affect how you feel, think, and handle daily activities, such as sleeping, eating, or working. The aim of treatment is release of neurotrophic proteins in the brain that can help to rebuild the hippocampus that has been reduced due to depression and to optimize patients’ physical, psychological and social functioning. This review presents a brief summary on psychological implications of living with depression, pathogenesis, diagnosis, causes, sign and symptoms and treatments associated with depression.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Microbial and Macronutrient Composition of Breast Milk Varies with Lactation Duration

Urmila Deshmukh, Madhavi Dhobale, Anju Dhar, Vinit Warthe, Yagnesh Thakar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32583

Complementary feeding and continuation of breast feeding is directed and advised by the national and international child health agencies. Breast milk, a complex biological fluid, shows changes in its cellular, microbial and nutrient composition as lactation progresses. In a cross-sectional study, hospital-based pilot project showed the composition of microbial and macronutrients and compared their differences before and after first six months of lactation. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant bacterium found in breast milk, and 45% (15/33) of samples within first six months and only 13% (3/22) from those more than six months of lactation showed any bacterial growth (p=0.013). The protein content was less in breast milk samples after six months compared to those within six months of lactation (mean difference, 95% CI: 0.33 (0.10, 0.55) gm/dL, p=0.005). After controlling the lactation period, bacterial culture positivity in breast milk was associated directly with the breast milk protein content. Our pilot study observations indicate the need to study microbial and nutrient changes in breast milk as lactation advances, in a longitudinal study with larger sample size, and investigate its associations with maternal factors, infant growth, establishment of infant gut microbiota and possible role in environmental enteric dysfunction. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Hot Melt Coating: Development and Optimization of Controlled Release Formulation and Process of Oxcarbazepine

Nilam Patel, Rupal Jani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32588

Hot-melt coating process (HMCP) is being developed to formulate lipid based oral controlled release formulation system for anti-epileptic drug Oxcarbazepine. Pellets containing Active ingredient in the core portion were prepared by extrusion spheronization process with use of appropriate filler and binder. These core pellets were then coated using hot-melt coating technology with different levels of solid lipid material and a hydrophilic component. Formulation and Process parameters were optimized to achieve targeted drug release profile and other target product profile with particular focus on HMCP. Quality by design (QbD) with DOE approach was used for designing and development of the formulation, by putting risk assessment (FMEA, Fish-bone diagram), screening (by Plackett Burman), and optimization (by CCC) studies. Appropriate ‘design space’ was proposed based on the optimization studies. The results demonstrated that the level of Low melting coating component and a hydrophilic component influenced the drug release rate from the formulation, and the rate of release could be optimized by varying the amount of these components in the formulation. Processing parameters like Temperature of the coating solution and atomization air, Atomization air pressure and Spray rate also affects the drug release rate and other parameters like coating efficiency and mean particle size. For optimized formulation, dissolution data model fitting was also carried out which adequately fits to Higuchi model suggesting that the drug release occurred predominantly by diffusion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Depression and Its’ Risk Factors among Higher Secondary School Students

Shadia Hamoud Alshahrani, Premalatha Paulsamy, Selvarani Panneerselvam, Zainah Alshahrani, H. Z. Alshahrani Fahad, Krishnaraju Venkatesan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32589

As adolescence is a transitional stage in which a person's physical and psychological development and transformation are limited to the time between puberty and legal adulthood. It is commonly associated with the onset of a variety of mental health or adjustment problems. This study was to find out the incidence of depression and the factors that contribute to it among higher secondary school students. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 adolescents who were selected by simple random sampling technique. The socio-demographic information, Perceived Social Support scale and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were adopted to collect the data. Descriptive and Inferential statistics was used to analyse the collected data. In this study, 52% of the adolescents did not have depression, whereas 18% had moderate, 8% had moderate to severe depression and 2% of them had severe depression. Nearly 68% of students had a higher social support perception. The type of family and living status of parents had significant relationship with the level of depression among adolescents at p = 0.01. The study concludes that depression and mental distress among these adolescents may be alleviated by boosting their perceived degree of social support and self-esteem through a variety of methods such as family support, counselling at schools and workshops on self – management skills etc.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study on Personality Traits Based on High and Low Level of Resilience of High School Female Students

. Sonam, Dr. Malika Sharma, Lalit Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 59-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32590

Aims: The Purpose of the current study was to compare personality traits of high school female students based on their Resilience level..

Place and Duration of Study: Government Girls Senior Secondary School No1 JJColony Bawana, Delhi, India, on 3rd Feb 2020.

Methodology: This is a comparative study with a quantitative research design involving 85 (eighty-five) female students, age ranges between 16-18 years (mean age 17.43 years) studying in class XII (humanities stream), from Sec- A, B and C from Government Girls Senior Secondary School No. 1 JJColony Bawana, Delhi were randomly selected as a sample of research. Every odd roll no student (Roll no. 1,3,5,7…) from Sec- A, B and C from GGSSS No. 1 JJC Bawana, Delhi were randomly selected as a sample of research. The standardized questionnaires of the Big Five Personality Test and Ego Resilience Scale were used as the tool of the study. The data was collected using both the questionnaires and interpreted using an Independent sample t-test at a significance level p<0.05.

Results: All 85 high school female students filled both of the questionnaires and in accordance with the findings of the analysis it was established that the average scores of resilient students in the extroversion (t (83)= 6.28, P=.00), openness to experience (t(83)=8.54, P=.00), agreeableness (t(83)=10.48, P=.00) and conscientiousness (t(83)=11.34, P=.00) were higher than non-resilient students. Just the mean scores of resilient students in neuroticism (t(83)= -6.71, P=.00) were lower than the mean scores of non-resilient students. 

Conclusion: It is evident from the results that students with high Extroversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience personality traits have higher resilience which helps them to recover from any obstacle and support them to approach new circumstances, people, or experiences with a positive mindset and confidence which ultimately will help them succeed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Moderate Intensity Exercise on Lungs Functions (IRV & ERV) in Young Athletes

Noor Muhammad, Alamgir Khan, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Butt, Shahzaman Khan, Sobia Nazir, Ejaz Asghar, Samiullah Khan, Zeliha Selamoglu, Muhammad Jamil, Abdul Manan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 67-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32591

This research study was primarily conducted for the purpose to examine the effect of moderate intensity exercise on lungs functions (IRV & ERV) in young athletes. The participant of the study was randomly selected from the Department of Sports Sciences & Physical Education, Gomal University, KP Pakistan. A written informed consent was taken from all the subjects. A self-made, 08 weeks exercise protocols was applied on the selected subjects. Pretest and posttest data were collected by using spirometer and other helping devices. The collected data were tabulated and were analyzed by using various statistical tools. On the basis of data analysis and findings the researcher concluded there is significant effect of 08 weeks moderate intensity exercise on lungs functions (IRV & ERV).      

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Selected Distraction Techniques to Alter Pain Responses among Children Receiving Immunization

. Lalzampuii, Archana Maurya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-82
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32592

Background: Immunization plays a vital role in global health for children. Children should have taken routine immunization universally for the prevention of diseases. While receiving immunization, most children are experiencing pain and show anxiety and sadness. In this study, the more effective distraction techniques between toys and music was compared which will also be necessary to apply to children in the forthcoming.

Objectives: 1) To assess the alter pain response by toys as a distraction technique among children receiving immunization. 2) To assess the alter pain response by music as a distraction technique among children receiving immunization. 3) To compare the alter pain responses by toys and music as a distraction technique among children receiving immunization. 4) To associate the alter pain responses with selected demographic variables.

Methods and Materials: An interventional research approach was used in this study with experimental research design. 60 samples were selected by Simple Random Sampling Technique. A structured demographic questionnaire and FLACC Pain Scale were used to collect the data. Follow-up period was not required as the response of the pain in both groups were immediately assessed during immunization. Data were analyzed using SPSS Software 22.0 and Chi square was used to find the association between the alter pain responses with demographic variables.

Results: The finding shows that the mean score of music was 4.33 with SD of ±1.32 when compared to toys 3.70 with SD of ±1.36. The measured ‘t’ value i.e. 2.07 was less than the tabulated value at 5% level of significance. Therefore, toys were more effective when compared to music as a distraction technique (P<0.05) to alter pain responses among children receiving immunization. There were no association between the alter pain responses with demographic variables.

Conclusion: As toys were found to be more effective to alter pain responses than music, a related study can be conducted to compare the alter pain responses between male and female children during immunization. This study recommends that a similar study can be replicated to compare and analyze the distraction techniques between male and female to alter pain responses among children. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of Adults Regarding Tuberculosis in Selected Rural Community

Rose Mary George, Mamta Chauhan, Akansha Chauhan, . Pragya, . Vandana, . Junaid, . Nitesh, . Yogita, . Lalit

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 83-88
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32593

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) has existed for millennia and remains a major global health problem. According to WHO, (2015) TB causes ill-health in millions of people each year and in 2015 TB was one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide, ranking above HIV/AIDS. Globally there were 10.4 million new TB cases and 1.4 million TB deaths in 2015.A timely diagnosis and correct treatment can cure TB patients.

Objectives: Of the study were to assess the knowledge of adults regarding tuberculosis, to develop and administer an information booklet regarding tuberculosis to adults, to associate the knowledge of adults regarding tuberculosis with selected socio-demographic variables.

Materials and Methods: The research approach adopted for this study was quantitative and non-experimental descriptive research design was used to collect data to assess the knowledge of adults regarding Tuberculosis. Analysis of the study consisted of section 1: Analysis of socio demographic variables, section 2: Analysis of knowledge scores of adults, section 3: Association of knowledge of adults regarding tuberculosis with selected socio demographic variable.

Results: The study revealed that 77% of the adults had poor level of knowledge while 23% of the adults had only average knowledge regarding tuberculosis.  45% of adults were in the age group of 51-60 years and 20% were in 30-40 years age group. Among the participants, 55% were males and 45% were females, 42% adults were living in nuclear family and 28% belonged to extended family, 42% of adults were having primary education whereas only 7% were graduated and above.

Conclusion: The knowledge regarding Tuberculosis was found to be poor among adults living in rural communities. Association was found between the religion of the adults and their knowledge scores. There was no significant association found between other demographic variables of the adults with their knowledge scores regarding tuberculosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Current Evaluation of the Tubiflora acaulis Kuntze (Acanthaceae): Pharmacognostical, Preliminary Phytochemical Investigation and Antioxidant Activity

Pravin V. Gomase, Sunil Pawar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 89-106
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32594

Aim: The present work was aimed at evolving with Pharmacognostical, Preliminary Phytochemical investigation and Antioxidant activity of plant Tubiflora acaulis Kuntze (Synonym Elytraria acaulis) belong to family Acanthaceae.

Study Design: The permission was taken from Maharashtra State Biodiversity Board, Nagpur for plant collection, collected and authenticated and evaluated Pharmacognostical character including morphological and microscopical as well as Physical Evaluation, phytochemical process and antioxidant activity.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at PSGVPMs College of Pharmacy, Shahada, Dist- Nandurbar (MS) Affiliated to KBCNMU, Jalgaon University, Jalgaon (MS), during 2019-21.

Methodology: The plant material firstly taken permission from Maharashtra State Biodiversity Board, Nagpur for plant collection, collected and authenticated and evaluated Pharmacognostical character including morphological and microscopical as well as Physical Evaluation, extraction by successive solvent method, phytochemical process and antioxidant activity of Tubiflora acaulis Kuntze (Acanthaceae).

Results: The macroscopical and microscopical studies revealed useful diagnostic features. Qualitative phytochemical analyses revels that Tubiflora acaulis Kuntze leaf separately for different extract like pet. Ether, chloroform and methanol and contained the secondary metabolites. The quantitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of secondary metabolite. The extract of Tubiflora acaulis showed the antioxidant activity by DPPH, Nitric oxide and reducing power assay.

Conclusion: The findings of the current research indicated that the ethanol leaf extract of Tubiflora acaulis Kuntze (Acanthaceae) had presence of secondary metabolites and potent antioxidant properties against standard drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Eosin-based Fluorescence Microscopy of Non-neoplastic Breast Tissue and Fibroadenoma

Hafsa Shafqat, Bushra Wasim, Rehan Ahmed Siddiqui, Syed Nudrat Nawaid Shah, Faraz Baig, Nabila Rasheed, Gulraiz Karim Rind Baloch

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 112-119
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32596

Background: Fibroadenoma (FA) is one of the most frequently diagnosed benign neoplasm in women. Various researches have reported increased risk of breast cancer in females with FA. It stems from the proliferation of epithelial and stromal contents of the terminal duct lobular units (TDLU`S) of breast tissue, that are the primary sites for the histopathologic assessment which is the gold standard for the diagnosis of disease. However, this method is subjective and possess interobserver variability. Therefore, new quantitative methods are required to aid in diagnosis. Hence we evaluated fluorescence light intensity and its use in histopatholgic evaluation.

Aim: The goal of this research was to compare and quantify red and green fluorescence light intensities of ductal cells and stroma of non-neoplastic breast tissue with fibroadenomatous tissue.

Method: A cross-sectional study was done in the Cell biology and histology lab of Ziauddin University. 44 slides of normal breast tissue and 44 slides of diagnosed fibroadenomatous tissue were taken from Dr Ziauddin Hospital, North Campus. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of the slides were done following standard protocols. On microscopic examination, the changes in light intensities of ductal cells and stroma of normal breast tissue and fibroadenoma were quantified using dual channel fluorescence microscopy using Nikon NIS imaging software.

Results: The results demonstrated statistically significant increase (p-value <0.05) in mean red (37.22±5.9) and green (22.47±6.6)  light intensity of stroma in FA when compared with red (32.71± 6.7) and green (17.01±4.3) light intensity of normal breast tissue. Whereas, R/G ratio for normal tissue was higher (1.95±0.11) than R/G for FA (1.74±0.37) with a p value of <0.05. Similarly, for ductal cells; statistically significant (p value <0.05) increase in mean red (38.86±5.4) and green (15.54±2.51) light intensity for FA was found when compared with red (29.62±1.89) and green (12.60±1.67) intensity of normal tissue. R/G ratio for FA (2.5±0.24) was compared to be higher than normal tissue (2.36±0.3) with a p value of <0.05.

Conclusion: The study suggests that fluorescence microscopy combined with quantitative assessment fluorescence light intensities may may be a helpful tool for histomorphic evaluation of the breast tissue.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mouth Dissolving Film of Domperidone: An approach towards Formulation and its Evaluation

Khanderao Jadhav, Shivraj Jadhav, Deepak Sonawane, Deepak Somvanshi, Hina Shah, Hitesh Khairnar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 140-150
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32600

The objective of the current work is to formulate and evaluate the mouth dissolving film of domperidone. It is ideally suitable for the treatment of emesis. The mouth dissolving film of domperidone is useful in the vomiting through the journey. Mouth dissolving films were formulated by the solvent casting technique and its in-vitro as well as the in-vivo evaluation was done by the usual pharmacopoeial and unofficial tests and by using human volunteers. The main benefit of the preparation technique includes fewer operation units, better content consistency. The mouth dissolving film formed was found to be disintegrated in 1 minute. The ratio of components in the aqueous phase affected the thickness, drug content, tensile strength, percentage elongation, folding endurance, and release profile of mouth dissolving film and the best results were obtained for the HPMC E15 and polyethyleneglycol. The compatibility between domperidone and excipients was confirmed by FTIR and DSC studies. The developed mouth dissolving film of domperidone demonstrated usefulness for fast release of drug in mouth, for better drug utilization, and improved patient compliance. The optimized formulation, due to low HPMC E15 content, has optimum tensile strength and thickness. Formulation F8 containing HPMC E15 and PG showed a cumulative % drug release of 95.10 at the end of 12 minutes. HPMC E15 films showed higher cumulative % drug release than films of other HPMC E grades at different concentrations. It was found to be stable during the accelerated stability study. The effect of different concentrations of polymers and plasticizers on in-vitro evaluation parameters was evaluated. Hence, data showed that formulation F8 was the most suitable for the development of fast dissolving oral films of domperidone.

Open Access Original Research Article

GC-MS Analysis and Wound Healing Efficiency of Ethanolic Leaves Extract of Cassia occidentalis and Pithecellobium dulce in Wistar Albino Rats: Comparative Study

B. Rajarajeswari, B. Praveen Kumar, Amrutha V. Audipudi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 156-168
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32602

Aim: To identify and compare the bioactive compounds in the ethanolic leaves extracts of Cassia occidentalis and Pithecellobium dulce and to evaluate the wound healing efficiency in Wistar Albino rats.

Study Design: The leaves ethanolic extracts was analysed by GC-MS and the extract was prepared in the form of a cream by ethanolic leaves extracts of C. occidentalis and P. dulce at 5% (w/v), 10% (w/v), and also in combination, a simple ointment base was developed with a composition of (1:1) Topical application of 5% (w/v) and 10% (w/v) was utilised in excision wound models. For excision wound models, the treatment duration was ten days. The day on which the wound was inflicted was designated as day '0'. Wound healing Activity: Excision wound Model: The animals were randomly separated into eight groups of six rats each: Group I: Control.; Group II: Standard group, treated with Framycetin sulfate cream (Soframycin, Aventis);. Group III: Treated with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis (ELCO) (5% w/v); Group IV: Treated with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis (ELCO) (10% w/v);Group V: Treated with ethanolic extract of P. dulce (ELPD)(5% w/v); Group VI: Treated with ethanolic extract of P. dulce (ELPD) (10 % w/v);Group VII: Treated with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis and P. dulce (ELCO & ELPD 1:1) (5% w/v); Group VIII: Treated with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis and P. dulce (ELCO & ELPD 1:1) (10 % w/v) till complete epithelization. Next dead space wound model and histology was studied.

Place and Duration of Study: The GC-MS was carried out at Lab in Chennai. The extraction procedures were done at Department of Microbiology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur and treatment of wound healing activities were conducted at Ratnam Institute of Pharmacy in Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India, and housed in the Department of Pharmacology between October to January 2016.

Methodology: To study bioactive compounds, GC-MS was adopted, for wound healing activity: Excision wound Model, Dead space wound model and histology procedures was applied.

Results:  In the current study, ethanol leaves extract (EL) of Cassia occidentalis and Pithecellobium dulce were compared using GC-MS and their wound healing efficacy in wistar rats was examined. The GC-MS analysis of EL from both plants revealed 14-16 distinct bioactive phytochemical components with varying molecular weights and retention duration (RT). Excision and dead space wound models were utilised to assess the wound healing activities of EL extracts on rats. Wound concentration, full epithelialzation time, granulation, tissue weight, and hydroxyproline content were used to measure healing. In the excision wound model, the standard group (Framycetin sulphate cream) and group-VII (10% w/v; 1:1) combination EL treatment exhibited 98.5 ± 0.54 % and 98.4 ± 0.46 % wound healing activity, respectively. When compared to the control, the granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline content in the dead space wound rose considerably. Histological examination revealed fewer inflammatory cells and more collagen, indicating a role in accelerating wound healing activity.

Conclusion: The results of our investigation indicate unequivocally that ethanolic leaf extracts of these plant species are effective at encouraging wound healing. The 10% (ELCO+ELPD) tropical treatment drastically reduced the wound as compared to standard and also increased granulation and hydroxyproline content. However, it requires more clinical examination before being considered for wound therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stability Demonstrating Validated High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Trilaciclib in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulation

Syed. Rafi, Kantipudi Rambabu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 173-181
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32604

Aims: New validated method for the estimation of  Trilaciclib using HPLC and study of its degradation

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, RVR & JC College of Engineering, Chowdavaram, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, between February 2021 and August 2021.

Methodology: Using an inertsil ODS column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 3.5 µ), acetonitrile, and 0.1 percent ortho phosphoric acid (OPA) (50:50 v/v) as a mobile phase, the proposed method successfully achieved effective chromatographic separation with a flow rate of 1 mL/min and a wave length of 220 nm. Trilaciclib had a retention time of 4.358 minutes. The isocratic chromatography was performed at room temperature and took approximately six minutes to complete.

Results: Analysis was achieved within 6 min over an honest linearity within the concentration range from 3-45 µg/ml of Trilaciclib. Using a mathematical process, the suitability parameters of the system were investigated, and the results were found to be in acceptable limits. In a linear analysis, stages with regression coefficients of 0.999 were used. LOD and LOQ values were 0.038 μg/ml and 0.124 g/ml for trilaciclib. The drug was recovered at a rate of 98-102 percent, which means that the recovery is within reasonable limits.

Conclusion: The validation results were satisfactory, and the approach was found to be suitable for bulk and formulation analysis. The recommended procedure was found to be warranted according to ICH guidelines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation on the Expression of Pi3 Kinase - AKT- mTOR Signalling Molecules in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - A Real Time PCR Based Approach

Krishnapriya Umashankar, J. Selvaraj, Pratibha Ramani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 182-188
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32605

Background: Oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC) develops as a result of the accumulation of many genetic mutations that are influenced by genetic predisposition. Upon acquisition of genetic predisposition, the precancerous cells will transform into malignant cells culminating into carcinomas. Advances in genetic research over the past few decades have rendered early detection possible.

Aim: To compare the gene expression of Pi3 Kinase, AKT and mTOR in OSCC and to correlate the expression levels of these molecules with the survival in OSCC patients. Also to understand the role of Pi3 Kinase pathway in OSCC progression thereby attempting targeted therapy in OSCC patients.

Materials and Methods: 10 OSCC samples as well as normal healthy samples were collected and RNA isolation was done using RNA easy kit from Qiagen (Valencia, CA), and then subjected to cDNA synthesis using Human TGF-β1, Human GSK-3β and Human Pi3 kinase primers. Real time PCR was performed using gene specific primers at 40 cycles. The results were retrieved, tabulated and analyzed.

Results: The current research results revealed that there were up regulation of mRNA expression in The PI3K/AKT/mTOR in OSCC patients than in healthy individuals. On comparison, mTOR showed highest mRNA expression levels than AKT and PI3K.

Conclusion: Overexpression of Pi3 kinase, AKT, mTOR plays a crucial role in progression of oral cancer and targeting Pi3 kinase/mTOR pathways could be a novel and targeted approach for OSCC.

Open Access Original Research Article

RP-HPLC Method for Quantification of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Alafenamide Fumarate Drug Substance and Tablet Dosage Form

P. Sunand Sarat, D. Ramachandran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 189-196
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32606

Aim: The primary objective of the research work is to develop a effective, sensitive, economical and simple reverse phase HPLC method to estimate Emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate in its pure and binary mixture of tablets.

Study Design: HPLC based Quantification Studies.

Place and Duration of Study: 1Department of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University,Guntur, Andhra Pradesh between April 2019 and August 2020.

Methodology: Separation of the analytes were done by  using Eclipse XDB-Phenyl (250 x 4.6mm, 5µ,100 A0) column and a mobile phase ratio of 30:10:70 percentage of 0.1% trifluoro acetic acid: acetonitile: methanol  at a  flow rate of 1 ml/min. The injected standard and sample solutions were detected 260nm wavelength.

Results: The retention time of Emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate were found at 2.3min and 2.8 min respectively. The method has good linearity range about 50 to 150µg/ml of Emtricitabine  and 6.5 to 19.5 µg/ml of  tenofovir alafenamide fumarate. The method has validated as per ICH guidelines and all the validation parameterwere satisfy the ICH Q2 specification acceptance limits

Conclusion: The developed method said to be highly sensitive, accurate, specific and robust, therefore this method has high probability to adopt in pharmaceutical industry for regular analysis of   Emtricitabine  and tenofovir alafenamide.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Pickering Nanoemulsion by Eudragit Rl-100 Nanoparticle as Oral Drug Delivery for Poorly Soluble

Ashish Y. Pawar, Khanderao R. Jadhav, Sagar S. Patil, Pallavi R. Jadhav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 197-208
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32607

Objective: The purpose of this research study was to develop Ketoprofen-loaded Pickering nanoemulsion with the help of polymeric nanoparticles [NPs]. The pickering nanoemulsion  formulation is developed using Eudragit RL 100, which has the greater ability to stabilize the formulation as well as it better controls the  release of drug upon oral administration.

Method: In the present study, Ketoprofen - loaded Pickering nanoemulsion were prepared using an ultrasonic emulsification process. For the preparation of the Nanoemulsion, an aqueous phase of the nanodispersion of nanoparticle is used while Captex -300 and drug premix is used as oil phase. The nanoemulsion is formulated by using a probe sonicator with different ratios of aqueous phase and oil phase. The preformulation study of polymer or drug is done by FTIR and DSC and the drug - polymer compatibility was confirmed by FTIR. The prepared formulation was evaluated for physical appearance, pH, Viscosity, In vitro drug release, Particle size, Zeta Potential, Polydispersivity index, and transmission electron microscopy and stability. The Formulation is optimized for the different concentrations of the aqueous phase and oil phase with concentrations of drug and polymer.

Results: All the prepared formulations show particle size in between 100-500nm hence it indicats formation of nanoemulsion. The zeta potential is -46mv which indicates good stability of formulation. The In vitro drug release shows maximum drug release i.e. 96.93% in 10 hrs which shows that the release of drug is prolonged due to formation of Polymer NPs.

Conclusion: Thus the drug release was significantly controlled and slowed down when nanoemulsion is formulated by using NPs in comparison with control. These results fulfilled the objective of the study. This study opens new prospects on the formulation of Pickering nanoemulsion. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Prescribing Errors in Different Wards of Tertiary Care Hospital before and after Implementation of CPOE System

Imran Qureshi, Mirza Tasawer Baig, Uzma Shahid, Ambreen Huma, Aisha Jabeen, Muneeza Lodhi, Aslam Shah, Hirra Soomro, Muhammad Asad Mehdi, Asma Sajid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 213-218
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32609

Background: Medication prescribing errors were always known as inevitable errors in health care system which mainly includes physician’s writing error which then leads to wrong dispensing error. Manual Prescribing has now shifted to CPOE System that seems to be more efficient. Through this system, it is believed that quality and patient security is improved by lessening medicine and different mistakes at various phases of the request the board procedure and by maintaining a strategic reserve from repetitive testing. This Study was conducted to compare the prescribing errors in different hospital wards of a tertiary care hospital for in-patients by using two approaches; Manual Prescribing and CPOE System Prescribing.

Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on manual prescriptions for three months and on CPOE prescriptions for three months. In this way a total of 4102 prescriptions were evaluated for different types of prescribing errors occurred in different wards. Whole study was conducted on In-patients from all the wards in the hospital except Emergency and OPD patients.

Results and Discussion: The results showed that the maximum number of manual prescription errors were found in Medical ICU ward, while prescribing errors for CPOE setup were found comparatively at higher rate in Medicinal ward. It was also found that maximum frequency of prescribing errors were found in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in both the settings; CPOE System and Manual Prescribing

Conclusion: It was concluded that CPOE system is helpful for reducing prescribing errors but it must be supervised by pharmacists to overcome potential errors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Features, Diagnosis and Treatment Strategies of Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy: An Observational Study from South India

S. Nigama Chandra, A. Anka Rao, G. S. N. Koteswara Rao, K. Umasankar, A. Rajasekhar Reddy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 219-227
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32610

Objective: The present observational study describes the natural course of clinical features, family history, and diagnosis pattern and treatment strategies in rare genetic disorder, Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD).

Research Design: Observational study

Methods: Clinically/Immunohistochemically/genetically confirmed LGMD patients diagnosed between February 2019 and March 2021 were ambispectively included. The primary outcomes, secondary outcomes such as clinical presentations, behavioral problems, diagnosis pattern and treatment strategies were studied. A correlation of primary outcomes and steroid, non-steroid regimens were achieved. The demographic data was expressed using descriptive statistics mean ± standard deviation [SD].  The significance level was fixed at α = 0.05

Results: 300 LGMD patients were included, out of which 272 patients participated in the study. The mean onset age of symptoms was 8-21 years (13.7 ± 1.9). The mean age of wheelchair bound was found to be between 18 years to 37 years (25.23±1.4) in 123 patients. Bedbound status was attained in 22 patients with a mean age between 18 to 49 years (27.5±2). 7 patients reported death during the study phase with a mean age of 39.2±2.4 (38-45). Comparatively, both steroid and non-steroid regimens using patients exhibited loss of ambulation at 38 years of age. The disease confirmation reported was primarily by clinical examinations (89%) and genetic testing was of minimal number (22%).

Conclusion: The outcome measures in the large cohort is similar to that of the Western population despite variability in medical prudence. The contemporary observational study adds to the real-world evidence in approaching better research strategies to treat the LGMD community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Effect of Tenoxicam Compared to Diclofenac Sodium in Controlling Postoperative Pain in Third Molar Surgery

Ramvihari Thota, Senthilnathan Periasamy, N. Mahathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 237-243
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32612

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of tenoxicam compared to diclofenac sodium in controlling postoperative pain after third molar surgery.

Materials and Methods: 36 patients with mean age 30 were selected randomly and placed them in two groups A and B, under group A there are 18 patients and in group B 18 patients were placed, group a is given with tenoxicam 30 mg and for  group b diclofenac sodium 50 mg.

Results: Group A experienced significantly less pain than those patients in group b. at 24 hr on the day of surgery, average pain scores of patients in both treatment groups did not differ significantly. On the evening of the third day postoperatively, the group a (tenoxicam) patients experienced significantly less pain than those in group b (diclofenac sodium).

Discussion: It is generally accepted that pain following third molar surgery reaches moderate to severe intensity within the first 5 hr after surgery. Pain control in this period is thus of vital importance to the oral surgeon. NSAIDs have shown considerable analgesic activity for the relief of pain after surgery. Prostaglandin concentrations do not peak until 4 hr after surgical trauma. tenoxicam has been shown in our study to produce significant analgesia when compared to diclofenac sodium, especially at 3 to 4 hr postoperatively, the period when there is maximum prostaglandin formation in the tissue.

Conclusion: Tenoxicam as administered in the present study was significantly more efficacious than diclofenac sodium and useful for pain control in these cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial and Hepatoprotective Effect of Chitosan Nanoparticles : In-vitro and In-vivo Study

Hanaa A. El-Shafei, Gihan F. Asaad, Yomna A. M. Elkhateeb, Walaa A. El-Dakroury, Hoda A. Hamed, Azza Hassan, Yousra A. Nomier

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 244-264
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32613

Nanotechnology has become an extensive area of study due to the peculiar properties of nanoparticles. Chitosan is considered the most promising material for future applications. The purpose of this study was to highlight the antimicrobial and hepatoprotective properties of Chitosan nanoparticles (CTS), as well as their efficacy against multidrug-resistant pathogens and various applications as a natural antioxidant in the biomedical field. CTS were prepared with or without surfactant (L-α-lecithin, Tween 80) based on inotropic gelation of chitosan with sodium alginate. The nanoparticle obtained displayed a spherical shape with a particle size ranging from 54.3±20.8 to 1256±16.8 nm, zeta potential ranging from 24±1.2 to 30.8±1.1 mV, and polydispersity index ranging from 0.274±0.09 to 0.553±0.06. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) calculations were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of CTS against four human pathogens: Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Staphylococcus aureus NRRLB-767, Escherichia coli ATCC25955, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC101455. The MIC values were 156.3, 39.4, 78.1, and 78.1 ug/mL, while the MBC values were 500,156.3, 312.5, and 312.5 ug/mL, respectively. S.aureus was the most susceptible, while B. subtilis was the most resistant. The hepatoprotective effect was determined by measuring antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and inflammatory biomarkers, histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Hepatoprotective results showed a remarkable ameliorative effect against hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Determination in Lipstick Products Using Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP)

Asma A. Al-Mouraee, Faten M. Ali Zainy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 265-277
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32614

Cosmetics production and use are growing worldwide, yet users are concerned about toxicity and heavy metal pollution. Following nitric acid digestion, the estimated levels of lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), titanium (Ti), iron (Fe), and cobalt (Co), in 6 brands of lipstick (12 samples) obtained in the Saudi market have been computed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Correlation coefficients (R2) varied from 0.9992 to 0.9999 on the calibration curve, indicating good linearity. Except for low-cost specimens, the findings indicate that the concentrations of the metals under investigation are often lower than the acceptable limits of both the Saudi Standards, Metrology, and Quality Organization (SASO) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (which revealed the maximum lead levels of 125.30 ppm, exceeding the allowed limit of 10 ppm). Arsenic was discovered in significant concentrations, exceeding the SASO permitted limit. Nickel was found at the FDAs allowable limit; chromium and cobalt were found in variable quantities in the majority of the specimens. Dark-colored lipstick had a greater overall content of heavy metals than light-colored lipstick. Numerous tests on SASO-approved lipsticks were conducted as part of the research. The lower-cost specimens were of lesser quality, failing some SASO tests. All such findings suggest that users should be cautious when buying low lipsticks since heavy metals may build up in the body over time, causing skin problems or diseases like cancer.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Evaluation of Polyherbal Based Novel Antiaging Synergistic Formulation

Deepak B. Somavanshi, Priyadarshani R. Kamble, Khanderao R. Jadhav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 278-291
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32615

Aim: The present work was aimed to develop and evaluate polyherbal-based novel antiaging formulation.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of pharmacy, B N University Udaipur, Department of Pharmacognosy, Divine College of pharmacy Satana between Feb 2019 to Apr 2021.

Methods: The selected plant extract Moringa oleifera hydroalcoholic extract (2%), Juglans regia aqueous extract (1%), Vitis vinifera ethanolic extract (1.5%), Camellia sinensis cold water extract (1.8%), Punica granatum aqueous extract (2%) were optimized in o/w type herbal cream by incorporation of different concentration of stearic acid and Tween 60. The total 9 formulations were evaluated on the basis of preliminary, phytochemical screening, and accelerated stability study and confirm the C7 polyherbal formulation (PHF) were more stable, safe, and showed pseudo plastic flow.

Results: The In-vitro free radical scavenging assay (DPPH Assay - IC50 56 ± 0.04 µg/ml and H2O2 scavenging assay - IC50 = 67±0.68 µg/ml) compared with standard Ascorbic acid and In-vitro anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activity validate PHF as antioxidant and antiaging activity. The in vitro Anti-collagenase activity showed 89.5% inhibition at 100 μg/mL concentration of C7 formulation (IC50 = 54.62 μg/mL) and the standard Gallic acid showed 74.6% inhibition at 100 μg/mL (IC50 = 67.83 μg/mL). The in vitro Anti-elastase activity showed 67.5% inhibition at 250 μg/mL of C7 formulation (IC50 = 193.65 μg/mL) and copper sulphate solution used as standard showed 70.6% inhibition (IC50 = 772.42 μg/mL). The percent inhibition activity was observed that the C7 formulation is potential antiaging activity as compared to positive control.

Conclusion: These studies conclude that the composition of PHF with a cream base increases the production of collagen and elastin which is responsible for the noteworthy synergistic antiaging activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Miconazole Nitrate Loaded Novel Nanoparticle Gel for Topical Delivery

Khanderao Jadhav, Shivraj Jadhav, Deepak Sonawane, Deepak Somvanshi, Hina Shah, Pratik Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 292-307
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32616

The aim of the present research work is to design miconazole-loaded chitosan nanoparticles that could potentially assemble in wrinkle and hair follicles to provide prolong release to the skin tissue. The amount of drugs required for the preparation of nanoparticles was determined by studying the entrapment efficiency of preliminary batches. The emulsification/Solvent evaporation method was used for the preparation of nanoparticles. Different proportions of Miconazole Nitrate and Chitosan were dissolved in DCM. The size of the globules in the emulsion was reduced by a high energy shearing using a probe Sonicator at 50 % amplitude for 10 Minutes, followed by the addition of 10 ml 2% PVA. After overnight evaporation of DCM, for isolation of dried NPs, the NPs dispersion was centrifuged at 15,000 RCF for 30 minutes. The obtained particles were dispersed in de-ionized water and freeze-dried. 32 full factorial design was selected for optimization purposes. Prepared batches were evaluated for various parameters such as entrapment efficiency, production yield, particle size, zeta potential, and SEM. F5 batch was found to be optimized which was then used for the preparation of gel. Three levels of Carbopol934 and propylene glycol were used for the optimization of gel. The prepared gel was also evaluated for pH, drug content, viscosity, and spreadability. From the study, it was concluded that nanoparticle gel can be used for the treatment of various skin infections over the conventional gel.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Formal Analysis of Anthropometric Parameters for Effective Forecasting of Dyslipidemia in Healthy Young Adults

Srinidhi Rai, Tirthal Rai, . Sindhu, B. Shamantha Rai, P. Rithesh Pakkala, Nikhil Mathur, Niveditha Sujith, Gayathri Orru

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 308-319
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32617

Background: Obesity in the younger age groups predisposes an individual for a high risk for developing dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Distribution of the abdominal adipose tissue cannot be accurately described by the traditional anthropometric indices.Newer anthropometric indices are better predictors of obesity.

Objective: To compare the ability of different anthropometric indices in predicting dyslipidemia in healthy young adults.

Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was performed on 100 subjects (48 males and 52 females) at K S Hegde Medical Academy from 2017 to 2018 (power of study: 80%).  Apparently healthy individuals attending the executive health checkup plan and individuals from hospital staff aged 18-35 years were selected for the study. The Kolmogorov Smirnov test was used to determine the data's normality. Pearson's correlation test was used to measure the relationship between lipid parameters and various anthropometric indices. The predictive capacity of various anthropometric indices for distinguishing between dyslipidemic and healthy individuals was investigated using ROC curve analysis.

Results: Newer anthropometric measurement approaches such as ABSI, BRI, CI, AVI, VAI, and LAP have been suggested as better instruments for predicting dyslipidemia. The present study found that VAI had the highest predictive efficiency in identifying dyslipidemia among apparently healthy adults using ROC analysis.  This discovery may lead to the use of a simple anthropometric index as a screening tool for cardiovascular disease prediction.

Conclusion: The current study has shown that the VAI has emerged as a valuable instrument for dyslipidemia assessment in healthy young adults. Using regular laboratory tests and basic anthropometric measurements, VAI can be easily measured and can therefore be used as relevant dyslipidemia evaluation methods in clinical practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome of Patients on Treatment with Haloperidol and Risperidone or Olanzapine

Velumani Suresh, J. D. Lakhani, Rakesh Shah, Lakhan Kataria, Ramachandran Balaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 320-327
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32618

Background: The background of the work stems from the observation due to the prevalence of antipsychotic drugs in causing metabolic disorder. The metabolic disorder is one of the major concern of antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenic patients. The present study is mainly aimed to establish the role of haloperidol and risperidone or olanzapine in causing metabolic syndrome of schizophrenic patients.

Methods: Sixty-four schizophrenic patients were divided into two groups. First and second group received haloperidol and risperidone or olanzapine respectively for three months. Body mass index, random blood sugar and lipid profile were investigated before and after the treatment.

Results: Both groups of schizophrenic patients have shown a significant increase in the BMI, random blood sugar and lipid profile indicating a propensity to cause metabolic disorder.

Conclusion: From the present study it is concluded that there is a high prevalence of metabolic disorder those who received antipsychotic drugs like haloperidol and risperidone or olanzapine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Characterization and Phytochemical Evaluation of Active Compound Coumarin from Oldenlandia corymbosa (Linn)

Sonja Jose, B. Jaykar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 328-335
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32619

Medicinal plants have served through ages, as a constant source of medicaments for the exposure of a variety of diseases. Plants are known to provide cures for various human illnesses and are a rich source of phyto constituents having diversified pharmacological properties. Oldenlandia corymbosa (L.) (syn. Hedyotis corymbosa Lam., Thai name Ya-Lin-Ngu), a member of the family Rubiaceae, is widely distributed in tropical regions of Asia. The decoction of whole plants is used in traditional medicine for antipyretic purposes to decrease body temperature. Pharmacologically, the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties of plant extracts have been reported. This plant is well known to contain mainly iridoid glucosides. The whole plant contains reducing sugars, amino acids, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides and alkaloids. The present aim of the study is to extraction and isolation of bioactive compound from Oldenlandia corymbosa (L.). The isolation and characterization analysis included, Thin Layer Chromatography, High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography, GC-MS and Spectroscopy studies (IR, NMR, and MASS). The presences of coumarin in the methanolic fraction revealed that the isolated constituent is most active compound. Isolation of bioactive compound coumarin may help in identification of various pharmacological activities and carrying out further research in Oldenlandia corymbosa  (L.).

Open Access Original Research Article

RP-HPLC and HPTLC Identification and Quantification of Flavonoids in the Leaves Extract of Bauhinia acuminata Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae)

Sudipta Chakraborty, N. N. Bala, Sudipta Das

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 346-357
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32622

Aims: The present investigation is aimed at the identification and quantification of flavonoids in the methanol extract of leaves of Bauhinia acuminata Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) by a validated HPTLC method and confirmation of the same by RP-HPLC.

Methodology: CAMAG HPTLC system with VisionCATS software and HPLC Agilent Infinity 1260 were employed for the study. Pre-coated silica gel 60 F254 plates were used as stationary phase and Toluene : Ethyl acetate : Formic acid (5:4:0.2, v/v/v) was used as mobile phase in HPTLC while in HPLC Thermo hypersil BDS C18 column and Methanol and 0.4% Phosphoric acid (65 : 35) were used as stationary and mobile phase respectively.

Results: Among different standards used in HPTLC, only quercetin was found to be present and further quantitatively analyzed. The method shows good correlation coefficient (R2 ≥ 0.99) and linearity in the range of 0.5 to 5.0 µg/band.  The concentration of quercetin in the test extract was found to be 0.514 µg/mg of the extract. The LOD and LOQ values were 0.84 µg/band and 2.59 µg/band respectively. The RP-HPLC study also represented good %  RSD of Retention time (0.025) and Area (0.09) which signifies the high precision and repeatability. The assay result (4.99 %) also indicated good presence of the quercetin in the extract.

Conclusion: The methods were rapid, cost effective and may be employed for quality-control and standardization of quercetin in different plant extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Occurence of Genotypes of Hepatitis C Virus in Hepatitis C Patients at Civil Hospital Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan

Sajid Ali, Ikram Ahmed Tunio, Rukia Farzana, Muhammad Siddique Rajput, Qararo Shah, Saima Samtio, Saleem Ahmed Joyo, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 370-375
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32627

Objective: To evaluate frequency of Hepatitis C virus Genotypes in Hepatitis C patients reported at Civil Hospital Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan.

Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted on 223 hepatitis C patients who fulfilled the criteria at hepatitis OPD of Civil Hospital Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan. After taken Patient consent, blood sample were collected for HCV genotyping, which were performed by a qualified pathologist. The collected data statistically analyzed by using SPSS version 22 software.

Result: Out of 223 patients, male patients were 167 and females patients were 56, rural patients were 130 where as 93 patients were from urban area, 30 patients were of age from 20-25 years, 41 were of age from 26-30 years, 60 were of 31-35 years, 54 were of 36-40 years, 16 were of 41-45 years, 13 were of 46-50 years, 7 were of 51-55 years, 2 were of 56-60 years, out of total n=11 patients have genotype1, n=4 have genotype2, n=204 have genotype3, n=3 have genotype4, n=1 have genotype5, whereas no any patient have genotype 6.    

Conclusion: This study concluded that genotype 3 is most dominant among other genotypes in reported patients of hepatitis c virus infection at civil hospital Khairpur.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation on Safety and Efficacy of Selective Anti-Hypertensive Drugs in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease at a Tertiary Care Hospital, India-an Observational Study

R. E. Ugandar, Umadevi Iluru, Mariamma Bethe, C. Bhargava Reddy, Kiran C. Nilugal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 383-391
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32629

Background: Hypertension means persistent elevation of Blood Pressure in arteries. It is the second leading cause of death. The symptoms include Severe Headache, Drowsiness, Vision problem, Nose bleed, fatigue, Confusion. It may lead to various types of Cardiovascular disorders such as Myocardial Infarction, Coronary Artery Disease, Heart Failure. The treatment of Hypertension can be done by Anti-Hypertensive Drugs which include Angiotensin -II Receptor Blockers, Beta Blockers, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors etc.

Results: We have done the study to find out the safe and effective drug among various categories of Anti-Hypertensive drugs to treat hypertension in various cardiovascular disease patients. We have collected sample size of 220 out of which 100 were Myocardial Infarction patients,100 were coronary artery disease patients and 20 were Heart Failure patients.

The categories of anti-hypertensive drugs selected for our study were Angiotensin-II Receptor Blockers, Beta Blockers and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Angiotensin-II Receptor Blockers were prescribed to 31 Myocardial Infarction patients, 31 coronary artery disease patients,8 Heart Failure patients. Beta Blockers were prescribed to 58 Myocardial Infarction patients,58 coronary artery disease patients,7 Heart Failure patients. Angiotensin Converting.

Enzyme Inhibitors were prescribed to 10 Myocardial Infarction patients,10 Coronary Artery Disease patients,5 Heart Failure patients.

Conclusion: From all the observations, Beta Blockers were observed to be the drugs with maximum efficacy and maximum safety.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationship between Visual Discomfort and Academic Performance among Medical Students at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Anan A. Aljawi, Albandri A. Alahmari, Amaal M. Alharbi, Aseel T. Baflah, Fatimah A. Alhaddad, Nizar M. Alhibshi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 405-412
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32632

Background: Visual discomfort or asthenopia is presented through unpleasant somatic and perceptual symptoms including headaches, fatigue, light sensitivity, blurred text, diplopia, movement of letters, and fading and impaired reading performance. Its etiology can be prolonged exposure to near work tasks such as reading or computer use. The American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus stated that vision problems could negatively affect learning.

Objectives: To measure the prevalence of visual discomfort among the medical students at King Abdulaziz University (KAU) and evaluate its effect on their academic performance.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018 at KAU in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia with 417 medical students. The data were collected using an electronic questionnaire that was sent to their phone numbers. The statistical analyses were done using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software version 21.

Results: The visual discomfort symptom scores demonstrated that 87% of the participants scored low, while 12.2% scored moderately; none of the participants scored high. We did not find any significant relationship between visual discomfort and students' cumulative GPA or GPA of the last semester. We noted that the most common visual discomfort symptoms were associated with reading and light sensitivity.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that visual discomfort symptoms did not affect the cumulative or last semester GPA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Method Development for the Control of Potential Genotoxic Impurities in Vigabatrin Using Gas Chromatography Techniques and Mass Spectroscopy Detector

D. Srikanth, S. Ganapaty, P. Manik Reddy, K. Sunitha, G. Sowjanya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 422-429
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32634

Aim: To develop a sensitive headspace GC-MS method for the determination of potential genotoxic impurities in Vigabatrin.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was performed in SIONC Pharmaceuticals, Visakhapatnam from June 2020 to March 2021.

Methodology: The impurities were determined by selected ion monitoring mode using VF -WAXms (30 mts length, 0.25 mm internal diameter, 1.0 µ film thickness) column. Helium gas was used as carrier gas with a column flow of 1.0 mL/min. and injector temperature maintained at 220 0C. Oven Temperature, loop temperature and transfer line temperature were maintained in the head space at 70oC, 90oC and 100oC respectively.

Results: The linearity of the method was proposed in the range of LOQ to 150 % for the genotoxic impurities by subjecting the data obtained to statistical analysis using linear regression model (r2 > 0.99). The method also gave acceptable recovery of all the four impurities at each level and was found to be accurate. The % RSD obtained in the method precision and intermediate precision were less than 11% depicting the precision of the method. The LOD and LOQ values were calculated based on the signal to noise ratio and are indicating the sensitivity of the method. The specificity of the method was checked for blank interference at the retention time of respective impurities.

Conclusion: The results proved that the proposed headspace GC-MS method for the study of potential genotoxic impurities of Vigabatrin was sensitive, precise and accurate and could be routinely used in the quality control testing of the active pharmaceutical ingredient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing the Consumption of Fast Food among Young Adults

S. Rajini, K. Kannan, Tamil Selvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 430-440
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32635

Background: The habit of consuming the fast- foods and packed foods are increased among the people in developing countries. Besides, several studies showed that the fast- food eating brings higher risks for developing the physiological imbalances such as obesity, over – weight even in younger generation. The fast foods ensure for important features such as easy availability, tastes good, convenient, and has friendly- packing than the traditional food items. Due to such kind of life style modifications, the ratio of fast – food habitats in younger and adolescents are highly increasing in compare to the older and middle aged people. The increase is inevitable in different age groups in recent years. These food habit modifications make a turn in traditional systems and attract the great attention against the public health concern.

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the factors that influence the fast-food consumption in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to examine the preference, prevalence and pattern of fast food consumption among the young adults.

Results and Discussion: The study showed that many of the students unavoidably skipping the morning foods due to study pressure, morning – hurry and they had them at late- morning hours from the fast- foods outlets such as canteens or other hotels. Though, 90.7% of the students know the importance and negative consequences of break- fast skipping that are related to consumption of excessive fast- food habits, they have been severely addicted with the fast- foods.

Conclusion: As a conclusion, the present study showed the importance of initiating the specific health programs, dietary guidelines and effective awareness for addressing the unhealthy issues related with the fast- food consumption among the student community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Breast-Feeding in Postnatal Women

Sowmiya Sri, Nithya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 441-447
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32636

To assess the attitude of breastfeeding in postnatal women. Breastfeeding is essential for the health and development of the child. It is protective against gastrointestinal and respiratory infections of the baby. Early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding and introduction of complementary food in conjunction with continued breastfeeding is necessary for the sensory and cognitive development of the child. Even though the prevalence of breastfeeding is high, certain undesirable cultural practices delay initiation of breastmilk and colostrum. World Health Organization recommends the practice of exclusive breast feeding for infants up to 6 months of age and continue breast feeding up to 2 years along with weaning foods. Hence this study was conducted to follow up the breastfeeding practices of postnatal mothers and regarding its initiation and duration of exclusive breastfeeding in Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship of Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) Between Maternal and Perinatal in Patients

Manimekalai, Neranjana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 460-465
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32638

Background: Alcohol amniotic, a protecting fluid that surround the embryo. It protects from concussion, pressure, desiccation, reminiscent of the aquatic origin of life. Adequate amount of amniotic fluid is essential requirement for the normal development and it acts like a cushion against trauma, agitation and accidental impulsions. It has also bacteriostatic properties and prevents the infection of many bacterial infections.

Aim: To assess the maternal and fetal outcome in cases with normal and abnormal Amniotic Fluid Index levels.

Results: The mode of delivery was spontaneous vaginal delivery followed by Assisted VD, Elective CS, Emergency CS respectively. It was affected by amount of liquor since, low AFI group 35 (75%) patients ended up in cesarean section for fetal distress. While in control group 63(18.3%) patients had caesarean section.

Conclusion: Early neonatal death was seen in 0.2%, 4.5% and 70.5% newborns were born to pregnant women with normal AFI, oligohydramnios respectively. 70.5% neonates born to pregnant women with oligohydramnios had NICU admission. All cases were admitted in NICU because of respiratory distress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibody Response of Buffalo Calves to Different Levels of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus Immunogen

Qaiser Akram, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan, Beenish Zahid, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem, Qurban Ali, Asif Idrees, Muhammad Sulman Ali Taseer, Muhammad Umar Farid, Zeeshan Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 466-471
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32639

Antibody response of buffalo calves to different levels of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus immunogen was investigated. Vaccine containing 106.2 units of immunogen/TCID50 of FMD virus (O, A and Asia-1) serotypes induced log2 (1.3± 0.4) units of anti-FMD O Complement Fixing Geometric Mean antibody (FMD O CFT-CGM) titer, log2 (1.4±0.3) units of anti-FMD A CFT-CGM titer and log2 (2.0±0.7) units of anti-FMD Asia-1 CFT-CGM titer. The vaccine containing 2x106.2 units of immunogen of each of the virus serotypes induced log2 (2.2±0.2) units of anti- FMD O CFT-CGM titer, log2 (2.1±0.25) units of anti- FMD A CFT-CGM titer and log2 (3.4±0.8) units of anti-FMD Asia-1 CFT-CGM titer. The vaccine containing 3x106.2 units of TCID50 of each of the virus serotypes induced log2 (5.3 ± 2.0) units of anti-FMD O CFT-CGM titer, log2 (4.6±1.9) units of anti-FMD A CFT-CGM titer and log2 (5.0±2.2) units of anti- FMD Asia-1 CFT-CGM titer. Moreover, buffalo calves (n=3) which were primed and boosted with 60 days interval using vaccine containing 2x106.2 units of immunogen of each of the virus serotype, showed log25.0 and log26.3 units of anti FMD O CFT-GMT antibody titer, log24.6 and log26.0 units of anti FMD A CFT GMT antibody titer, log25.6 and log26.0 units of anti FMD Asia-1 CFT GMT antibody titer, on 30 and 120 days post boosting.

Antibody response of buffalo calves was directly proportional to amount of FMD virus immunogen serotypes in the vaccine. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Synthesis, Molecular Docking and Biological Evaluation of Novel 2-[(2-{[5-(Pyridin-4-yl)-1, 3, 4-Oxadiazol-2-yl]Sulfanyl}Ethyl)Sulfanyl]-1,3-Benzoxazole

Anees Fathima, H. M. Vagdevi, N. D. Jayanna, R. Mohammed Shafeeulla, . Subbaraju

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 472-484
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32640

In the present communication, a simple and facile method was adopted to synthesize  a series of novel 2-[(2-{[5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl]sulfanyl}ethyl)sulfanyl]-1,3-benzoxazole by fusing 5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol with substituted 2-[(2-bromoethyl)sulfanyl]-1,3-benzoxazole and 2-[(2-chloroethyl)sulfanyl]-1,3-benzoxazole to obtain heterocyclic ring systems of 1,3,4 oxadiazole linked benzoxazole  moiety. The synthesized compounds were characterized by the aid of LCMS, IR, 1H NMR, 13CNMR, and C, H, N analysis technique. All the newly synthesized compounds were assessed for antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitubercular activities against standard strains. Microbiological results showed that the compounds showcased a wide range of activities and further the results of antimicrobial, antioxidant and molecular docking studies revealed that the compounds 6c, 6d and 6e are more potent and displays excellent docking scores with various amino acids interaction like alkyl-alkyl, pi-alkyl and hydrogen bonding of antitubercular receptor H37R with benzoxazole moieties and displayed encouraging antitubercular results to 6c, 6d and 6e molecules. The structural activity relationship studies illuminated the obtained results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Goat’s Milk as a Potential Anti-proliferative against Colon Cancer Cell Lines

Nurhashimah Dahlan, Jamila Khayrin Baharum, Norhaslinda Ridzwan, Mimie Noratiqah Jumli, Norhayati Abd Hadi, Roslan Arshad, Atif Amin Baig, Mohd Adzim Khalili Rohin, Che Abdullah Abu Bakar, Ahmad Zubaidi A. Latif

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 493-501
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32642

Aim: To investigate anti-proliferative effect of fresh and pasteurized goat milk against colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-116, CT-26).

Study Design: Experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Central Laboratory, Tissue Culture Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu between January 2020 and April 2020.

Methodology: Samples comprised of two types goat milk, which were fresh and pasteurized in powder form. The samples were analysed for the anti-proliferative effect by MTT assay, and IC50 value was determined. Then, cell apoptotic changes were observed by light inverted microscope by 24, 48 and 72 hours.

Results: Experimental data showed that the fresh sample produce the highest yield (9.40%) than the pasteurized sample (7.17%). The fresh sample yielded the most potent cytotoxic value (0.28 ± 0.03), followed by pasteurized sample with value IC50 0.32 ± 0.02 against HCT-116 cells. Then, the anti-proliferative effect was observed on cell apoptotic changes by reduction of cell volume, cell densed, and presence of fragmentation and apoptotic bodies at 24, 48 and 72 hours treatment.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the fresh sample of goat milk yielded the potent anti-proliferative effect than pasteurized sample.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Psychological Stress among Quarantined COVID-19 Patients

Krishnaraju Venkatesan, Shadia Hamoud Alshahrani, Premalatha Paulsamy, Absar Ahmed Qureshi, Zainah Alshahrani, H. Z. Alshahrani Fahad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 502-507
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32643

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been causing a worldwide pandemic since the end of 2019. This study looked at the mental health of COVID-19 patients who had been quarantined. This cross-sectional study included fifty COVID - 19 patients who were under quarantine. Online self-reported questionnaires were used in the study. Demographic data and an inventory of pandemic-related stress factors (PRSF) were used to analyse COVID-19-related stress domains. The quarantined COVID - 19 patients had pandemic related stress among themselves. Lack of knowledge about infectiveness and virulence (78%), sleep disorders (94%), financial concerns (92 %) and feeling isolated and avoidance by others (90%) were the most common stressors. Eighty two percent of the patients felt that they were being protected by the family and relatives and only 48% felt that the government is taking the responsibility of protecting them. The findings show that COVID-19 patients in quarantine reported severe psychological distress. As a result, this study urge that required measures be taken to alleviate COVID-19 patients stress, with special focus paid to patients perceptions of stigma and coping techniques.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparitive Study to Evaluate the Stress Level among Wives of Alcoholics and Wives of Non- Alcoholics in a Hospital in Chennai

A. R. Bharathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 508-530
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32644

Substance abuse is regular consumption of large amounts of substance (alcohol or drugs) that are harmful to themselves or others. More than half of substance abuse patients are diagnosed with a psychiatric diagnosis - major depression, personality disorder, anxiety disorders, and dysthymia. Among other substance or drugs, alcohol is the most frequently abused drug. Alcoholism is one of the major problems in this country and the world in general. This problem is affecting not only the person who is consuming alcohol it also affects all other people who are living around him. The spouses of the alcoholics are mostly affected. Stress has a negative impact on ones mental and physical health. The purpose of the study was to analyze the level of stress among wives of alcoholics and wives of non-alcoholics. For this, a non-experimental, comparative study was designed with 70 wives (35 wives of alcoholics and 35 wives of non-alcoholics) chosen by using non probability convenience sampling technique. This study was conducted in a Government hospital at Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Age, number of children, occupation, and monthly income, history of domestic violence and duration of alcohol consumption are the demographic variables studied. Sheldon Cohen perceived stress scale was used to assess the level of stress. Data collected from the wives was analyzed using statistical techniques. The conceptual frame work used in the study was based on Betty Newmann system theory. The above study reveals that there is an association between level of stress and domestic violence and duration of alcohol consumption. The present study also shows that there is severe stress level in wives facing with domestic violence and husband excessive alcohol consumption shows severe stress in wives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neck Circumference, a Screening Tool for Obesity in Newly Pubescent Children-A Case Study

M. Ponmalar, S. Rajini, V. Tamilsevi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 531-535
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32645

“Childhood Obesity and its co-morbidities is considered as a prime health hitch that lay up consideration among the public health society. Obesity and above the over weight has bagged the fifth position in the global risk for mortality. The obesity shows a very early onset in life which has laid the utmost importance in the prevention of it among the children. Neck circumference is being considered as the marker of upper body subcutaneous tissue distribution.

Aim: The main objective is to evaluate the association between neck circumference and obesity among the children.

Methodology: This is a cross sectional study conducted between the periods of august 2019 - September 2019, among 150 male + 129 female students, aged 11 to 18 years. Anthropometric markers of obesity- body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), Hip circumference (HC), waist hip ratio (WHR), neck circumference (NC) were collected. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to compute the neck circumference with other obesity indices.

Results: The mean BMI was 27.70±1.27 kg/m² and 27.72±2.12 kg/m², mean neck circumference was 35.42±2.26 cm and 32.85±1.92 in above the over weight /obesity boys + girls respectively. The hip circumference in boys was found to be greater than girls, which is higher in above the over weight /obesity students with P<0.001. Neck circumference shows a strong positive correlation with other anthropometric measures BMI, WC, HC in boys and girls (P<0.001).

Conclusion: The present study showed that the weight increase in school children and need to aware the parents.

Open Access Review Article

Design Space by Design of Experiments

Sushant Dangat, Deep Patel, Ashwin Kuchekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32584

The quality of methods and products are usually influenced by several input factors. Research has recently focused on understanding the effects of multidimensional and interconnected input factors on the results of pharmaceutical products and analytical methods using Design of Experiment (DoE). Furthermore, it examines how DOE may be implemented, both for students and teachers, as well as highlighting historical perspectives on DOE. A good experimental design can help you make the most use of the available resources and make the analysis of the results easier. Collaborations between researchers and practitioners that are pushing the boundaries of experimental design are examined. It provides an overview of the principles and applications of the most common screening and response surface design, as well as creating mixtures designs.

Open Access Review Article

Insight Cross-talk between p53 and Toll-like Receptor

Mohammad Jahoor Alam, Fevzi Bardakci, Sadia Anjum, Shumayla Rasheed Mir, Irfan Ahmad, Mohd Faisal, Mohd Saeed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32587

Toll-like receptors (TLR) are one of the most-studied receptors for their role in innate immunity. TLRs are reported to binds with conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS). TLRs and PAMPS interaction leads to several downstream proteins' activation, which further signaled to the various transcription factors. Moreover, these transcription factors play an important role in synthesizing proteins that control cellular immunity. Various TLR proteins have been reported in humans as well several other organisms. Studies show that apart from inducing innate immunity, TLRs have also played an important role in the induction of many proteins, and protein networks associated with initiation apoptosis and cancer prevention. P53 is one of the most important and widely studied proteins. Moreover, various experimental studies suggest that p53 has an important role as tumor suppressor. It is reported that more than 50% of cancerous growth are associated with the mutation of p53. It acts as transcription activator for several proteins that are mostly associated with glycolysis, cell cycle, cell differentiation, apoptosis and cancer. In the present review, we present an insight cross-talk between p53 and Toll-like receptor. In addition, the well-characterized role of p53 in the regulation of the immune system is studied, which would provide a new insight to the broad understanding of p53 role in human biology. Moreover, the association of the p53 and TLRs can lead to therapeutic interventions.

Open Access Review Article

Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine in the Era of COVID-19: A Mini-Review

Sultan A. Alfawaz, Dalal Alfawaz

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 228-236
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32611

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has severely affected global health, and caused a significant health burden worldwide in all, the patients, and healthy people. Globally, 17 August 2021, there have been 207,784,507 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 4,370,424 deaths reported to WHO. As of 16 August 2021, a total of 4,462,336,040 vaccine doses have been administered. Many risk factors, such as older adults, people with medical conditions and pregnant people and recently pregnant people are at an increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19 when compared to non-pregnant people. CQ and HCQ also used in the management of rheumatism, joint inflammation, systemic lupus and showed positive and promising results in the primary research for COVID-19 management but, it’s still confusing whether to use them in patients infected with COVID-19 or it is better to avoid them. Although these drugs, chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which have been tried for the treatment of this disease, COVID-19 vaccines can help end the pandemic. In this review we aim to evaluate the evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of CQ and HCQ used against viral infection caused by COVID-19. Our hope is to shed light on CQ and HCQ as a management modality in the era of COVID-19. We can’t do without drug therapy as a mainstream till antiviral agents and effective vaccines would be available.

Open Access Review Article

Febrile Convulsions in Anemic Children: A Review

Hassan Tag Elkhatim Mohamed, Ibtisam Khulaif Alruwaili, Maisa Hamad Freaj Alenazi, Ahlam sultan alanazi, Norah Thyap Matar Alenezi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 392-399
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32630

Febrile convulsions are the most common type of convulsions that affect children aged 6 months to 5 years old. Iron deficiency anemia could be a risk factor for febrile convulsions as was suggested by some studies, for the reason that febrile convulsions is common in children under 5 years and iron deficiency anemia is also more common in children in the same age bracket. The prevalence of febrile convulsions is 2-5% of the total number of children. Studies discussing the association of iron deficiency anemia and febrile convulsions are contradictory. Management of cases is of great importance as there are special guidelines. Prevention is also vital as it plays a role in evading the occurrence of the convulsions.

Open Access Review Article

An updated Review on Therapeutic Potential of Entrectinib as a Promising TrK, ROS 1, and ALK Inhibitor in Solid Tumors and Lung Cancer

M. Archana, Mariya Palathingal, K. Athulya Damodharan, P. Ashisha, Nuaman, Akash Marathakam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 413-421
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32633

Entrectinib is a selective inhibitor of tyrosine kinases , tropomyosin receptor kinases that targets oncogenic rearrangements in Neurotropic Tyrosine Receptor kinase, c-ros oncogene 1 and Anaplastic lymphoma kinase used for the treatment of various solid tumors. Entrectinib gained its first worldwide approval in Japan in June 2019 for the treatment of NTRK fusion-positive, advanced or recurring solid tumours in adults and children. In august 15, 2019 drug got FDA approval for the treatment of solid tumors in adult and children aged 12 and above. This article summarizes current status of Entrectinib from ongoing clinical trails and ideal place for drug in therapy.

Open Access Review Article

Etiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Fibromyalgia Syndrome

Mohammed Salah Hussein, Majed Talal Al nujaiman, H. Althomali, Abdullah Mohammed, Marwan Naif Alsehli, Laila Mohammed Mujarribi, Mohammed Wasel A. Mukhtar, Abdullah Saad A. Alsharif, Safwan Mohammed M. Alim, Bandar Hamdan Jasi Alshamrani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 485-492
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i44A32641

Fibromyalgia is a common syndrome (FM) that is prevalent all over the world with different prevalence rates in each country. The etiology and pathogenesis of fibromyalgia are still unknown, unclear, and with uncertain pathophysiology. Diagnosis of fibromyalgia is not that easy because the disease is described as multifactorial, and very little information is known about the causes of the disease. Treatment of fibromyalgia is not totally curative; treatment aims to improve and alleviate the symptoms as easing pain, improving sleep, develop the physical function. The main problem with fibromyalgia is not only difficulty of diagnosis or poor prognosis, but also the treatment is not adequate or satisfactory, so it is of great importance to educate the patients about their illness and giving them advice on how to limit the risk factors that aggravate the case, besides educating patients to use non-pharmacological strategies for better management.