Open Access Case Study

Ayurvedic Management of Parikarthika (Acute Fissure in Ano) – A Case Study

Sreerag M. V., Mukund Dhule

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 160-163
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32540

Among anorectal diseases, Parikarthika (Fissure in ano) is considered one of the most painful diseases. Now a days the incidence rate of this disease became more due to the irregular food habits as well as unproper modern life style changes. Due to this its recent occurrence in all types of age groups irrespective of gender. This case study described the effective management of acute fissure in ano which was managed with ayurvedic treatment modalities. A 23-year male patient came with symptoms of pain and burning during and after defecation and also having the presence of blood streak while passing of stool. The patient was diagnosed as acute fissure due to the presence of a cut longitudinal ulcer in lower part of anal canal at the 6 o’clock position. Ayurvedic treatment approach both internally and externally were followed. Jatyadi Ghritham Pichu application followed by a lukewarm water sitz bath was advised as external treatment. The complete improvement was found in this within 12 days of treatment. No reoccurrence was noted even after 3rd month of follow up.

Open Access Case Study

Dengue Shock Syndrome Complicating High Risk Twin Pregnancy during Late Gestation: Extinguishing Fuel added Flames

Sparsh Madaan, Dhruv Talwar, Sunil Kumar, Arpita Jaiswal, Neema Acharya, Manila Reddy Eleti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 315-319
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32557

Incidence of Dengue has been on the up rise ever since the second wave of the pandemic of COVID19 has ended introducing an old enemy on the frontline to the health care professionals.A 28 year old Gravida 2 Parity 0 Living 0 Abortion 1 with twin pregnancy presented with fever along with chills and retro orbital pain along with body ache since two days in the emergency department  with the gestational age of 36 weeks.She tested positive for Dengue NS1 antigen.Patient was having thrombocytopenia and was managed with intravenous fluids,platelet and blood transfusion and was taken for caesarian section and she delivered twins with normal birth weight.During the post operative period the patient went into dengue shock syndrome and which was managed with fluids and inotropic support and patient ultimately recovered and was discharged on day seventeen of admission .This case report emphasises on the importance of prompt detection and management of dengue in a case of high risk pregnancy such as twin pregnancy.After extensive review of literature we found that this is the first case report to report the association of twin pregnancy with dengue shock syndrome making it an important topic of discussion.

Open Access Case Study

Leptospirosis in COVID-19 Positive Pregnancy: A Rare Case Report Mimicking Hellp Syndrome

Aarshika Singh, Surekha Tayade, Ooha Thadiboina, Cherukuri Srinidhi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 379-383
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32567

Leptospirosis in pregnancy is often underdiagnosed and not commonly reported due to its unusual appearance and rarity. It looks like HELLP syndrome, obstetric cholestasis, viral hepatitis & pregnancy-related acute fatty liver. Miscarriages in the first trimester, stillbirths, and neonatal leptospirosis are serious complications that necessitate a high degree of concern, heightened sensitivity, and prompt diagnosis and treatment. We have one such incidence of leptospirosis in a COVID-19 positive pregnant female. A 21-year-old Primigravida with a predisposition of serious anaemia & thrombocytopenia, presented with fever, haematemesis, malena and sore throat at 38 weeks and 2 days gestation, during the COVID-19 pandemic. She had pallor, oedema, and haematuria on catheterization, rest all investigations were within normal limits. Proteinuria, haemolysis, low platelets, and elevated bilirubin were discovered during the investigation. Due to the lack of hypertension and elevated transaminases, the working diagnosis was atypical haemolysis, low platelets (HELLP) syndrome. The patient was tested for COVID-19 RT-PCR, came out to be positive and the fever spikes continued, leading to further investigations for Dengue, Malaria, Scrub Typhus, and Leptospirosis due to the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. After the EIA (Enzyme Immunoassay) IgM antibody (confirmatory for Leptospirosis) tested positive for Leptospirosis, the decision to start Doxycycline was made. Meanwhile, the patient's CTG (Cardio tocograph) revealed signs of foetal distress, and a decision for an emergency LSCS was taken (Lower Segment Caesarean Section). The histology of the placenta after the section revealed normal findings. Doxycycline was initiated with a neonatal feeding regimen that was acceptable. On day two of life, the newborn had no indications of inherited leptospirosis and was removed from Neonatal Intensive Care. Within one week, the patient's symptoms had disappeared, and her biochemistry had went back to normal within 2 weeks.

Open Access Case Study

A Clinico-etiological Evaluation of Hirsutism Patients: A Case Series

Sohan A. Patel, Jayant B. Dave, Timir Y Mehta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 384-389
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32568

Background: Hirsutism is a condition of excess hair growth in females in male-like distribution. It is seen in almost 5-10% of women. Women having hirsutism have a negative impact on quality of life.

Aim: All patients were subjected to ultrasound imaging (Sonography) and hormonal evaluation to establish possible causative factors.

Methods: A prospective and retrospective study of hirsutism patients, who were evaluated at Samarpan medical research organization, Modasa, Gujarat from 2016 to 2019.

Results: In this case series age and clinical presentation were studied in five female patients diagnosed with hirsutism. The patients age ranged from 16 to 22 years with a mean of 19.60 years. All these patients showed localized hair growth on the upper lip, chin, and cheek on the face. Ultrasound study revealed that one of the five patients had a right bulky ovary and four patients showed both ovaries with multiple follicles. In hormonal evaluation, in one of the three patients the LH: FSH ratio was found to be more than 3. Three out of the five patients showed elevated levels of 17-OHP and serum testosterone. Two out of the three patients showed an elevated level of serum insulin. The level of DHEAS, serum prolactin, serum cortisol, and serum TSH were found to be in a normal range.

Conclusion: Ultrasonographic (USG) study revealed a positive correlation between PCOS and Hirsutism patients. Hirsutism patients were found to have higher levels of 17-OHP, serum testosterone, serum insulin, and a higher ratio of LH: FSH, one or more at a time suggesting a strong correlation between elevated levels of these hormones and hirsutism. The present study could not establish any meaningful correlation between the level of DHEAS, serum prolactin, serum cortisol, and serum TSH.

Open Access Case Study

Squamous Odontogenic Tumor of Posterior Maxilla-A Report of a New Unusual Case & Literature Review

Sandeep S. Sihmar, Karthikeyan Ramalingam, Shalini Rathi, Abhishekh kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 417-425
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32571

Squamous odontogenic tumor is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor that is very unusual in the maxilla & mandible. Mostly, these are present as single lesions, but rarely they can be multifocal lesions. The nature of maxillary lesions is more aggressive. Because of their benign nature, these lesions are frequently treated with conservative surgical techniques that include curettage and surgical enucleation. We will discuss the instance of a 29-year-old lady who was misdiagnosed and treated conservatively by us. This case was examined in the light of current knowledge of the prevalence, genesis, diagnosis, and treatment of squamous odontogenic tumors, as well as a literature review.

Open Access Study Protocol

Role of Microalbuminuria and Insulin Resistance as Predictive Biomarkers for Nephropathy in Obese Individuals – A Study Protocol

Roshan Kumar Jha, Archana Dhok, Samarth Shukla, Sourya Acharya, Ashish Anjankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 78-85
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32527

Background: Obesity is a compounded, multifactorial, and largely curable disease, affecting over a third of the public community today. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared obesity as a global epidemic, also stressing that in many cases it remains an under-recognized problem of the public health agenda. It is a global health concern and a major risk factor for diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, which may lead to decrease in renal function and ultimately obesity related nephropathy.

As per, the epidemiological and experimental data have indicated, microalbuminuria (MAU) is an early marker of target organ damage and is associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) incidence, and progression of nephropathy in non-diabetic subjects. Insulin resistance is present in obese individuals. Obesity related insulin resistance may arise from defects in fatty acid oxidation, and secondary β-cell lipotoxicity.

The present study is a Cross-sectional analytical observational study; the study will be carried out in the Dept. of Biochemistry at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, ABV Rural Hospital, Sawangi (M), Wardha. Participants will be outpatients of this institution. Any participant fulfilling the eligibility criteria will be included in the study. Protocol amendments are not expected. However, if necessary, any modification to the protocol will be reported to the entire investigational team through a conference. All changes will be included in the final manuscript prior to submission.

Aim and Objectives: Present study is targeted to assess role and correlation of microalbuminuria and insulin resistance as predictive biomarkers for nephropathy in obese subjects.

Implications: Present study will be helpful to decrease morbidity and mortality, specifically associated with comprised renal status and prevent nephropathy. The study will be helpful to detect early clinicopathological phase of comprised renal status.

Conclusion: The purpose of this study is to investigate role of microalbuminuria and insulin resistance as predictive markers of nephropathy in obese individuals.

Open Access Study Protocol

Effect of Oculus Guided Physical Therapy in Adjunct to Conventional Therapy in Lateral Epicondylitis Patients

Divya Badjate, Pratik Phansopkar, Neha Chitale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 191-196
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32543

Background: Lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a very common condition musculoskeletal in nature affecting the elbow, causing significant pain, disability and loss of grip strength. The conservative management program for lateral epicondylitis includes rest, cryotherapy, and ultrasound, stretching and strengthening exercises. The Oculus Quest is a virtual reality headset. The oculus adventure game ‘Hand Physics Lab' encourages you to try virtual reality in a new way by providing you complete control over your hands and fingers. VR is a developing technology that can be a valuable supplement to conventional therapeutic modalities.

Methods: In this study, a total of 60 patients with lateral epicondylitis will be included and divided into two groups of 30 participants each of age group 25-45 years. Group A will undergo conservative management of lateral epicondylitis and Group B will undergo oculus therapy by a hand tracking game ‘Hand Physics Lab’ along with the conservative management. Visual analog scale, Range Of Motion, PRTEE scale are used as outcome measures before and after the treatment and results will be analyzed.

Discussion: In this study the effect of oculus guided therapy with conventional Physiotherapy over conventional physiotherapy will be investigated in improving functional level and reducing pain in patients with LE. Individuals in mechanical professions or recreational activities with repetitive stress and intensive usage of forearm muscles are more likely to develop lateral epicondylitis. Physical therapy is now widely accepted as a standard treatment option for persistent lateral epicondylitis. Furthermore, this study can be useful in applying recent advancement in virtual reality for the betterment of health. This study can provide virtual reality in tennis elbow patients for improved motion control, improved quality of life and more patient entertainment to encourage motor learning.

Open Access Study Protocol

Effect of Oculus Guided Physical Therapy in Adjunct to Conventional Therapy in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients-A Research Protocol

Shrushti Jachak, Pratik Phansopkar, Neha Chitale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 320-325
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32558

Background: Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent disorder affecting the quality of life of older people. Eventually, the protecting tissue at the ends of bones degrades. One of the commonest type is osteoarthritis of knee. Knee osteoarthritis is linked to three main symptoms: knee pain, swelling, and decreased quadriceps mobility. Knee osteoarthritis can be treated with various physical therapy interventions, physiotherapy shows effective results. Visual reality can be used for the physical rehabilitation. In this study an attempt is been made to use the oculus quest for rehabilitation of knee osteoarthritis patients in adjunct to the conventional treatment.

Objectives: To demonstrate the effect of a conventional treatment regimen on lower limb function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. To demonstrate the influence of virtual reality-based games on lower limb function in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. In patients with knee osteoarthritis, the effect of virtual reality physical therapy in addition to traditional therapy was compared to the effect of simply conventional therapy.

Methods: The aim of this study is to look at the effects of VR-based exercise as an adjunct to conventional therapy. To that aim, a pre and post experimental design will be used, with a control group receiving just conventional therapy (strengthening, ultrasound, Maitland mobilization) and an experimental group receiving conventional treatment as well as the VR-based exercise. Data collected will be examined using the SPSS variant.

Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn based on the effect of virtual reality based exercises and conventional exercises. Which will help the therapist as well as patient in better treatment approach towards knee osteoarthritis.

Open Access Study Protocol

Correlation of Histopathological Metastatic Invasive Prognosticators with Five Years Survival of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Swati K. Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 326-333
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32559

Background: OSCC is the 3rd widespread malignancy in India followed by cervical and breast cancer. Histopathological findings in the tumor are the most prominent factors identified for OSCC progression. Clinical and histopathological prognosis in OSCC like perineural invasion, vascular invasion, lymph node invasion have been studied extensively by many researchers separately or in combination since many years. Bone invasion, muscle invasion and salivary gland invasion are explored less. In order to collectively correlate the role of all prognosticators with 5 years survival, the later prognosticators are included in our study in isolation which may predict accurately the probability of 5 year survival of OSCC. Also we have to search role of the prognosticator which is most commonly affecting 5 years survival of OSCC cases so that it may modify the potential consequence of management of OSCC.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the relevance of histopathological invasive prognosticators on 5 years survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients visiting Sharad Pawar Dental College and Hospital, Sawangi, Wardha (MS).

Methodology: Departmental reports will be screened and specimen mounted slides of histopathologically diagnosed 200 OSCC patients, who undergone surgical resection will be observed under binocular microscope. Data of dead and survived OSCC patients undergone surgery 5 years back will be collected by telecommunication. Histopathological invasive prognosticators will be analyzed and correlated with 5-years survival after treatment.

Expected Results:

  • Collectively correlating the role of histopathological invasive prognosticators in our study may predict the probability of 5 years survival of OSCC cases more accurately.
  • Discovering diversed histopathological patterns of all metastatic prognosticators and their correlation with 5 years survival.
  • Identification of most effective histopathological invasive prognosticator predicting 5 year survival.

Conclusion: The most commonly found prognosticators in OSCC patients who died within 5 years versus others who survived for 5 years will be discovered.

In addition the most common histopathological pattern related to dead and survived patients after 5 years will be found which can modify the potential consequence of management of OSCC.

Open Access Short Research Article

Factors Associated with Perceived Stressors among Critical Care Units Adult Patients: An Exploratory Study

Swapnil Rahane, Roma Patel, Devrajsingh Chouhan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 204-209
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32545

The critical care unit environment has been observed as a leading stressor not only amongst the health care professionals but in patients also. Unfamiliar surroundings, dependency on others, financial problems, etc. are among factors that are responsible for the development of stress in the patients admitted to the critical care units. Stress and its factors are also responsible for the patient's deliberate recovery and depraved prognosis. In this study, we explored the association between selective factors and perceived stressors among adult patients admitted to critical care units. A quantitative, exploratory research design study was conducted, to identify the association between the perceived stressors and selected factors of adult patients admitted in Critical Care Units of the selected multispecialty hospitals at Vadodara. A total of sixty patients admitted to the critical care departments were selected through the convenience sampling technique. A demographic variables datasheet and hospitals stress rating interview scale was used after the expert’s content validation to collect the data. Analysis and interpretation of data were done by using descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: Study findings revealed that all the patients, who were interviewed through the hospital stress interview scale, expressed the perception of stressors as indicated by the total perceived stressors score of above (1%). The study also revealed that separation from family members or spouses and financial problems are the highly rated perceived stressors among the patients admitted to the critical care unit. Patients also reported the least perceived stressful area was the problem with medication. There was a significant association between the socioeconomic status and medical-surgical diagnosis of patients with perceived stressors.

Conclusion: Therefore, the findings of the study concluded that the study, patients admitted in the critical care department also suffer from stress due to some stressors, and it affects their prognosis and early recovery. Nursing professionals need to focus on the subjective characteristics of patients so that perceived stressors and early detection of the related complication can be prevented.

Open Access Minireview Article

A Review on In vitro Cell Culture Model for Bacterial Adhesion and Invasion: From Simple Monoculture to Co-Culture Human Intestinal Epithelium Model

Nur Intan Hasbullah, Sharifah Aminah Syed Mohamad, Rashidah Iberahim, Nor'Aishah Hasan, Noorlis Ahmad, Low Kheng Oon, Nor Azfa Johari, Mohd Nuruddin Abd. Manap

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 97-106
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32530

Aim: This paper reviews the different in vitro models of human intestinal epithelium that have been utilized for studying the adhesion and invasion properties.

Problem Statement: The cell adhesion and invasion are the key mechanisms of bacterial pathogenicity that determines their possible routes of transmission. Numerous investigations related to the adhesion and invasion ability of bacterial isolates have been reported on monoculture human intestinal cells. However, the use of monoculture cells has several major disadvantages, such as the inability to reproduce the complex structure that defines the intestine and the inability to accurately predict the mechanism of bacterial adhesion and invasion.

Approach: Co-culture models of human intestine have been developed as an alternative to improve the monoculture epithelial cell for adhesion and invasion studies, which provide more flexibility and overcome some of the limitations

Conclusion: With the use of diverse in vitro approach, it could provide thorough information on different ability of bacterial adhesion and invasion and it could help to clarify the intricacy of host-pathogen interactions that underpin bacterial pathogenesis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rudimentary Pharmacological Inspection of the Ethanolic Extract of Grewia hirsute Vhal

Mst Marium Begum, Mohammad Abdul Alim, Md. Razu Ahmed, Abdullah Al Mamun, Munny Das, Rayhana Begum, Azharul Islam, Md. Marufur Rahman Moni, Sumiya Alam, Wahida Akter, Md. Sohanur Rahman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 10-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32520

Background: Screening of plant kingdom for various pharmacologic activities with an aim of discovering new active constituents is a continuous process and a part of systemic analysis.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anti-ulcer, and thrombolytic effects of the ethanolic extract of Grewia hirsuta Vahl. (EEGH) in different in vivo and in vitro paradigms in both Swiss Albino mice and Long Evans rats.

Materials and Methods: After an oral acute toxicity study, adult male mice and rats according to the testing procedure were treated with EEGH (200, 400, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg, p.o.) and (1000 mg/70kg B.W. p.o Metformin, 10 mg/70kg, B.W. p.o Simvastatin, and 30 mg/70kg, B.W. p.o Omeprazole), and subjected to three in vivo tests and one in vitro test according to various established testing protocol.

Results: After testing glucose tolerance test, for hypoglycemic activities, 400 mg/kg EEGH both in 6 weeks and 12 weeks exhibited moderate anti-diabetic effect (8.89 ± 0.09 and 8.12±0.28 mmol/L respectively). Additionally, combination therapy of both 400 mg/kg EEGH + Metformin revealed a substantial fall of sugar level from 16.78± 0.1 to 6.4 ± 0.04 mmol/L, confirming a sign of moderate potentiation. No lipid-lowering effect was observed in the timed-treatment procedure. In the anti-ulcer effect, n-butanol showed a comparable ulcer inhibition index (90.56%) compared to the standard Omeprazole inhibition index of 91%. Additionally, ethyl acetate fraction showed 62% and 66% clot lysis capacity by 200 and 400 mg/kg EEGH, whereas standard Streptokinase’s capacity was 80%. The EEGH showed notable anti-ulcer activities and moderate anti-diabetic and thrombolytic activities.

Conclusion: Results extend the current understanding of the impacts of Grewia hirsuta Vahl. on biological parameters and indicate that this plant might be promising for the management of diabetes mellitus, anticoagulant, and gastric ulcer disorders prominently.

Open Access Original Research Article

Compare the Effect of Oral Pregabalin versus Oral Clonidine for Attenuation of Hemodynamic Responses for Laryngoscopy and Tracheal Intubation

J. Devanand

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-31
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32521

This study was done to assess the laryngoscopy and intubation responses of two drugs namely, Pregabalin 150mg and Clonidine 0.2mg. The drugs were orally administered 90 minutes prior to induction, as the peak action of both the drugs are known to be 1-2 hours after oral administration. Variation of heart rate changes decreases with increasing age. The selected age range was 18-60 years in our study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Structural Characterization, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Assay of Biogenically Synthesized Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) Nanoparticles

A. Leema Rose, B. Shabushree, Preeja P. Thattil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 32-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32522

Aims: The present study focused on the optical and morphological characterization, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the biogenically synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles. 

Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening was done for the leaf extract of Annona reticulate L. The leaf extract and Ferrous Sulphate heptahydrate were used to synthesize the iron oxide nanoparticles under room temperature. The determination of antioxidant activity was done using DPPH free radical scavenging assay and the determination of antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion method.

Results: The UV-visible spectra showed the sharp absorption peak at 278 nm. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed the role of phytochemical constituents in the leaf extract for the iron oxide nanoparticles formation.  X-ray diffraction pattern showed the presence of γ phase of Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed the moderately spherical morphology of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and Energy-dispersive X-ray peaks showed the presence of iron and oxygen in the synthesized nanoparticles.  Particle size analysis showed that the synthesized γ-Fe2O3possessed an average size of 115.9 nm.

Conclusion: The synthesized γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles have potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Perspective of General Practitioners about Mental Illness: A Cross-sectional Observational Study from a Tertiary Care Centre, Pakistan

Muhammad Iqbal Afridi, Jawed Akbar Dars, Chooni Lal, Rakesh Kumar, . Sadia, Ali Bux Rajper, Ubedullah Shaikh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-49
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32523

Objectives: To assess the general practitioner's perspective on mental illness in a tertiary health care setting.

Study Setting and Duration: Online seminar in March 2020, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi.

Study Design: Cross-sectional, Observational study

Methodology: A total of 152 general practitioners were enrolled in the study. All house officers, psychiatric specialists, staff members, and patients were excluded from the study. An online survey instrument was used to collect data from general practitioners through social media. The questionnaire was related to the biodata of the physicians and their perspective on mental health disorders. Data was analyzed by using SPSS Version 26.

Results: A total of 152 general practitioners participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 39.76 (11.540) years. The majority of them were male and married with an average experience of 12.80 (10.90) years. According to the participants, the most common symptoms experienced by patients with mental disorders were loss of appetite, hopelessness, and the loss of interest in day to day activities. The majority of the doctors confessed they find the treatment and management of psychiatric illnesses the hardest. Most of the participants were aware of the diagnostic criteria used for common mental health disorders. Over a hundred (66.4%) participants considered mental health disorders to be a medical disorder while 16 (10.5%) assumed it is the possession by supernatural creatures. 65 (42.7%) of the doctors confessed that they would not feel comfortable having a coworker or befriending a person with a diagnosed mental health issue.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that general physicians had good knowledge about common mental illnesses; however they found the management of these patients difficult. Mental health awareness and training intervention tools are needed to help improve the perspective of health care professionals towards patients with suspected mental illnesses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Functional Outcome of Distal End of Radius Fractures Treated With Volar Plating

G. Harish

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 50-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32524

In this study we evaluated the functional outcomes of open reduction and internal fixation of distal radius fractures by plate osteosynthesis in considering the parameters like radiological,clinical, and functional outcome in all types of fractures. There blood loss for volar locked plating cases was around 200ml. the pain after the surgery was present equally in all and responses was good to analegesics. It was observed that the plating distal radius is very effective in maintaining length in all types. Good alignment was observed in allmtype of fractures, in case of communited fractures as well. The early recovery and movement in the patients treated with volar locked plating gives a better outcome and good working capacity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitude, Awareness, and Knowledge of Saudi Citizens towards COVID-19 Vaccination in Qassim Region – Saudi Arabia

Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Azimatun Noor Aizuddin, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al-Salem, Khalid Abdulrahman Al-shetaily, Fawziah Hassan Al-Owayyid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 53-67
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32525

Cross sectional study was conducted to evaluate the Attitudes and awareness level of Citizens towards COVID-19 vaccination in Qassim region.  The present study’s results showed that awareness of COVID-19 Vaccination in Qassim region- Saudi Arabia shows that the mean score of awareness was 3.49 (SD 0.864) out of 5.   Regarding vaccination decision among Saudi citizens in Qassim region, (22.7%) of the participants were undecided, (14.7%) refused, and (62.6%) agreed to get a vaccine against COVID-19. Reason for vaccine refusal mainly was they don't believe the vaccine. 96 Participants (32.0%) were working in the healthcare sector, (44.8%) of them had received the COVID-19 Vaccine, and (38.5%) refused. The level of awareness among healthcare participants was (80.2%). The average knowledge score was 3.49 (SD =.864) out of a possible 5. Participants who reported having a graduate level of education had a considerably higher mean knowledge score. The mean score of attitudes was 1.95 (SD=1.176) out of 5, with majority of positive attitude score 62.7%. ((65.7% They received the first dose, and 6.0% they received the first dose and second dose)). Participants with age group 55 years and above years, are more aware towards COVID-19 Vaccination than other age groups. Married persons are more aware towards COVID-19 Vaccination than other categories. Participants with graduate educational level are more aware towards COVID-19 Vaccination than other educational levels. Employed persons are more aware towards COVID-19 Vaccination than other categories. Whereas, there is no relation between age and awareness among Saudi citizens towards COVID-19 (P-value= 0.140). As well, there is no relation between employed citizens and awareness among Saudi citizens towards COVID-19 (P-value =0.136), and there is relation between marital status and awareness among Saudi citizens (P-value = 0.013).

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of COVID-19 on Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension: A Retrospective Study

S. Pavithra, S. Lavanya, P. Vaishnavi, A. Rakesh Rosario, Priyadharshini A, S. P. Ahalya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 68-77
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32526

COVID-19 is a pathogenic virus that caused a pandemic outbreak in December 2019. The impact of this virus may be severe in the patients having co-morbidities like diabetes, hypertension, Chronic Kidney Disease, cardiovascular disease, etc.

Aim and Objectives: This study Aims in Assessing the impact of COVID-19 on Diabetic and Hypertensive patients as well as COVID-19 patients without any co-morbidities. Objective of this is to evaluate the association between COVID-19 and its risk factors (diabetes and hypertension) and to evaluate whether the severity of the symptoms in COVID-19 patients is due to comorbidities or past medications.

Methodology: A Retrospective study was conducted in SRM Hospital (Medical Records Department) for a period of 3 Months with the study population 670 at the age group of 25, known case of Diabetes and Hypertension. Cases of Pregnant women are excluded from the study. The patients were grouped into 4 categories 1) control group (patient without any co-morbidities) 2) diabetic patients 3) Hypertensive patient 4) Diabetic+Hypertension patient and studied their prescribing pattern by collecting the past medication history.

Results and Discussion: There is a significant decrease in a lymphocyte in covid-19 Type 2 diabetic patients in our study. These results suggest that different mechanism exists for hypertension and diabetes mellitus as risk factors for covid-19. It is also known that these patients have impaired immune response to many infections [30]. In our retrospective study, we collected 670 covid-19 cases. It consists of 12.5% of diabetic patients and 6.6% of hypertensive patients. This study compared COVID-19 patients without any comorbidity (neither Type 2 diabetes mellitus nor hypertension) with covid- 19 patients with comorbidities (Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension). COVID-19 patients with T2DM have an increased level of D-dimer compared to non-T2DM patients. Conclusion: Diabetic and hypertensive patients affected with COVID-19 are low in our study. Out of the total study population, only 12.5% are diabetic, 6.56% are hypertensive, and 9.25% were both diabetic and hypertensive. But when comparing in terms of severity, hypertensive and diabetic patients have severe effects than the control patients. In simpler terms, not every person who has diabetes and hypertension are affected with COVID-19, but those who were affected by COVID-19 showed more severity than the patients who don't have any comorbidities

Open Access Original Research Article

Audit of the Wheat Pill Cases at Medicolegal Clinic Mayo Hospital Lahore

Kanwal Zahra, Maryam Shahid, Waqas Aslam, Usman Shahid Butt, Nida Zahra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 86-90
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32528

Objective: To determine the audit of wheat pill cases at medicolegal clinic of Mayo Hospital Lahore.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology (medicolegal clinic), King Edward Medical University Lahore. This audit was of 9 months from September 2020 to May 2021. Patients presented at emergency department with attempt of wheat pills poisoning of all age groups and both genders were included. Cases were diagnosis via history of wheat pills consumption by the relatives. All the cases were given primary recovery and were shifted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Data was collected on monthly basis form September 2020 to May 2021. All the data was collected via study proforma.

Results: Total 49 wheat pill cases were observed during 9 months, their mean age was 29.26±12.68 years. Out of all 51.0% were males and 49.0% were females. Labourer males and housewives were most common 34.7% and 40.8% respectively. Frequency of wheat pill cases were high in months of September, October and May. At the time of admission 59.2% cases were seen conscious, 36.7% were semiconscious and 4.1% were unconscious. Out of all 59.2% were died.

Conclusion: This study observed that the wheat pills are highly toxic with the quick and high mortality rate. Strict legislations are recommended to the sale control of these pills all over the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Low Birth Weight Neonates during COVID-19 Pandemic in a Tertiary Care Hospital at Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan

Muhammad Parial Shahani, Mohd Rizal Abdul Manaf, Azimatun Noor Aizuddin, Aneela Atta Ur Rahman, Saeed Ahmed Shaikh, Qararo Shah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 91-96
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32529

In comparison to other middle-income countries, Pakistan has a high prevalence of low birth weight.  Currently the situation has worsened because of the COVID-19 pandemic where stress can have a negative impact on intrauterine development, leading to a rise in preterm birth rates and the incidence of low birth weight babies. The goal of this study is to estimate the prevalence of low birth weight in a tertiary care hospital in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan, during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this cross-sectional study, the hospital records of two thousand, two hundred and seventy eight neonates were analyzed from patients’ data register for the year 2020. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel spread sheet. Of 2278 children admitted to the neonatal ward, only 29.2% babies had birth weight within normal range, 0.7% neonates were high birth weight, and the rest of the admitted babies (70.1%) during the year 2020 had birth weight below 2500 grams. Smallest birth weight observed in the study was 0.9 kg and 4.8 kg was highest birth weight (mean 2.35 kg, SD 0.88, SE 0.012). Female neonates were 895 (39.3%) and the rest of the 1383 (60.7%) babies were male. This study revealed that in Sindh province of Pakistan, the prevalence of low birth weight is extremely high during COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the findings suggest that there is need for a lot more emphasis on improving maternal mental health, nutrition and several other relevant factors to reduce the prevalence of low birth weight.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association between Chewable Tobacco Consumption and Oral Hygiene Habits on Periodontal Health

Moomal Memon, Shazia Shaikh, Muhammad Ilyas Siddiqui, Sikander Munir Memon, Aosaf Anwar, Eshnawar Ishaque

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 107-113
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32531

Aims: To determine the pattern of chewable tobacco habits, to assess the oral hygiene habits among patients visiting dental OPD and to determine the association of oral health maintenance and chewable tobacco with severity of periodontal disease.

Study Design: It was a comparative cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Dental Outpatient Department, Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad and Jamshoro for six months from 1st February 2020 to 31st July 2020.

Methodology: A total of 362 subjects were selected by non-probability sampling technique. A pre-designed questionnaire was used to collect the data. Questionnaire forms was close and open ended. The investigator checked the patients, under the supervision of the OPD specialist and classified the periodontal health status. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS v.22) was used for data analysis.

Results: A total of 362 subjects, (84.5%) male and (15.5%) females were included in the study with the mean age 34.9 and SD ± 11.7. A highly significant association was found between chewable tobacco consumption and oral hygiene habits on periodontal health (p=<0.001) and statistically significant difference was found between the scores of measure of probing depth and loss of attachment for male and females (p=<0.001).

Conclusion: Periodontal diseases and poor oral hygiene have been diagnosed in all consumers of chewable tobacco. Usage of various types of chewing tobacco has been found to exacerbate the condition by developing pocket formation, bleeding on the probe, and inducing gingival recession as well.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Calcium Levels in Preeclampsia

Feriha Fatima Khidri, Hina Riaz, Farah Naz, . Almas, Arsalan Ahmed Uqaili, Roohi Naz, Faiza Kamran Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 127-131
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32533

Objectives: To determine the serum calcium levels in mild and severe preeclampsia and compare it with normal pregnancy.

Methods: It was a comparative cross sectional study. Thirty five normotensive pregnant women, n=30 women with mild preeclampsia and n=70 with severe preeclampsia were recruited at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Hospital. The serum calcium was measured and levels were compared among three groups. The data was analysed on SPSS v. 20.

Results: The gestational age was more in the normal pregnancy compared to mild and severe preeclampsia (38.7±2.1 vs 36.7±3.6 and 36.2±2.8, p-value=0.0002). The calcium concentration was less in the both groups of preeclampsia i.e., 8.41± 0.96 mg/dl in mild and 8.02± 0.77 mg/dl in severe preeclampsia vs 9.2± 0.32 mg/dl in normal pregnant women, (p-value <0.001).

Conclusion: We found lower levels of serum calcium in preeclampsia, suggesting its possible role in pathogenesis. Further studies to investigate the potential role of dietary supplementation of micronutrients during pregnancy are recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Female Students Preferences for Different Pharmacy Departments in Research Project Course

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 132-136
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32535

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate female pharmacy students preferences for different pharmacy departments in research project course in Al-Kharj.

Methodology: This was a retrospective study that included the response of the fifth year female students in the college of pharmacy in Al-Kharj in 2020. The students ranked the pharmacy departments according to their preferences. Female pharmacy students in Al-kharj were included. Female students in other colleges and male students were excluded from the study.

Results: More than half of the respondents had a high grade of 4 or more out of 5 (53.85%). Most of the students (58.97%) choose a research project in clinical pharmacy department (51.28% select clinical pharmacy as a first choice and 7.69% as a second choice). Most of the students who selected clinical pharmacy department as a first choice had a high grade (80 % of the students had a grade of 3.5 or more out of 5).

Conclusion: Most of the female students choose a research project in clinical pharmacy department this results is rational because generally a high percentage of pharmacy students plan to work in hospitals after graduation. So, research training is important for pharmacy students to improve their ability to solve drug therapy problems, counsel patients and communicate efficiently with health care professionals.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation on Sealing Ability of Calcium Silicate-Based Cements and Glass Ionomer Cement as Perforation Repair Materials

Vanishree H. Shivakumar, Anand S. Tegginamani, Daniel Devaprakash Dicksit, Ahmad Termizi B Zamzuri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 137-145
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32536

Aims: The study evaluated the sealing ability of Biodentine, MTA Repair HP, and Glass ionomer cement as perforation repair materials by using a Stereomicroscopic analysis.

Study Design: Experimental in vitro study

Methodology: The access cavity was prepared on 45 samples of maxillary and mandibular teeth with a perforation of the standardized diameter of a No. 2 round bur at the bottom of the pulp chamber. All 45 samples were divided into three different experimental groups of 15 samples each. Group A (n=15), Group B (n=15) and Group C (n=15). The furcation repairs of the samples in groups A, B and C were carried out using Biodentine, MTA Repair HP and glass ionomer cement respectively. All sealed furcation perforation samples were stored at room temperature for 24 hours. Two layers of nail varnish were coated on all the surfaces to avoid dye penetration except for 2 mm around the area of the perforation site. After complete drying, all specimens were separately soaked in 2% methylene blue solution for 48 hours, cleaned with water and dried for 24 hours. They were sectioned buccolingually. The perforation wall of the sectioned sample with the greatest dye penetration was selected for microleakage analysis.

Results: The collected data from the three experimental groups were subjected to statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test for multiple comparisons of mean differences in dye penetration. The Biodentine group had the significantly lowest dye penetration length compared with the MTA Repair HP and glass ionomer cement groups (P<0.001).

Conclusion: Biodentine showed better sealing ability as a repair material for furcation perforations compared to the other two materials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation Reduces Oxidative Stress in Patients with Pre-Eclampsia

Farheen Shaikh, Hazooran Lakhan, Khalil Ahmed Memon, Bibi Sarah, Shafaq Ansari, Tazeen Shah, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 146-151
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32537

Objective: To determine the effect of CoQ10 supplementation in reduction of oxidative stress by index marker, Malondialdehyde (MDA), super oxidase dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in patients with pre-eclampsia. 

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry LUMHS, Jamshoro. During the period of January 2018 to June 2018. Total 200 pregnant women were recruited and divided into two groups. 50 females were normotensive pregnant women as a control group, 150 were pre-eclamptic patients as case group. Obstetric history, clinical data was gathered and then 5ml of blood sample was collected from each patient. The blood samples were taken before and after a 3 months’ supplementation to analyse Malondialdehyde (MDA). The CoQ10 was evaluated by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) and MDA, SOD, CAT and GPx were performed on UV- spectrophotometer. Data was analysed by using SPSS version 22. Student t­test was used for analysed of continuous variables.

Results: The pre-eclamptic women treated with CoQ10 supplementation the plasma CoQ10 levels and MDA, SOD and CAT levels increased marked after 3 months(p<0.001). But the Glutathione Peroxidase was insignificant results as compared with controls (p=0.057).

Conclusion: The present study reflects that supplementation of CoQ10 decreased the oxidative stress and also helpful in improving the health of mother as well of her foetus by increase antioxidant activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Food Selectivity and Food Preferences of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Amna Rashid, Nayab Iftikhar, Syeda Asfara Badar, Fahad Masood, Iqra Rehman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 152-159
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32538

Aims: To determine the Food Preferences and factors influencing food selectivity for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Study Design: It was a cross-sectional survey.

Place and Duration of Study: Data was collected within the time frame of six months from February 2019 to July 2019. Data was collected from different educational centers, rehabilitation centers, clinics and special education schools in Lahore, Pakistan.

Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using convenient sampling technique. Data was collected from parents of children with Autism by using a questionnaire. Data was collected within the time frame of six months from February 2019 to July 2019. Data was collected from different educational centers, rehabilitation centers, clinics and special education schools in Lahore, Pakistan.

Results: In sample of 68 children 22 (32.4%) were female and 46 (67.6%) were male. Out of 68 children, 55(80.8%) liked rice ,40(58.8%) liked junk food, 41(60.2%) liked bread, 38(55.8%) liked crunchy food and 36(53%) liked fruits. Out of 68 children 32(47%) didn’t need certain silverware or temperature to eat food, 33(48%) didn’t prefer to sit with specific person or chair at meals, 31(.5%) didn’t show any behavior like crying and screaming, 30(44.1%) didn’t refuse food if not in a presentable way and 30(44.1%) disagreed to eat single food three times.

Conclusion: This study significantly shows that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder has some food preferences. They like to eat soft food like rice and bread rather than churchy one, they like fruits, vegetable, junk food. They show behaviors like throw food while eating and refuses to self-feed. They prefer to watch TV or any electronic device at mealtime. Due to their sensory issues they refuse to taste new food. The result indicates that autistic child has food preferences and they show limited acceptance towards food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Effect Aqueous Extract and Nano-Sidr Synthetic of Leaves Ziziphus Spina-christi with Silver Nanoparticles the on Biofilm of Local Isolates of Staphylococcus. Spp

Furqan Fadhil Najm, Siham Jasim Alkaabi, Quraish Abbas Kadhum

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 178-190
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32542

Aims: This study aims to investigate the inhibitory susceptibility of extract Sidr leaf (Ziziphus spina-christi) aqueous, silver nanoparticles Ag NPs and Sidr nanoparticle "Nano-sidr" (Ziziphus spina-christi) against local isolates of Staphylococcus.SPP, and their inhibition effect on biofilm formation.

Study Design: Initially diagnosed by The use of Mannitol salt agar medium, then 26 isolates were selected from them depending on the resistance to methicilln and Vancomycin that were conducted.

Place and Duration of Study: The samples were collected from AL-Najaf AL-Ashraf and Baghdad hospitals.

Methodology: These isolates were subjected to a VITEK-2 compact system "ID, AST", to ascertain the genus and type of Staphylococcus bacteria., morphological and biochemical tests were conducted on them to confirm them.

Results: The result of the diagnosis showed 10 isolates belonging to Staphylococcus aureus, and a number of them were resistant to as MRSA-VRSA, and 7 were Staphylococcus haemolyticus and they were all resistant and known as MRSA-VRSA, and two isolates of Staphylococcus sciuri bacteria, one of them was resistant to VRSA and the other to MRSA-VRSA , two isolates of Staphylococcus warneri were both resistant to MRSA, two isolates of Staphylococcus lugdunensis were resistant to antibiotics, one of them was VRSA and the other was MRSA-VRSA, and one isolate of Staphylococcus lentus was also resistant to antibiotics MRSA-VRSA, and one isolate of Staphylococcus warneri was resistant to MRSA-VRSA, and one isolate of Staphylococcus lugdunensis was resistant to antibiotics.

Conclusion: Isolation of Staphylococcus vitulinus. 11 different isolates were selected from them according to their resistance to antibiotics, and after selecting the most efficient one by examining the inhibitory activity by diffusion method. The results showed the ability of both types of nanoparticles. Plant extracts prevent the formation of biofilms

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Outcome of Ventricular Septal Rupture Complicating Acute Myocardial Infarction – A Single Centre Retrospective Study

Jayanty Venkata Balasubramaniyan, Ravanasamudram Hariharan Lakshmi, Harsimran Singh, J. S. Sathyanarayana Murthy, Vaishnavi Chandrakumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 197-203
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32544

Objective: Ventricular Septal Rupture (VSR) following Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) is a fatal mechanical complication with high incidence of mortality. The aim of this study is to explore the clinical outcomes and to identify the factors related to early mortality in patients with VSR after AMI.

Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study and we collected clinical data of 21 adult patients with VSR following AMI from April 2012 and October 2020 who got admitted at our tertiary care centre. The patients were classified into two groups. The first group consisted of patients who died within two weeks from the diagnosis of VSR following AMI and the second group comprised of patients who survived more than two weeks after VSR.

Results: A total of 21 patients (mean age of 66.19±9.47 years) were enrolled in this study. The most common MI was Anterior MI (71.4%) and the location of VSR was predominantly in the anterior and apical septum (76.2%). The overall early mortality was 85.9% (n=18). 80.95% (n=17) of patients died within two weeks of diagnosis of AMI. Of the 4 patients who survived more than two weeks, three patients survived. The operative mortality in our study was 47%.

Conclusion: The prognosis for VSR in AMI remains poor. Renal failure is accompanied with high rate of early mortality in patients with VSR complicating AMI. History of smoking is associated with poor outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Anaemia among Adolescent Girls in Selected Schools

A. Kawale, V. Taksande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 210-220
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32547

To assess the prevalence and risk factors which contribute to anemia among adolescent girls in selected

Introduction: ‘Anemia is a disease in which, because of one or more vital nutrient deficiencies, the blood hemoglobin content is lower than average, irrespective of the cause of such deficiency. In Maharashtra, according to District Level Household Survey (DLHS) 2002-2006, the prevalence of moderate anemia in adolescent girls was estimated to be 53%, whereas severe anemia was 29%.

Aims: To assess the Prevalence and risk factors which contribute to anemia among adolescent girls in selected Schools.

Research Methodology: A cross sectional study was carried in 150 adolescent girls age between 10 to 15 years. Quantitative research approach was used. Non-probability convenience sample technique was used.

Results: The data obtained to describe the sample characteristics including demographic variables (age of adolescent girls, education, mother education, type of family, monthly family income and type of diet), prevalence of anemia among adolescent girls, menstrual factors and dietary factors. The levels of anemia were seen into 4 categories, normal Hb% level, mild anemia, moderate anemia and severe anemia. In demographic variables, Type of family of adolescent girls (p=0.04) is statistically associated with prevalence of anemia. In menstrual factors, duration of blood flow is found to be statistically associated with menstrual factors of adolescent girls (p=0.0001). In dietary factors, it is interpreted dietary factors of adolescent girls is statistically not associated with their prevalence of anemia.

Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia is more in adolescent girls. A statistically significant was found between nuclear family but not with the other socio-demographic factors. No association was found between status of menstrual factors except duration of blood flow.

Open Access Original Research Article

Failure to Quit Smoking Extent and Determinants among Attendees of Tobacco Cessation Clinic

Rafat Hussam Abushanab, Abdullah H. Alshehri, Abdullah Muidh Y. Alqthami, Abdulsalam Alshehri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 221-235
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32548

Smoking is a global health risk factor despite the efforts to control and the existance of tobacco cessation program. The objective of this study was to measure the proportion of people who failed to quit smoking at the end of six months after attending the smoking cessation clinic and to identify the factors associated with failure to quit. We used an analytical cross-sectional design which was conducted at Taif city, Saudi Arabia between January 2019 and March 2020. The attendees of smoking cessation clinic were invited to participate in the study. We used a questionnaire as the data collection too. The statistical package for the social sciences (IBM Corp. Released 2020. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 27.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp ) was used to analyze the data. The total responses was 393, out of them  201 (51.1%) failed to quit smoking after six months. Age, marital status, income, and occupation were significantly associated with the outcome variable (quit or not). Even before attending the clinic (62.3%) have indicated previous failed attempts. Among the different types of smoking, hookah showed a significant association with failure, while nicotine dependence did not showed any significance. Failure to quit was associated with advanced age, smoking hookah, while those who indicated the price of tobacco products as a reason to quit were more prone to fail in quitting smoking. In conclusion, smoking cessation can be influenced by a sociodemographic factors, willingness and family support. Smoking hookah is associated with higher rates of failure to quit smoking.

Open Access Original Research Article

IgG Antibody Seroprevalence Post Covishield Vaccination in Western Uttar Pradesh: A Hospital Based Study

Sangeeta Kapoor, Sushil Yadav, V. K. Singh, Umme Afifa, Sudhir Kumar Gupta, Himani Muniyal, Anoop Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 236-247
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32549

Background: Covid-19, a zoonotic disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus - 2 (SARSCov-2) has emerged as a worldwide infection and has been declared pandemic since March, 2020, by WHO. This has brought about tremendous burden on the health care system of not only the developing or the third world countries but also that of prosperous counties of the world. The recent Covid-19 pandemic has pushed the worldwide scientific and medical community to find a solution with the help of vaccines to control SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. An effective vaccine is one which leads to synthesis of IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, thus aiding the control and decline of the pandemic.

Aim: This study aims to evaluate the antibody titres post 1st dose and post 2nd dose Covishield vaccination and reveals the safety and efficacy of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19(Recombinant) Covishield vaccine.

Methodology: The levels of IgG antibodies were estimated in 215 subjects (both normal subjects and Covid-19 positive subjects) using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Technique.

Results: Two hundred & fifteen subjects from Teerthanker Mahaveer Hospital of Moradabad (western Uttar Pradesh) were enrolled for the study. The participants were divided into two different groups. Group I comprised of 215 subjects who received 1st dose of the Covishield vaccine. Group II comprised of 101 subjects who received both the doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19(Recombinant) Covishield vaccine. Levels of IgG were analysed 28 days post 1st dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19(Recombinant) Covishield vaccine and post 2nd dose of  ChAdOx1 nCoV-19(Recombinant) Covishield vaccination. After testing serologically for neutralising IgG antibodies, the titre was found to be below the threshold level of 1.1 in 67.40% of the subjects in the study group 1, whereas 32.60% (n=70) were found to be in the seroprotective range (i.e IgG titre > 1.1). Out of the total 101 participants who took both the doses, 39 participants (38.6%) were found to be in the seroprotective range (i.e IgG titre > 1.1).

Conclusion: The two doses of Covishield vaccination (4 weeks interval) given to subjects resulted in increase in IgG antibody titre (Neutralising Antibodies) against both spike protein and nucleocapsid protein after 1st dose and 2nd dose and that single dose may suffice for seroprotection in subjects with previous history of COVID-19 who had recovered from the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Playing Venue on Pre-Competition Cortisol Level and Competitive State Anxiety in University Basketball Players

Yasmeen Tabassum, Sumera Sattar, Muhammad Amir Iqbal, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Butt, Muhammad Abdul Jabar Adnan, Nabila Roohi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 248-255
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32550

The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of playing venue for pre-competition cortisol and state anxiety in university male basketball players. Ninety six players from public and private universities of Lahore have evaluated during eight competitive matches played at home (n=4) and away (n=4) venues. Blood samples were collected to analyze the cortisol concentrations by the ELISA assay and state anxiety was assessed using the CSAI-2 questionnaire. All the data collection took place before the pre-match warm-up. Data was analyzed by using paired sample t test. Results showed that cortisol was significantly (p-0.002) elevated on away ground, whereas, somatic state anxiety was markedly (p-0.001) increased on an opponents home ground. In conclusion, it is suggested that playing venue affects cortisol response and anxiety score values on away ground that results in psychological interventions for players to deal with all threats and stressful stimuli of playing venue factors affecting the players performance on an opponents home ground.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Ocimum sanctum Gestational Administration on Physiological and Behavioral Aspects of Mice Offspring

Indu Thakur, Papiya Bigoniya, P. Uma Devi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 256-267
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32551

Aims: Prenatal maternal stress and anxiety affect the offspring causing low birth weight, decreased motor activity, and developmental delays. Ocimum sanctum is cherished as the holiest herb in India and possesses strong adaptogenic, memory enhancer, and anti-stress properties. This study aimed to assess the effect of O. sanctum leaf aqueous extract on preventing pregnancy related stress impact on the mice offspring.

Methodology: Pregnant female mice were treated with O. sanctum leaf aqueous extract throughout the gestation period at 100 mg/kg, p.o, while exposed to resident–intruder social stress paradigm. Physiological, morphological, and behavioral aspects of offspring were observed for 6 weeks.

Results: Pups of O. sanctum treated mothers showed significantly (P < 0.05) improved body weight, body length, and head length. O. sanctum treatment has significantly reduced eye opening and pinna detachment period (P < 0.05-0.01), and duration for gaining surface righting and mid-air righting refluxes (P < 0.05). O. Sanctum has significantly increased (P < 0.05-0.01) number of correct entries in radial arm maze and line crossing in open field performance.

Conclusion: The study outcome proves the beneficial role of O. Sanctum in ameliorating prenatal stress and anxiety induced deleterious effect on offspring.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lung Delivery Systems to Optimize Pharmacotherapy of COVID-19: A Concise Review

Mohsen Geza. Alrashedi, Ahmed Geza. Alrashedi, Ahmed Shaker. Ali, Ibrahim M. Ibrahim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 268-277
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32552

Background: COVID-19 is an ongoing viral pandemic caused by the SARS-COV-2 virus. Several drugs were repurposed for its management; however, most of these drugs were not ideal treatments by traditional methods of administration, whether given by injection or orally. This is due to many reasons including pharmacokinetic limitations or drug-induced adverse effects. There is an urgent need to develop these drugs to target the virus in the lung tissue through inhalation.

Objective: To address the gap in knowledge regarding efficacy and safety of pulmonary drug delivery of repurposed antiviral against COVID-19.

Findings: Ongoing trials for inhalable formulations of several drugs such as Niclosamide; Remdesivir, Hydroxychloroquine, and Azithromycin among others showed promising results.

Conclusion: The development of pharmaceutical forms for inhaled administration of antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs is an important direction that needs more attention to achieve the optimal management of respiratory infectious diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemometric Access for RP-HPLC Simultaneous Estimation of Tadalafil and Dapoxetine Applying Response Surface Methodology

S. Jayaseelan, N. Kannappan, V. Ganesan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 278-288
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32553

Aims: A RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Tadalafil and Dapoxetine applying statistical experimental design.

Methodology: Multivariate optimization of the experimental conditions of RP-HPLC method was using Design of experiments. Independent three factors like phosphate buffer pH, mobile phase composition and flow rate were applied to design mathematical models. To study the response surface methodology by using Central composite design (CCD). In depth the effects of these independent factors was studied using CCD. Simultaneously optimize the retention time and resolution of the analytes was applying Desirability function.

Results: The predicted and optimized data from contour picture containing phosphate buffer (pH 3.4) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 40:60%v/v respectively. Flow rate was found to be 0.8 ml/min. Baseline separation of both analytes with run time of less than 10.0 min and good resolution were achieved using these optimum conditions.

Conclusion: Method was validated according to ICH guidelines by using optimized assay conditions. Therefore, the reports distinctly indicated that Quality by design access could be satisfactorily used to optimize RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Tadalafil and Dapoxetine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Practices on Risk Factors and Prevention of Varicose Vein among Operation Room Nurses of the Selected Hospitals

Premalatha Paulsamy, Shadia Hamoud Alshahrani, Eva Lobelle E. Sampayan, Absar Ahmed Qureshi, Krishnaraju Venkatesan, Pranave Sethuraj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 294-299
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32555

Lower-limb varicose veins (VVs) are frequent, and they're known to be more common in persons who work in jobs that require a lot of standing. Because nursing demands physical labour and lengthy periods of standing, women in this profession are at a higher risk of getting varicose veins. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and practices on risk factors and prevention of varicose vein among operation room nurses of the selected hospitals. A cross-sectional research design was used among registered nursing staff working in operation rooms of the selected hospitals. The convenient sampling technique was used to select fifty nurses. A structured pre-tested, validated tool was developed by the investigators to collect data from the nurses which include demographic as well as knowledge and practice variables of varicose veins. The findings of the present study show that 26% of nurses had inadequate knowledge and 14% of operation room nurses had poor practices. Also, there was a positive correlation between the knowledge and practice of nurses (r = 0.71). There was significant association for practice skills score with education and years of experience at p=0.05. The study concludes that to prevent occupational hazards in nursing, periodic health education and health promotion initiatives must be implemented.

Open Access Original Research Article

Niosomal Encapsulation of Curcumin: Formulation and Characterization

Deepak Singh, Prashant Upadhyay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 300-314
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32556

Aim: Because of its many actions, curcumin, a plant-derived polyphenolic substance found naturally in turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been the focus of a significant investigation. The utilization of safe, useful, and highly functional chemicals obtained from natural sources in human nutrition/prevention/therapy needs some modifications to achieve multifunctionality, enhance the bioavailability, and delivery methods, all to enhance their efficacy. Curcumin's limited water solubility, fast metabolism and removal from the body, and hence low bioavailability, are significant obstacles to its use. To address these issues, a variety of new drug delivery systems with multiple routes of administration have evolved. Encapsulating the medication in vesicular structures is one such technique that, if successful in enabling selective absorption, can be predicted to extend the drug's life in systemic circulation and reduce toxicity. As a result, several vesicular drug delivery methods, including liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, and pharmacosomes, have been developed. Since then, developments in vesicular drug delivery have resulted in the creation of systems that enable drug targeting as well as the prolonged or controlled release of traditional medications. The present study aimed to develop and characterize curcumin-loaded niosomes.

Design of Study: In present study 32 factorial method was used to formulate different formulations of niosomes containing curcumin.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, IFTM University Moradabad, From December to May 2021.

Methodology: Various niosomal formulations of curcumin were developed by using surfactant and cholesterol by thin-film hydration technique. Total 9 formulations were developed and characterized (32 factorial designs).

Results: Formulation N7 was considered as an optimized formulation since formulation F7 has maximum drug entrapment and a prolonged drug release rate. The present study suggests that the concentration of surfactant and cholesterol affects % drug loading efficiency of niosomes. The percentage entrapment efficiency of niosomes increases on the increasing concentration of surfactant (Span 60) and cholesterol but above a certain concentration of cholesterol further increment in cholesterol concentration reduces drug entrapment efficiency of niosomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

GCMS Profile of Bioactive Compounds with Therapeutic Potential in Beta vulgaris (L.) Ethanolic Leaf Extracts

J. Harine Sargunam, S. Thilakavathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 354-360
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32563

Plants, animals, and microorganisms have all been shown to have health benefits for humans. According to World Health Organization, plant medicines continue to be used by 80 percent of the world’s population in developing countries. Plant-derived secondary metabolites are macromolecules that are biosynthesized in plants and have a variety of biological properties that are beneficial to humans, including antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and antioxidant properties. Therefore, the present investigation was done to determine the bioactive compounds present in Beta vulgaris (L.) leaves powder using Perkin-Elmer Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract matched the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library. GC-MS analysis of an ethanolic extract of Beta vulgaris (L.) revealed the presence of 25 bioactive compounds with different area percentages and structural details. The major bioactive compounds are 1,3,5,7- Tetroxane (73.1%), Decane (83.1%), Azulene (73.8%), 4-Hepten-2-one, 5-ethyl-3,3,4-trimethyl-(71.1%), 6-Amino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4 (1H, 3H)-dione(65.1%), Phthalic acid, 4-bromophenyl ethyl ester(83.7%), Neophtadiene(93.1%), Neophytadiene (88.2%)Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester(84.8%), n-Hexadecanoic acid(84.3%), Phytol(86.0%), 9- octadecenoic acid, (E)(88.6%), 2-Hexadecen-1-ol,3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-acetate,[R-[R*,R*-(E)]]-(64.0%), 1-Tricosene(72.3%) and 17-Pentatriacontene(65.6%). Most identified compounds have bioactivities such as Antimalaria, Anti-inflammatory, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Antidiabetic, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Analgesic, Anti-hyperlipidemic, Hypocholesterolemic, Hepatoprotective, and Anti-androgenic, so that they can be recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance. Therefore ethanol extract of Beta vulgaris (L.) leaves proves as a potential source of bioactive compounds of pharmacological importance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Professional Behaviours among Nurses Working at a Selected Teaching Hospital in India

Shadia Hamoud Alshahrani, Premalatha Paulsamy, Absar Ahmed Qureshi, Krishnaraju Venkatesan, E. Eva Lobelle, Sanaa Mohamed, Pranave Sethuraj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 361-367
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32564

Nursing is an essential component of all healthcare services, with the potential to have a significant and long-term impact on health outcomes for the world's ageing population. As their professional behaviour plays a major role in improving the quality of patient care, this study was conducted to determine the professional behaviour of nurses. A descriptive and cross-sectional study design was selected with fifty nurses working in a selected teaching hospital who were selected using convenient sampling technique. The Behavioural Inventory for Professionalism in Nursing (BIPN) was used to determine the professional behaviour of nurses. The inventory has a total possible composite score of 27. All of the items were dichotomous and questioned about the nurse's actions in the last two years. The autonomy and research were the areas where nurses receive the lowest mean ratings from the BIPN subscales. The nurse's mean scores in the areas of competence and continuous education (mean = 1.97), educational preparedness (mean = 1.87) and application of theory (mean = 1.73) were the highest with the mean total score from BIPN was 10.44± 3.55. The results showed that age, gender, nurses' role, their years of experience and educational status had a statistically significant association with professional behaviour. Hence, the ways to improve the professional behaviour among nurses to be investigated and must be supported to uplift the image of nursing and the quality of patient care.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drug Interaction Management in Critically Ill Patient

Hemraj Singh Rajput, Nirmal V. Shah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 396-416
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32570

Drug interaction in critically ill patient is very common and affecting patients Physically, Mentally and Financially. There are various measures which has been taken to minimize this burden on patient, such as books being prepared which include various drug interaction, maintain websites and database that provides information regarding drug interactions. With the use of these website and databases the drug interaction can be managed. It is common practice that side effects of drug interaction are being managed by additional drugs, the main reason behind it could be non-availability of alternative drugs or costlier alternative. These factors remain the main cause of treatment failure in majority of patients leading to prolong. The current study was performed for the duration of 12 months, from this study it was identified that 113 types of major drug interactions commonly found in total 250 prescriptions which were evaluated and managed accordingly. Suggestions being prescribed by various sites were, avoid concomitant use of drug, use alternative therapy, and monitor closely for any adverse effect. During suggestion made by the Clinical Pharmacist, for the same drug interactions it was identified that more of drug therapy adjustment can be done then provided by the online database. The parameter on which the drug interactions management are being suggested were focused on just type of drug interaction and its effect, it does not include the actual pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic changes in therapy. The suggestion made by the clinical pharmacist were includes drug removal, drug dosage changes, alternative therapy, alternative route of administration, change in time interval etc. From this study it was concluded that the drug interaction management can be done at various stages of treatment with proper therapy modification by the clinical pharmacist, and if done properly it will improve the overall outcome of patient health care.

Open Access Original Research Article

Result of Ring Fixator in High-energy Schatzker Type VI Fractures of Proximal Tibia

Aftab Alam Khanzada, Muhammad Rafique Joyo, Muhammad Imran Javed, Nizam Ahmed, Niaz Hussain Keerio, Ghazanfar Ali Shah, Syed Shahid Noor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 451-459
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32574

Background: Significant articular depression, separation of both condyles, diaphyseal comminution and dissociation, and loss of soft-tissue envelope integrity are all associated with high-energy proximal tibia fractures (Schatzker VI). Over the past 50 years, there has been a lot of research on plating problems in these complicated fractures. For the care of these complex injuries, Ilizarov devised a new method (ring fixator).

Aim of the Study: To examine the outcomes of patients who received a ring fixator for the treatment of high-energy proximal tibia fractures (Schatzker VI).

Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients (mean age 36) were treated with the Ilizarov fixator and transfixion wires for high-energy fractures of the proximal tibia (Schatzker VI). Nine of the patients had open fractures, and five of them had significant soft tissue damage. They were all tracked for an average of 19.4 months. The result was analyzed using the criteria set by Honkonen & Jarvinen (1992).

Results: Thirteen fractures healed in an average of 14.6 weeks, with one taking six months. Twelve patients recovered complete extension, while eight others regained more than 110 degrees of flexion. All of the patients knees were stable, except one who had a minor varus deformity. Nine patients walked normally, while four had a little limp. Except for one, all of the knees exhibited an articular step-off of less than 4 mm and normal axial alignment. Six knees were found to be outstanding, five to be decent, and three to be fair. There were no instances of postoperative skin infection or septic arthritis, however, three patients did have a pin tract infection that was effectively managed.

Conclusion: The technique is suitable for the treatment of complex proximal tibia fractures when there is substantial comminution at the fracture site as well as soft tissue damage (Schatzker VI).

Open Access Original Research Article

Breast Self-examination: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Female College Students

Premalatha Paulsamy, Shadia Hamoud Alshahrani, Absar Ahmed Qureshi, Eva Lobelle E. Sampayan, Krishnaraju Venkatesan, Pranave Sethuraj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 460-465
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32575

In low–middle-income countries, breast self-examination (BSE) is a simple, practicable, and appropriate tool for breast cancer screening. The goal of this study was to analyze female college students' knowledge and practice of BSE. A cross-sectional study of 200 female students was done using a convenient sampling technique. The self administered questionnaire with the socio-demographic data, questions about knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding BSE was used to collect the data among the female college students of an educational institution. The descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse the data. The results show that the level of knowledge on BSE among 77% of the girls was inadequate and 61% of them had negative practice towards BSE. Despite the good attitude (69%) about BSE, there was inadequate knowledge and practice. The participants' age and family history of breast cancer was positively associated with their attitude (p = 0.01) and knowledge (p= 0.05) respectively. The study recommends the mass awareness campaigns related to BSE and early detection of breast cancer to be given to improve the knowledge, attitude and practice of the women and thereby reduce the related morbidity and mortality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Remineralisation with Nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) and Non-collagenous Protein Analogues (PAA and STPP) on the Micro Tensile Bond Strength of the Resin Composites to Dentin – An In vitro Study

Soumya Nair, Sylvia Mathew, John V. George, Rhea Mathew, Arathi S. Nair, Chutty Issac

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 466-474
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32576

Background: Resin-dentin bonds are less durable than enamel as they rely on organic part for mineralisation. Bond denaturation mainly takes place because of hydrolysis of polymerized resin or degradation of water-rich, resin-sparse collagen by collagenolytic endogenous matrix metalloproteinase and cysteine cathepsins. Hence, this limited stability of dentin bonding tenaciously reduces the longevity of tooth-coloured restorations. One of the strategies adopted to encounter this shortcoming is to induce biomimetic remineralisation.

Aim: To assess the microtensile bond strength of resin composites to dentin following remineralisation using an experimental paste containing nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) and biomimetic analogues, Poly Acrylic Acid (PAA) and Sodium Tri Polyphosphate (STPP).

Methodology: Nine intact freshly extracted third molar were used for this study to evaluate the microtensile bond strength after treating with three different groups; Group I with paste containing nano hydroxyapatite nHAp Group II paste containing nHAp and non-collagenous protein analogues such as (Polyacrcrylic acid and Sodium tripolyphosphate) and the control groups containing adhesive and resin composite with no additional treatment. The samples were observed over a period of 24 hours and 1 week the inter group data analysis was done using ANOVA and paired sample t test and the intra-group data analysis over period of 24 hours the post HOC Bonferroni test was used for the statistical analysis.

Results: After 24 hours the group with nHAp group showed highest value for microtensile bond strength among other groups, however after one week the group with nHAp +NCP analogues(PAA+STPP) showed highest value for microtensile bond.

Conclusion: The treatment with the experimental paste [nHAp+NCP] analogues (PAA+STPP)] can bring about remineralisation to improve bonding to dentin.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Compare the Effect on IOP Following Primary Trabeculectomy with MMC 0.2% versus Trabeculectomy without MMC in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

Zakaullah Gopang, Shabeer Ahmed Bhutto, Naeem Akhtar Katpar, Arslan hassan Rajper, Vijay Nagdev

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 475-480
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32577

Objective: To determine the effect on intraocular pressure following primary Trabeculectomy with MMC 0.2% versus Trabeculectomy without MMC in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma.

Study Design: This is a prospective and experimental Study.

Setting: Study carried out at Ophthalmology Department, Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University Larkana, from 01-03-2020 to 31-08-2020 (06 Months).

Materials and Methods: The patients with primary open angle glaucoma were selected from glaucoma clinic after taking careful history and clinical examination. Patients selected for trabeculectomy into two groups. Group A includes 43 patients while Group B also includes 43 patients. Among Group A patients adjunctive MMC 0.2mg/ml for a period of 3 minutes was used during trabeculectomy as a primary procedure (Test Group) while Group B patients were operated without MMC 0.2% (Control Group). Follow-up period of 06 months was observed in both groups. The span of study was from 01-03-2020 to 31-08-2020.

Results: The total of 86 Eyes of 86 patients of POAG were included in this study. Group A patients were operated for trabeculectomy with MMC while group B patients were operated for trabeculectomy without MMC. The mean IOP before surgery of Group-A was 25.39±2.42 mmHg while in Group-B it was 26.23±4.23mmHg. At day 1 of surgery in Group-A patients IOP was 13.20±3.05 mmHg while in Group-B patients IOP, was 14.09±4.04 mmHg. After 3 months in Group-A, IOP was 13.04±3.81 mmHg in Group-B IOP was 14.01±4.18 mmHg. Out of 43 patients in Group-A, 41(95.3%) were succeeded while in Group-B, 39(90.7%)were succeeded. Significant result was found for IOP reduction after 6 months of surgeryin group-A IOP was 13.48 + 2.86 mmHg while in group-B, IOP was 15.09 ±2.64 (P=0.754).

Conclusion: Trabeculectomy with MMC as a primary procedure seems to be more effective than trabeculectomy without MMC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Docking Study of 3, 4- Dihydropyrimidone Derivatives as Novel Anti-inflammatory Agents

Amit N. Panaskar, Ashish Jain, Pradeep Kumar Mohanty

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 481-487
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32578

Aim: Currently, researchers have developed a lot of new active substances as anti-inflammatory agents. One of the target proteins for anti-inflammatory agents is the selective COX-2 active site. Selective COX-2 inhibition is the regulator of the inflammatory reaction cascade. In this research, 3, 4- Dihydropyrimidone derivatives were used to design the anti-inflammatory agent through a selective COX-2 inhibition. The potential activity of 3, 4- Dihydropyrimidone derivatives maybe increase due to the preparation of the Schiff base with aromatic aldehydes. Selective COX-2 inhibition was required to predict their anti-inflammatory activity so, the aim in the present study, molecular docking study of 3,4- dihydropyrimidone derivatives have performed using COX-2 enzyme active site.

Methodology: The molecular docking of 3, 4-dihydropyrimidone derivatives were carried out using AutoDock vina Ver.1.1.2. Twenty 3,4-dihydropyrimidone derivatives were docked into the COX-2 active site with Protein data bank code 3LN1. The interactions were evaluated based on the docking score. Celecoxib was used as the reference standard for this study.

Results: Twenty 3, 4- dihydropyrimidone derivatives showed the approximate docking score -8.4 to -10.1 kcal/mol. Fourteen 3,4-dihydropyrimidone derivatives have a greater docking score compared to celecoxib used as a standard compound. Derivative D-1 had higher binding energy than other 3,4-dihydropyrimidone derivatives because it has the smallest docking score.

Conclusion: All new 3,4-dihydropyrimidone derivatives are feasible to synthesize and performed their in-vitro evaluation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ovarian Cysts Management Following Laparoscopic Surgery

Jabeen Atta, Zubair Ahmad Yousfani, Khenpal Das, Tahseen Maryam, Ghulamullah Rind, Geeta Bai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 488-492
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32579

Objective: To analyze diagnostic and surgical outcomes in patients with extremely large ovarian cysts treated by laparoscopic surgery.

Methods: A total of 120 cases of large adnexal masses and suspected for malignancy were treated laparoscopically at the at general surgery department of Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences. Under endotracheal anesthesia, all surgeries were performed using nasogastric tubes in the stomach. An incision of approximately 1.5 centimeter was made at the supraumbilical or umbilical region and peritoneal cavity was approached. The intra-abdominal approach in all cases was cautiously standardized. The resection of the adnexal mass was performed as per routine method.

Results: 12 females were premenopausal and 8 were postmenopausal. 12 women presented with the signs of urinary retention, urinary urgency and abdominal pain. Incidental sonography detected cysts in 8 patients which were asymptomatic. The average volume of the resected cystic fluid was 3000ml (range 900 to 9000 ml). The specimens of frozen section were obtained within the surgical procedure in all patients except 2 patients having para-ovarian cysts. The histopathology presented mucinous benign cystadenoma. There was no blood loss and related other complications reported in all operations.

Conclusion: Laparoscopic management of large ovarian cyst observed to a effective, feasible and less complicated surgical option. However accurate selection and diagnosis of the patients, the any ovarian cyst size can be treated easily via laparoscopic surgery.

Open Access Original Research Article

Increased Hatchability of Chickens against the Background of the Use of Water-Soluble Antioxidants

Konstantin S. Ostrenko, Alexander A. Deltsov, Vladimir I. Maximov, Elena V. Sukharenko

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 493-500
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32580

The use of antioxidants is an effective means of increasing egg production and hatchability of chickens. The difficulty in application is in the methods of administration of drugs to chickens. Fat-soluble antioxidants are mainly available on the market.

Aims: The aim of the study was to study the effectiveness of water-soluble antioxidants on physiological and zootechnical indicators of egg incubation and hatchability of offspring.

Methodology: The study was conducted on two groups of laying hens of Ostad, selected by random sampling of one hundred heads per group. For 41 days, the chickens of the experimental group received a basic diet enriched with dihydroetoxychine (DHE) in order to increase the antioxidant status at a dosage of 100 mg/kg of feed. Samples were taken from the axillary vein on the 25th day of application of the supplement (n=5) for physiological and biochemical studies.

Results: During the study, it was found that in the experimental group, the concentration of cholesterol in the high-density lipoprotein fraction doubled (P<0.01), and in the low-density lipoprotein fraction decreased by almost 50% (P<0.01) compared to the control. The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the blood of chickens of the experimental group was 82.00% relative to that in the control, and in the egg yolk – only 37.42%. Egg production of chickens of the experimental group exceeded the control by 7.27%.

Conclusion: The totality of the information provided confirms the physiological adequacy for laying hens of the introduction of dihydroethoxychine in the specified dose.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of Extubation in Prone and Supine Position in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Spine Surgery in Prone Position

Amol Singam, Radhika Bajaj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 501-509
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32581

Aim: In case of surgeries done in prone position, patients are rolled to supine during extubation which is associated with loss of monitoring and hemodynamic change. Also, incidence of coughing and bucking are noted. Several studies have shown that prone position extubation is associated with reduced frequency of coughing and monitor disconnection in prone position surgeries. The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of patients extubated in prone and supine posted for lumbar spine surgery.

Study Design: 60 patients varying from age 18 - 65 years and posted for lumbar spine surgery under general anaesthesia in prone position were randomly allocated to any one of the two groups Group P - In this group extubation was done in prone position at the end of surgery or Group S – In this group extubation was done in supine position at the end of surgery.

Place and Duration of Study: Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, DMIMS (DU), Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital (AVBRH), Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Sawangi (M), Wardha over the period of 1 year (2019 - 2020).

Methods: A double blinded randomized controlled comparative study was conducted on 60 patients with primary objective to measure incidence of coughing and severity of coughing in prone vs supine extubation. Patients were anesthetized with fentanyl, nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, and vecuronium. Neuromuscular blockade was reversed in prone position and all patients had spontaneous ventilation at the conclusion of surgery. At time 0, patients were randomly divided into group P or group S. Patients in the group S were then rolled over, while those in the prone position remained undisturbed. Frequency of cough, monitor disconnection and changes in heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were noted during extubation. Patient were extubated on purposeful behaviour and eye opening.

Results: Frequency of coughing was significantly less in prone patients in comparison to supine group (6 vs. 24 coughs) monitor disconnections dysconnectivity was also fewer (p < 0.001), little change in haemodynamics was noted during extubation. Time to extubation from time 0 was comparatively more in Group S. Airway rescue was not needed.

Conclusions: Extubation in prone position is associated with lesser frequency of coughing, disruption of monitors and significantly less hemodynamic changes as compared to supine position extubation he abstract should be concise and informative. It should not exceed 300 words in length. It should briefly describe the purpose of the work, techniques and methods used, major findings with important data and conclusions. Different sub-sections, as given below, should be used. No references should be cited in this part. Generally non-standard abbreviations should not be used, if necessary they should be clearly defined in the abstract, at first use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Cephalosporin Type Antimicrobials in Infection Wards in Tertiary Hospital in West India

Revati D. Kothari, Anita Barde, Harshavardhan Bhide, Teja Deshpande, Nimish S. Narkar, A. V. Tilak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 510-517
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32582

Background: Antibiotic resistance is exponentially increasing worldwide. Irrational prescription of antibiotic treatment contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance. Appropriate antibiotic use is vital in reducing the mortality caused by bacterial infections. Third generation cephalosporins are now considered as the backbone of antibiotic therapy for treatment of serious infections including those in hospitalized patients. These drugs are the commonly prescribed ꞵ-lactam antibiotics even before culture sensitivity reports arrive. Generation of resistance has been a growing concern for all clinicians and must be avoided at all costs. This drug utilization study was undertaken to understand the growing resistance acquired by the organisms against cephalosporins caused due to the superfluous and unrestrained use of cephalosporins in the medical wards of our institution.

Objective: The study objectives were to assess:

  • The cephalosporins generation which was most commonly prescribed
  • The relevance of cephalosporins generations used in various diseases
  • The shift or addition of other antimicrobials upon failure of cephalosporins treatment

Methods: This was an observational study done amongst 350 patients admitted in infection wards of Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Pimpri, Pune over a period of one year between January 2019 to December 2019 after obtaining institutional ethical clearance. Data was analyzed and values were presented descriptively in number and percentage form.

Results: Maximum usage of third generation cephalosporin was seen with ceftriaxone being the most commonly prescribed third generation cephalosporin in parenteral form (59.43%). Gender analysis revealed that males (60.28%) were prescribed more cephalosporins as compared to females (39.71%), whereas, frequent usage was seen in the age group 61 – 70 years. Bacteriological investigations were done in only 103 (29.42%) cases following which shift or addition of other antimicrobials was seen in 13 (3.71%) cases. Metronidazole was the most frequently co-prescribed with cephalosporins.

Conclusion: Our study revealed extensive usage of third generation cephalosporin and the treatment regimens implemented in majority of the cases were without prior culture sensitivity test leading to irrational prescribing. Our study, along with the various other studies, would help in taking the corrective measures to curb the unnecessary use of antibiotics, and framing the guidelines for the doctors prescribing them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Psoriasis Vulgaris and Its Associated Risk Factors in Pakistan

Syeda Ujala Sohail, Nasima Iqbal, Ashok Kumar, Sarwath Fatimee, Ayesha Khan, Ruqaya Nangrejo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 390-395
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32585

Aim: To find out the prevalence of psoriasis vulgaris and its associated risk factors.

Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Rawalpindi Leprosy Hospital during January 2019 to December 2019.

Methodology: The diagnosed cases of Psoriasis Vulgaris (PsV) were included in the study. All the patients were investigated on the basis of an in depth Performa. The Performa include all the relevant clinical and family history of the patient along with the personal details. Data was analyzed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. All the numerical variables were presented as mean with standard deviation while categorical data as frequency and percentages. The association of risk factors with the Psoriasis was calculated by using the Chi-square test. p-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: Mean age with standard deviation of patients was 34.7±14. Most of the diagnosed patients were male and below 40 years of age, only 4.2% cases were having positive family history of Psoriasis and found significant correlation. The frequency of onset of symptoms in adolescent was more as compared to childhood i.e. 95.3% and 4.7% respectively. Majority of psoriasis cases (65.3%) were from non-smoker group and having strong association with smoking. The frequency of arthritis among psoriasis patients was 23.7% and majority of the patients, who developed arthritis were those having age <40 year and were suffering from psoriasis since 5-10 years.

Conclusion: Current study concluded that Psoriasis vulgar is having higher prevalence rate among male and below 40 years of age group. The results also suggested a strong association of severity of psoriasis with certain risk factors including family history, age of onset of symptoms, smoking and arthritis.

Open Access Review Article

Anti-Cancer Activity of Andrographolide: A Review

Vishwanadham Yerragunta, Kavita Waghray, . Shivraj, N. J. P. Subhashini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32519

Andrographolide, is a chemical compound obtained from the Andrographis paniculata (Family- Acanthaceae), maybe a diterpene lactone ring is responsible for various biological activities like anti-inflammation, anti-microbial anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetes, anti-oxidant immunomodulatory, antiseptic, hypolipidemic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective effects and other biological activities. In Current research activities worldwide to exhibit the beneficial role of Andrographolide are continuously enriching the therapeutic arsenal of this important Phyto molecule. For this purpose, several databases were accustomed explore for the anticancer/cytotoxic effects of the andrographolide in pre-clinical and clinical studies. During this report, an attempt has been given to spotlight the research findings, related to therapeutic potentials and up-to-date development within the pharmacological activities of andrographolide. Andrographolide is often one of the potential agents within the treatment of cancer.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Transferosomes and Transferosomal Gels

P. Kranthi Kumar, R. Santosh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 114-126
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32532

Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS), which are self-administrable and non-invasive, can improve bioavailability and patient compliance by bypassing first-pass metabolism. Vesicular-based TDDS have attracted a lot of attention in recent years because they're designed for controlled, efficient, and targeted drug delivery. One of these delivery technologies, transferosomal-based formulations, has grown in popularity due to its ability to achieve all of the desired criteria and quality qualities. Transferosomes combine the characteristics of liposomes and niosomes because they contain both liposomes (phospholipids and cholesterols) and niosomes as components (nonionic surfactants; edge activators). as a result, they are referred to as the first generation of elastic liposomes. However transdermal drug delivery is difficult due to the presence of the skin's protective barrier, transferosomal drug delivery overcomes all obstacles due to its unique characteristics, such as its ultradeformable vesicular nature. The benefits, limitations, modes of penetration, formulations, production and assessment methodologies, and pharmaceutical uses of transferosomal drug delivery systems are discussed in this paper.

Conclusion: Transferosomes have several importance over other vesicular systems, including greater deformability, greater penetration power across skin, the ability to deliver systemic drugs, and higher stability.

Open Access Review Article

Gastro-Retentive as Most Promising Drug Delivery System

Lankalapalli Srinivas, Sagar Shanti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 164-177
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32541

The aim of any research work is to find the complications associated with the drug or formulation and find the conclusion of what can be the best possible way to solve them. It has been observed that drugs with short half-life, pH-dependent solubility and having absorption window in upper part of GIT forms good drug candidate for gastro retentive system. Since the formulation reside at a particular site and releases the drug in a controlled manner. In this review article, we have focussed on a thorough understanding on the gastric region, which helped in selecting drugs, various types of gastro retentive systems, new outcomes from recent literature, and important evaluation parameters to attain formulation objective and various marketed products available.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Herbal Medicines on Male Infertility - A Review

B. Ashwinidevi, S. Kavitha, R. Yasodai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 289-293
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32554

Infertility is one of the most serious social problems are caused by many Factors such as genetic, environmental factors about 70% of cases remain unknown, Protective Mechanisms of the Sperm is called Spermatogenesis. The formation of the sperm from a germ cell precursor, its maturation, transport, viability, and the final steps, any changes happens in this series which causes infertility condition. The clinical detection of infertility is identified by analysis of semen. The main parameters are sperm concentration, morphology and viability of sperm .the origin of infertility in men happened by a lot of factors are hormonal disorders, mental stress, physical abnormalities, lifestyle problems, obesity , sexual issues, genetic abnormalities and deficiency of single-genes. This article aimed on the histological study testicular tissue samples, the structure of male reproductive, causes for male infertility, procedures available to find the genes engaged in infertility, the current remedial measures for male infertility. Whereas, the herbal therapies, are better positioned to offer more holistic approaches to improve male reproductive health. In traditional medicine which helps to nourishes and stimulates the sexual tissues and ameliorate male reproductive health issues.

Open Access Review Article

Efficacy of Preemptive Analgesia with Pregabalin in Orthognathic Surgery-A Systematic Review

Subhashini Ramasubbu, Abdul Wahab

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 334-340
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32560

Background: Orthognathic surgery is a treatment approach that is used for correcting the congenital or developmental anomalies of maxilla and mandible as well as secondary deformities of trauma. During these procedure saws, chisels, separators, and plate screw systems are used. Postoperative pain is an acute pain that is accompanied by the inflammatory process that occurs as a result of surgical trauma, and gradually decreases with tissue recovery. The analgesic prevents the establishment of the central sensitization due to incisional injury (only covers the surgical period) and prevents the establishment of the central sensitization (covering the surgical and early postoperative periods). Pregabalin is a structural gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue. It has been shown in recent studies that pregabalin, which is involved in chronical pain treatment, can also be involved in acute postoperative pain treatment.

Objectives: The aim of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy of preemptive analgesia with pregabalin on postoperative pain in orthognathic surgery.

Materials and Methods: The Data Bases of PubMed, Cochrane and Google scholar were searched for the related topics along with a complimentary manual search of all oral surgery journals till September 2019. Articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria, which included all RCTs.

Results: From this systematic review it is concluded that pre-emptive analgesia with pregabalin is effective in lowering acute postoperative pain in the patients who have undergone orthognathic surgery.

Conclusion: In this systematic review we have concluded that, on average, a single dose of pregabalin was shown to decrease post-operative pain. More studies have to be done to evaluate the efficacy of the drug.   

Open Access Review Article

Effect of Mental Status of Mother on Foetal Health – An Ayurvedic Point of View

R. Annapurna, Bhagavan G. Kulkarni, H. Dayana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 341-346
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32561

The science of Ayurveda strongly states that the mental status of the mother has a strong influence on foetal health. This does not start from the time of conception. Instead from the time of development of the ovum itself all the mental conditions of the mother start affecting the foetal health. In this busy urban life mental health of the mother is given less importance. Most of the women, including pregnant ladies are under stress in present scenario. Hence awareness regarding the impact of the mental status of the mother on the fetus may help the society to prevent the ill effects of maternal stress on the fetus.

Open Access Review Article

Prognosis and Management of Communicating and Non-communicating Hydrocele

Wedyan Salem Basaif, Abdullah Khalid Murshid, Yazeed Mohammed Alhadi, Sultan Dhafer Albarman, Mohammed Jamal Almunaikh, Ahmed Mahammed Alsaffar, Ahmed Saleh Aljohani, Abdulaziz Amer Alshehri, Khalid Saleh Aloufi, Abdulaziz Ahmed Alnami, Abdullah Ali Asiri, Ziyad Hassan Siyam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 347-353
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32562

Hydrocele can be found as a collection of fluid within the testicular tunica vaginalis. According to the etiology and pathophysiology of the disease, it can be classified into primary and secondary. Furthermore, primary hydrocele might include the closed or non-communicating, the communicating type, the congenital and or neonatal type. Many management approaches have been proposed for both the communicating and non-communicating hydrocele with different post-operative and prognostic outcomes. In this literature review, we have discussed the current management approaches and prognosis of communicating and non-community hydrocele. Adequate diagnosis of the condition is the first step to achieve favorable management outcomes. Although the reported management outcomes are reported to be effective in the literature, the surgical approaches seem to be superior. However, many side effects might be associated with these operations. Estimates show that following varicocelectomy procedures, ipselateral (left) hemi-scrotal varicocele is the most common condition to occur, which might even develop following the procedure by several months and years (in some cases). Further investigations are still needed because the current evidence is largely based on case reports and small case series investigations. Therefore, larger studies are needed to help draw effective management protocols and enhance the outcomes and prognosis.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview in the Management of Lumbar Degenerative Disc Diseases: Review Article

Abdulmalik B. Albaker, Saadah Abdulrahim Younis, Badr Eyad Hafiz, Hanan Osama Abuseer, Abrar Hasan Bukhamseen, Faisal Saeed A. Al-Ghamdi, Ibrahim Ahmed J. Albalawi, Yasir Salah Hamed Aljohani, Daher Mushref Daher Alshehri, Fahad Ali Ahmed Alzahrani, Ayman Dhaifallah A. Alamri, Raghad Khalid Alsherbi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 368-378
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32566

The degenerative disease of the intervertebral disc and back pain are chronic conditions that are caused by several factors and represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality in everyday clinical practice. The study aims to summarize the updated evidence regards epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and management of degenerative disc diseases. The incidence of low back pain, which is the main symptom in Intervertebral Disc (IVD) disease, varies widely among different reports. It is the fifth most common cause for the visit to the doctor and affects 7.6 to 37% of patients. IVD degeneration is attributed to a complex interplay between environmental and genetic factors. DDD is a process that includes a progressive decrease in disk nutrient supply and changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) composition, which weakens the tissue strength and alters the cell metabolism.Degenerative lumb disc disease patients typically present with mechanical lower back pain, which is worse on forward flexion and when carrying heavy load. The pain is relieved with rest. Diagnosis of DDD is done by various methods, computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and provocative discography. These methods should be used in conjunction with the patient history, physical examination and specific biomarker to monitor the response to treatment. There are three major lines of management of DDD; Treatment Options for Relief of Pain in Conservative Therapy.Treatment with Aims of Restoration, Repair, and Regeneration of Intervertebral Disc Diseases: Molecular Therapy. Reconstructive Strategies: Percutaneous Intervertebral Disc Techniques. Definitive Treatment for Intervertebral Disc Diseases :( surgical management).

Open Access Review Article

Review for Analytical Methods for the Determination of Mefenamic Acid

T. V. Ashira, T. Mohamed Rafeeque, Saba Maanvizhi, S. Kathirvel, P. C. Indukala, S. Safeetha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 426-437
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32572

Mefenamic acid (MFA) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that belongs to the anthranilic acid derivative family. It is used to relieve mild to moderate pain. The present review article includes a compilation of articles on the various properties along with an extensive literature survey on the reported analytical methods of MFA. Using a comprehensive computer assisted literature review; this article discusses the analytical methodologies for quantifying MFA both in active pharmaceutical ingredient and pharmaceutical dosage forms. This is the first review article in this series with focus on the analytical profile of MFA. Although, several methods like High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, turbidimetry, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Mass Spectroscopy (MS) and electro analytical methods were reported in the literature, HPLC stands out first for the quantification of MFA.

Open Access Review Article

Health in Digital World: A Regulatory Overview in United States

Ashutosh Mishra, M. P. Gowrav, V. Balamuralidhara, Kolli Suhas Reddy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 438-450
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i43B32573

Adaptation towards digitalization in pharmaceuticals leads to the utilization and development of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Significantly it is reducing human workload with the help of an algorithm. Already AI is acting as a key in clinical trial, health care, quality management, manufacturing, product development, and management. Top pharmaceutical companies have adopted AI in different applications within the pharma sector. Different AI models like Machine learning, Artificial Neural Network, Deep Learning, robotics, and Natural Language Processing are being used in pharmaceuticals and healthcare systems. The Worldwide AI market is growing remarkably with a compound annual growth rate of 49.6% and is expected to reach $18,119 million by 2025. So, for better regulation, concerning safety, privacy regulatory strategy is heading towards a better framework. Different regulatory authorities like China, Europe, and United States (US) have adopted AI for economic and policy aspects. Emerging countries are using these tools for administrative work. US has begun implementing frameworks for AI adaptation, research, and development. The AI policy strategy started in 2016 with a series of workshops conducted under the Obama administration. Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also published draft guidance for regulatory oversight of AI and Machine Learning. In 2021 FDA published a draft regulation for software as a medical device. This review article provides a snapshot of AI implementation in pharmaceuticals and health care with the regulatory approach in the US.