Open Access Systematic Review Article

A Systematic Review of the Relationship between Risk of Varicoceles and Obesity

Abdulmajeed Albalawi, Shuruq Albalawi, Ashwaq Alharbi, Faisal Hakami, Sultan Abdulrahman Alamrani, Dalal Alkalthem, Yahya Essa, Ohoud Almutari, Abdulaziz Mohammed Alanazi, Nadeen Alrehaili, Ziyad Hussain Alawaji, Atheer Almijlad, Fatimah Alrasheedi, Khuloud Almubaddil, Renad Algaedy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 262-270
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32404

Objectives: The systematic review was conducted to assess the relationship between varicoceles, risk of varicoceles or body mass index and obesity.

Review Methods: The present systematic review scrutinized all the research articles published in English from 1971 to 12 July 2021 pertaining to the relationship between varicoceles, risk of varicoceles or body mass index and obesity. The systematic review was piloted under the PRISMA directives.

Data Sources: Research articles were retrieved from the National Strength and Conditioning Association, Google Scholar, Web of Science, MEDLINE, Journal of Strength and Conditioning, and PubMed database using the vital search terms: risk of varicoceles or varicoceles in combination with obesity, body mass index.

Results: There was a total of 370 studies found, with 29 publications included in this systematic review. There were 16 (55.1%) studies on the risk of varicoceles or varicoceles in combination with body mass index, 7 (24.1%) on the risk of varicoceles or varicoceles in combination with obesity, and 6 (20.7%) on the risk of varicoceles or varicoceles.

Conclusions: Most cases in our systematic review included body mass index and risk of varicoceles or varicoceles, a few involved obesity and risk of varicoceles or varicoceles, while some included varicoceles relevant cases.

Open Access Case Study

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Post COVID-19 Condition: Case Study

Ch K. V. L. S. N. Anjana Male, Kommuri Vyduryam, N. V. Yaseswi, V. Pravallika, A. Javed Akhtar, R. Piety Christiana, P. Joy Nissi, K. Sravya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-31
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32380

A 50 years old woman was referred to hospital with complaints of bluish black discoloration of skin or multiple ecchymosis since 6 days and skin rashes, pink changes or petechiae changes since 1 week, dark color stools since 3 days. She had a history of COVID-19 positive on past ‘‘3 months’’ back and she received the corticosteroids, antiviral drugs, broad spectrum antibiotics, anticoagulants, and vitamin B and C supplements. Now patient is admitted and investigated for further management. Her bone marrow examination reveals marrow cytological features are compatible with immune thrombocytopenic Purpura and peripheral examination reveals red cells are microcytic hypochromic with elongation forms, platelets are markedly reduced and elevation of CRP, reduction of the Hb, PCV, MCH, MCV, MCHC, APTT, Serum vitamin B12, Lymphocytes and her HRCT-Chest shows CORADS 5, Rapid antigen test shows positive. A review on introduction of the disease, etiology, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, mechanism of thrombocytopenia in COVID-19 patients and grading is explained in literature review.

Open Access Study Protocol

To Assess the Prevalence Rate of Hepatitis C among the Solid Waste Handler in Selected Areas

Mayur Wanjari, Deeplata Mendhe

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 383-387
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32416

Introduction: Solid waste handlers are subjected to a wide range of occupational hazards. Among these hazards is the infection from hepatitis A, B or C viruses (HAV, HBV or HCV). This relationship has been the study subject of many researchers around the world, given that the infection of hepatitis viruses is a significant cause of morbidity and a socio-economic burden.Viral hepatitis is a liver inflammation arising from viral infections. There are classes of viruses affecting the liver. The most popular forms are hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C viruses (HCV).

Objective: this study is planning to assess the prevalence rate of Hepatitis C among solid waste handlers in selected areas.

Methodology: Cross-sectional study research designed will be used in this study conducted on a solid waste handler. The unlikely purposefully sampling technique was used to select a sample for this study to analyze the prevalence rate. The researcher's study included 100 population from the selected area and investigation of Hepatitis C will do at A.V.B.R.H Hospital Sawangi (M) Wardha. The population was selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Expected Outcome: In this research study expected outcome is solid waste handlers are may be suffering from Hepatitis C because of their working pattern and environment.

Conclusion: The conclusion will be drawn from the results.

Open Access Short Research Article

Prevalence of Dysphagia in Children with Cerebral Palsy”: A Multicenter Study in Lahore

Fiaz Kanwal, Fahad Masood, Nayab Iftikhar, Farjad Afzal, Sabah Mubarak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32383

Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy.

Materials and Methods: A sample of 105 children with cerebral palsy age between four and sixteen years, were selected from cerebral palsy centers in Lahore. Out of these children almost all were with spastic cerebral palsy. Data was collected by using a questionnaire filled by the caregivers of children with cerebral palsy. This questionnaire constitutes questions regarding swallowing difficulty of CP child and their eating & feeding patterns to determine the prevalence of dysphagia.

Results: Result indicated that out of 105 children’s caregiver with cerebral palsy 36(34.3%) responded affirmatively that their children have swallowing difficulty and 69(65.7%) responded negatively that their children have no swallowing difficulty.

Conclusion: The findings suggested that prevalence of dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy is 34.3% in Lahore city.

Open Access Short Research Article

Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Ocimum basilicum L

R. Anitha, S. Kanimozhi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 256-261
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32403

Aim: Standardization of Ocimum basilicum through pharmacognosy.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology, Ethiraj College for Women, Chennai “Between” Dec 2014-April 15.

Methodology: Organoleptic evaluation was carried out based on sensory characters. A free hand anatomical section of the stem was observed. Powder analysis, maceration, Phytochemical test and Fluorescence analysis were conducted according to standard protocol.

Results: The organoleptic characters of the dried leaves of Ocimum basilicum were green, aromatic, pungent and brittle in texture with  anomocytic stomata with stomatal index 71.87% in the lower epidermis. A prominent bundle sheath in the leaf was evident. The macerated stem showed annular xylem vessels. The aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and glycosides. Alkaloids and lignins were evident in the histochemical study.

Conclusion: Pharmacognostic evaluation of Ocimum basilicum would help in identification, detection of adulterants and development of a monograph.

Open Access Short Communication

Srotas – An Insight into Channels

B. Kothainayagi, Anupam Sharma, Supriya Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 85-89
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32387

The Srotas, besides performing numerous functions at both macroscopic and microscopic level, which when gets disrupted, causes pathological features; hence it is immensely required to understand the physiological and pathological concepts of srotas. Generally srotas are considered only at gross level, as structures, carrying material. But the concept of srotas is very deep and minute, which can be explained with the help of cell adaptation concepts, explained by the modern science. This article shall be helpful in putting forth the ayurvedic perspective of srotas along with modern pathological considerations.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Fabricate and Evaluate the Wound Healing Activity of Herbal Medicated Plasters Containing the Extracts Obtained from Tridax procumbens and Azadirachta indica

Nikhil M. Satpute, Ravi Kalsait, Abhinav Bais, Narendra Dighade Komal Meshram, Dhruba Hari Chandi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32378

The present research work is to fabricate medicated plaster containing herbal extracts for wound healing properties. Till date no herbal medicated plaster have been prepared and evaluated using the extracts obtained from the plants Neem and Coat button. The objective of the present study is to provide the herbal medicated plasters to the society. The major advantage of this medicated herbal plaster is its safety, efficacy, portability and efficiency. There is much more study such as Collection of plant, Extraction of plant materials and their antimicrobial test, Evaluation of qualitative and quantitative test, Estimation of total phenolic content, Antioxidant study, Antimicrobial study, Estimation of patch test, Antimicrobial studies of patch test. The plant extracts were quantitatively analysed for total flavonoids content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Methanolic extract of Azadirechta indica and Tridax procumbens has shown presence of high content of flavonoids and total phenolic content. Also the Azadirachtin content in the neem extracts was determined. All the six extracts AIME, AIPE, AIAE, TPME, TPPE and TPAE were subjected to antimicrobial activity. In patch test FII batch shows the excellent antimicrobial activity.FII patch was selected for fabrication of plasters which was then subjected to the pharmacological study. FII patch possess the maximum wound healing activity by using the methanolic extracts of AIME, TPME and AIPE.

Open Access Original Research Article

Psychological Resilience towards COVID-19 amongst Emergency Medical Professionals in Pune (India)

Parag Rishipathak, Shrimathy Vijayraghavan, Anand Hinduja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 17-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32379

Aim: The surge of COVID 19 infection across the globe has put tremendous pressure on Healthcare Professionals worldwide. Emergency Medical Professionals are first responders and hence bear the brunt of exposure to the virus as well as dealing with critically ill patients. The aim of the study is to assess psychological resilience towards COVID 19 amongst Emergency Medical Professionals.

Study Design: Descriptive Study.

Place and Duration of Study: Symbiosis Centre for Health Skills, Pune in April 2021.

Methodology: The study was conducted amongst 120 Emergency Medical Professionals in Pune, India. The data was collected during the month of April 2021. Professionals who have completed Post Graduate Diploma in Emergency Medical Services and working in COVID centres for at least one year were included in the study. A 38-item questionnaire was developed for frontline Emergency Medical Professionals and included questions adapted from the tools which are available in public domain.

Results and Discussion: Working in a stressful environment along with continuous fear of self-exposure and risk of transmission to family members affects the efficacy and productivity of Emergency Medical Services Professionals. Debriefing, training for effective ‘breaking bad news’ stress management workshops and counselling sessions should be integrated into their work routine to enhance their psychological capacity.

Conclusion: The findings indicate that even after a year of serving COVID 19 patients, Emergency Medical Professionals demonstrate a high degree of resilience. Yet there are areas requiring improvement which need to be focussed upon immediately in the interest of the mental well-being of Emergency Medical Professionals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Solid Dispersion by Fluidized Bed Processing: A Platform for Enhancement of Dissolution Rate of Simvastatin Poorly Water-Soluble Drug

Rajendra K. Surawase, Kamalkishor G. Baheti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 32-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32381

Aim: The aim of this study was to study the solubility and dissolution kinetics of poorly water-soluble drugs simvastatin from its solid dispersion with different carriers by using fluidized bed processing technique.

Methods: The effect of different surfactants such as Gelucire® 44/14, PVP- K30 and Poloxamer- 188 on solid dispersion dissolution and solubility of simvastatin was investigated. Solid dispersion is formed using various techniques with polymeric carrier to potentially enhance the solubility and dissolution rate such as fluidized bed processing, it will extend drug absorption, therefore the objectives were to make a comparative evaluation among different solid dispersions.

Results: The simvastatin solid dispersion prepared by fluidized bed processing significantly enhanced in vitro dissolution and solubility relative to that of the unprocessed form. The dissolution profiles were correlated using various mathematical models such as Zero order, first order, Higuchi and Hixon Crowell model and the Zero order kinetics model gave better correlation results than the other models.

Conclusion: Dissolution profile of simvastatin was significantly improved via complexation with Gelucire 44/14 as compared with the pure drug and other carriers using FBP processing is a highly effective strategy for enhancing the solubility and dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparitive Study of Human Lymph Nodes

A. Kafeel Hussain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32382

All the lymph nodes observed were typically bean shaped irrespective of their age or sex. The cervical lymph nodes were the largest of all the four groups in size. The mean maximum short axis axial diameter was 7.19mm (Range 5.67mm - 8.12mm). The mesentericl lymph nodes were the smallest of all the four groups in size. The mean maximum short axis axial diameter was 3.89mm (Range 2.7mm -6.lmm). The lymph nodes showed well defined deep cortical regions often containing large lymphoblasts and prominent endothelial cells in small blood vessels. The thickness of the deep cortex was however reduced when compared to its foetal counterpart. The mean thickness of the deep cortical region was 423 microns. To reconfirm the age related involution of the paracortical region, the mesenteric lymph nodes were observed. In sharp· distinction, axillary lymph nodes showed fewer germinal centres which were relatively smaller in size.Mean actual diameter of the germinal centre was77 microns also had had fewer and smaller germinal centres. Mean actual diameter of the germinal centre was 68 microns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Levels of Some Inflammatory Cytokines in Preeclamptic Women in Owerri

Obioma Raluchukwu Emeka-Obi, Nancy C. Ibeh, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Hope M. Okorie

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 53-65
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32384

Preeclampsia is a serious and life-threatening pregnancy complication. In this study, the levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured in preeclamptic women in Owerri, Imo State. A total of 120 pregnant women aged 18-45 years at 20-40 weeks of pregnancy were recruited; 60 were preeclamptic women (test group) while 60 were normotensive pregnant women (control group). Preeclampsia was determined by the presence of ≥2+ protein in the urine using combi 2 dipstick for urinalysis and sphygmomanometer blood pressure reading of ≥ 140/90 mmHg. From the demographic data obtained in the studied subject through questionnaire, it showed that nulliparity and family history of high blood pressure were the most dominant risk factor of preeclampsia. The mean of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) in the test group were 4.33±1.42 pg/ml and 8.23±2.73 pg/ml while that of the control group were 3.38±1.22 pg/ml and 6.89±1.88 pg/ml. There was a significant increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines of the preeclamptic women when compared to the control group. The mean of the anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 & IL-4) of the group were 78.88±14.28 pg/ml and 27.92±7.22pg/ml while the control group was 91.39± 18.46 pg/ml and 31.25±6.90 pg/ml. There was a significant decrease in the result obtained from the test group when compared to the control group. The levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher than the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines of the test group when compared with the control group. Hence there is need to manage the disorder with an anti inflammatory drugs in order to enhance obstetric care, thereby reducing maternal mortality and morbidity that may occur from haemostatic abnormalities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of a Simulation System Using Augmented Reality to Practice the Skills of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

Asiyat Shamilovna Magomedova, Dzhamieva Khazina Sheripovna, Sabina Arslanbekovna Kunkueva, Muslim Isaevich Muskhanov, Abdurakhman Khasbulaevich Ibragimov, Shuainat Omarovna Khazamova, Ulyana Viktorovna Matveeva, Artem Evgenevich Mishvelov, Bela Zakharovna Albegova, Sergey Nikolaevich Povetkin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 66-73
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32385

The developed HoloDoctor software package allows performing surgical operations in real time. It should be emphasized that the operation time on the HoloDoctor PC is reduced by 20-30% compared to traditional methods. The performance of HoloLens glasses with our program is high, while allowing the doctor to save time. The complex provides diagnostics, therapy planning, treatment adjustment as needed and minimizes the risk of medical error. HoloDoctor can be used in educational practice by integrating it into educational programs for medical specialties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Perception towards COVID-19 Vaccine among the General Population in the Hail Province, KSA

Azharuddin Sajid Syed Khaja, Mubashir Zafar, Meshari Al-Shammari, Khaled Al-Shammary, Abdulaziz Al-Rabie, Abdulaziz Al-Tamimi, Abdullah Al-Juhani, Abdulrahman Al-Harbi, Akram Al-Nabri, Lafi Al-Sulami, Sami Al-Enazi, Yasser Al-Rashidi, Ziyad Al-Shammari, Syed Abrar Ali, Mohd. Saleem

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 74-84
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32386

Aim: Coronavirus infection has caused disease at the pandemic level with several deaths worldwide and affected all aspects of human life. One way to minimize virus transmission and its effects is to perform mass vaccination within the general population so that herd immunity is developed against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, low health literacy and vaccine hesitancy are potential threats in achieving this. The present study is designed to measure the Knowledge, Attitude, and Perception levels towards COVID-19 and assess public perception and acceptance levels of the vaccine among the general population in the Hail province of Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A bilingual, community-based questionnaire, consisting of the respondents’ socio-demographic profile, COVID-19 knowledge, and attitude & perception towards COVID-19 vaccination, was circulated using different social media platforms. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software.

Results: Appropriate knowledge level was found in 74.8% of the respondents, whereas inappropriate knowledge levels were observed in females and participants with non-health-related occupations and were inversely related to willingness to the vaccine. More than 60% of the respondents had a negative attitude towards the COVID-19 vaccine, as only 51% were willing to get vaccinated. A negative attitude was significantly associated with female respondents.

Conclusion: Our study reports a high knowledge level among the respondents in the Hail province. However, there is also a decreased willingness to be vaccinated, suggesting that more vaccine and health literacy seminars should be conducted to generate awareness among the general population in the Hail province, KSA.

Open Access Original Research Article

HRCT in Bronchiectasis

C. S. Balachandar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 99-103
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32389

In patients with bronchiectasis, a high-resolution CT scan (HRCT) and its score play a significant role in identifying pathological alterations and pulmonary functional impairment. A total of 50 cases were studied. All the cases presenting with the features suggestive of bronchiectasis were screened clinically . 8 out of 50 patients underwent surgical resection of affected lobes. The rest was handled with caution. The primary condition, lung malignancy, claimed the life of one patient. CT can be used to quickly confirm suspected bronchiectasis due to its increased specificity. Confirmation by CT is useful in the management of patients with chronic cough and sputum production who are suspected of having bronchiectasis but for whom surgery is not an option due to age or poor lung function. In some cases, where surgery appears to be a viable option, unmistakable evidence of bilateral bronchiectasis on CT would rule out such treatment without the requirement for bronchography.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Urban South Indian Population

C. Balaji

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 104-110
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32390

Because of changes in lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and obesity, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease is on the rise. The metabolic syndrome is a straightforward method for predicting the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the future. To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in urban south Indian males and females and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in various age groups above 20 years. To find out the most common metabolic abnormality among the study population and to find out specificity and sensitivity of any specific skin marker among the study population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Leaf Diseases Detection of Medicinal Plants Based on Support Vector Machine Classification Algorithm

Payal Bose, Shawni Dutta, Vishal Goyal, Samir K. Bandyopadhyay

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 111-119
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32391

On earth, plants play the most important part. Every organ of a plant plays a vital role in the ecological field as well as the medicinal field. But on the whole earth there are several species of plants are available. The different species of plants have different diseases. Therefore, it is required to identify the plants as well as their diseases correctly. It is difficult and also time consuming to identify the plants and their diseases manually. In this research an automatic disease detection system of plant is proposed. High-quality leaf images are used for training and testing. For detecting the healthy area and diseased area in a leaf, region-based and color-based region thresholding techniques are used. For feature selection Histogram Oriented Gradient (HOG) and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) method were applied. Finally, for classification two-class and multi-class Support Vector Machine (SVM) were used. It is found that both feature selection processes with SVM give 99% accuracy. An user oriented graphical user interface is created for understanding the automated system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of in Situ Posterior Spinal Fusion with Pedicle Screws and Rods in Grade I and Grade Ii Isthmic

S. Manivannan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 120-129
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32392

Spondylolysis has never been found in a newborn. Repetitive cyclic loading ultimately results in a stress fracture. Impingement between the inferior articular process of the cephalad verbetra and the superior articular process of the caudal vertebra creates pending moment that must be resisted by the pars. The hard cortical bone of the pars predisposes it to fatigue fracture, as well as nonunion, decreasing the likelihood of spontaneous healing. If healing occurs, the pars often heal in an elongated position. Either non-union or healing with elongation permits vertebral subluxation. This fundamental change in bony anatomy exposes the disc to increased shear load, even though the axial load remains unchanged. When the stiffness of the cortical bone is reduced by an underlying condition (congenital dysplasia), smaller amounts of tensile forces are required to produce a fatigue fracture. Another possible mechanism is an extension torque which is developed by the erector spinae acting through its attachment to the spinous process, resulting in a stress concentration at the pars. The aim of the study is to analyze the post-operative outcomes in, in-situ posterior spinal fusion with pedicle screws and rods in Grade I and Grade II isthmic and degenerative spondylolisthesis.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Update on Transfusion Related Immunomodulation (TRIM) in a Time of COVID- 19 Pandemic

Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Quratulain Babar, Immaculata Ogochukwu Uduchi, Adaobi Maryann Ibekwe, Udunma Olive Chijioke, Chukwuma J. Okafor, C. C. N. Vincent

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 135-146
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32394

Recipients' immune systems are triggered by blood and blood component therapy. Transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM) is a complicated immunological response to transfusion that results in immunosuppression. The mechanisms of TRIM include the presence of residual white blood cells and apoptotic cells, the infusion of immunosuppressive cytokines that are present in donor components or that occur during blood processing, the transfer of metabolically active growth factor-loaded particles and extracellular vesicles, and the presence of hemoglobin or extracellular vesicles binds to hemoglobin. TRIM variables include donor-specific factors and processing variables. TRIM can explain, at least partially, the controversial negative clinical results observed in patients with covid19. Many potential treatment methods have been used in clinical practice, including supportive interventions, immunomodulators, antiviral therapy, and infusion of convalescent plasma. Here, we summarize current potential treatments for COVID-19 infection-related diseases and discuss the clinical value of blood transfusion-related technologies for COVID-19 treatment in blood transfusion-related immune regulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Salivary Malondialdehyde Levels in Children with Different Caries Status- A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

Dhanalakshmi Ravikumar, Pratibha Ramani, R. Gayathri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 147-154
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32395

Background and Objectives: Early childhood caries is a major public health problem especially in young children. ECC affects the quality of life of young children by affecting the chewing ability of children due to the development of pain and swelling, and this may indirectly affect the nutritional status of a child. The present study was done to assess the level of salivary malondialdehyde in children with and without Early childhood caries. The main objective of the study is to determine the salivary malondialdehyde levels and to compare it with the three groups of children with different caries experiences.

Materials and Methods: It is cross-sectional observational research carried out at Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals. Children between 3-6 years were examined and 20 caries-free, 20 children with ECC as well as 20 children with S-ECC were recruited for the study. The caries status was assessed using dmfs and the severity of caries was assessed using pufa index. Salivary samples were collected and analysed for salivary malondialdehyde levels.

Statistical Analysis: The data was entered and analysed using SPSS software version 20.0. One-way ANOVA was done to determine the difference in malondialdehyde levels between the groups. “Post-hoc Tukey” test was done to measure the intergroup significance. A “P value of < 0.05” was measured as statistically “significant” and P < 0.001 was deemed as statistically “highly significant”. Pearson’s correlation was done to correlate pufa values with malondialdehyde levels.

Results: The results demonstrated that there was a statistically significant difference in salivary malondialdehyde levels among caries-free, ECC as well as S-ECC children. There was a positive correlation between the pufa score and salivary malondialdehyde levels.

Conclusion: 1. There is a significant difference in the salivary malondialdehyde levels among caries-free, ECC as well as S-ECC children.

  1. There was a positive correlation of salivary malondialdehyde levels and pufa score in ECC and S-ECC children.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparison of Force Decay between Coil Spring, Elastomeric Chain and Tie-backs in Various Alcohol Concentrations found in Mouth Rinse: An In-vitro Study

Asma Fatima, Prasad Konda, Asiya Fatima, Hidayathulla Shaikh, Butool Zohra, Baba Fareeduddin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 155-162
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32396

Background: The ability to close space efficiently in Orthodontics is of major clinical importance. Elastomeric power chain, coil spring, and tiebacks are commonly used in Orthodontics to achieve tooth movement during the closure of spaces. Many mouth rinses which are used by the patients to achieve good oral hygiene affect the properties of the material used during treatment resulting in force decay if they contain alcohol.

Aim: To know the effect of mouth rinses containing different alcohol Concentrations on the force decay of retraction materials.

Materials and Methods: A study was carried out to test the effect of alcohol exposure found in mouth rinses on orthodontic NiTi closing coils, elastomeric chains, and tie-back. A total of 135 specimens were divided into one control group and two test groups submerged in artificial saliva at 37⁰ C. Two test groups each of them exposed to different alcohol-containing mouthwashes (Listerine and Povidone-iodine) for 60 seconds twice a day and the control group were exposed only to deionized (DI) water for 28 days. Force measurements were taken at six-time points (initial, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days) using a digital force gauge.

Results: The comparison between the tensile strength was made by digital force gauge and the p-value (≤ 0.05) for tensile strength was derived by ANOVA test, multiple comparisons, and Tukey’s correction. Significant force decay was seen in test groups when compared to the control group.

Conclusion: Force degradation of retraction products used during orthodontic treatment was effected by mouth rinses containing alcohol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of Stability Indicating Reverse Phase High Performace Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination of Umeclidinium and Vilanterol in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

Ahsaana Hamsa, K. Praseetha, K. P. Dijin Raj, T. V. Ashira, O. V. Athira, T. Mohamed Rafeeque, Muhamed Rishad, S. Kathirvel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 208-219
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32398

A Sensitive, fast, linear and accurate liquid chromatography technique was developed for the simultaneous determination of Umeclidinium and Vilanterol in Powder dosage form. The estimation was carried out using Phenomenex C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5μ) with ammonium acetate: acetonitrile taken in the ratio 60:40 as mobile phase and pumped at a flow rate of 0.9 ml/min at 300C. Detection wavelength selected was 245 nm. Retention times of Umeclidinium and Vilanterol were found to be 2.219 min and 2.794 min. The method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantification as per International council for harmonization guidelines. Degradation studies performed indicated the stability of the drug. All of these analytical validation parameters were evaluated, and the percent relative standard deviations were calculated, indicating the method's suitability for determination of Umeclidinium and Vilanterol in pharmaceutical dosage form.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation, Optimization and Evaluation of Niosomes Containing Leaf Extract of Moringa oleifera and Pharmacological Screening of the Extract against Rheumatoid Arthritis

Manas Jyoti Kapil, Dhiren Deka, Mangala Lahkar, Neelakshi Sharma, Dhrubajyoti Sarma, Pratap Kalita, Satyendra Deka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 236-245
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32401

This research is formulated on the basis of the Rheumatoid Arthritis of a niosome that contains leaf extract of the herb. Therefore, in this part along with the medication system of the herb on the body, the pharmacologic testing procedure is clarified. In the following part, we will explore a thorough assessment of the condition, called rheumatoid arthritis and how the medicinal plant is used as a release agent. While focusing on rheumatoid arthritis throughout the discussion, the research discussion section has made it clear how effectively this paper has tried to meet the formation of niosome with Moringa extract and its effectiveness to reduce the pain. Furthermore, the entire analysis has been illustrated by focusing on the effect of Moringa oleifera over rheumatoid arthritis disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmaceutical Analysis of Phalatrikadi Syrup – A Polyherbal Ayurvedic Hematinic Drug

Aboli Patil, Rajanish Meti, C. R. Swapnil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 271-277
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32405

Context: Concepts regarding standardization and quality control of Ayurvedic drugs can be traced back to the ancient times. Based on their observations, principles of drug processing and ideal qualities of finished drugs etc. have been documented. Even though the principles developed based upon the scientific parameters prevailing in those days, they are to be viewed and answered looking at the advancement of science and technology of present scenario.

Material and Methods: Phalatrikadi syrup a poly herbal formulation containing Haritaki, Bibhitaki, Amalaki, Guduchi, Vasa, Nimba Bhunimba and Katuka and was prepared and subjected to pharmacopeial procedures for analysis of organoleptic, physicochemical, phytochemical and fingerprinting for standardization.

Observation and Results: Findings are pH (Direct) 4.32, Specific gravity 1.389, Refractive Index 1.417, Viscosity (Ostwald) 397.82 , Loss on Drying 19.72%, and Total Ash 0.098%, Acid insoluble ash 0.00%,  Total solids 80.27%, Total Sugar 76.92, Total Tannin 0.88%. A test for functional group shows presence of carbohydrates, reducing sugar, tannins, amino acids,saponin glycosides, flavonoids, and steroids in Phalatrikadi Syrup. Microbial test analysis of Phalatrikadi syrup showed no any microorganism contamination. 

Conclusion: Phalatrikadi Syrup shows all values in the standard range as per API and suggestive of authenticate and standard pharmaceutical preparation of Phalatrikadi syrup.

Open Access Original Research Article

Course of Alcoholic Pancreatitis and Management with Minimal Necessary Investigation without Antibiotics

Candy Priyadarshini

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 278-281
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32406

A total of 50 patients who presented during the period of 24 months (October 2013 to October 2015) were studied. In this study, age of the patients ranged from 20 - 60 years and most of patients are between the age group 30- 40 years, as alcohol consumption was more in this age group. The present study has shown that alcoholic pancreatitis is more common in males. There are no females in this study. Because intake of alcohol is more common in males. Serum amylase and lipase are markers that are elevated in episodes of pancreatitis. Prophylactic usage of antibiotics in alcohol induced pancreatitis has no role. Over 97% of alcohol- induced pancreatitis responded well to the management without antibiotics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health Related Quality of Life among Tuberculosis Patients

Muhammad Awais Waheed, Iqra Rehman, Bareera Saeed, Ruhamah Yousaf, Sonia Aslam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 282-288
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32407

Aims: To find out health related quality of life among patients being treated for tuberculosis in the hospital of Lahore, Pakistan.

Study Design: Cross sectional survey is used as research design in this study.

Place and Duration of Study: Farooq Hospital west wood branch Lahore, Gulab Davi Hospital Lahore, Social Security Hospital Lahore between June 2020 and July 2021.

Methodology: Sample (N=150) was drawn through purposive sampling technique from various hospitals of Lahore with age range of 18 – 65 years of 56.7% male and 43.3% female patients of Tuberculosis.Standardized questionnaire (SF-36) was used to determine the health related quality of Life. This questionnaire determines the effect of TB on physical activities, social activities, emotional activities and limitation in routinely work. Data was analyzed through SPSS with descriptive statistic of frequency and percentages.

Results: On the basis of total scores of general health category 53.3% patients considers their health as good when taking antituberculosis medicine. Total scores of Limitations of activities 70.7% patients considers their social activities limited a lot. On the basis of total score of physical health problem category 81.3% considered their physical health were not affected. On the basis of total score of social activities 70.0% patients considered their emotional health problems interfered with normal social activities affected.

Conclusion: It was concluded that limitations of physical activity and compromised psychological status impacted the HRQOL in patient with pulmonary TB. Tuberculosis effect on patient’s physical, psychological and social activities of daily routine. Patient become bed bound due dyspnea and unable complete their task to fulfill the needs of life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Formulation Parameter on Dissolution Rate of Flurbiprofen Using Liquisolid Compact

Halah Talal Sulaiman, Saba Hadee Jaber

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 289-306
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32408

Attempts were made to improve solubility and the liquisolid technology dissolving of medication flurbiprofen. Liquisolid pill was developed utilizing transcutol-HP, polyethylene glycol 400, Avecil PH 102 carrier material and Aerosil 200 layer coating material. Suitable excipient amounts were determined to produce liquisolid powder using a mathematical model. On the other hand, flurbiprofen tablet with the identical composition, directly compressed, was manufactured for comparison without the addition of any unvolatile solvent. Both powder combination characterizations and after-compression tablets were evaluated. The pure drug and physical combination, and chosen liquisolid tablets were studied in order to exclude interacting with the differentional scanning calorimetry (DSC) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

The results showed that transcutol is the ideal solvent with a solubility of 260±3.9 mg/ml in flurbiprofen. All formula developed were determined to be flowable within the specified limitations. The transcutol-like liquidsolid tablet formula of 35 percent w/w flurbiprofen and carrier to coating ratio of 10 was the most acceptable for the disintegration time, the tablet weight and other approved tablet characteristics.

DSC thermographs demonstrated the development of a solid flurbiprofen amorphic solid solution for both the physical blend of the chosen liquisolid system and its tablets. The lack of chemicals interaction in medication and other components of the formula was demonstrated by the retention of all flurbiprofen characteristic peaks in all FTIR spectra. As an option to enhance solubility and dissolve flurbiprofen, which has a poor water solubility, liquisolid tablet has been evaluated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Potential of Tecomella undulata Bark on Paracetamol and CCL4 Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats: Invitro Analysis

Prasoon Kumar Saxena, Deepak Nanda, Ritu Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 307-322
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32409

In this study the T. undulata bark was tested for its hepatoprotection against paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatic damage and Carbon tetra chloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity. The Invitro study was performed on HepG2 cell line .The Levels of serum marker enzymes i.e. AST, ALT (aminotransferases), ALP (alkaline phosphatase), GSH (reduced glutathione) and MDA (Malondialdehyde) in 70% Ethanol treated rats were monitored, respectively. The 70% Ethanol extract gave promising results as studied in detail. The Present study showed that the 70 % ethanolic extract of bark of T.undulata apparently revive the physiological integrity of hepatocytes. Thus the present study demonstrated the Hepatoprotective property of Tecomella undulate Bark.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploration of Culturable Marine Streptomyces from Southern Coastal Region of India with Antibacterial Properties

Deepika Thandayuthapani, Nivetha Chinnappa, Arjunan Annavi, Muthusevam Manickam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 323-334
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32410

The Southern coastal region is a geographically positioned area with rich source of microbial diversity, of which producing broad spectrum of bioactive compounds. The marine sediments are collected from the various sites of south east coastal region of Tamil nadu and are processed. Out of 78 isolates, the 4 strains of actinomycetes are showing broad spectrum activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 1687), Proteus vulgaris (MTCC 3160), Salmonella typhi (MTCC 3231), Shigella dysenteriae (MTCC 3642) and Vibrio cholerae (MTCC 3906). The bioactive isolates are proceeded for further morphological features like growth pattern and mycelial coloration, biochemical and polyphasic taxonomical characterisation were documented.  Isolates are investigated for abiotic stress condition to study the growth rate of isolates. Finally, the 16S rRNA molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of the isolates were explored. Further, bioactive isolates may be potential source for discovery of molecules with industrial applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serodiagnosis of Hepatitis B Virus Using PreS Antigen from Pakistani Isolate SBS001

Saima Iftikhar, Farheen Aslam, Muhammad Akhtar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 246-255
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32411

Background: An estimated 325 million people worldwide live with hepatitis B and/or C and approximately, 5 million people are affected with hepatitis B. in Pakistan.This study aimed at developing PreS protein from Hepatitis B Virus Pakistani isolate (SBS001) with enhanced sensitivity to detect antibodies in serum as a diagnostic method.

Methods: Gene encoding PreS region from hepatitis B Virus was cloned and expressed in Escherchia coli. The recombinant protein preS-His was purified by Ni-IDA affinity chromatography. Antibodies were raised in rabbit. This protein was screened for detection of antibodies in HBV patients’ sera through ELISA. This ELISA procedure was compared with commercially available Kit used for diagnosis of HBV infection.

Results: Single band purified recombinant PreS protein was obtained with high titer of antibodies raised in rabbits. This recombinant protein was used in ELISA as antigen coated on the plate. That efficiently detected antibodies present in HBV patients. It was concluded that preS-His antigen/ protein A HRP-conjugate ELISA method was more sensitive than the commercial kit for detecting the antibodies present in HBV patient sera.

Conclusion: It was concluded that SBS001 PreS recombinant protein can be used in ELISA kits for detection of HBV in Pakistani population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cross Sectional Study on Assess the Risk of Constipation among Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

Monali Walke, Sheetal Sakharkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 335-341
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32412

Objective: Aim of the study to assess the risk of constipation among patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Constipation is a gastrointestinal tract condition which can lead to abnormal stools, uncomfortable storage and passing with pain and stiffness. Constipation is one of the gastrointestinal system's functional impairments. Various symptoms also include bloating, pushing, abdominal and rectal pain, a feeling of fullness in the rectum or extreme defecation, a lack of full discharge, and stool infrequency (usually less than three times a week). Constipation problem is a condition that is prevalent in abdominal surgery patients in the preoperative and postoperative period due to physiological and psychological factors. While constipation does not endanger life. Bowel frequency is affected by many variables, including dietary factors, emotional state, immobility, prior history of bowel elimination problem, and psychological morbidity after abdominal surgery. Constipation is a common issue that many individuals face.

Materials and Methods: The cross sectional research study conducted in AVBR hospital Sawangi Meghe, Wardha district with quantitative research approach. Sample size was 85. Sample was undergoing abdominal surgery patients. Tool was structured questionnaire including Patients characteristics & constipation risk assessment scale.

Results: 48.24% of patients undergoing abdominal surgery had no risk of developing constipation, 29.41% had low risk of constipation, 14.12% had moderate and 8.23% of the patients undergoing abdominal surgery had severe risk of constipation. Minimum risk of constipation was 0 and maximum was 17. Mean risk of constipation was 5.14±5.71.

Conclusion: This study can help to assess the risk of constipation among undergoing abdominal surgery patients and make them aware about risk of constipation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Smilax zeylanica: A Promising Antilipidemix and Antiobesity Agent

Rosaline Mishra, Divya Juyal, S. Sadish Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 342-362
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32413

Background: It is well established fact that obesity has now said to be a disease status.The phytochemicals have always been looked for their enormous stored potential. Similax zeylanica is a naturally occurring flavonoid known for its pharmacological potential. In this study it was aimed to determine the antiobesity and antilipidemic effect of various Similax zeylanica extract.

Materials and Methods: The pharmacological screening of Cyclohexane extract of Smilax zeylanica (SZH), ethyl acetate extract Smilax zeylanica (SZE) and methanolic extract of Smilax zeylanica (SZM) was performed. The acute toxicity studies were performed on various animal groups. Obesity was diet induced.The plasma samples were investigated for various biochemical parameters such as glucose, lipid profile (Cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL and VLDL), Liver function test (SGPT, SGOT).

Results and Conclusion: The various parameters studied showed that the methanolic extracts of Similax zeylanica showed enormous antiobesity potential and concluded for the supplementation for antilipidemic effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Behaviors of Parents towards Care of Primary Dentition – A Cross Sectional Study

Monika M. Khubchandani, Nilima Thosar, Priyanka Paul, Suwarna Dangore, Swapnil Mohod

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 363-369
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32414

Aims: The present study was undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice behaviors of parents towards care of the primary dentition of children in Wardha city, India.

Study Design: Cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Pedodontics & Preventive Dentistry, Sharad Pawar Dental College & Hospital, Duration- One year

Methodology: A questionnaire based cross sectional study was conducted among parents of 3-7 year old children who visited the Department of Pedodontics & Preventive dentistry. The self-administered, close-ended questionnaire was adopted from oral health literature [Rwakatema et al 2009] and was modified based on researcher’s knowledge and experience of the issues under study. The first part of the questionnaire included the demographic details while the second part comprised of 25 items to test knowledge, attitude and practices of parents. Data was collected by a single investigator who distributed the questionnaire, allowed enough time to fill it and collected on the spot after they had completed.

Results: Majority of parents (69%) had good knowledge about importance of milk teeth. 87% of parents were aware that oral health affects the overall general health of child. However, Bedtime bottle-feeding and sharing of spoons with the child was reported by 54% and 77% of the study participants respectively.

Conclusions: The majority (57.9%) of the study population had good knowledge pertaining to oral health. However, their practices towards the oral health of children were not satisfactory. Therefore, there is a need to improve oral health care practices by conducting awareness programs for parents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Concomitant Administration of Rosuvastatin and Lefleunamide in Low doses Synergize Against Complete Freunds Adjuvant (CFA)-Induced Rheumatoid Arthritis in Experimental Model

Abdel-Aziz Saeed, Mohamed El-Shafey, Gouda K. Helal, El-Sayed Akool

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 370-382
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32415

Aim: The present work was designed to examine of the potential anti-inflammatory effect of rosuvastatin (ROSV) and/or Lefleunamide (LFLU) against Complete Freunds Adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats.

Methods: The mRNA level of perxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-a) was determined using Real-time PCR. The levels of NF-B, iNOS, IL-6, TNF-a and SOD activity were measured using ELISA. The swollen paws were measured using caliper. The GSH level was measured using colorimetric assay. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was determined using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay kit.

Results: ROSV induced the expression of PPAR-a that suppresses NF-kB as demonstrated by a strong reduction in NF-kB level in animals treated with ROSV. Also, ROSV administration reduced the levels of the inflammatory mediators IL-6 and TNF-a. In addition, iNOS and MDA content as well as expression of MMP-9 and MMP-2 induced by CFA is abrogated in animals treated with ROSV. Also GSH content and SOD activity were highly increased in ROSV-treated animals. Furthermore, the size of right paw induced by CFA was reduced in ROSV-treated rats. Moreover, the histopathological alterations induced by CFA were highly improved in animals treated with ROSV. Similar results were also found in animals treated with LFLU. Importantly, similar effects were obtained in rats treated with both ROSV and LFLU in half doses.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that ROSV as well as LFLU has the ability to inhibit rheumatoid arthritis in experimental model induced by CFA. Importantly, concomitant administration of ROSV and LFLU in half doses synergize against rheumatoid arthritis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Satisfaction of Edentulous Patients Having Complete Denture by Patient Denture Assessment: An In-vivo Study

Pragati Goyal, Mithilesh Dhamande, Seema Sathe Kambala

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 388-396
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32417

A conventional complete denture is still a widely used prosthesis. Even after lots of advancement in the field of prosthodontics very little attention has been paid to the emotional status and satisfaction of the patient related to the fabrication of the prosthesis. In this study, all the patients with complete dentures in the department of prosthodontics in Sharad Pawar dental college, were asked to fill the questionnaire regarding the satisfaction of the patient related to the complete denture prosthesis delivered in our department and the result was evaluated by the response given by the patient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Post-operative Pain by using Calcium Hydroxide Based Root Canal Sealer: A Clinical Study

Sadaf Ujjan, Nourain Saeed, Saba Parveen Soomro, Faryal Manzoor, Permanand Malhi, Zafar Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 397-401
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32418

Objective: To assess the post-operative pain by using calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 based root canal sealer, a clinical study at tertiary care Hospital

Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed at operative dentistry department of Liaquat University of Medical and health Sciences Jamshoro Pakistan. Study duration was 6 months from March 2020 August 2020. Total 60 patients, those having permanent anterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis, teeth restoration after root canal treatment and either of gender were included. Multiple visits of endodontic treatment were performed by obturating the canals using calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 (sealapex, Sybron endo). Patients were recalled next day, after 3rd day and after one week of obturation to assess the severity of post-operative pain (POP) via visual analogue scale (VAS). All the information was recorded via study proforma. Data analysis was done by using SPSS version 20.

Results: Mean age of the study participants was 26.77+8.72 years. males were in majority 36(60.0%). On the next day as per severity of pain, mostly patients were presented with severe pain as mean visual analogue scale was 8.7+0.3. On third day pain was markedly decrease among almost all of the cases as average of visual analogue scale was found 2.6+0.2. However after one all the patients were seen without pain as average of visual analogue scale was 0.65+0.7. Pain was statistically insignificant according to gender.

Conclusion: Calcium hydroxide based root canal sealer found to be feasible and effective for endodontic treatment in terms of lower postoperative pain.

Open Access Review Article

Pulmonary Embolism in Covid-19 Pandemic: A Threat to Recovery of the Infected Patients

Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Quratulain Babar, C. C. N. Vincent, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Richard Eze, Udunma Olive Chijioke, Adaobi Maryann Ibekwe, Immaculata Ogochukwu Uduchi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 90-98
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32388

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 is a new type of coronavirus that can cause Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) and is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis-related pulmonary embolism. Globally, doctors have revised their management strategies for suspected and confirmed PD in patients with Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) in 2019. Choosing the right drug and the right dose requires consideration of potential comorbidities, which can be explained by the direct and indirect pathological consequences of Covid-19, complement activation, cytokine release, endothelial dysfunction, and the interaction between different types of blood cells. Discuss the pathophysiological events, therapeutic mortality strategies, risk factors and clinical management of patients with Covid-19 pulmonary embolism.

Open Access Review Article

Deep Vein Thrombosis in Adults-A Review

Monali Walke, Savita Pohekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 130-134
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32393

DVT is a type of blood clot that occurs in the deep veins of the leg or pelvis. An embolus occurs when a thrombus, or blood clot, breaks off. Emboli can go to the lungs and cause a PE. DVT is the most found reason for maternal death in developing country, according to a 2017 analysis. In children, DVT is relatively uncommon. According to a 2016 report, DVT affects 0.30 out of every 100,000 children under the age of nine and 0.64 out of every 100,000 children between the ages of ten and nineteen. Throughout high-income nations, roughly 1.5 out of 1000 adults will get VTE for the first time each year, 5–11 percent of persons will have VTE  their lifetime. As people get older, VTE becomes significantly more common. DVT has several risk factors, some of which are listed here. An injury to your veins, such as a bone fracture, Being overweight puts extra pressure on your legs and pelvis veins. Having a DVT family history, A catheter is put into a vein, Female who is taking hormonal treatment or pills of birth control. A common sign is edema in your foot, ankle, or leg, mostly one side. Cramping pain in the affected leg that usually starts in the calf Area of skin that is noticeably warmer than the rest of the body. Diagnosis of DVT includes Ultrasound, Venogram, d-dimer test. Medical Management of DVT pharmacological therapy i.e. unfractional heparin, low molecular heparin, anticoagulant, thrombolytic therapy used.

Conclusion : Awareness and understanding its signs and symptoms are more effective and less expensive than the secondary prevention. Encouragement and education for the self-reporting and self-assessment help to the early detection and prevention of DVT.

Open Access Review Article

Essential Oils Bearing Plants of Cameroon – An Update

Vougmo Fogang, Filiz Meriçli, Dudu ÖzkumYavuz, Talla Clovis, Kenfack Fogang, Tagne Mamno

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 163-207
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32397

In Cameroon, several plants are used both for their medicinal properties and as food. Many of them contain essential oils as one of their secondary metabolites. Although traditional healers rarely, if ever, use essential oils as the basis for their treatments, it is thought that the latter would be found in their products in view of the preparation processes used. And therefore several activities attributed to their drugs are linked to the presence of essential oils. Many studies have revealed the presence of essential oils in several plants found in Cameroon, and validated their traditional use. The purpose of this study is to identify these plants on the basis of studies carried out in order to make a review which will serve as support for future studies. This work reviewed available and accessible original articles in EBSCO, Ovid MEDLINE®, PubMed®, ScienceDirectTM, Scopus® and Web of ScienceTM databases on Cameroon plants studied for their essential oils. We have identified ninety plants that have been the subject of proven studies and scientific publication. They are mainly distributed in the families of Lamiaceae (14: 16%), Annonaceae (11: 12%), Rutaceae (10: 11%), Asteraceae (10 : 11%) and Myrtaceae (09 : 10%). We believe that an important work remains to be done in the search for new essential oils in Cameroon, because the country is endowed with a very great botanical diversity.

Open Access Review Article

Epidemiology and Management of Pediatric Tracheomalacia

Haya Jamal M. Albalawi, Rawan Defallah G. Alzahrani, Rana Suliman D. Alshwamin, Raghad Turki Asiri, Sarah Awad Muhammad Alenzi, Amal Abutaleb Qaysi, ALanoud Abdullah H. Althobaiti, Nashwa Zead A. Albalawi, Raghad Fraih A. Albalawi, Rahaf Saad Alharbi, Amal Mohammad H Albalawi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 229-235
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i42A32400

Tracheomalacia is excessive trachea collapse, usually upon expiration. Severe symptoms accompany congenital types. Often milder versions occur following the neonatal period. Adult malacia is mostly linked to pulmonary chronic obstruction. There's still no standardized functional bronchoscopy. Dynamic CT airway is an excellent diagnostic tool. Bronchoscopy and stent insertion led to a major improvement, although with a high incidence of complication. Surgical lateropexia, excision of trachea and external surgical stabilization are possibilities. Aortopexy is the most common operation in children.