Open Access Case Report

Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor- A Rare Case Report of “Two Third Tumor”

Akansha Budakoti, Kaveri Surya Khanna, Anuridhi Choudhary

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 117-124
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32350

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare odontogenic origin tumor that manifests as a slow-growing cystic neoplasm in the anterior maxilla, often in conjunction with an impacted tooth. AOTs are divided into three kinds based on their histology: follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. Because the source of the AOT is unknown, it's impossible to say whether the lining of an associated cyst reflects the cause i.e. a real dentigerous cyst, a cystic alteration within an AOT, or a separate entity. The diagnosis and treatment should be determined following a thorough clinical, radiographic, and histological investigation. The presented case is a rare occurrence of its sort due to the favorable patient's age and the AOT's site in the lower jaw. The current study reports on a case with follicular AOT in the anterior mandibular region (a rare location), with unusual histomorphology (snow flake and calcified areas) associated with impacted 43 and retained 83.

Open Access Case Study

Caseating Tuberculous Lymphadenitis- A Case Report

Mayur B. Wanjari, Deeplata Mendhe, Pratibha Wankhede, Sagar Alwadkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32342

Introduction: Tuberculosis lymphadenitis (or tuberculous adenitis) is the most common type of infection with tuberculosis that occurs outside of the respiratory system. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis is a chronic condition caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the granulomatous inflammation of the lymph node caused by caseated necrosis. The number of people who contact tuberculosis is estimated at 8 million per year, and about 3 million people die from tuberculosis in the world.

Presentation of Case: In this case report we delineate the case of a female patient, 26-year-old, she had some pain and lymph node swelling in her right submandibular region since from 4 months and was diagnosed as right Caseating Tuberculous Lymphadenitis, associated with the cervical (neck) region, who was immunocompetent and HIV test negative, with a history of recurring fever, weight loss, loss of appetite for the last 4 months. On physical examination, she had swelling approximately 3×3 cm in the right submandibular region and a hard mass and painful sensation were noticed in her right submandibular region. On Fine needle aspiration cytology of submandibular lymph node reveals Caseating Tuberculous Lymphadenitis. this is extremely rare in immunocompetent individuals.

Open Access Study Protocol

Screening and Risk Factor Associated with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women

Yugandhara Hingankar, Vaishali Taksande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32338

Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is also known as vaginal yeast infection and candida vulvovaginitis there is excessive growth of yeast in vagina which leads to vaginal thrush. The sign and symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis includes severe vaginal discharge and itching. The symptoms get more before menstruation. The other symptoms show pain during sex, burning urination and redness over vagina. This infection mostly occurs due to excessive amount of growth of candida. According to research in all around 75% of total women suffer from vaginal candidiasis once in their lifetime and around 5% of the women suffer from twice or thrice. The preventive measures include wearing cotton undergarment rather than wearing synthetic and wearing loose cotton cloths.

Objective: This study is planned to assess screening and risk factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis among pregnant women.

Methodology: The Descriptive Evaluatory Research Design used for data collection procedure will be required 1 week per plan. 7-8 High vaginal swab are taken from gynae Opd in a day accordingly data will be collected. The number of pregnant women will be taken from Gynae Opd who come for check-up on the regular basis. Soon after their check-up written consent form will be given and sample will be collected. Then interview will be taken with the following questionnaires prepared according to the risk factors assessment scale. The pregnant women will be selected non-Probability convenient sampling technique.

Conclusion: Reproductive age group women have more risk of developing vulvovaginal candidiasis, because of High oestrogen levels cause an increased glycogen load in epithelium, which is a nutritional source for growth of candida & germination. Vulvovaginal candidiasis the most common gynaecologic diagnosis in the primary care setting. So, the available statistics say that there is a need for the study regarding the assessment and screening of vulvovaginal candidiasis among pregnant women.

Open Access Short Research Article

The Comparative Study of Atopic Dermatitis and Chronic Hand Eczema Clinical Course in Adults after Acute Relapse Treatment

Aleksandruk Oleksandr Dmytrovych, Stepanenko Roman Leonidovich, Ali Mohammed, Stepanenko Viktor Ivanovich, Tetiana Konovalova, Tsekhmister Yaroslav Volodymyrovych

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 373-379
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32376

Aims: To evaluate Atopic dermatitis (AD) and Chronic hand eczema (CHE) course in adults after discontinuation of acute or sub acute relapse treatment.

Study Design: three groups of adult patients that finished standard treatment for relapse of AD and CHE were followed up within 24 weeks of period to check disease severity, itch intensity and skin management effectiveness.

Place and Duration of Study Sample: population of Ivano-Frankivsk region of Ukraine September 2015 – May 2021.

Methods: 155 patients (51 females and 104 males; age between 20 and 50 years) with AD or CHE were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomized into three study groups depending on diagnosis. SCORAD index was used to assess disease severity, visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess skin itch intensity. Frequency of disease treatment re-start with topical or systemic anti-inflammatory drugs as well as patients’sintention to ask for a treatment were calculated.

Results: Results of our study have shown that cases of new disease worsening occured within nearest 24 weeks after AD and CHE aggravation treatment discontinuation and are quite frequent despite appropriate skin care.

Conclusion: part of adult patients continues suffering from skin itch or mild skin lesions within nearest 24 weeks after discontinuation of intensive treatment of AD or CHE relapse. Prescription of antihistamines and/or topical anti-inflammatory treatment in addition to generally recommended skin care with emollients is crucial for patients with new worsening of the disease. Among patients with a new signs of worsening a part would unlikely ask for a new treatment immediately unless this worsening is moderate or severe.

Open Access Minireview Article

Blended Learning - A Global Solution in the Age of COVID-19

Barkha Devi, Champa Sharma, Nazung Lepcha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 125-136
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32351

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared Covid 19 to be a pandemic that poses a threat to humanity. The existing Conventional and other instructional methods have been canceled and the online learning has been broadly revised to allow learners to educate themselves through online platforms.

Aims: This article was written to identify the teaching practices throughout Covid 19 with key terms, virtual mastering during the lockdown, on-line teaching during a pandemic, and application of blended learning during Covid-19 and post Covid implication.

Methodology: The mini review was conducted to identify the online teaching practices during Covid-19 and blended mode of teaching in higher education and its implication during post Covid-19. The different database searches identified more than ninety articles, of which 35 full-textual content articles had been assessed and nineteen had been included in this paper.

Results: Blended learning is a modern, powerful, and effective tool for increasing universities' competitiveness, meeting the diverse needs and interests of instructional service consumers, imposing the concept of continuing education, and integrating classroom and distance learning to facilitate independent, interactive, and collaborative learning among students.

Conclusion: The article finishes with an overview of the most pressing issues, as well as suggestions and brief recommendations for expanding the use of blended learning in the post-Covid-19 era.

Open Access Minireview Article

Calcium Oxalate Crystals as Raw Food Antinutrient: A Review

Justin R. Nayagam, Renu Rajan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 295-301
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32368

The nutritional value of food can be altered by the presence of antinutrients such as oxalates present abundantly in plants as ergastic crystals. High oxalate content in plant-based raw food can lead to oxalonephropathy, nephrolithiasis and renal dysfunction. Presence of oxalate can hinder the absorption of other minerals such as calcium and magnesium present in food. CaOx antinutrient intake can be minimised by avoiding plant with high oxalate content or by decreasing oxalate levels through cooking practices like, boiling, fermenting, treating with baking soda, adding yoghurt and milk etc. More sophisticated ways of minimising antinutrient intake through raw diet is by choosing genetically modified crops which are bred for low oxalate content or by choosing mutant varieties which are devoid or low in oxalate content in food crops. The future for sustainable antinutrient management and nutritional value enhancement is by incorporating genes from bacteria or fungi which are capable of breaking down oxalate using the enzyme oxalate decarboxylase, on  to plants and thereby modifying them to have less antinutrient effects in raw consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hospital Antibiotic Prescribing Pattern in General Surgery Specialty: Analysis Based on the WHO Access, Watch and Reserve (AWaRe) Classification

Mounika Peddireddy, Juveriya Mahin, Amarnath Uppu, Satyanarayana S. V. Padi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32339

Background: Surgical site infections are a prevalent cause of nosocomial infections that require antibiotic prophylaxis. Emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is a major global public health issue that must be addressed. Eventually, antibiotic prescribing pattern should be examined in order to ensure that antibiotics are used appropriately and that their effectiveness is preserved.

Objective: To evaluate hospital antibiotic prescribing pattern emphasizing on cephalosporins in general surgery specialty using the WHO Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe) classification.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 658 hospitalized patients who received prophylactic antibiotics in general surgery specialty for six months. The data were analysed using the ‘WHO prescribing indicators’ and examined for the WHO ‘AWaRe’ categories. The acquired data was subjected to descriptive statistics.

Results: Per encounter, the average number of drugs and antibiotics prescribed were 3.8 and 1.3, respectively. 83.4% encounters were with at least one antibiotic and 94.5% encounters had parenteral antibiotics. 31.3% and 77.8% antibiotics were prescribed by generic name and from the Essential Medicines List, respectively. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics were the third generation cephalosporins (36.8%) wherein ceftriaxone (22.0%) and cefoperazone (7.2%) were the two most commonly prescribed. A total of 14 specific antibiotics, ‘Access’ 5 and ‘Watch’ 9 were prescribed. Based on the WHO AWaRe classification, 42.3% ‘Access’ and 57.7% ‘Watch’ group antibiotics prescribed. All the prescribed cephalosporins (100%) were from the ‘Watch’ category. Amikacin (13.5%) and ceftriaxone (22.0%) were the most commonly prescribed ‘Access’ and ‘Watch’ group antibiotics, respectively. Amoxicillin index was 7.5 and ‘Access-to-Watch’ index was 0.7, which were much below the priority values.

Conclusion: The antibiotic prescription pattern seen in this study did not entirely meet the WHO recommendations. Antibiotics from the ‘Watch’ category, notably cephalosporins, were commonly prescribed. To retain antibiotic effectiveness and encourage rational antibiotic use, as well as to overcome antibiotic resistance, changes and surveillance antibiotics prescribing are required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Auto-rickshaw Drivers Knowledge Regarding the Effects of Air Pollution on Health and Its Prevention

Roshani Dhanvijay, Savita Pohekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32340

Background: Air pollution is the major environmental pollution that contains different types of gases, dust particles, small molecules, etc. Air pollution is mainly caused by smoke or other harmful gases, such as oxides of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen. Auto-rickshaw drivers are not only affected by air pollution, they are exposed to climatic changes, and. poor road conditions. They are exposed to air pollution, dust, infected droplets, job insecurity, noise pollution and vibration, business demands, damage to their vehicles, and, schedule-related pressure. Drivers also have the responsibility of their passengers and pedestrians- ‘lives and other vehicles. The objective of the study is to analyze knowledge among auto-rickshaw drivers regarding the health effects of air pollution and its prevention.

Methods: An observational research methodology, a cross-sectional research design was used to perform this analysis. Probability purposive sampling technique was used to collect data from auto-rickshaw drivers based on the health effects of air pollution and its prevention utilizing structured questionnaires. The sample attributes have been defined by frequency, percentage, after data collection. The Chi-square test was also used to figure out the correlation between knowledge and specified demographic variables.

Results: The findings show that 1.67% of auto-rickshaw drivers had an average level of knowledge score, 38.33% of them were having good and 60 % of them were having an excellent level of knowledge score and none of them were found to have a very poor level of knowledge. The minimum knowledge score was 7 and the maximum knowledge score was 14. Hence it indicates that auto-rickshaw drivers have good knowledge about the effect of air pollution and their prevention.

Conclusions: The study shows that the auto-rickshaw drivers having good knowledge about air pollution to the management of respiratory diseases and along with their complications as well as to take the required measures to avoid respiratory complications. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Streptococcus Mutans by 16SrRNA Gene Sequencing in Children with Different Caries Experience- A PCR Based Study

Dhanalakshmi Ravikumar, Pratibha Ramani, R. Gayathri, Selvaraj Jayaraman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32341

Background and Objectives: Early Childhood Caries is considered as a common chronic disease in children. Since some research had concluded that children with higher levels of Streptococcus mutans are associated with a higher incidence of decayed, missing, and filled teeth, the present study was undertaken to analyze the salivary Streptococcus mutans of children with different caries status using species specific 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology to evaluate the quantity of Streptococcus mutans with respect to different caries status.

Materials and Methods: Children between 3-6 years were selected and divided into 3 groups, Group I- Caries free, Group II-Early Childhood caries and Group III- Severe Early childhood caries. The caries status was assessed using dmfs and the severity of caries was assessed using pufa index. Salivary samples were collected to isolate DNA and Real time PCR was done with 16SrRNA primer specific to Streptococcus mutans to estimate the quantity of Streptococcus mutans in children with different caries status.

Results: There was a significant difference in the mean CT values among the study groups (p < 0.001). Post hoc Tukey test revealed that, Group I had a significantly higher mean CT values than that of Groups II and III. Pearson's correlation analysis was carried out to correlate dmfs value with CT values and to correlate the pufa value with the fold change. There was a negative correlation between dmfs score and CT values and positive correlation between pufa score and fold change.

Conclusion: There was a higher expression of 16SrRNA gene in Severe Early childhood caries group, followed by Early childhood caries and caries free group, indicating a high level of Streptococcus mutans in Severe Early childhood caries group and there was a negative correlation between dmfs score and CT values and a positive correlation between pufa score and fold change.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Cytotoxicity and Antioxidant Study of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. Ethanolic Leaf Extract on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells

Azizah Ab Karem, Evana Kamarudin, Nor Atiqah Jusril, Hasseri Halim, Roslinah Mohamad Hussain, Mazura Bahari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 41-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32343

Aims: Ethanol extract of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaves found specifically on Malaysian soil was used to further investigate the antioxidant properties and cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 macrophage cells in the search for a safer and effective natural antioxidant agent.

Study Design: Antioxidant potential of R. tomentosa were analyzed through series of spectrometric assays and cell-based bioassays model.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Puncak Alam Campus, 43200, Selangor, Malaysia from the year of 2019 to 2021.

Methodology: R. tomentosa leaves were subjected to extraction with 95% ethanol. The extracts were then denoted as ethanolic leaves extract of R. tomentosa or EtRT extract. EtRT extract were then screen for its antioxidant activity (AOA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) through DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. After that, EtRT extract were brought to observe its toxicity against RAW 264.7 macrophage cells in MTT assay. Once their toxicity was obtained, EtRT extracts were finally tested for their ability to inhibit intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells to further analyze their antioxidant properties.

Results: In this study, EtRT extracts dose dependently showed the ability to scavenge DPPH radicals and reduce ferric ions during DPPH radicals scavenging activity assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), respectively. In DPPH radical scavenging activity assay, EtRT extracts showed EC50 value at 12.37 ± 1.73 µg/mL with ARP value of 0.08 almost as near as ascorbic acid’s ARP value which is 0.09. Further into the study, EtRT extract were not cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 macrophage cells at concentrations 3.91 µg/mL and lower which showed more than 86.4% cell viability with IC50 value at 204.70 ± 5.30 µg/mL. EtRT extract possessed the ability to inhibit ROS production on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells at 7.813 µg/mL and lower, with the highest concentration can reduce up to 30.20% ± 1.01 out of the total ROS produced by the induced cells. Furthermore, EtRT extract also have evidenced that it is able to significantly inhibit NO production by the LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells at 7 µg/mL and lower being the highest at 56.73% ± 0.11 inhibition of the highest concentration tested.

Conclusions: This study suggests that EtRT extracts have the potential to reduce LPS-induced oxidative stress due to the antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds in the extracts, and that at low doses, EtRT extracts had low to no cytotoxicity on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. As a result, EtRT extract could be a promising natural medicinal agent for the treatment of oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross Sectional Study on Prevalence of Anaemia and its Determinant Factors among Pregnant Mothers in a Rural Community

A. Abiselvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 61-68
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32345

Anemia is the greatest common nutritional deficiency disorders affecting the pregnant women in the developing countries and determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in a rural community and determine the       socio demographic factors and obstetric factors associated with anaemia. The objective of the study was to evaluation the prevalence of anemia between pregnant women and to regulate its association with maternal and fetal consequences. The care given by the health care provider to a pregnant woman during her pregnancy period (a period of 280 days) is known as antenatal care. This research was carried out in rural field practicing area, Sripuram Kanchepuram district of Tamilnadu. The pregnant mothers residing in this area were taken as the study subject. This study was conducted for a period of four month from June 2014 to September 2014. Anaemia is considered a severe public health problem by World Health Organization when anaemia prevalence is equal to or greater than 40% in the population.  Iron deficiency is highest population subgroups that are at peak growth rates that is infant, children and pregnant mothers. Anaemia in pregnancy, the most common micro nutritional deficiency (disorder). It  is  estimated  that  more  than  50%  of  pregnant women  are  anaemic  and  majority  (90%)  belongs  to  iron deficiency. The great incidence of anemia in pregnant women speciously increases the maternal and fetal risks. To increase maternal and fetal effect, it is suggested that the primary health care has to be strengthened, prevention, initial diagnosis, and treatment of anemia in pregnancy to be given priority.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Supply Chain Information Integration on Operational Performance of Pharmaceutical Firms: Mediating Role of Information Leakage

Yasir Hayat Mughal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 69-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32346

Aims: The aim of the current study is to investigate the mediating role of information leakage on the relationship between supply chain information integration and operational performance of pharmaceutical firms.

Study Design: Survey approach was used. Primary cross-sectional data was collected from 151 firms.

Place and Duration of Study: Unit of analysis was organizations; population of the study was managerial staff, territory managers, field managers, area managers of firms. Total 200 questionnaires were distributed and 150 completed questionnaires were used in the analysis. Data was collected from Pfizer, Abbot, GSK, Mark, and Sanofi Aventis in 2020-2021.

Methodology: Partial Least Square Structural Modeling Equation (PLS-SEM) was used for analysis. Measurement model and structural model were developed and tested. Majority of the respondents were male followed by female staff members. All the respondents belong to managerial and administration side/positions.

Results: results of measurement model consist of loadings >0.7, Cronbach alpha >0.7, AVE>0.5, CR>0.7, revealed that scales used in the current study are reliable and valid. Results of structural model revealed that there is direct impact of supply chain information integration on information leakage and operational performance as well as indirect effect of information leakage upon supply chain information integration and operational performance of pharmaceutical firms.

Conclusion: it is concluded that in pharmaceutical firms there is leakage of information. Accidental information leakage has some consequences as well as intentional leak of information is more harmful. Firms have to strengthen their network in order to attain competitive advantage over their competitors and sustainable operational performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Proposed Insight into the Anti-viral Potential of Silver Nanoparticles against Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)

Murad Anvarbekovich Magomedov, Nuri Ruslanovich Shebzukhov, Tabarik Rustamovna Timerbulatova, Elvin Makhir ogly Amrakhov, Madina Elbrusovna Adzhieva, Rizvan Abdievich Murdalov, Rustem Khamidovich Ilbekov, Hava Ilyasovna Batalova, Makka Magomedovna Isaeva, Alikhan Magomedgadzhievich Ibragimov, Sergey Nikolaevich Povetkin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-93
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32347

This article presents a proposed insight into the anti-viral potential of silver nanoparticles against novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Possible mechanisms of influence of silver nanoparticles on the coronavirus are considered. Models of nanosilver complexes with spike protein of coronavirus amino acids were constructed using computer quantum-chemical modeling. The values of electron density distribution, highest occupied molecular orbital, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and electron density distribution gradient for each constructed model are obtained. Analysis of the obtained data showed that the most energy-efficient interaction is the formation of the "tryptophan–nanosilver" complex (E= - 5856.83 kkal/mol). According to the results of quantum chemical calculations, the most stable complex is the "cysteine– Ag nanoparticles" complex (ΔE = 0.16 a. u.).

Open Access Original Research Article

Virtual Screening, Molecular Docking and Pharmacophore Modeling of Phytoconstituents of Flavones as Aldose Reductase Inhibitors

Jainey P. James, Asmath Maziyuna Fabin, Pradija Sasidharan, Pankaj Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 94-107
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32348

Flavones are an important class of naturally occurring heterocycles possessing various pharmacological activities. An in silico approach was carried out where 506 compounds containing flavone ring were utilised as ligand against the target aldose reductase enzyme. Aldose reductase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the polyol pathway, which indirectly causes diabetic complications like diabetic nephropathy and diabetic retinopathy. The flavone containing compounds retrieved from the PubChem were investigated by HTVS (high throughput virtual screening) followed by molecular docking using glide SP and XP docking module in Maestro of Schrodinger software. Among them, the best fifteen compounds were selected for further studies. The binding energy calculation was done using the Prime MM-GBSA module. PASS online prediction tools were used for predicting the antidiabetic activity of the compounds. Also, a pharmacophore model was generated for best interacted fifteen compounds by Phase, which can be used for evaluation of the characteristic features essential for this specific biological activity. The ADMET properties of the compounds were determined using the Qikprop module in the Schrodinger software.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Efficacy of 4% Articaine and 0.5% Bupivacaine and 2% Lignocaine Anaesthetic agents in Orthodontic Extractions-A Prospective Randomised Controlled Study

Yandeti Srinivasulu, Abdul Wahab, P. Senthil Murugan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 108-116
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32349

Aim: Articaine, bupivacaine, lignocaine are amide type of local anesthetic agents, which are of almost equal potency. However, lidocaine is considered the gold standard and is the most widely used anesthetic agent because of its potency, safety, and efficiency. Articaine is fast acting and bupivacaine is long lasting local anaesthesia. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate and compare the clinical anesthetic efficacy of 4% articaine and 0.5% bupivacaine and 2% lignocaine in therapeutic orthodontic extractions.

Materials and Methods: A 150 healthy patients, requiring Maxillary premolars extraction for orthodontic reasons were included. Patients were categorized into three groups (4% articaine and 0.5% bupivacaine, 2% lignocaine) in a crossover manner. Subjective and objective observations recorded that include age, gender, and pain score using visual analog scale. At the first appointment, both upper premolars were extracted on one or two sides of the jaws. Each patient was evaluated using a visual analogue scale.

Results: The results showed that 0.5% Bupivacaine had significantly faster onset of action and lower visual analogue scores when compared with articaine and lignocaine. However, the duration of analgesia and need of first rescue analgesic medication was longer in the bupivacaine group.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of study we found that Bupivacaine has the best anaesthetic effect with low pain scores followed by Articaine and followed by Lignocaine. Bupivacaine is an alternative local anaesthetic drug for performing therapeutic orthodontic extractions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Novel Antitubercular Derivatives of Mannich and Schiff Bases of p-Aminosalicylic Acid – Rational Design

Nagendra Babu Mennuru, Swarnalatha Dugasani, V. Satyanarayana Suggala

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 143-155
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32353

Aims: The aim of the current study is to utilize computational drug design resources to develop and identify promising structural analogs of p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), to improvise antitubercular activity followed by their synthesis, characterization, and in-vitro biological activity determination.

Study Design: Design of the structural analogs of PAS by functional group modification at -COOH and -NH2 groups followed by in-silico prediction of biological activity, toxicity, drug-likeness filters, and molecular docking study to select promising analogs. Synthesis of selected analogs, structural characterization, and screening of biological activity of the same.

Methodology: Using the Prediction of Activity Spectrum of Substances (PASS Online) database, prediction of biological activity was performed for PAS and 22 designed structural analogs of PAS. All these analogs were screened for their drug-likeness properties using Lipinski’s rule of five. Later all these 22 analogs were predicted for their toxicities using OSIRIS Property Explorer. At this stage, out of 22 analogs, only 6 analogs were selected to go for molecular docking using AutoDock Tools and AutoDock Vina for the determination of their binding energies by comparing with PAS. The selected 6 analogs were synthesized using three-step syntheses. The synthesized analogs were screened for their antitubercular activity using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) method.

Results: Overall 22 structural analogs were designed and screened for their estimated activity (all analogs showed antitubercular activity as primary activity), drug-likeness (all analogs passed), and toxicities (only 10 analogs passed) using computational tools. Out of 22 analogs, 6 analogs were selected and performed molecular docking using AutoDock Vina. All 6 analogs showed better binding affinity than PAS. These 6 analogs (7a-f) were synthesized, characterized, and screened for their in-vitro antitubercular activity. Results showed that 5 analogs, 7b-7f, showed excellent antitubercular potency greater than PAS and equipotent activity to that of standard drugs. Analog 7a was found to be less potent than PAS.

Conclusion: Hence, the structural analogs of PAS, 7b-7f, were found to have better antitubercular activity than the lead compound, PAS, and equipotent to that of the standards, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, and pyrazinamide.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Efficacy of Pelvic Floor Muscle Exercise (PFME) on Urinary Incontinence among Middle Aged Women

Veena Verma, Sinju Mathew

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 156-162
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32354

Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a familiar manifestation that can affect women of all ages, with a wide range of severity and nature. While rarely life-threatening, incontinence may seriously influence the physical, psychological and social wellbeing of affected individuals.

Objective: The main objective of the study is to assess the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) or Kegel’s exercise on urinary incontinence among middle aged women of selected urban community of Raipur (C.G).

Methodology: A community based quazi - experimental study was conducted among 60 middle aged women having mild to moderate degree of urinary incontinence. The sample were selected by nonrandomised purposive technique The baseline data were collected from 60 samples (30 in experimental group and 30 in control group) by standardised tool - Questionnaire for urinary incontinence diagnosis (QUID) on urinary incontinence. The experimental group was taught to practise Kegel’s exercise for 4 week followed by post- test of both control & experimental group to compare the data for effectiveness.

Results: Comparison of mean and SD of pre-test and post-test level of urinary incontinence among middle aged women in experimental group & control group (un paired t -test) showed that the calculated value (2.1) of t was higher than the table value (2) at 0.05 level which shows that PFME is effective in improving symptoms of urinary incontinence if practised on regular basis. Factors positively associated with urinary incontinence were parity, type of delivery and nature of work.

Conclusion: Middle aged women with urinary incontinence will be greatly benefitted with regular pelvic floor muscle exercise. Health care practitioner should train & educate them on correct ways of performing Kegel’s exercise at community level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improved Efficacy and Stability of Silymarin Loaded Nanocochleates Over Liposomes for the Treatment of Skin Diseases

Rukhsana Rub, Neha Munot, Akshay Wadate

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 163-176
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32355

Aim: Silymarin, a complex polyphenolic component mixture with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and membrane-stabilizing property is being investigated in several dermatological conditions. Present research aims to evaluate potential of silymarin loaded nanocochleates and liposomal  topical application for treating chronic skin diseases.

Study Design: Silymarin loaded liposomes and nanocochleates were formulated and optimized using Design Expert software. Different invitro and exvivo tests were performed to compare their performance.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Smt. Kashibai Navale College of Pharmacy, Pune, India, between January 2019 till February 2020.

Methodology: Liposomes were prepared using ethanol injection method and further treated with calcium chloride to form nanocochleates by trapping method. Design of experiments (32 Factorial Design) was used for optimization of nanocochleates. Cell line studies (HaCaT cell lines) and short term stability studies were performed to compare the efficacy and stability respectively.

Results: Particle size, entrapment efficiency and drug deposition in Wistar Rat Skin was found to be statistically significant for nanocochleates over liposomes proving superiority of cochleates. Both the carriers sustained release of silymarin for 24h. Antimicrobial efficacy of nanocochleates against E.coli and S.aureus was significant. Inhibition of hyper proliferation of HaCaT cell lines (key mechanism by which most of the antipsoriatic drugs act) demonstrated the superiority of nanocochleates over liposomes.The nanocochleates also displayed better stability compared to liposomes due to  decreased entrapment efficacy and  leakage of drug.

Conclusion: Silymarin loaded Nanocochleates could prove as a promising topical drug delivery system for the treatment of chronic skin diseases like psoriasis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis Using Bioinformatics Approach

Akansha Budakoti, Chandramani B. More, Avinash K. Seth, Priyanka Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 177-186
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32356

Aims and Objectives: There is lack of understanding of distinct molecular pathways and associated gene mediators of the Potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity (OPMD), such as Leukoplakia and Oral sub mucous fibrosis. This microarray data analysis aims to highlight common and distinct gene signatures by identifying the differentially expressed genes and the pathways in which they participate to help researchers & clinicians to distinctly characterize the Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis disease conditions for developing appropriate treatment strategies

Methods: Gene Expression Omnibus datasets of Oral leukoplakia GSE85195 (OL) and Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) GSE64216 were analyzed using GEO2R package (using Log 2 fold change; false discovery rate < 0.05). The lists of differentially expressed genes of both datasets were analyzed for common and distinct members. These were then submitted to Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) for gene set enrichment analysis and functional annotation, to identify enriched Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways (Fisher's Exact Test for P-value < 0.05).         

Results: In total 1107 in OL, 607 in OSMF and 143 common differentially expressed genes in both OL and OSMF were identified. The gene set enrichment analysis by DAVID revealed 26% integral component of membrane, 20% extracellular region and 14% nucleus as cellular components and molecular functions. The distinct gene signatures and altered biological pathways reported here clearly distinguish molecular profiles of both OL and OSMF, which may help to identify potential drug targets for developing and designing new treatment strategies in future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antioxidant Property of Moringa Oleifera Leaves and its Effectiveness Against Rheumatoid Arthritis

Manas Jyoti Kapil, Dhiren Deka, Mangala Lahkar, Neelakshi Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 193-200
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32358

The present study is performed with the purpose of evaluating the antioxidant nature of Moringa Oleifera leaves and the effectiveness of the leaf extract against the disease called Rheumatoid Arthritis. The disease is very chronic and it is a common disease. So the study is focused on the medicinal properties of Moringa Oleifera leaves, chemical composition of Moringa Oleifera leaves and seeds, the antioxidant nature of moringa leaves and its extracts, the effectiveness of moringa leaf extract against the Rheumatoid Arthritis disease, reason behind the effectiveness of moringa leaves and discussion and analysis of the result generated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies of Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphate and Magnesium Levels in Lactating Mothers in Owerri

Ukamaka Edward, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Hope M. Okorie, C. C. N. Vincent, Yakubu Sunday Bot

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 209-216
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32360

This study was aimed at evaluating the serum levels of Calcium, Inorganic phosphate and Magnesium together with the Body Mass Index (BMI) in lactating mothers in Owerri. A total of sixty subjects were recruited. Thirty were lactating subjects while thirty were apparently healthy individuals that served as control subjects. Whole blood (5mls) was collected by venipuncture from the subjects using sterile needles and syringes into clean and sterile plain containers. The samples were immediately centrifuged and separated. The serum samples were stored at -20°C prior to use. All reagents were commercially purchased and the manufacturers’ Standard Operational Procedures were strictly followed. Serum Calcium, Inorganic phosphate and Magnesium levels were analyzed by spectrophotometric method and data was assessed using statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. The results were expressed as mean and standard deviation (mean ± SD). Difference in mean values between groups was assessed by student t-test. Result with probability value of P < 0.05 was statistically significant. The mean ± SD values of serum Calcium, Magnesium, Inorganic phosphate and Body Mass Index (9.28 ± 0.53mg/dl, 2.24 ± 0.38mg/dl, 4.18 ± 0.33mg/dl and 25.73 ± 1.60kg/m²) were higher in lactating subjects which was statistically significant (P < 0.05) when compared with the control subjects (8.98 ± 0.50mg/dl, 1.98 ± 0.24mg/dl, 3.34 ± 0.37mg/dl and 24.20 ± 1.35kg/m²). There was progressive decrease between 0 – 3 months, 4 – 6 months and ≥ 7 months with the mean ± SD values of Calcium (9.43 ± 0.55, 9.29 ± 0.52 and 9.12 ± 0.53)mg/dl and Inorganic Phosphate (4.25 ± 0.36, 4.18 ± 0.36 and 4.11 ± 0.27)mg/dl, and non progressive decrease in the mean ± SD values of Magnesium (2.29 ± 0.40, 2.20 ± 0.39 and 2.24 ± 0.38)mg/dl and Body Mass Index (26.30 ± 1.77, 25.30 ± 1.70 and 25.60 ± 1.27)kg/m² which was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The increase found was due to increased bone resorption and the decrease was due to enhanced mechanism for bone mineralization as the hormones concentrations tend to normalize in prolonged lactation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Solvents and Extraction Methods on Naringenin, LC-MS Based Quantitative Studies and Major Metabolite of Cochlospermum gossypium

Y. Rajendra, K. Sunitha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 217-228
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32361

Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate “Effects of Solvents and Extraction Methods on Naringenin, LC-MS Based Quantitative Studies and major Metabolite of Cochlospermum Gossypium”.

Study Design: LC-MS based Quantification Studies.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh between April 2019 and July 2020.

Methodology: Rapid and Quantitative efficient extraction methods were used by using soxhlet and Ultrasound mediated extraction techniques for a range of polar solvents and Isolation of Naringenin by gradient elution technique, In the present study Naringenin was isolated in abundance (1%) by repetitive chromatographic purifications of the ethyl acetate extract of the bark part of C.gossypium. In view of high therapeutic potential, detailed HPLC based quantitative studies was carried out on C. gossypium bark, which contains significant levels of Naringenin.

Results: The chromatographic separation was performed on the stationary phase, based on different retention mechanisms due to hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions between compounds and stationary phase. In total, 24 different polar extracts were generated by soxhlet and ultrasound extraction methods from the two bark samples which were collected from Jaipur town (Telangana state) and Trichur town (Kerala state).

Conclusion: The highest Naringenin content (0.59%) was found in the methanol + chloroform (1:1) extract (E8) generated by direct Soxhlet extraction of C.gossypium bark collected from Jaipur (Telangana state).Naringenin was isolated from a non-citrus plant for first time from Cochlospermum gosspyium and more significantly it is isolated in large quantity. It was obtained in 99.9% purity as shown by LCMS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Wi-Fi Radiation on Heart Rate Variability, Salivary Cortisol Level and Cognition

. Mahila

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 229-232
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32362

The study aims to analyse the effects of Wi-Fi radiations from mobile phone towers on the level of salivary cortisol , its effects on cardiovascular system , and on the cognitive levels of the subjects. on thirty six subjects exposed to Wi-Fi radiation from mobile phone tower (Group I) and thirty six subjects not exposed to Wi-Fi radiation from mobile phone tower (Group II). The frequency domain parameters of Heart rate variability, salivary cortisol level between both the groups was statistically significant. LF,LF/HF component was increased in Group I, HF component was increased in Group II which signifies parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic dominance in Group I. Cognition level was slightly increased in Group II but not statistically significant between both the Groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Drug-Excipient Compatibility Studies Using Validated RP-HPLC Method for Azelnidipine and Telmisartan Tablets

Manish Kumar, Umesh Chandra, Arun Garg, Pankaj Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 233-242
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32363

Aims: The Drug-Excipient compatibility testing was conducted at an early product development stage to determined that Excipients were compatible with drugs used in formulation and to distinguish as many degradation products as possible using validated gradient RP-HPLC method.

Study Design: Drug-Excipient Compatibility study was conducted in glass vials at different stability conditions namely, at 300C + 20C/75% + 5% RH, 400C + 20C/ 75% + 5% RH for 04 weeks and another set of closed vials were stored in stability chamber at temperature 600C + 20C for 02 weeks.

Methodology: Samples were analyzed by validated RP-HPLC method using Inertsil C-18 Column 150 × 4.6 mm ×5 µm, column oven temperature 40°C, flow rate 1.5 mL/min,  Injection volume 10 µL with run time 12.0 minutes at 254 nm using Acetonitrile and buffer as mobile phase in gradient mode.

Results: The developed method meets all system suitability parameters and found specific to determine the drug in the presence of Excipient as no interference was observed at the Retention time (Rt) of analyte.

Conclusion: There was no physical and chemical incompatibility observed with Drug-Excipient and did not observe significant increase in the related substances.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Association of Adiponectin and AdipoR1 Polymorphism rs1342387 in Some Obesity-related Cancers in Kurdistan Iraq

Mahmood Khaleel, Shereen Al-Ali, Baker Shalal Habeeb

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 243-253
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32364

Background: Adiponectin (APN) is a novel hormone produced mainly by white adipose tissue that contribute to various physiological functions. APN has been related to cancer development specially the ones related to obesity such as breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, it also has been related body mass index (BMI). This study aims to investigate the role of APN and AdipoR1 polymorphism rs1342387 in some obesity-related cancer patients living in Erbil province (Kurdistan-Iraq).

Method: The study includes 82 subjects (66 cancer patients, 16 healthy controls) from 4 medical facilities in Erbil, all participants were subjected to a questionnaire and signed a consent form before taking the samples. The serum level of APN was estimated by ELISA and the  AdipoR1 polymorphism (rs1342387) was detected by RFLP-PCR.

Results: The results showed that the prevalence of BC cases were more than CRC cases. Furthermore, females were the dominant sex in BC. Moreover, the level of APN was significantly decreased in obesity-related cancer groups (BC, CRC) in compare to HC. Regarding APN correlation with BMI the results showed a weak non-significant negative correlation. The attempt to investigate the genotype of Kurdish people showed the frequency of GG genotype among Kurdish people but the recessive AA genotype showed more effects on decreasing the level of APN despite the non-significant results.

Conclusion: This study is the first to investigate AdipoR1 polymorphism and its correlation to obesity-related cancers in Kurdistan-Iraq and although GG was the more frequent genotype, AA was more effective on APN levels in obesity-related cancers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Family Physician Residents of their Roles in Disaster Health Management: A Cross-Sectional Study in Saudi Arabia

Fawaz Hassan Alamri, Faisal Dhahi Aldahash, Sa’ad alqahtani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 254-261
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32365

Background: Family physicians have a pivotal role in responding to the medical community's needs and have a crucial role in disaster health management. Family physicians have several tasks and duties during and after the disaster, such as event detection, critical information’ collection and distribution, and rehabilitative activities. It is important to identify the level of awareness of the family physicians regarding their role in the management of disasters.

Aim: To assess the awareness of family physician residents of their roles in disaster health management, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This study was cross-sectional; it was performed on Saudi family physician residents in family practice clinics and centers in Saudi Arabia. A self-administrated questionnaire has been sent electronically to the participants to investigate their awareness. IMB SPSS version 22 was used to analyze the collected data.

Results: This study included 400 family physicians; more than one-half 52.75%were in the age of 28-30 years old. There were 61.5% worked previously at hospital emergency services. A few percentages reported receiving training on disaster medicine management in the clinic, 38.5%. 47.75% reported willingness to train on disaster management. There was 71% of physicians had high knowledge regarding their role in disaster management.

Conclusion: There was high awareness among the family physicians regarding their role in the management of disaster with an acceptable attitude toward receiving training.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of a Pharmacist in the Safe Self-medication – A Questionnaire-based Survey

Selma Škrbo, Semir Mehović, Naida Omerović, Anela Hadžifejzović Trnka, Nermina Žiga Smajić, Belma Pehlivanović, Dina Lagumdžija

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 280-294
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32367

Aims: This study aimed to investigate whether the place of the survey makes a significant impact on the responses regarding the process of self-medication, as well as the present pharmacists’ engagement in this process in the Sarajevo Canton.

Study Design: An anonymous questionnaire-based survey.

Place and Duration of Study: One public pharmacy and various public places in the Sarajevo Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina, for five months, February–June 2019.

Methodology: A total of 312 respondents was included. The first group (165 respondents) was surveyed in the pharmacy after buying an over-the-counter (OTC) drug, and the second group (147 respondents) was surveyed outside the pharmacy.

Results: Pharmacists instructed 65% of respondents (72.73% in the first group and 57.14% in the second group) on how to take the purchased OTC drug and checked whether 55% of respondents (70.91% in the first group and 38.1% in the second group) bought an appropriate drug for their health problem. Only 25% of respondents (36.36% in the first group and 12.24% in the second group) was informed about the adverse effects, whereas 29% of respondents (41.82% in the first group and 14.97% in the second group) was informed about the potential contraindications or interactions of the purchased OTC drug. The statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between the responses to the questions and the place of the survey about providing information on the adverse effects (P = .03), comorbidities (P = .049), and general information about the purchased OTC drug (P = .04).

Conclusion: In the Sarajevo Canton, pharmacists should be more actively involved in the process of self-medication and provide the necessary advice to patients consuming OTC drugs. Further research is needed so general conclusions could be drawn.

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Open Access Original Research Article

Intrathecal 0.5% Isobaric Bupiv Acaine Versus 0.5% Isobaric Ropiv Acaine for HIP Surgeries

M. Raj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 312-315
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32370

The sensory motor block for ropivacaine starts at 6.4 minutes and similarly for bupivacaine is 3.32 minutes. The sensory block for ropivacaine is from ranges from T8-T12 and for bupivacaine its T4 - T8 level. The time taken for motor block is 203.8 and for group R its 142.9min. In group B, the mean value of time taken for two segment regression is 97.9 minutes. The time taken for group R to regress is 63.7. In Group its 4. 70 minutes. In Group R the    mean onset of motor block is 9.40 minutes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Attendance of Non-Urgent Cases of Pediatric Emergency Room in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Mutlaq Almutlaq, Yazid Alsuliman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 316-320
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32371

The care for emergency conditions is an important feature of developed the systems of                 healthcare. Emergency medicine is the medical specialty dedicated to diagnosis and treatment of unforeseen illness or injuries. Overcrowding of Emergency Room (ER) by non-urgent cases is a problem that should be raised and reasons for that need to be sought. The aim is to identify the prevalence and factors behind non-urgent cases attending to acute care in Riyadh. This is a cross-sectional study which was conducted over a one-year period. Questionnaires were distributed to parents of children ≤14 years attending pediatric emergency room (ER) in multiple hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The sample size was 383 participants recruited using convenience sampling technique. The inclusion criteria comprised of pediatrics ≤14 years attending to ER with urgent cases (level 1, 2 and 3 according to Emergency Severity Index) and minor trauma (contusion, abrasion), sore throat, upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), mild abdominal pain, vomiting alone or diarrhea alone with no sign of dehydration of (level 4 and 5 according to Emergency Severity Index). 383 questionnaires were collected. The sample consisted mostly of females 56%. Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) was the highest reason for pediatric emergency room visits (55.1%). Only 12.2% have visited primary health care (PHC) prior to emergency room. Most of participants have sources for medical advice other than emergency physicians (80.3%). Results also show that many parents who have brought their kids to emergency lacked the knowledge that their cases could be managed in primary health care (76.2%). In Conclusion, results have shown that many parents choose ER whenever their children have any symptoms. Reasons for that varied between each participant. Many participants are ignorant of the capabilities of PHC centers, and their services. Raising awareness regarding primary health should be the objective to reduce number of non-urgent cases visiting emergency room.

Open Access Original Research Article

Social Media Platforms to Combat COVID-19 Pandemic in Ethiopia

Destaw Bayable Yemer, Minwuyelet Anidualem Desta, Melaku Bayu Workie, Getachew Degie Wondim, Hiwot Yishak Dawud, Nardos Wonago Kululo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 321-334
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32372

The aim of this study was to assess social media platforms to combat coronavirus pandemic in Ethiopia for need-based communication to address COVID-19 information and to control infodemic information. A mixed research design was used. Self-administered questionnaires, interviews and document analyses were used to gather relevant data from active social media users and healthcare workers that were selected by a simple random sampling technique. The social media integrated theory model to evaluate social media platforms were used.Ministry of Health and Ethiopian Public Health Institute addressed need-based information for 46.75 million people in SMS in 3-6 days intervals, 22 million virtual societies and 7 million social media platform users. The study revealed that the participants used social media platforms: Facebook (83.1%), telegram (59.3%), YouTube (33.9%), web (13.6%), Twitter (11.9%) actively in a moderate way to grasp and share information related to COVID-19. Ministry of Health and Ethiopian Public Health Institute used as a center of COVID-19 information, and it helps to control the infodemic information that arises with the de-central source of information. They were using the World Health Organization communication protocol and strategies to combat the pandemic. Ministry of Health (MOH) and Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) used social media platforms actively to combat the pandemic. The platforms enabled the public to express their feelings, needs and develop their awareness about COVID-19. The health institutions established the pandemic communication units from the federal to woreda level to disseminate the information and the materials to combat the virus. Yet, the health communication units were politicized.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design of a Reversible Cholinesterase Inhibitor Mamentine HCL Nanogel: Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation

Subhasri Mohapatra, Sourabh Jain, Karunakar Shukla

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 352-359
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32374

Memantine hydrochloride is a is a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, low-moderate affinity, uncompetitive n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, with strong voltage dependency and rapid blocking/unblocking kinetics. The present study was explore the potential of thermosensitive nanogel of mamentine loaded nanoparticle. In situ gel choosing due to restrict unwanted exposure in blood and other healthy tissues, thus eliminate hemolytic side effects of the drug and offer easy administration in vivo. Nanoparticle prepared by ionic gelation method and further the dried nanoparticle incorporates with in situ gel.  The in situ gel prepared by cold method using the solutions of Poloxamer-188 and Carbopol-934. The Transmission electron microscopy showed the spherical particles  with  smooth surface which was in conformity  with the SEM and Zetasizer  data for particle size. The pH of the formulations was found to be satisfactory and was in the range of 6.8±0.039 -7.4±0.053 and also mucoadhesive strength was show in table. The mucoadhesive strength of all formulations was varies from 2398±0.0004 to 4945±0.0002 dynes/cm2. In-vitro diffusion study of the in situ gel (N1-N8) was performed using modified Franz diffusion cell with dialysis membrane in phosphate buffer pH 6.5 for a period of 24 hours. The in vitro release study were fitted into various kinetic models viz zero order, first order, higuchi model and korsmeyer peppas equation. Stability studies for optimized formulations were carried out at 4.0 ± 0.5°C and 37 ± 0.5ºC for a period of four weeks. There was no significant variation found in physical appearance, average particle size and % drug content of the in situ nanogel N2. No visible changes in the appearance of the gel formulation were observed at the end of the storage period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Malaria in Pregnancy Amidst Possession of Insecticide Treated Bed Nets (ITNs) in Orlu L.G.A. of Imo State, Nigeria

I. A. Ogomaka, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 380-386
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32377

Malaria is one of the most dreadful diseases in pregnancy due because it affects not only the pregnant mother, but also the foetus especially in the Tropical African countries. Most endemic nations have embarked on free or affordable distribution of insecticide treated bed net as an alternative to drug interventions, yet many people, especially children and pregnant women stand the risk of malaria attack annually. Hence the study on the malaria status and possession of insecticide treated bed net (ITN) among pregnant women in Orlu LGA in 2019.A total of 600 pregnant women were encountered in health care service centersin the area, out of which 514 gave their consent and participated in the study. Blood samples were collected using finger pricking method, stains made directly on slides allowed to dry and then taken to diagnostic laboratory for parasitological analysis. The slides were stained with Giemsa stain and examined using X100 oil immersion objective lens. Biodata and other relevant information on the use/ non use of ITN were obtained using well- structured questionnaire and focus group discussions. The results obtained revealed that out of 514 participants examined,318(61.9%) had malaria parasites while 196(38.1%) had no malaria. Gravid related prevalence showed primed of having the highest prevalence of 69.1%, while the least infected were those of thirdgravidae, (44.3%). Trimester related prevalence also had the first trimester group of having the highest prevalence of 71.5%, while the least was observed among the second trimesters, 55.5%.  Of 217 (42.2%) who use ITN,129 (59.4%) were infected while 63.6% of those who do not use had a malaria infection as well. Generally, this study revealed that it is not only the distribution or possession of ITN that reduces or prevents malaria infection, but the zeal and enabling environment to use the nets appropriately. A lot more is needed to really prevent malaria infection among the most vulnerable and indeed the entire populace through improved education strategy. Better enlightenment of the public as well as availability of coping strategies to really ameliorate the effect of extra heat and rashes from the bed nets are paramount.

Open Access Review Article

Evaluation and Management of Septic Arthritis in Emergency Department “Narrative Review”

Abdulwahab Ahmed Alzahrani, Abdullah Habib H. Alluqmani, Mosab Abdullah Althaqafi, Ahmad Abdulsamad Alhamoud, Faisal Mousa Kuraydim, Shatha Yahya Alothaimeen, Bashaer Mohammedsaleh, Afnan Ahmed Hamod Zogeeli, Duaa Abdulkadir Al Muslim, Rawan Ismail Nouruldeen, Maha Abdullah Alqahtani, Bassam Ibrahim Aljuhani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 53-60
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32344

Septic arthritis (SA) is a secondary infective disease due to joints inflammation. It often appears with mono- or oligoarticular acute arthritis that frequently leads to an emergency department (ED) visit with need for prolonged hospitalization. SA is an orthopedic emergency that can threaten both life and limb due to its potential rapid destruction of the joint with fulminant sepsis, causing significant disability within hours to days. Delayed or poor treatment of septic arthritis can lead to irreversible joint damage with consequent disability in addition there to significant mortality rate. Management includes early detection and treatment with antibiotics, joint aspiration, and consultation for orthopedic surgery as potential operative management. This review aims to summarize current evidence regarding evaluation and management of septic arthritis in emergency department, and to highlight the difficulties of diagnosing and managing SA that face the healthcare providers to help overcome those difficulties and to recommend further studies to be done regarding those problems and their solutions.

Open Access Review Article

Artificial Intelligence the Itinerary of Sustainable Health Care

Simren Bhatia, Anmol Mathur, Aditi Mathur

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 137-142
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32352

The Global Strategy for health for all by the year 2020 was launched by WHO in the year 1979 but still the goal has not been achieved; crisis of health care personnel is a major reason behind it. To achieve a more stable future, health care sector needs Artificial Intelligence (AI) will be a curtain raiser towards sustainability in the field of health care.

Sustainable health care can be achieved by fulfilling the targets set out by Sustainable Development Goals, AI can provide promising alternatives to match the goals and aim the sustainable health care for the generations to come. The current paper would like to propose AI as a solution to these issues. AI is already in the front line for diagnosis and medical imaging but there is still lot of scopefor utilization.   

Open Access Review Article

The Impact of Metformin in Pediatric Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus in Addition to Insulin Therapy; Literature Review

Mohammed Abdullah Alzahimah, Khalid Mohammed S. Al Sleem, Hatem Ahmed Albenawy, Albara Abdullah Mohammed Al Mushham

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 187-192
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32357

Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus leads to significant cardiovascular risk through various mechanisms. Intensified insulin therapy is commonly required to achieve adequate glycemic control and reduce HbA1c. However, when insulin dose increases, it might increase insulin resistance and body weight, which directly affecting the cardiovascular profile.

Objective: We aim in this literature review to address the role of adding metformin to insulin therapy to limit the cardiovascular effect, insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in pediatric age.

Methods: We searched in the PubMed database for relevant articles using the following Mesh words: Metformin - Type 1 diabetes mellitus, pediatrics - Cardiovascular risk.

Conclusion: Metformin was found to has promising cardiovascular protection when adding to insulin therapy. However, the impact of metformin in type 1 diabetes mellitus glycemic control is controversial, and further multi-systemic randomized clinical trials are recommended to address this issue.

Open Access Review Article

A Brief Review on Importance of Mental Health First Aid Kit for Depressed Adolescents

S. Mukherjee, T. Sebastian, J. Gawai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 201-208
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32359

Adolescent mental wellbeing is a serious and un-recognized public health concern. Adolescent depression is widespread, but many may not have convenient accessibility to mental health resources. If they are diagnosed and handled early on, there is a greater likelihood of a good long-term result. Early identification and effective assistance-seeking can only arise if young adults and their "associates" (e.g., families, peers, and friends) are informed of the early differences affected by behavioral illness, as well as the best forms of help available and how to achieve it. The aim of a mental first aid kit is to offer advice and instruction to parents and peers about how to recognize and support people who are struggling from mental illnesses. Since this is a popular issue among teenagers, a Juvenile MHFA curriculum must be initiated in schools and colleges to include instruction on how to utilize the MHFA. This review focuses on understanding the seriousness of mental disorders in adolescents and use of MHFA to recognize it.

Open Access Review Article

The Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Persicaria odorata: A Review

Nurfaizah Azmi, Ezza Izzati Zulkurnain, Salfarina Ramli, Richard Johari James, Hasseri Halim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 262-279
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32366

World Health Organization (WHO) reported that 88% of its member or 61 countries acknowledge the use of traditional and complementary medicines. Persicaria odorata is being used as traditional herbs to treat fever, nausea and promoting hair growth. Besides, it is used as an anti-inflammatory agent in Vietnam to relieve swelling and treat wounds, sores, and ulcers. This review aims to evaluate the phytochemical and pharmacological status of P. odorata. P. odorata is a plant with a high content of phenols and flavonoids. Among the essential chemical constituents in the P. odorata are methyl gallate, (+)-catechin, eupatoriochromene, n-dodecanal, polygonumins A, α-humulene and anthraquinone. P. odorata also exerts many pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anticancer effects. The commonly used part of P. odorata for extraction are leaves followed by the aerial part, rhizomes and stems. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to identify the efficacy and toxicity of P. odorata. New drugs could be developed from the active compounds of P. odorata in the future.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on the Medicinal Potential of Trachyspermum ammi Found in Pakistan

Sana Javaid Awan, Faheem Hadi, Tahir Maqbool, Shumaila Nadeem, Sabeen Malik, Anam Farzand

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 302-311
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32369

Numerous plants are used as a traditional medicine in herbal therapy and are well known for their effective potential in therapeutics for different ailments. Carom [Trachyspermum ammi] is one of the plants that are crucial in medicine. It was cultivated first time in different regions of Asia. It has been used in traditional medicine for a long time in a variety of pharmacological and medicinal aspects. It is renowned for its curative value in different miseries, especially infections. Like other fatal diseases, great advancements have been made by utilizing the therapeutic abilities of different medicinal plants regarding the cure and control of cancer progression. However still, there is a need for improvement in treatment strategies and meeting up significant deficiencies in cancer management. Carom may have some progressive role in controlling such types of ailments. Moreover, it may be anticipated as an immunotherapeutic agent and would dominate other infection-controlling agents and cancer-treating strategies due to its higher efficiency as well as biosecurity free of adverse side effects.

Open Access Review Article

Plant Phyto-constituents as Antibiotic Adjuvants: A Systematic Review and Bibliometric Analysis

Prerana Dongre, R. S. Bhambar, Vrushali Tambe, Archana Karnik

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 335-351
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32373

The advent of antibiotics in the 19th century has significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases. However, irrational use of antibiotics in humans as well as in animals has driven the 21st century to the rapid emergence of MultiDrug Resistance Bacteria (MRB). Moreover, the dissemination of COVID-19 pandemic has paved the way for MRB, typically due to increased use of antibiotics to avoid secondary infections.

The fast pace progression of bacterial resistance for the antibiotics and their combinations is making the management of MRB infections tough and increasing the cost of the treatment as well. However, use of Efflux Pump Inhibitors (EPI) as adjuvant for antibiotics has shown a ray of hope by retaining the susceptibility of the antibiotics and thereby reducing the burden of immediate requirement of new antibiotics for MRB. Accordingly, the present paper is aimed to scrutinize the predominant literature depicting the plant Phyto-constituents as an EPI and adjuvant for antibiotics in the management of MRB infections.

The systematic review of the present paper indicates that the plant phyto-constituents belonging to the class of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids can effectively be used as EPIs for antibiotics such as Ciprofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Tetracyclines and Chloramphenicol. Bibliometric analysis indicates that the Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy and BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine have published impactful articles on EPI potential of plant phyto-constituents. Further, authors Kuete V, Dzotam JK, Falcao-silva VD, Gibbons S, Kuiate JR, Mbaveng AT, Tankeo SB and  Voukeng IK are the major contributors and productive authors.

Open Access Review Article

A Comprehensive Review on the Formation of Carcinogens from Food Products with Respect to Different Cooking Methods

Parikshit Das, Durgaprasad Kemisetti, Farhana Israt Jahan, Sabiha Enam Spriha, Sabreena Chowdhury Raka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 360-372
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i41B32375

It has been seen that the majority of carcinogens are formed depending upon the cooking and processing conditions employed which influences their magnitude to adversely affect the food products. High heat, marination, roasting, frying, grilling etc. can significantly affect the household food products. The most frequently occurring carcinogens are Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), N-Nitrosamines (NA), Acrylamide (AA) and aflatoxins. These agents are found in variety of food sources due to unhealthy processing conditions such as marinated pork dishes, chicken drumsticks, grilled chicken, smoked chicken and fish preparations, potato chips, sausages, soy sauce etc. Apart from these, marketed cooking oils of various grades, synthetic antioxidants and regular high consumption of coffee can remarkably increase the risk of causing cancer. Therefore, an appropriate knowledge and awareness in context to some harmful processing conditions must be taken into consideration before consuming the final food product. This review aims to summarize the major carcinogens from food with evidences, the mechanism of formation, carcinogenic action and ways to reduce the level of these carcinogens from food.