Open Access Case Report

A Brief Study on Retroperitoneal Paraganglioma

Milind Pandey, Sunita Vagha, Gaurav Mahajan, Anchal Manchanda

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32184

Paragangliomas are tumors of the autonomic nervous system, located extra-adrenally, presenting inside the base of the head, chest and abdomen. They can appear as a primary retroperitoneal neoplasm when viewed inside the abdominal cavity and might resemble as vascular malformations or any other conditions same as retroperitoneal organs particularly such as pancreas, kidney. These are relatively uncommon endocrine tumors that originate from specific tissue of the paraganglion. They synthesise, store and secrete catecholamines, which can contribute to headache, sweating, palpitation and hypertension. These may be mistaken for GISTs with no histological diagnosis and symptoms of catecholamine overload (non functional). We are reporting a case of 42 yrs male with clinical features of slow backache radiating to both lower legs and with the presence of tingling sensation. Corresponding contrast enhanced CT scan shows a para – aortic mass.

Open Access Case Report

Uterine Perforation in Postmenopausal Woman – Case Report

Sheela Shelke, Sanjivani Wanjari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 111-114
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32187

Rupture of uterus occurring spontaneously is a rare occurrence. Here we are presenting a case of spontaneous postmenopausal rupture of uterus caused by pyometra. This can be associated with high morbidity if generalized peritonitis and sepsis occurs. The symptoms will be like acute abdomen similar to that caused by ruptured bowel or gastric perforation. In case of postmenopausal rupture like ours, gynaecological symptoms are very less. Hence the diagnosis becomes difficult and challenging. Here we report a rare case of uterine rupture that occurred in a postmenopausal woman because of pyometra. The patient landed up in the surgical department as case of acute abdomen. Definitive diagnosis was made at the time of laparotomy only when exploration was done and gynaecologist called.

Open Access Case Report

A Case Report on Ischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy with Compensated Alcoholic Liver Disease with Acute Pancreatitis and Right Sided Pleural Effusion

Switi Jawade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 283-287
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32206

Introduction: Ischemic heart disease is the most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. In ischemic heart disease, the capability of the coronary heart to pump blood is reduced due to the fact that the principle pumping chamber of the heart, the left ventricle, is enlarged and dilated. This is due to a loss of blood supply to the heart muscles due to coronary artery disorder. This condition is sometimes referred to as dilated cardiomyopathy.

Clinical Finding: shortness of breath since 3 months, dry cough, loss of appetite, loss of weight (Weight 50 Kg), lower limb swelling, increased frequency of stools since 3 months.

Diagnostic Evaluation: chest x-ray right hydropneumothorax, ECG QS complexes in V1, V2, V3, 2 D Echo ejection fraction 15%, all chambers dilated, poor biventricular systolic function, mild mitral regurgitation, tricuspid regurgitation.

USG for liver mild hepatomegaly, USG for thorax gross pleural effusion on right side,

CECT Abdomen bulky tail of pancreas, right side pleural effusion with collapse of underlying lung.

Therapeutic Intervention: Patient was treated with diuretics, alpha and beta-blocker, angiotensin receptor, Antibiotic, protein powder and supportive treatment and intercostals chest drainage was done.

Outcome: pleural tapping was done. Patient general condition was poor with breathlessness.

Conclusion: This situation indicates the subsequent mental impact at the affected person, as well as on career and family. After getting appropriate treatment patients symptoms relived and the progression of heart failure slowed down.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Effects of Relationship between Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Children's Obesity

Gautami Ghudale, Ranjit S. Ambad, Nandkishor Bankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 53-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32179

Introduction: Women who have a GDM diagnosis, on the other hand, are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Many risk factors, such as obesity and obesity, were shown to be shared by GDM and type 2 diabetes, and GDM is believed to be the second most prevalent type of diabetes mellitus. Human risk tests are used to determine the proportion of GDM cases that may have been eliminated if all overweight or obese women had a GDM risk similar to that of average weight women. To better understand the possible effect of weight loss on GDM cases, we calculated the number of children with GDM and the proportion of GDM cases caused by obesity and obesity-related diseases.

Aim: Effects of relationship between gestational diabetes mellitus and children's obesity

Materials and Methods: The full texts of 32 publications were retrieved for those whose abstracts listed a connection between maternal gestational diabetes and childhood the Observed Treatment in the Departments of Medicine and Respiratory, Datta Meghe Medical College and Shalinitai Meghe Hospital and Research Centre,

Conclusion: While the association between diabetes and weight loss is reduced after the pre-pregnancy obesity adjustment, there is a positive relationship, according to this recent research study. Only two of the 12 previous studies of maternal obesity were found to be 12, and both showed that organizations were no longer purposeful after the correction. To better define and differentiate the roles of prenatal obesity and gestational diabetes, further research is needed to look at the functioning of common genes and / or shared substances, such as postpartum diet and physical activity. Regardless of genetics, animal studies have shown that maternal hypernlymemia and fatal hyperinsulinism can cause infertility in adolescence, lower glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Hypertensive Patient Compliance with Pharmacist Intervention: A Systematic Review

Abdullah M. Alshahrani, Marzoq S. Al-Nasser, Saif T. Alhawashi, Saad Alqahtani, Ali A. Alqahtani, Saad S. Alqahtani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 85-97
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32182

Background: Pharmacists and physicians can work together to improve patient compliance especially for the management of hypertension. Medication adherence leads to advance health and reduces hospitalizations (morbidity), death (mortality) and healthcare costs.

Objectives: Involvement of pharmacist in treatment intervention can result in improved understanding about hypertension and it can increase medication adherence to antihypertensive therapy which ultimately advance overall quality of life.

Study design and methods: A comprehensive research study was conducted using two eminent databases i.e. PUBMED and EMBASE. The research articles from 1996 to 2015 were analyzed. All the selected articles were about pharmacist intervention, hypertensive patient compliance and hypertension medication adherence.

Results: Some studies show no control in BP; however, there was significant difference in the systolic and diastolic BP pre and post pharmacist intervention (Systolic from 158.1±14.4 to 143.8 ± 10.7, Diastolic from 100.6 ±11.5 to 89.8 ± 9.7). Conversely, in some studies BP was controlled in about 29.9% of control group and in 63% of the intervention group.

Conclusion: Results showed many methods can improve medication adherence and blood pressure including counseling patients in person, collaboration between pharmacists and physicians, and using technology like telecommunication to intensify patients counseling. Pharmacist intervention can significantly increase disease-related knowledge, blood pressure control and medication adherence in patients with hypertension.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Nonuremiccalciphylaxis - A Systematic Review

Abdulmajeed Albalawi, Ibrahim Dighriri, Ahad Alsharif, Emtenan Basahl, Fatimah Alrajab, Shuruq Alzahuf, Bashair Alharbi, Khaled Alahmadi, Husam Alkhathlan, Sarah Alharbi, Amjad Aljubairy, Jana Babaqi, Bader Alotaibi, Asma Mrair, Turki Alhujuri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 158-170
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32192

Background: Calciphylaxis, also known as calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a well-described condition in renal transplant and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients; however, little is known about calciphylaxis induced by nonuremic causes. This systematic study aimed to determine the causes, prognosis of nonuremic calciphylaxis, clinical features and laboratory abnormalities.

Patients and methods:A comprehensive review of the literature for nonuremic calciphylaxis case reports and case series published between 2016 and 2021 was performed. Cases included satisfied the criteria for a histological diagnosis of nonuremic calciphylaxis in the absence of ESKD, renal transplantation, or acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy.

Results: The authors identified 53 cases of nonuremic calciphylaxis (83.14 % women, Caucasian 13.33 %, aged 25 to 83 years). The most prevalent documented associations were of patients having multiple conditions 18 (33.33 %), warfarin-induced (7.4 %), calcium and Vitamin D supplementation (3.7 %), primary hyperparathyroidism (3.7 %), liver disease (3.7 %), Acenocumarol use (3.7 %), Systematic lupus erythematosus (3.7 %), alcoholic cirrhosis (3.7 %), respectively.

Conclusion:When investigating skin lesions in patients with sensitive conditions, calciphylaxis must often be addressed in the absence of ESKD or renal transplantation. Obese women with various underlying illnesses such as alcohol intake, smoking, diabetes, liver disease, and so on are more likely to develop nonuremic calciphylaxis (NUC).Calciphylaxis is linked with high mortality; however, sodium thiosulfate (ST) has made clear progress in terms of treatment, yet there are still areas that need to be addressed to describe the effectiveness of ST.

Open Access Case Study

An Ayurvedamanagement of Vataj Kasa – A Case Study

Anshul Baloda, Aboli Patil, Amit Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 150-157
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32191

The Prana and UdanaVayu are responsible for normal functioning of praanvahasrotas, which can be altered due to causative factors in turn lead to manifestation of Kasa which is characterized by these lakshanasShuska gala, Shuskakasa with shuskaalpakapha, Swarbheda, ParshavShool, Shriashool, Urashool, Dourbalya etc. Paediatric age groups are more prone to respiratory tract infections, immunological concerns, and social factors such as school attendance, incorrect eating, and eating habits due to anatomical and physiological characteristics. Ayurveda has a lot of drugs to cure respiratory disorder, So this case study was conducted and get the positive result in treatment.

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of ayurveda management on vatajakasa.

Study Design: Single Case Study

Place: Parul Ayurved Hospital, Parul University, Limda, Vadodara, Gujarat.

Duration Of Study: 14 days and follow up after 7days.

Methodology: Internal medication to reduce the sign and symptoms of vatajkasa.

As a result, this article addresses the problem using Ayurvedic treatment methods like Aparajit Avaleha, which delivers a safe and effective solution.

Open Access Case Study

Ayurvedic Management of Shwitra: A Case Study

Suneel Kumar Rajpoot, Hemant Toshikhane, Harish Daga

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 320-325
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32210

Shwitra is a chronic illness. The lesions of shwitra being dry and also noninfectious thus differs from the kushtha in general. It is whitish discoloration of skin starting from child to old, rich to poor, irrespective of sex, religion, status, age. vitiligo can be co-related with Shwitra disease in Ayurveda due to the alike signs and symptoms which are; non exudative white, red or coppery-red colored patches, roughness, dryness, itching, burning sensation of the patches, loss and discoloration of the hair.  Shwitra  is  caused  by  vitiation  all  the  three  doshas.  Pracchanna karma is one of among the shastrakrita raktamokshana in which multiple small incisions are made to irrigate the impure blood.  It  is usually adopted as a sthanika chikitsa. In this study, Balyadi lepa is used externally for the management of shwitra, the result of which has been found encouraging.

Open Access Study Protocol

In-Vivo Studies of the Angiogenic Potential of Mandur Bhasma

Ekta Tomar, Sonali Wairagade, Arachana Gharote, Ranjit S. Ambad, Dhruba Hari Chandi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-84
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32181

Background: Mandur Bhasma is a herbo-mineral compound. It is prepared by Putapaka method. It is described as Raktasanjanan. In the current study, Mandur Bhasma was prepared with a standardized method w.s.r to Rasatarangini and an experimental study was done to observe the Angiogenic property of Mandur Bhasma. The current study will analyze angiogenic potential of Mandur Bhasma using chick CAM model. This research is intended to study the possible role of Mandur Bhasma on angiogenesis and establishing properties of Mandur Bhasma as an angiogenic by newer means. The experimental study inside the egg shell will be carried out on a membrane known as “chorioallantoic membrane”.


  1. To Prepare Mandur Bhasma
  2. Physicochemical and Analytical study of Mandur Bhasma
  3. To verify the angiogenic potential of Mandur bhasma using the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model.
  4. To compare Angeogenic potential of Mandur bhasma with standard drug progesterone

Methodology: Relevant classical literature regarding Mandur will be reviewed and the data will be collected. Mandur Shodhan with Gomutra and Mandur Maran with Triphala decoction will be done.

Analytical Study like Organoleptic Test for Rasa, Gandha, Varna, Sparsha, Physicochemical Tests and other analytical test like ICP-AES /ICPMS, XRD structure of Bhasma, EDAX-NANO Particle Size will be done.

Expected Results: Changes will be observed in objective outcomes.

Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn by suitably analyzing data.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Study on Efficacy of Murvadya Churna with Lauha Bhasma and Navayas Churna in Pandu Roga (Iron Deficiency Anemia)

Manisha Vaman Davkare, Sourabh Deshmukh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 265-272
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32203

Pandu Roga is mainly the Rasapradoshaj Vyadhi which vitiates the Pitta. Whereas Shushruta described it as Raktapradoshaj Vyadhi. In Pandu Roga due to Alpa Rakta Twaka Vivarnata (discoloration of skin) occurs.So according to name Panduta is the main feature of Pandu Roga.Due to lack of dietary intake & improper absorption of iron are the causes of Iron deficiency Anemia.

Aim: Efficacy of Murvadya Churna with Lauha Bhasma in the management of Pandu Roga (Iron Deficiency Anemia).        

 Material and Methods: Study was contained 60 patients of Pandu were divided into two groups (each group contain 30). In Group A (Experimental group)- Murvadya Churna with Lauha Bhasma 500 mg two times a day after meal with warm water for 30 days & In Group B 500 mg Navayas Lauha was administered two times a day after meal with honey. Assessment was recorded every 15th day (15th & 30th day)

Result: Subjective and Objectives outcomes were assessed; both the groups were given equal effects on both the parameters subjective & objective.

Conclusion: Murvadya churna with Lauha Bhasma was equally effective as Navayas Lauha.

Open Access Short Research Article

Emotional Intelligence and Stress Tolerance of Diabetic Physical Exercising and Diabetic Nonphysical Exercising Peoples on Critics

W. Vinu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-52
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32178

Aim: This study is an attempt to analyze and interpret diabetic nonphysical exercising and diabetic physical exercising people on the psychological aspect of emotional intelligence.

Place and Duration of Study: Chidambaram, Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India. 1 year.

Methodology: For this study a normative survive method was used to collect data from diabetic physical exercising and diabetic nonphysical exercising people from Chidambaram, Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India. This investigate is an attempt to analyse and interpret diabetic physical exercising and diabetic nonphysical exercising people on the psychological aspect of EI. The problem of this study is a comparison of on EI of diabetic physical exercising and diabetic nonphysical exercising peoples. The sample in the present study was limited to 60 nondiabetic and 60 diabetic people.

Results: The result shows that the ‘r’ value obtained from the variable emotional stability and self-development on the sample of 60 on stress tolerance of diabetic physical exercising group was identified as 0.34 and 0.35 which was significant at 0.01 this shows that here remained a positive relationship between stress tolerance with emotional stability, Stress tolerance with self-development. When emotional stability increases stress tolerance increases when self-development develops stress tolerance increases. The diabetic non-physical exercising and diabetic physical exercising group significantly differ in their stress tolerance, comparatively, the mean value of 73.81 for diabetic physical exercising people with the mean value of 71.79 diabetic nonphysical exercising people is less. Hence it is proved that diabetic physical exercising people have more stress tolerance than diabetic nonphysical exercising people. This indicates that comparatively diabetic physical exercising people can withstand when deprived and tolerate critics of others because diabetic physical exercising people are more stress-tolerant when compared to diabetic nonphysical exercising people. The result of the diabetic physical exercising group's 'r’ value obtained from the variable EI on the sample of 60 on stress tolerant was identified as 0.25 which was significant at 0.05.

Conclusion: There was a positive relationship between stress tolerance with EI which specifies that when EI increases stress tolerance increases for diabetic physical exercising person’s vice versa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Practice of Childhood Immunization among Men with Infants in Enugu Metropolis

Chekwube Catherine Agu, C. N. Onwasigwe, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, C. C. N. Vincent, Udunma Olive Chijioke, Calista Ndidi Adike, Chukwum J. Okafor, Adaobi Maryann Ibekwe, Lizzy Agunwah, Confidence Ogechi Anyanwu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 5-15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32174

Background: Immunization is the process by which a person’s immune system is fortified and made resistant to an infectious disease/ agent. Immunization saves millions of lives. It is the most important means of preventing childhood morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the knowledge and practice of childhood immunization among men with infants in Enugu Metropolis.

Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study using multi stage sampling involving 81 men with infants in Ogbete Main Market Enugu. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 22 adopting descriptive statistics and chi square to test difference and relationship between variables. P-values <0.05 were taken to be level of significance.

Results: Findings indicated that median, mean ± standard deviation of the men’s age are 35, 35.8 ± 3.5 respectively. Men’s total knowledge level was significantly associated with their level of education (P<0.05) and their level of practice was significantly associated with their religion (????2 =35.7, df = 8, P=0.000).

Conclusion: This study concludes that the men studied had good knowledge and poor practices of immunization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pre-emptive PPAR-γ Activation Abolishes Development of Nerve Injury-induced Behavioral Hypersensitivity: Elucidating Underlying Mechanisms

Seema Thakur, Haritha Pasupulati, Saurabh Sharma, Satyanarayana S. V. Padi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32176

Background: Neuropathic pain is a chronic incapacitating painful condition for which there is no effective treatment. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that play key roles in modulating immune and inflammatory responses. The antinociceptive properties of PPAR-γ activation on development of neuropathic pain are not fully known.

Objective: To determine the role of PPAR-γ activation on the development of neuropathic pain following chronic constriction injury and to elucidate underlying mechanisms.

Methodology: Neuropathy was induced by chronic constriction injury of sciatic nerve in rats. Cold allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were assessed and the markers of inflammation and nitroso-oxidative stress were estimated.

Results: Pre-emptive administration of pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist (3, 10 or 30 mg/kg, i.p. 1 hr before surgery and continued once daily for 2 weeks) dose-dependently attenuated paw withdrawal latency to cold (allodynia) and thermal (hyperalgesia) stimuli. Pioglitazone significantly reduced elevated TBARS, protein carbonylation, nitrite levels and markedly restored depleted GSH, and reduction in activities of SOD and catalase in injured nerves. Further, pioglitazone markedly reduced plasma extravasation and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β following nerve injury. Moreover, pioglitazone did not alter the locomotor activity. Pretreatment with PPAR-γ antagonist BADGE (30 mg/kg, i.p.) blocked the beneficial effects of pioglitazone. Essentially, pioglitazone promoted the long-lasing recovery and also prevented the development of neuropathic pain even after treatment termination.

Conclusion: Pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist receptor-dependently abolished the development of traumatic neuropathic pain and exerted long-lasting antinociceptive effects through reducing nitroso-oxidative stress and inflammation. Our findings strongly suggest that pre-emptive activation of PPAR-γ prevented or at least delayed the development of nerve injury-induced pain hypersensitivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Herbal Mouthwash with Extracts of Coriandrum Sativum, Mint and Clove in the Treatment of Chronic Gingivitis- A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Sneha Puri, Mahvash Fatema, Akhilesh Shewale, Rashmi Bele

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 59-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32180

Introduction: Herbal antiseptic or antibiotic agents are introduced very widely that are effective against plaque microorganisms for the healing of gingival and periodontal tissue. However, none of literature has shown antibacterial effect of coriandrum sativum, clove and mint on the levels of dental plaque when used as a mouthwash.

Aim: To assess the efficacy of a newly formulated mouthwash containing Coriandrum sativum, mint and clove to reduce plaque and inflammation to maintain the oral hygiene.

Methodology: Twenty systemically healthy patients were randomly allocated to either the test group [G1(coriandrm sativum, mint,clove = 10 patients)] or the control group [G2 (Placebo gel = 10 patients]. Full mouth Gingival Index (GI); Full mouth Plaque Index (PI) was evaluated at baseline and on 14 and 21st day.  

Result: The mean reduction in PI from 2.28 to 0.85 and 2.13 to 1.21 was noted in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The experimental group (2.21–0.76) comparatively showed better reduction in mean PBI than the control group (2.17–1.29). The results obtained were statistically significant at baseline and 14th and 21st day in all the groups. Remarkable improvement was noted from baseline to 14th and 21st day in all the groups.

Conclusion: The encouraging results of our study suggest that the newly formulated mouthwash containing coriandrum Sativum, mint and clove demonstrates anti-inflammatory properties, which may be useful as an adjunctive to mechanical therapy in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Color Blindness Among Medical Students

Shahid Anwar Bhatti, Qundeel Zahra, Atif Mansoor Ahmed, Anum Haneef, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Arshad Mahmood

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 98-102
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32183

Aim: To find out the prevalence of color blindness among medical students.

Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Chaudry Mohammad Akram teaching and research hospital, Superior university during December 2020 to May 2021.

Methodology: All the medical students having age range between 21-25 years were included in the study. An ophthalmologist did ocular examination, after that color vision was checked by putting Ishihara plates. The score less than 12 out of 14 red-green test plates were labelled as color blind. Data was analyzed by using the SPSS version 20. Chi-square was used to find out the association of color blindness with age groups and gender. p-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: The mean age with standard deviation of study participants was 23.27 ± 0.87 years. The prevalence of color blindness among medical students was 2% out of which 1.7% were having strong red-green deficiency while only 0.3% were with mild red-green deficiency. Majority of participants with color blindness were noted in the age group of 22 years while very few were in the other age groups of medical students but these results were non-significant. On the other hand, all the color blind was male but no association was found as the p-value was more than 0.05.

Conclusion: Current study reported that about 2% of medical students are affected by color vision deficiency. So there is a need of proper visual screening program among medical undergraduates for early detection of color blindness and counselling session for them.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Stability Indicating Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Hydroquinone, Hydrocortisone and Tretenoin in Cream Formulation

Raksha Shilu, Pankaj Kapupara, Meghna Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 67-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32185

Objective: A simple, sensitive, rapid, precise and accurate stability indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of Hydroquinone, Hydrocortisone and Tretenoin from their Cream Formulation.

Method: The Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase Inertsil C18 (4.6 mm I.D. × 250 mm, 5 µm) column using a mobile phase consisting of Buffer (pH 4.0) 0.05M potassium dihydrogen ortho phosphate-Methanol in the ratio of 80:20% V/V at a flow rate of 1ml/min and UV detection at λmax 265 nm. The method showed linearity with correlation coefficient of Hydroquinone, Hydrocortisone and Tretenoin was 0.998, 0.998 and 0.996 over the range of 40-120 µg/ml, 20-60 µg/ml and 0.25-0.75 µg/ml respectively.

Result: The retention time was 3 min, 5 min and 6 min for Hydroquinone, Hydrocortisone and Tretenoin respectively. The mean recoveries were found to be in the range of 97.00 –101.00 % for all the components. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines.

Conclusion: The method was stable and specific and when sample was stressed under different conditions like Acid, Base, Oxidative, Thermal and Photolytic, no interference of degradants were observed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Peripheral Neuropathy and Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy among Type II Diabetic Patients: Prevalence and Risk Factors

B. V. Surendra, N. S. Muthiah, M. V. Sailaja, K. Sreenivasulu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 103-110
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32186

Background: The two most common chronic complication softype 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are peripheral neuropathy (PN) and Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN).Diagnosing neuropathies at subclinical stage can prevent the morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and their risk factors in type-II diabetic patients attending a tertiary care hospital.

Methods: An observational cross sectional study was done from December 2019 to November 2020 in the department of General medicine at tertiary care hospital. 273 type II diabetic patients were selected for this study. Toronto clinical scoring system was used for assessing PN and ewings cardiovascular reflex study was used done to assess CAN. To identify the risk factors of PN and CAN, Logistic regression analysis was used.

Results: The prevalence of PN and CAN was 45.4% and 34.06% respectively, while29.3% participants had both. Smoking (OR: 12.976; 95% CI: 0.052–0.418, P<0.0001) and poor glycaemic control (OR: 27.231; 95% CI: 5.226–38.201, P<0.0001) were independent risk factors of DPN. poorglycaemic control (OR: 26.970; 95% CI: 3.507–16.055, P <0.0001) and Dyslipidimea (OR: 11.792; 95% CI: 0.096–0.526, P ≤ 0.001) were independent predictors of CAN.

Interpretation and Conclusions: PN and CAN are common among diabetic patients, and thus it is recommended to screen Peripheral Neuropathy and CAN in all diabetic patients for the early diagnosis and preventing the debilitating complications

Open Access Original Research Article

Insilico Design and Synthesis, Evaluation of Anti-Colon Cancer Activity of Novel Stilbene Hybrids

Geethavani Meka, Yaswanth Murthaeti, Ramakrishna Chintakunta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 128-139
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32189

Various biologically important Stilbene analogues were competently synthesized using inexpensive, non-toxic, and readily available amino acids and Stilbene; the systematic study was carried out to characterize parameters such as TLC, melting point, IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral studies. The synthesized compounds were screened for anticancer activities. The molecular docking studies have been performed by using software Autodock 4.2, Autodock vina. The targeted proteins are P450a2 & Estrogen.

The reaction of phenylacetic acid substituted Benzaldehyde, and triethylamine in acetic anhydride was irradiated in a microwave oven for 3 minutes at 700W afforded (2E)-3-(substituted phenyl)-2-phenylacrylic acid. The above compound, after irradiating with hydrazine provided (2E)-3-(substituted phenyl)-2-phenyl acrylic acid hydrazide. Anti-Cancer activity for synthesized compounds was evaluated using the MTT assay technique against colon cancer. The results were obtained as a percentage in cell lysis data. The IC50 value of the compounds was between 0.037-0.0257 µM/lt. Among all the compounds, tyrosine derivatives exhibited the more potent activity. Insilico studies PCB-arg having more binding affinity with the receptor Cytochrome P450 A2 and PCB-try having more binding affinity with the receptor estrogen beta when compared to other derivatives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Computer-assisted Surgery in Urology

Umar Shaikhaevich Tasukhanov, Natalya Aleksandrovna Kuzbetsova, Rukiyat Shamilevna Abdulaeva, Diana Tamerlanovna Kachmazova, Artem Evgenevich Mishvelov, Seda Aslanovna Murtazalieva, Ksenia Alexandrovna Guzheva, Sergey Nikolaevich Povetkin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 140-149
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32190

The purpose of this scientific article is to show the possibility of using the HoloDoctor software and hardware complex, which includes the following modules: the anatomical atlas module, the data analysis module and the surgical intervention simulation module. HoloDoctor allows us to perform surgical operations in real time. The time of operations using the HoloDoctor is reduced by 20-30% compared to traditional methods. The developed complex provides diagnostics of treatment planning, correction of the treatment plan, minimizing the risk of medical error. The developed product can be used in educational practice by introducing it into educational programs of medical specialties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simultaneous Determination of Piracetam and Citicoline in Combination Drug Products by Rp-Hplc Method

Meka. Srinivasa Rao, K. Rambabu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 171-185
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32193

In this paper a simple, accurate and precise RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous. Estimation of piracetam and citicoline in synthetic mixtures has been developed and validated. Separation of drugs was carried out using buffer and Acetonitryle with proportion of 60:40 %v/v as mobile phase at 5 min. run time and 265nm. The Rt value for piracetam and citicoline was found to be 3.158 and 5.196 min respectively. The developed method has been validated for linearity, accuracy and precision, LOD, LOQ, and system suitability according to ICH guidelines. The low values of LOD and LOQ illustrate that the developed method was sensitive, accurate, and precise as it can detected and quantify with very low concentration. The low % RSD values below 2 indicate that the method is precise. The above validation studies revealed the method is specific, rapid, reliable, and reproducible. The high recovery and low relative standard deviation confirm the suitability of the method for routine determination of piracetam and citicoline in combined dose products.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Anti-Cancer and Anti-Inflammatory Screening of Dodonaea viscosa

R. Ramkumar, S. K. Periyasamy, B. R. Venkatraman, K. G. Sekar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 186-192
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32194

Background: The current investigation was done to assess the in vitro anticancer property of Dodonaea viscosa (D. viscosa) in three malignant growth cell lines and mitigating impact in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

Methods: The hydroalcoholic remove D. viscosa was ready and tried against HCT-116 colon malignancy, MCF-7 bosom disease HeLa cervical disease cell lines. The cytotoxicity of concentrate was affirmed by MTT cheeky. The calming movement of concentrate was assessed utilizing LPS invigorated RAW 264.7 macrophages and the degree of incendiary middle people was estimated.

Results: The anticancer impact of D. viscosa onHCT-116, MCF-7 and HeLa cell line with the IC50 worth of 60.43 ± 0.76 μg/ml,75.26 ± 0.45 μg/ml and 72.12 ± 0.87μg/ml individually. Further, in LPS stimulatedRAW264.7 macrophage cells, treatment with D. viscosa extract altogether decreased the raised level of NO, TNF-α and PGE2.

Conclusion: This examination gave the proof to D. viscosa an anticancer and mitigating specialist. Further bioactive confinement and atomic examinations are needed to prove the impact of plant remove.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Novel Analytical Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Silodosin and Tadalafil by RP-HPLC

Ajay Gupta, S. K. Mishra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 193-202
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32195

The Reverse phase HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of Silodosin and Tadalafil in single analytical method. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Supelco C8 (150mmx4.6mm, 5µm) column applying an isocratic elution based on premix of potassium phosphate dibasic buffer pH (4.3) and acetonitrile in the ratio of (70:30 v/v) as mobile. Validation parameters specificity, precision and robustness have been observed to be desirable over the concentration ranges of 80-240 µg/ml for Silodosin and 50-150 µg/ml for Tadalafil in accuracy parameter and 128-192 µg/ml for Silodosin and 80-120 µg/ml for Tadalafil in linearity parameter. All the variables have been studied to optimize the chromatographic conditions. The optimized approach verified through validation and confirmed to be intended purpose for the quality control of the mentioned drugs, as per ICH guidelines. For simultaneous quantification of Silodosin and Tadalafil, the developed method was found to be genuinely exact precise, accurate, linear, fast and cost effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Social Management in Pharmaceutical Healthcare Sector

Tsekhmister Yaroslav Volodymyrovych, Konovalova Tetiana, Tsekhmister Bogdan Yaroslavovych

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 203-211
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32196

Aims: There is an increase in demand for the social environment regulations in the pharmaceutical companies, which is a crucial strategy issue in long-term planning due to the incidence of social influence. The influence of society over resource allocation and its control over innovation is all the perceptions of today's needs. This research aims to highlight the managerial issues faced by the pharmaceutical healthcare sector of Ukraine. Our study is unique as we have analyzed the whole pharmaceutical sector of Ukraine in terms of management issues. There is no such research done yet. In addition, we have also researched the official databases and laid down the models for management practices.

Methodology: The research was done to analyze the major issues in the social management of the pharmaceutical healthcare system. In addition, the related studies based on managerial issues were studied. The following databases were used to study the guidelines: World Health Organisation, Food and Drug Administration, Internationational Council for Harmonization, and European Union.

Results: The results were found to be when comparing behavioural studies with non-behavioural; non-behavioural was found to be 64%, whereas behavioural was 34%. To have an in-depth knowledge of the managerial issues, we have provided an inverted tree diagram representing the significant issues in pricing and medical expenditures. These contributed 21.7% of non-behavioural studies, and in behavioural studies, it was found to be consumer or physician-level behaviour 23.4% contributing the central part of the issue.  

Conclusion: Here we conclude that the pharmaceutical healthcare sector plays a crucial role in the global healthcare of the general public-facing management issues; hence should be analyzed and follow the guidelines to analyze the issues within the company and set goals.   

Therefore, improving the management of the pharma sector will, in turn, improve public health in Ukraine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bibliometric Analysis of Publications from Pubmed on Non Communicable Disease and Ayushman Bharat Health and Wellness Center

Shrikant Madhukar Ambekar, S. Z. Quazi, Abhay Gaidhane, Manoj Patil, Roshan Umate

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 220-228
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32198

Background: Increase in Non-communicable diseases in spite of many steps taken for prevention and control is challenge for all over world, these epidemiological transition leas to need of health care services at community level with quality health care services. Under Ayushman Bharat Programme transformation of existing health facilities in Health and Wellness center to deliver universal and free comprehensive primary health care. Delivering Non communicable disease health services is one of major component of HWCs.

Objectives:.Study was conducted to conduct analysis of Publication on Non communicable disease and Ayushman Bharat Health and Wellness Center.

Methodology: Retrospective observational study was conducted On 30.01.2021, the Pubmed was accessed to collect publication on Non communicable disease and Ayushman Bharat, Health and Wellness Centre. Bibliometric analysis was conducted with quantity indicators for measuring productivity and quality indicators for measurement of output. Structural indicator for measured inter linkage between authors, publication Information on PubMed was used for analysis with the help of R Studio.

Results: The PubMed search filtered for annual scientific production including journal ,book , document etc from 1978 to 2021 are found total publication are 2377.Out of Total publication after analysing most relevant sources include PLOS One was found most relevant source around 91.In Correspondence Authors from various countries India is on 3rd number which is around 114 authors.

Conclusion: There are many publications on this key words and most publication are published in recent 10 years. Indian contribution in this area in on 3rd no in all over world.

Open Access Original Research Article

Recurrent Bacteria Involvement in Urinary Tract Infection among Diabetic Female Patients of Sukkur, Sindh

Samina Tarique, Abdul Hussain Shar, Syed Fiaz Hussain, Akhtar Ali

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 229-234
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32199

Background: Diabetics are four times more prone to develop Urinary tract infection when compared to healthy individuals, the proposed risk factors behind this increase in susceptibility in diabetics are autonomic neuropathy resulting in incomplete emptying of bladder and glucose in urine which serves as a medium for bacterial growth. The aims of our study are to identify the frequency of recurrent UTI and to document most common prevalent organisms involved in UTI in diabetic females in tertiary care hospital of Sukkur.

Methodology: It was a cross sectional study conducted at Microbiology Department of Shah Abdul Latif University Khairpur from January to December 2020. The sample size n=54 was calculated by open epi software. Participants who contented inclusion criteria i.e., female patients of age >18 years with diabetes mellitus for more than 5 years who were presented in OPD with UTI along with history of three positive urine cultures in the previous 12 months or two episodes in the last six months were recruited by simple random sampling technique. The urine samples were collected in sterile containers and the growth of organisms was observed on nutrient agar and MacConkey agar plates.

Results: There was no any significant difference among occurrence of bacteria between both the groups i.e . However, the most associated microbes with uncontrolled HbA1c profile were E. coli (p-value = 0.004) followed by Micrococcus lutes (p-value = 0.021) and Shigella (p-value = 0.001).  Table 1. Shows the frequency and percentages of bacteria associated with controlled and uncontrolled HbA1c levels.

Conclusion: Most of the participants had uncontrolled diabetic profile i.e. HbA1c > 7, the prominent pathogen at our setting were E. Coli, Enterococcus species, Shigella species and Micrococcus lutes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Lung Dysfunction in Type II Diabetes Mellitus

V. Ashwin Karuppan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 235-242
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32200

The pulmonary function test was also used in this study as a screening tool to detect Lung Dysfunction in asymptomatic Type 2 diabetic patients. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in a hospital. This study involved 100 patients, including 41 males and 59 females ranging in age from 23 to 75 years old, who underwent spirometry after providing their consent for the study. FEV1 and FVC absolute values were compared to predicted values and represented as a percentage of predicted values. The current study's data were analysed with SPSS 15.0, and the results are reported in Descriptive Statistics such as Frequency, Percentage, Range, Mean, Standard Error (Mean), and 95 percent Confidence Interval. The current findings demonstrated that the prevalence of Lung Dysfunction was 63 (64.9%) when the duration of diabetes was less than 5 years, compared to 23 (23.7%) when the length was more than 5 years. With a Chi Square value of 3.85 (P=0.05), this revealed a statistically significant difference.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Release and Stability Studies of Raloxifene Loaded Solid-Lipid Nanoparticle

Navin Chandra Pant, Vijay Juyal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 243-249
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32201

Objective: Raloxifene HCl (RLX) show a low oral bioavailability (<2%) in human due to its poor solubility and extensive (>90%) first-pass metabolism. To overcome these limitations, the present investigation deals with the development of Compritol 888 ATO based optimized RLX-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) .

Methods: Compritol 888 ATO-based RLX-loaded optimized solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) were formulated using oil in water microemulsion method. Drug-excipients compatibility was confirmed through a powder X-ray diffraction study. The optimized SLN was characterized for particle size and drug release.

Results: Drug-excipients compatibility was confirmed powder X-ray diffraction study. As per the desirability function value (0.959) the optimized formulation has the size and EE of 168.97 nm and 93.14%. In-vitro study showed a sustained release of RLX from the optimized SLNs. The optimized formulation was found stable for 180 days.

Conclusion: The high biocompatibility, biodegradability, ability to protect drug in GIT and sustained release properties make SLNs an ideal candidate to resolve poor oral bioavailability challenges.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rehabilitation of Acute and Chronic Ankle Sprain for Male Cricketers Through Headway (Isometric, Isotonic and Proprioception) Exercises

Sajjad Ali Gill, Tanveer Akhtar, M. Tariq Rafiq, Abida Naseer, Saeed Javed, Hira Shahid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 250-264
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32202

The present study investigated that Headway (Isometric, Isotonic and Proprioception) exercises are effective for acute & chronic ankle sprain injury, which was observed through experimental research. Ninety-four amateur cricketers of age, 15-35 years (Control Injured, N=48; Headway Rehab Group N=46) with a confirmed acute or chronic ankle sprain, selected from four different cities of Punjab, Pakistan was evaluated through Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), Single Leg Balance test (SLB) and subject to a set of progressively increasing exercises on ground known as Headway rehab exercises which consisted of Isometric, Isotonic and proprioception protocols. Another group of the same level of cricketers (N=40) was managed parallel for comparisons. The Control Injured and Headway Rehab Group was left with 40 subjects each because during the course of Headway exercise eight and six subjects left the study due to their personal reasons. Comparisons of pre and post-exercise (Control Injured Group) values showed a significant increase (p<0.001) in Lateral direction reach and Posteromedial direction (p<0.05) while the rest of the six directions showed non-significant results. Headway Rehab Group showed an overall improvement of 5.2% and 7.5% with an increase (cm) of 3.4 and 4.9 for the non-injured and injured leg respectively. However, the range of improvement in percentage for all eight directions (anterior, anterolateral, lateral, posterolateral, posterior, posteromedial, medial, anteromedial) lies between 5.7-7.1(range) and 6.3-9.6 (range) for the non-injured and injured leg respectively. Similarly, the difference between pre and post-exercise difference of two positions of non-injured leg and injured leg (closed and open eyes) in seconds were 2.9, 12.1 and 4.1, 27.7 respectively. However, the improvement percentage of two directions (closed and open eyes) of Headway Rehab Group was 44.9 and 75.3 for non-injured and 12.7 and 51.6 per cent for injured group respectively. It was evaluated through the Single Leg Balance Test and analyzed by paired sample t-test found highly significant (p<0.001). The results indicated that Headway exercises improved isometric and isotonic muscular strength, proprioception and stability that ultimately helped to recover, regaining strength and reinstall proprioception. After completing the Headway Rehab plan the subjects were followed for four months to check the recurrence and found recurrence of Control Injured Group and Headway Rehab Group was 17.5% and 12.5% respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for Determination of Tigecycline in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage form

K. Bhavyasri, C. H. Mounika, Narmada Vallakeerthi, M. Sumakanth

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 273-282
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32204

Aims: To develop and validate a new, simple, rapid, precise and accurate Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the quantitative determination of Tigecycline in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form.

Study Design:

Place and Duration of the Study: RBVRR women's college of pharmacy, Barkatpura, Hyderabad, between june 2019 and july 2020.

Methodology: The RP-HPLC method was developed on Sunsil C18 150 mm x 4.6mm x 5µ column using acetonitrile : water (pH maintained at 3.5 with acetic acid) [70:30] as mobile phase at flow rate 0.8 ml/min and UV detection at 250 nm.

Results: Tigecycline exhibited linearity over the concentration range of 5-40 µg/mL (R2 > 0.999). The analytical method showed good precision with % RSD below 2. The method showed suitable accuracy and robustness.

Conclusion: Validation of the developed method was done as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) Q2R1 guidelines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pilot Study to Test Efficacy of Sira Vedha in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Gaurav Sawarkar, Punam Sawarkar, Priti Desai, Madhulika Tiwari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 300-307
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32205

Introduction: Sushruta said that the Sira Vedha (phlebotomy) at Dakshin Kurpara Sandhi (Right Elbow Joint) as a therapy for Yakrit Vikara (Liver Diseases). Modern science also on the same page that phlebotomy treatment for some liver diseases but did not mention the exact site for phlebotomy. Similarly, there is variation in the withdrawal of blood and time duration, every research study indicating different quantity to be withdrawn and the interval between two sessions. In the context of Ayurveda, both the things mentioned earlier are mentioned well in advance. Still, because of a lack of clinical evidence, one cannot confidently practice it in routine exercise. Thus, there is a need to validate Sushruta's principle with clinical evidence for liver diseases.

Methodology: Twenty eligible patients who had Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Grade I/II were enrolled in the pilot study and randomly allotted for control (group A) and trial group (group B). Obtained written informed consent, each patient's blood serum was taken for aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P), and lipid profile. Then, group A patients were advised only diet alterations. Group B patients underwent diet alteration and Sira Vedha (phlebotomy) with 65 cc blood three times by the interval of 15 days. Before every phlebotomy, checked hemoglobin for safety purposes to discontinued the patient. The blood sample was taken before recruitment in the study and after the last follow-up, i.e., the 60th.

Day—observation & Results: Compared the serum values of the first and final follow-up. Twenty patients (12 males and eight females) were enrolled, and the mean average age was 34.8 ± 7.84 years. This pilot study suggested that there was the improvement in liver enzymes and lipid profile significantly (P < 0.050) in group B compared to group A. Still, the changes that occurred with the treatment are not good enough to exclude the possibility that the difference was due to chance or because of small sample size. So, we can conclude that phlebotomy can improve liver enzymes and lipid profiles in patients with NAFLD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacognostical Study, Phytochemical and Physicochemical Evaluation and Establishment of Quality Standards for Certain Traditional Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants

Sushilkumar Shinde, Sarin Chavhan, Saurabh Jain, Karunakar Shukla

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 288-299
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32207

Aim: The present work was aimed at evolving pharmacognostical and phytochemical quality standards for certain traditional herbs like Phyllanthus amarus, Glycerrhiza glabra and Piper nigrum. These three plants are reported to possess antidiabetic activity.

Study Design: The plants were collected, authenticated and Macro-morphological, qualitative and quantitative microscopic features as well as physicochemical, fluorescence analysis, phytochemical properties, and thin layer chromatography (TLC)

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at College of Pharmacy, Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam University, Indore, during 2019-20

Methodology: The material were collected, authenticated and Macro-morphological, qualitative and quantitative microscopic features as well as physicochemical, fluorescence analysis,  phytochemical properties, and thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of Phyllanthus amarus, Glycerrhiza glabra and Piper nigrum were determined using standard methods.

Results: The macroscopical and microscopical studies revealed useful diagnostic features. Phytochemical screening reveals the presence of secondary metabolites, physicochemical including fluorescence analysis of powdered drug proved useful to differentiate the powdered drug material. Thin layer chromatography analysis showed the presence of important phytoconstituents such Phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, glycerrizin and piperine

Conclusion: The data generated from this study would serve as useful gauge for determining the quality of Phyllanthus amarus, Glycerrhiza glabra and Piper nigrum thereby correct identification and authentification of these plants.

It would also help scientists to utilize such needful information regarding the plants identity and characteristics in building new polyherbal formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Computational Screening of FDA Approved Drugs from ZINC Database for Potential Inhibitors of Zika Virus NS2B/NS3 Protease: A Molecular Docking and Dynamics Simulation Study

Hasanain Abdulhameed Odhar, Salam Waheed Ahjel, Zanan Abdulhameed Odhar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 308-319
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32208

Zika virus is a mosquito borne pathogen with a single strand RNA genome. Human infection with this virus is usually asymptomatic, however outbreaks reported in both Pacific region and Latin America have been associated with increase in frequency of microcephaly in newborns and fetuses of infected mothers. Also, the incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome had also increased among adults with Zika virus infection. Currently, neither vaccine nor antiviral drug has been developed against Zika virus. Structure based virtual screening can be employed, through drug repurposing strategy, to accelerate the identification of potential anti-Zika virus candidates. As such, virtual screening of approved drugs against Zika virus NS2B/NS3 protease can help to recognize new hits capable of hindering viral ability to replicate and evade immune system of the host. In this computational study, we have screened 1615 FDA approved drugs against NS2B/NS3 protease enzyme of Zika virus by using both molecular docking and dynamics simulation. Our virtual screening results indicate that the anti-muscarinic agent Darifenacin and the anti-diarrheal agent Loperamide may have a promising capacity to inhibit Zika virus NS2B/NS3 protease. According to molecular docking and dynamics simulation, these two approved drugs have good binding capacity to NS2B/NS3 as reported by docking energy of binding and MM-PBSA binding energy. In addition, both Darifenacin and Loperamide were able to maintain close proximity to protease crystal throughout simulation period. However, invitro evaluation of these two drugs against Zika virus NS2B/NS3 protease is required to confirm these computational results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Some Heavy Metal Levels and its Related Health Hazards in Two Staple Foods Grown in Mining Communities of Ebonyi State

Uraku, Anayo Joseph, Chukwu, Ikechukwu, Uraku, Oluchi Helen, Edwin, Nzubechukwu, Ezeali Chukwu, Ogoh, Nneka Virginia, Ozioma, Prince Emmanuel, Okoye, Chinedu Joseph

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 358-366
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32213

Background: This study assessed the levels of some heavy metals in two staple foods grown within mining sites at Ishiagu and Enyigba communities of Ebonyi State. The control site was Umuezeokoha community. The present study is significantly important in respect to hazardous effect of heavy metal accumulation in staple food as there was no or scarcity of data available in Nigeria on this aspect.

Materials and Methods: The two commonly cultivated food crops namely Manihot esculentus (cassava) and Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) were grown within <20m, 100m before mining sites. The crops were collected from the three farms at the peak of the harvesting period, processed and were analyzed for heavy metals using AAS technique.

Results: The results revealed that heavy metals; Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn and Mn in Manihot esculentus tubers in all the farms within Ishiagu and Enyigba mining sites were comparable to each other and control site but Cr levels in control site was higher than others and that of WHO/FAO maximum permissible limit. Only As from A2 in Ishiagu had the highest value and exceeded WHO/FAO maximum permissible limit. Fe from B1, B2 in Enyigba and that of control had the highest values when compared to others but Fe in all samples investigated exceeded WHO/FAO maximum. Also, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mn in Telfairia occidentalis leaves in all the farms within mining sites were comparable to control site except  As levels from  A2 in Ishiagu and from control site which was higher compare to others including WHO/FAO maximum permissible limit. Cr only from A2 in Ishiagu, B2 and B3 in Enyigba was highest even with WHO/FAO maximum permissible limit. Fe too from all the farms in Enyigba and control had highest values even with WHO/FAO maximum permissible limit.

Conclusion: The results showed that the investigated food crops from two mining communities and the control site were not safe for consumption.

Open Access Review Article

Long Term Effect of COVID-19 on the Brain: Review

Shreerag Devkumar, Rakesh Kumar Jha, Dhruba Hari Chandi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32173

Corona viruses (CoVs) are well-covered RNA viruses that cause enteric and respiratory infections in humans and animals. Many human CoVs have recently gained global interest because of their lethal power and high contagious power. SARS-CoV-2, or COVID-19, is a pathogenic coV that first appeared in Wuhan, China.

Corona virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) created by SARS-CoV-2, has been declared as pandemic by the World Health Organization since March 11, 2020. The epidemic started in Wuhan and spread rapidly around the world. Corona virus is facing a major epidemic: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). SARS-CoV-2 is a virus closely related to SARS.

Corona virus (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 VIRUS, a complex clinical disorder characterized by severe pneumonia and acute respiratory stress syndrome. Serious and neurological disorders, such as encephalitis, coma, fever, epilepsy, and Guillain-Barré syndrome, are more common in cases of COVID-19. In addition, chronic autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases may occur in SARS-CoV-2 immunopathology and colonization of intestinal and central nervous system, as well as systemic inflammatory response during COVID-19. Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative condition that causes the development of motor and non-motor symptoms.

Open Access Review Article

Flattening the Pandemic Curve of COVID-19 Explosion in India

Tipu Khalil Syed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 16-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32175

Background: COVID-19 is pandemic which recently crossed the hundred million mark of infection cases all over the world. In the last one year from its inception China, two million people lost their lives struggling with COVID-19 related complications.

Summary: COVID-19 or coronavirus disease 2019 is seriously hurting almost all the aspect of human lives. Flattened curve of COVID-19 infections is the desired outcome of mitigation measures which must be achieved at the earliest. Various methods can be employed to mitigate the viral spread such as mask wearing, hand hygiene and so on so that flattening of the curve can be attained as soon as possible to avoid any further damage.

Conclusion: COVID-19 must be mitigated with all means and follow up of each activity must be done. More study is needed to analyze which measure is particularly effective in certain set of conditions.

Open Access Review Article

Disinfection Measures during COVID-19

Priyal Agrawal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32177

Corona illness 2019 (covid-19) has been occured by widspread serious lung condition due to infection with newly emerging Corona virus 2 during 2019. The infection threatened people health world-wide. Covid2-19 started in China and caused an aggregate of few affirmed cases and few of them passing till end of sixth month. Infection occurs essentially through lung droplets and infect near by people. Individual to-individual infection occur by conveyance by droplets from hack, wheeze, drop inward breath, and infection through upper dry epithelium polluted by emissions of complete respiratory tract system of a infected individual had been demonstrated about corona spread. As infection advanced, a progression of intricacies will in general grow, particularly in fundamentally sick and immunocompromised patients. Neurotic investigations demonstrated delegate highlights of intense lung misery condition (ARDS) and involvement of different organs too. Nonetheless, no particular antiviral medications or immunizations are promptly accessible to the medical care of this deadly infection. The adequacy of some encouraging antibacterial should be examined to continuous health preliminaries. In this conditions, strong consideration, safety measures, and physical distansing are the lone preventive measuresfor protection against CORONA. To sanitize the climate, fundamentally compound bactericidal are being utilized powerfully. Notwithstanding, because of frenzy state, fear, and ignorance, individuals are utilizing it fiercely, which can adversely affect human wellbeing and climate. This audit examines the likely negative impact of disinfectants, whenever utilized improperly. Here, we will likewise talk about safe preventive choices as an option in contrast to strong utilization of sterilization strategies to battle against CORONA.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Personalized Therapies

Aarti Shastri, Dipali Sawant, Neel Parmar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 115-127
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32188

Aims: Healthcare and pharmaceutical research are incessantly reaching to new zeniths which is substantiated by the increasing numbers of diagnostic and therapeutic options available to healthcare professionals for treating patients but a major impediment to this growth has been the evolution of genetic mutation that makes diagnosis and treatment an enigmatic job. Unfortunately, the study of etiology of mutations is still a very neonatal area of research due to the high number of different factors involved in cellular signal trafficking, several metabolic pathways and their simultaneous effects. Owing to these reasons it has been very difficult to select an appropriate treatment modality based on the manifestations of certain common mutations in a pack of symptoms especially in patients who are resistant to treatment. This has led to the development of personalized therapy which can be delineated as acclimatizing of medical treatment based on the characteristics of the individual being treated. This development leans on our understanding of how an individual ingrained molecular and genetic profile makes them prone to certain diseases. To discover a right target for personalized therapies a long screening proses along with In vivo and in vitro analysis are needed. To begin with this review is an attempt to summarize the information available for personalized therapies.

Open Access Review Article

Descriptive Pandemic: COVID 19 Outbreak and Its Impact on Health

Ishan Sapru

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 212-219
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32197

Background: COVID-19 pandemic is the unprecedented medical emergency which needs constant study and in depth monitoring of the ground situation.

Summary: COVID-19 is the once in a century event which has already devastated millions and millions of lives. The containment of the COVID-19 is a great challenge as the extremely high virulent nature and capability of producing lethal clinical outcome is creating hindrance. Preventive measures are supposedly more beneficial than curative treatment therefore they must be promoted.

Conclusion: Preventive measures and its efficacy should be studied and popularize so that more people can adopt them. Also complacency must be addresses which is the reason behind the resurgence of new spurt of cases.

Open Access Review Article

Recent Advances in Topical Nanotechnological Strategies for Treatment of Alopecia

. Mehak, Karanbir Singh, Ravika Nanda, Jasjeet Kaur Narang

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 326-351
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32211

Alopecia can be characterized as a hair-related disorder leading to decreased hair growth, especially on the scalp. It has affected approximately 2% of the world population. The hair loss may emerge due to genetic or environmental factors like stress, infectious agents, tensile forces or medications. The pathogenetic pathway of induction of alopecia comprises of different factors, but exploitation of hair follicle immune privilege system (HFIP) is the most prominent one. Alopecia can be classified into two types: scarring alopecia or non-scarring alopecia. Although, many conventional dosage forms have been formulated against alopecia, but they have been associated with different adverse effects such as weight gain, palpitations, itching etc. In order to overcome the adverse effects associated with conventional dosage forms, the topical nano-formulations have been used for the treatment of dermatological disorders. Nano-formulations are known to increase the contact time of drug with the target site, thereby, achieving sustained and controlled release of the drug leading to enhanced therapeutic compliance. This review provides an in-depth study of developed nanocarriers like liposomes, nano-emulsions, ethosomes, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) along with their composition, method of preparation, results obtained after formulation, suitable use and along with their potential use in treatment of different forms of alopecia.

Open Access Review Article

Review on the Carbapenem Resistance Mechanisms of Klebsiella pneumoniae

Wafaa Ahmed Alhazmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 352-357
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i39B32212

During the past years, the emergence of multi-drug resistance Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB), including the carbapenem resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) has increased leading to a significant threat to public health care. Recent advanced molecular methods have improved our knowledge on how antimicrobial resistance mechanisms develop and transferred among bacterial strains. The MDR pathogens, particularly CRKP, utilize various mechanisms of resistance such as antimicrobial agent degradation, modification of antimicrobial target and alteration of cell membrane permeability. Here, the emergence of CRKP and the major antibiotic resistance mechanisms employed by CRKP will be reviewed and described. Understanding such mechanisms can be essential to develop new antimicrobial drug and help with individual treatment decisions to use alternative options to carbapenem and β-lactam antibiotics.