Open Access Case Study

Efficacy of Treatment in Ayurveda for the Management of Diabetic Nephropathy: A Case Study

Rashi Sharma, Punam Sawarkar, Meenu Bharti Sharma, Nitin Sharma, Gaurav Sawarkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32094

Diabetic Nephropathy is one of the serious clinical condition that originated as a complication of the Diabetes Mellitus. It is the main culprit for end-stage renal diseases, which ultimately may lead to life-threatening conditions. A 58 years old male patient was having diabetes mellitus and hypertension for 15 years came to Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital and research centre, Wardha, Maharashtra (India) having bilateral pedal edema, vomiting, nausea, general weakness, frequent nocturnal micturition, hiccough from last two months. He was treated with Gokshuradi Guggulu, Chandraprabha Vati, Bhumyamalaki Churna, a freshly prepared decoction of Trunpanchmula [combination of Kush (Desmostachya bipinnata), Kash (Saccharum pontaneum), Darbha(Saccharum munja), Nal (Saccharum officinarum)and kandeshu]  50 ml daily twice a day after food. All other allopathic treatments for hypertension and Diabetes were continued as before, but the patient took only Ayurveda’s treatment for Nephropathy. After continuous treatment for two months, Blood Urea level was remarkably decreased from 51 mg/dl to 45 mg/dl & Serum Creatinine also reduced from 3.0 mg/dl to 1.5 mg/dl with a gross decrease in proteinuria. Both Blood sugar fasting & post- prandial were also reduced from 246mg/dl & 346 mg/dl to 190mg/dl & 225mg/dl respectively. The present Case report is discussed here to show the efficacy of Ayurveda in diabetic Nephropathy.

Open Access Review Article

Nanoparticle’s Significance as Antibacterial Agents & Other Pharmaceutical Applications and Their Limitations: A Critical Review

Ranajit Nath, Ratna Roy, Banani Mondal, Barshana Bhattacharya, Lokesh Ravi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32093

Nanoparticles (NPs) a potential next generation candidate for human well-being in the world of healthcare, have been observed to be effective anti-bacterial agents. The significance of nanoparticles as anti-bacterial agents has taken spotlight, due to the inability of pathogenic bacteria to develop resistance against NPs. In this review, mode of action of some scientifically important anti-bacterial NPs were discussed, along with summary of recent pre-clinical and clinical studies reported on anti-bacterial NPs are discussed. Some of the current hurdles and barriers that should be addressed to complete marketability and human applications, in regards to NPs as nanomedicines are also critically discussed along with focus on reported toxicity in NPs. Some additional pharmaceutical effects of NPs, reported in the recent years, such as antidiabetic and anticancer are also included for discussion. This review provides significant information on recent discoveries in the field of nanomedicines as antibiotics, that show promising future for drug development and drug delivery. As in every human domain, evidence begins to point to the actual undeniable fact that in conjunction with the existing medicine, nanomedicines could be the future of the healthcare that replace or enhance the potential current pharmaceutical drugs.

Open Access Review Article

The Upsurge and Impact of COVID 19 in India: Health Issues and Remedial Measures

Kanchi Isswani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32095

The novel Coronavirus was something that nobody was prepared for. It was that part of the syllabus which was always neglected. The contagious disease which started in the Wuhan region of China had started to settle in various parts of the World. The outbreak of this disease has reached such a huge number that all the countries witnessed lockdown in some form or the other. Some people have witnessed destruction of mankind while some have even leisured this time to their fullest but as it has been always said “Prevention is better than cure”. Prevention of covid 19 in all the nations was one of the major steps which was taken in the year 2020. In India it all started in the year of 2019 December when the first ever case of covid 19 was reported in the state of Kerala followed by Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Delhi. Following such a situation and then sudden increase in the no of cases all over the country a major decision was taken that was of Complete lockdown excluding the emergency and essential services. Before taking the step of lockdown, as a gesture of respect to the frontline workers, government of India announced Tali Bajao movement. In the period of lockdown Certain norms were even made mandatory that were wearing a mask, maintenance of hand sanitation and following social distancing of 1.5 meters in public places. All the educational institutes and teachings were even suspended during the time period of lockdown as it could have become a hub for the virus to spread. With time, the restrictions which were laid down in lockdown were started to be reduced in the phase wise manner and finally India noticed its very first Unlock period. In all this scenario mankind has dealt with various situations and have emerged to be a better person. All these steps were crucial to control the spread of Novel Coronavirus and prevention from the already spread cases.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Prasramsini Yonivyapad (Pelvic Organ Prolapse)

Karishma U. Pathan, V. Asokan, . Sonam, Babita Roy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-42
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32096

Laxity of vaginal canal and uterine descent is one of the conditions commonly seen in peri-menopausal age with predominance of vata dosha, also seen as a complication of prolonged labour. syandana-prolapse, kshobhana-irritation, dushprasuta-difficult labour and other features of vitiation of pitta dosha are seen in prasramsini yonivyapad. Local therapy play an important role in these conditions. The descent of an organ is called Sramsana and condition called Prasramsini. Prasramsini yonivyapad is enumerated in pittaja yonivyapad by Sushruta which may be co-related with 1st and 2nd degree uterine prolapse. This condition is seen in peri-menopausal or postmenopausal period although young age group with distress during labour is no exemption. Prasramsini is a vatanubandhi, pittaja yonivyapad, the drugs with the properties of vata and pitta doshahara, kashaya rasa, balya and agnideepana can be selected. Vaginal tamppon is helpful to strengthen the vagina and cervix. In Ayurveda, local treatment of Prasramsini yonivyapad is sthanapavartana, pichu dharana and veshavara pinda with gophana bandha.

Open Access Review Article

Innovation in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry: Impact of Changing Regulatory Regime

Divya Sethi, Vijit Chaturvedi, Anju Sethi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 187-196
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32114

Background: The Pharmaceutical industry has always been fostered with a culture of radical innovation. Nevertheless, the significance of radical innovation is yet unrealized by the Indian pharmaceutical firms. 

Introduction: The Indian pharma companies often seek immediate profit avenues rather than investing in radical innovation. They lead by imitation than innovation. This has been majorly due to the lax intellectual property laws in the country.

Objectives: This paper ruminates on the significance of a stringent intellectual property regime and its impact on profitability and innovation.

Result: The findings of the study indicate that increased R&D intensity enhances innovation. Furthermore, this relationship is bolstered in the presence of a stringent intellectual property regime. The findings also indicate that enhanced innovation activity increases the profitability of the firms.

Conclusion: Innovation activity is enhanced in presence of a stricter intellectual property regime, and this indeed has a positive impact on the firm profitability as well. Hence, as the results of the study indicate, the pharmaceutical firms in India should be encouraged to invest in research and development, especially considering the stricter patent laws. It will help firms bolster their profitability and have a sustained competitive advantage in the industry.

Open Access Review Article

Diagnostic Strategies of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection: Operational Recommendations for Health Professionals

Rafat Zrieq, Asma M. Khemakhem, Najoua Haouas, Mohammed G. M. Zeariya, Fares Alshammari, Fahad D. Algahtani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 210-223
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32116

Due to the massive impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide, the accurate and early diagnosis and isolation of infected individuals remains the main way of rapidly curtailing the extension of the disease. The increasing incidence of mutations in the virus RNA sequence represents the principal challenge for the use of molecular approaches for COVID-19 diagnosis. Additionally, because severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads differently to that of its Coronaviridae counterparts, unconventional strategies and diagnostic algorithms must be utilized and comprehensively expanded. Therefore, in this study, we sought to conduct a detailed in-depth investigation using many scientific interfaces to i) determine the fastest, most cost-effective, and most comprehensive diagnostic techniques, and ii) identify the proper specimens used for SARS-CoV-2 detection. To accomplish that, we reviewed previous studies investigated for the diagnosis of COVID-19. These strategies are organized to help health professionals and policymakers to quickly choose and apply the appropriate diagnostic approaches.

Open Access Review Article

Depression Due to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents

Pratheek R. Kashyap, Rakesh Kumar Jha, Praful Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 224-227
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32117

Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) is a common endocrinal disorder of reproductive age, that cause enlarged ovaries with small cyst on the outer edges with infrequent or prolonged menstrual cycles, excess hair growth, acne and obesity, which is nowadays prevailing among females at adolescent stage. About 5-10% of women among the general population of in the world are affected by PCOS. There is an increase in the prevalence of PCOS among the women and young girls of reproductive age, where they experience depression because of PCOS particularly. The exact cause of PCOS is unknown. The early diagnosis and treatment along with weight loss may reduce the long term complications of PCOS. It is not only a problem associated with reproduction, but also has associated vital metabolic and psychological health risks.

Aim: Depression Due to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents

Conclusion: In comparison to safe controls, adolescents with PCOS had lower self-esteem, more anxiety, and more depressive symptoms. Future research is required to look into the psychiatric issues that affect adolescents with PCOS.

Open Access Review Article

Diseased Body and Diseased Mind: Mind Your Psychological Health during Lockdown

Amit Nagdive, Prakash B Behere, Rouchelle Fernandes, Aniruddh P. Behere, Debolina Chowdhury, Richa Yadav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 287-294
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32125

The novel Corona virus also known as 2019-nCoV that originated in China in December 2019 has quickly spread all over the world. In absence of specific treatment or vaccine, with no natural immunity, we are forced to rely on old public health measures like Quarantine, Social distancing and Isolation for prevention of spread among community. Although isolated incidents of epidemics have required isolation and quarantine in the past, no pandemic has required social distancing to a national and international scale before. Despite the obvious physical health and economic concerns of this situation, all the above measures bring forth challenges of emotional and psychological nature which can be especially severe in special populations like elderly, young children and adolescents, health care workers, persons with mental illness. Also, certain aspects like death, role of mass media, and ethics also arise during isolation and quarantine. With mass media playing a significant role in drumming up the perceived threat, people may resort to panic behaviours like hoarding essential day to day use items and masks and other medical supplies leading to shortage. Problem of fake news related to COVID 19 lead to Govt. of India launching of AAROGYA SETU app as well as websites to centralise all COVID 19 related information to people of India. Death in isolation deprives family members and friends of opportunity to grieve for near and dear ones lost due infection or due to natural causes. The requirement of isolation and quarantine during this distressing pandemic has paved way for recognising the importance and advantages of telemedicine as a whole which has led to various government bodies including the Government of India to draw primary guidelines for medical practitioners to follow and ensure ethical concerns are addressed.

Open Access Minireview Article

Review on Overview of Substance Abuse among Medical Practitioners

Mandar Ghanshyam Bhugaonkar, Rakesh Kumar Jha, Sarju Zilate

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 43-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32097

Substance Misuse, also known as substance abuse, is a disease marked by a harmful habit of using illicit or legal substances or medications such as alcohol, heroin, cocaine, or substituted amphetamines such as methamphetamine and MDMA. Drug abuse deeply impact physician's brain and behavior such that they are unable to control the use of drug to the point that it interferes with the ability to function which may harm patients and cause medical errors. The fact is, physicians can easily access various opioids and substituted amphetamines. This article review is the examination of existing published research articles on substance abuse among health care workers. This literature was reviewed using PubMed and google scholar search criteria set so that all the article could be found in English language along with certain keywords such as Health care workers, addiction, opioids, drug abuse. I gone through various articles, of which 10 articles related to study. It was found that substance abuse in medical workers were greater than general people and keeps increasing at an alarming rate. The most favored drug by health care workers is alcohol, the incidence of opioids and some nonopioids anesthetic agent abuse. Especially propofol, most commonly used by anesthetic department and emergency medicine. There is wide difference between general public and health care workers regarding drug abuse. Although Health care workers had a better prognosis but 10%-15% of health care are workers susceptible to drug violence at some point in their lives.

Open Access Minireview Article

Nicotinamide as a Skin Whitener: Evidence and Controversies

Nabeel K. Al Hamzawi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 300-305
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32127

Background: Topical nicotinamide (NAM) can reduce excessive melanin deposition in cell culture, by reversibly blocking the transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to the adjacent keratinocytes. Thus, it has been increasingly used as a whitening agent.

Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of topical nicotinamide used for the treatment of melasma and hyperpigmentation.

Methods: An electronic search for topical nicotinamide was carried out on Pubmed and Medline databases to identify studies that addressed this topic as a whitening agent. And to review the primary and secondary outcomes.

Results: A significant decrease in hyperpigmentation and increased skin lightness was found with the use of topical nicotinamide, compared with the vehicle In two small sample size clinical studies. Combined regimens including nicotinamide and other ingredients offer more synergistic effects than monotherapy.

Conclusion: Due to the lack of sufficient evidence, the use of nicotinamide for melasma remains controversial. Extended randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with long-term follow-up periods are needed to assess the efficacy of nicotinamide as a whitening agent. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamics of Diseases of the Upper Digestive Tract in Children

Tatiana Temirbolatovna Boraeva, Milana Aslanbekovna Vadaeva, Ulyana Viktorovna Matveeva, Asya Bekovna Revazova, Bela Zakharovna Albegova, Dinara Temurovna Kanukoeva, Artem Evgenevich Mishvelov, Sergey Nikolaevich Povetkin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 48-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32098

In the Russian Federation, there is a tendency to increase the incidence of a number of nosologies, the prevalence of chronic diseases and the deterioration of health among children and adolescents. Diseases of the digestive organs occupy a leading place in the structure of somatic pathology of childhood.

According to the statistical data of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of North Ossetia – Alania (RNO – Alania), for seven years the prevalence of pathology of the digestive organs, including inflammatory bowel diseases, among children and adolescents has increased in the republic as a whole and regions separately. By 2022, it is predicted that the level of general and newly detected morbidity among children with pathology of the upper digestive tract will increase by 1.5-2 times.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Potential Drug-Drug Interactions among Patients of the Nephrology and Kidney Transplant Wards of a Major Teaching Hospital in Iran

Shahriyar Shahbazi Khamas, Mohammadkazem Lebadi, Asieh Ashouri, Gholamreza Mokhtari, Atefeh Jafari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 66-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32100

Aims: This study was aimed to find the prevalence of potential DDIs in patients and identify factors associated with these interactions.

Study design:  All patients' medication regimens were screened for potential DDIs through Lexi-Interact® Online application.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted for five months in 2017-2018 at the nephrology and kidney transplant ward of Razi hospital, Rasht, Iran.

Methodology: Each potential DDI was characterized based on severity, onset, mechanism, risk rating and reliability rating.  The patient's comorbidity was assessed with the Charlson comorbidity index. The quality of patients' life was assessed with the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Instrument-SF36TM questionnaire.

Results: The study included 191 patients (109 [57.07%] males and 82 [42.93%] females) with a mean age of 58.09 ± 17.76 years. The analysis revealed that 29.4 % of potential DDIs had good and 13.5% had excellent evidence. There was a statistically significant association among the number of prescribed medications (polypharmacy), hospital ward, age, Body Mass Index, education, history of drug addiction, length of hospitalization, dyslipidemia, and hypothyroidism.

Conclusion Potential DDIs are common in patients of the nephrology and kidney transplant wards, so proper patient monitoring is essential for minimizing and preventing potential adverse outcomes of DDIs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prompt Practice of Organized Teaching and Awareness of Domestic Waste Management among Rural Communities

Nilima Rakshale, Vaishali Tendolkar, Komal Meshram, Supriya Meshram

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32101

Background: Waste disposal and collection, processing, transportation and dumping of waste - the 'waste management process' - is important for both public health and aesthetic and environmental reasons. The study uncontrolled hazards waste from the industry after mixing with municipal waste create potential risk to human health.

Objectives: 1. A Study to Assess An Immediate Effectiveness of Planned Teaching on Knowledge and Practice Regarding Household Waste Management among the Rural Community People in Selected Area of Wardha District. 2. To associate the knowledge and practice among the community people in a selected area of Wardha district regarding household waste management. Materials and Methods: This study was based on one group pre-test post-test experimental research study. The population was the rural community people from Sawangi and Salod in the Wardha district. The subject consisted of 50 community people of 18-50 years of age in the selected rural community of Wardha district.

Results: The minimum score in the posttest was 13 and the maximum score was 18, the mean score for the posttest was 16.04±1.10 with a mean percentage score of 89.11±6.14. The tabulated value for n=50-1 i.e. 49 degrees of freedom was 2.00. The stated value of 't' is much higher than the value tagged at a value level of 5% at the general public knowledge level which is a statistically acceptable level of value.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Lunch Break Time and Its Impact on Employees Health, Performance and Stress on Work

Saifullah Hakro, Arif Jameel, Abid Hussain, Muhammad Shahzad Aslam, Waris Ali Khan, Saiqa Sadiq, Asma Nisar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 84-97
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32102

Employees’ health, performance, and stress problem have become a major issue in today’s workplace globally. These problems are linked to various factors. In this study, we contributed the rationality of having a one-hour lunch break at the workplace. Drawing on extant literature, we developed a theoretical model in this study. The results showed a positive impact on employees’ health, performance and reduced stress at work if the favorable one-hour lunch break is practiced. The study also gives support to prevent absenteeism, improve job satisfaction, and employees' positive attitude towards work.

Open Access Original Research Article

Caries Prevention in Adults- Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among Indian Dental Professionals

Abdulelah Sameer Sindi, Sumaya Yousuf Jeri, Sarika Sharma, Renuka G. Nagrale, Amit Kumar, Moazzam Jawaid, Kumar Gaurav Chhabra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 98-105
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32103

Background: Dentists must have accurate knowledge and affirmative attitudes about dental care in order to prevent dental caries. Therefore, the present was conducted with aim to find out knowledge, attitude and actual practices (KAP) for caries prevention in adults on Indian dentist

Material and Methods: This cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted on private dental practitioners of Ghaziabad city. Knowledge on preventive dentistry was assessed by 16 questions with true/false or multiple choice pattern. A total of 8 questions each were utilized for attitude and practices, respectively on a 5-point likert scale. Student’s t-test and One way ANOVA followed by post hoc test was applied to determine the relationship between mean scores of KAP and demographic variables. The significance level was set at below 0.05.

Results: Slightly better scores for KAP was found in participants belonging to <30 years of age. The total mean KAP scores of dentists were 8.9 ± 2.2, 26.1 ± 1.7, 21.1 ± 1.9, respectively. Approximately 37% dentist agreed or strongly agreed that fluoride application can prevent dental caries in adults. And 31.5% dentist never advised/performed fluoride application in high caries patients.

Conclusion: Strategies to update dentists’ knowledge and practices of primary preventive measures for dental caries may be beneficial in promoting oral health. Findings help in emphasizing the inception and initiation of preventive oral health policies and services in the Indian scenario.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Platelet Counts in the Normal Pregnancy and other Gestational Conditions at Tertiary Care Hospital of Sindh

. Palwasha, Kanwal Abbas Bhatti, Fahmida Gul, Sameena Gul Memon, Pashmina Shaikh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 106-111
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32104

Background: During gestational period, the most common disorder is hypertension that directly affects the gestation. The frequency of gestational hypertension is increasing day by day and ultimately the pressure is developed on the endothelial wall. Gestational hypertension mostly reduces the platelet counts.

Aim of Study: The major theme of this research is evaluating the count of platelet during pregnancy and other gestational conditions.

Methodology: A Retrospective research was carried out for the period of 06 months at Gynae and Obstetrics ward at tertiary care hospital of Sindh, Pakistan. Total 104 females were selected with different gestational age and trimester. A questionnaire was filled by all participants that were comprised of demographic data and gestational conditions such as preeclampsia, eclampsia, parity and seizure episodes. Females with highest risk factors diseases such as Diabetes, Hepatic disorder, Anemia, renal disorder and cardio vascular disease were not included in our research. Blood samples were collected from all selected participants for proper platelet count and data was compared with normal ranges of platelet count among the pregnant females. Data was analyzed by using statistical software 24.00 versions.

Results: It was observed that 49 patients were having normal pregnancy, 32 had preeclampsia and 23 had eclampsia. 38 participants were first timer & 52 were having second time parity. 58 participants had 2nd trimester of pregnancy. According to condition of anemia, 27 had severe anemic condition whereas 43 had moderate anemic condition. 49 participants had reduced level of platelet count and 17 had very low platelet count. Severity of gestation can be managed through proper management and physician instructions. Hypertension was measured through severity scale, 29 patients had moderate level of hypertension and 22 had severe level of hypertension. 19 participants had very abnormal level of blood count.

Conclusion: It was concluded that proper diagnostic test should be conducted on time for proper management of reduced platelet count and there should be proper mass counseling should be conducted in order to overcome the deficiency of platelet count. There should be proper diet and exercise during pregnancy that can manage the condition of hypertension.  Severity of gestation can be managed through proper management and physician instructions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of safety of Arohi Snehapana (Incremental Oleation Therapy) Over Physical, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Healthy Volunteers

Punam Sawarkar, Vaishali Kuchewar, Gaurav Sawarkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 112-120
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32105

Background: Ayurveda strongly recommends the Panchakarma (Purification or detoxification therapies), e.g., Vamana (Therapeutic emesis) & Virechana (Therapeutic purgation) etc., in healthy persons for the prevention of the diseases & maintenance of the health. Vamana & Virechana are preceded by the Arohi Snehapana (Incremental oleation) compromising of intake of specific lipid in a large quantity. As it facilitates the smooth conduction of these procedures & brings bio-toxins in the systemic circulation for their easy elimination through these procedures;therefore it is the mandatory criteria before these procedures. However, there is apprehension about its lipid elevating effect; therefore, there is quite a restriction in its acceptability in the current cholesterol-sensitive era. Ultimately, people hesitate to undergo Shodhana measures & they get deprived of their miraculous results.

Aim and Objective: Considering these hurdles, the current study was planned to evaluate and assess the safety effects of Arohi Snehapana over physical, hematological, and biochemical parameters in healthy volunteers.

Materials and Methods: This is a single-centric, open-labeled clinical trial in which a total of 50 healthy volunteers (both male & female) were recruited. All volunteers were selected by purposive sample method & were prescribed Incremental oleation with cow ghee before Shodhana therapy for a maximum of 7 days or till achievement of proper oleation features, whichever is earlier. All volunteers were assessed for physical (weight, B.M.I.), hematological & biochemical parameters before & just after the intervention.

Result and Observations: In this study, Bodyweight declined significantly by 3-4 kg (1.47%. ) for (P<0.001) within 1-7 days of an intervention despite using a good amount of fat (Go-Ghrita). Blood urea was significantly decreased by 12.63 % (for p-Value <0.001), but this decrease was absolutely within the normal range. Significant reduction in blood urea after invention proves the role of Snehapana to reduce overload over the kidney and perform the protective role. No significant elevation in lipid profile due to this intervention.

Conclusion: The current study evaluates the efficacy of Incremental oleation with respect to various proper oleation features and its safety over physical, hematological, and biochemical parameters in healthy volunteers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency and Sensitivity Patterns of Staphylococcus Aureus in a Tertiary Care Setting

Aneela Khawaja, Asma Ejaz, . Abeer, Faiqa Arshad, Zaheer Saleem, Umar Farooq, Syeda Aneela

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 121-126
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32106

Background: Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a major etiological pathogen causing multiple infections and broadly known as a serious public health challenge faced due to antibiotic resistance. It is the need of time that infection prevention and control strategies; and antibiotic stewardship policies have to be employed conjointly to minimize the extended rise of antibiotic resistance.

Objectives: To determine the frequency and sensitivity patterns of Staphylococcus aureus in tertiary care setting.

Study Design: Descriptive study

Place & Duration of Study: Pathology Laboratory of tertiary care center from 1st March’ 2020 till 28th February’ 2021.

Materials & Methods: A total 643 Staph. aureus isolated from various clinical specimens received in a tertiary care hospital; were processed and identified by culture, staining and bench tests. Sensitivity testing was done by Disc Diffusion method. Resistance to cefoxitin(30µg) was labelled as Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Constitutive and Inducible Clindamycin resistance was also evaluated. (CLSI, 2020-21).

Results: During the study period 125 (19.44%) MRSA were recovered. Statistically, gender distribution regarding MRSA was significant, most of SA was recovered from blood (53.68%), while 46.31% from pus and wound swabs. The frequency of MRSA from Surgical and allied wards was higher (52.63%) than Medicine and allied wards (47.36%). Sensitivity to vancomycin, linezolid and tigecycline was noted 100% by all the isolates. Sensitivity to clindamycin and Doxycycline was 68.42% and 64.81% respectively; while resistance to erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was 73.68%, 60% and 57.89%, respectively.

Conclusion: The hazardous infections due to Staphylococcus aureus are worrisome in the present therapeutic scenario. A levelheaded prescription of sensitive antibiotics has to be ensured to minimize the rising frequency of resistant strains of SA.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of Alcohol Estimation in Different Samples of Draksharishta

Ravindra Bore, Nilima Wadnerwar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 127-134
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32107

Background: Among all Arishta, Draksharishta is manufactured and sold on large amount by various pharmaceutical companies and widely prescribed by the physicians. Due to its effective properties and pleasant test resembling to that of Alcohol, Draksharishta is used by the patients in over dose for longer duration irrespective of the physician’s prescription.

Hence, to estimate and compare the level of alcohol and to detect the absence/presence of Methanol content in self-prepared and market samples of Draksharishta, this study was undertaken by comparing the permissible limits of alcohol in all the samples so as to inhibit alcohol intoxication due to Draksharishta. Draksharishta was prepared by two methods.

Methodology: In method 1, Dhataki (Woodfordia floribunda) flowers and in method 2, Yeast was used for inducing fermentation. Analytical study of two self prepared and five market samples of Draksharishta was conducted to estimate the level of alcohol, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar and to detect the absence/presence of Methanol content. The detected values of the parameters were compared among all the samples.

 Results: The data reveal that there is difference in the physicochemical values of the Draksharishta samples. The alcohol content in samples M-E (2.8 %), S-A (3.40 %) and S-B (3.80 %) is low as compared to other sample of Draksharishta. Alcohol content in self prepared and market samples of Draksharishta is within permissible limits. Methanol is absent in all the sample of Draksharishta. Draksharishta prepared according to reference (S-A and S-B), satisfy the standard parameters of Arishta kalpana.

Conclusion: Draksharishta sample S-A and S-B can be easily used in all age groups even in higher dose. As alcohol contents is less and methanol is absent in self-prepared samples, they are safe to use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Evaluation of Ethyl Cellulose Based Fluconazole Nanosponges

Jayadeep R. Yadav, Swati C. Jagdale, Anuruddha R. Chabukswar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 135-145
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32108

Background and Objective: Fluconazole (FLZ) is a novel triazole antifungistatic drug; topical administration of FLZ resulted in systemic absorption and skin inflammation, and thereby failed to achieve mycological eradication, resulting in low patient compliance and undermining therapy effectiveness. The aim of this study was to use the emulsion solvent evaporation technique to create FLZ-loaded nanosponges (NSs) using ethylcellulose (EC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a stabiliser. Materials and Method: By varying the drug concentration (FLZ), EC, and PVA, four formulations were developed, each of which was then optimized through particle characterization (polydispersity index (PDI), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential (ZP), drug entrapment, and loading efficiency). Results: SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) analysis showed that the particle sizes of FLZ inclusion complexes ranged from 150 2 to 250 5 nm. The ZP was strong enough to produce stable formulations. FLZ was released from the nano sponges in a regulated manner for 24 hours in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. FTIR and DSC were used to validate the association of the FLZ with the nanosponges. The crystalline nature of FLZ was modified to an amorphous state due to the complexation with the nanosponges, according to an XRPD analysis. The FLZ nanosponges were found to be stable in a stability analysis. Conclusion: Therefore, ethyl cellulose-based nanosponges provide a novel method for controlling the release of FLZ for antifungal effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health Locus of Control: A Determinant of Oral Health among Tobacco users in Rural India

Sweta Singh, Shashidhar Acharya, Meghashyam Bhat, S. Bhat, P. Kalyan Chakravarthy, Pratik Kariya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 151-159
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32110

Purpose: The concept of health locus of control is important because of its relation with health attitudes, behavior and coping styles. This study was done to compare the locus of control orientation and oral health status of tobacco users with that of non-tobacco users.

Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on rural population in southern Indian state. All the participants were interviewed to gather data on their socio-demographic correlates, oral health related behavior and health locus of control with the help of a pre-tested questionnaire. Clinical examination was done using WHO oral health assessment form (1997).Main outcome measures were Locus of Control, Oral Health (dental caries status and periodontal status).

Results: Tobacco users were found to score lower on the dimension of Internality and higher on the Chance dimension compared to non-tobacco users. The prevalence and severity of periodontal disease was significantly higher in tobacco users than non-tobacco users irrespective of age and socioeconomic strata.

Conclusion: It was also concluded that non-tobacco users had internal orientation to health locus of control thereby being important behavioral factor controlling health in this group.Findings also demonstrated significant association between tobacco usage and adverse periodontal health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Pesticide Awareness module (PAM) in Improving the knowledge of Farmers Community about Pesticide Poisoning: A Pre- and Post- Intervention Study in Wardha District in Maharashtra, India

S. Chalakh, P. Desai, D. Rajput

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 160-166
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32111

Background:Pesticide poisoning is a major concern in developing countries like India due to a                    lack of knowledge about its hazardous effect. It can be minimised by creating awareness                    among the farmers .This study was conducted to assess the impact of pesticide awareness              module in improving the awareness among the farmers' community about pesticide                  poisoning.

Methodology: This was a pre and Post-intervention study in six villages in the Wardha district in Maharashtra. Forty farmers from six villages were interviewed regarding the knowledge, about pesticide poisoning before and after the sensitization with pesticide awareness module with the predesigned questionnaire.

Result: Statistically high significant difference is detected in pre and post-test. It was found that average Pre-test score was 1.84 (out of 10) which was increased in post-test score to 6.52(out of 10). The observed change was 46.79%.

Conclusion: The intervention of PAM was highly effective in knowledge gaining of farmer community

Open Access Original Research Article

Nuclear PPAR-γ Activation Modulates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Attenuating Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Vivo

Haritha Pasupulati, Satyanarayana S. V. Padi, Sujatha Dodoala, Prasad V. S. R. G. Koganti

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 167-179
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32112

Background: Paclitaxel-induced painful neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect and can persist for up to two years after completing treatment that greatly affects both the course of chemotherapy and quality of life in cancer patients. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ belongs to a family of nuclear receptors known for their transcriptional and regulatory roles in metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress. However, the role of PPAR-γ activation on paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain is not yet known.

Objective: To investigate whether pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist reduce paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain and to elucidate underlying mechanisms.

Methodology: Peripheral neuropathy was induced by administration of paclitaxel (2 mg/kg per injection) intraperitoneally on four alternate days (days 0, 2, 4, 6). Thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were assessed and the markers of inflammation and nitroso-oxidative stress were estimated.

Results: Pioglitazone did not induce hypoalgesia and had no effect on locomotor activity. Repeated oral administration of pioglitazone (10 and 20 mg/kg,) for 2 weeks started 14 days after paclitaxel injection markedly attenuated paw withdrawal responses to thermal (hyperalgesia) and mechanical (allodynia) stimuli. Further, pioglitazone administration significantly reduced elevated level of pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, in both the dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord accompanied by marked decrease in oxidative stress parameters as well as increase in activity of antioxidant defense enzyme, superoxide dismutase, in the spinal cord after paclitaxel injection.

Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist exerted antinociceptive effect in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain through inhibiting neuroimmune inflammation in both the periphery and spinal cord and by reducing nitroso-oxidative stress in spinal cord. Our findings strongly suggest pharmacological activation of PPAR-g as a promising therapeutic target in paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy and provide rationale for the clinical evaluation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Capability of Hepatic Regeneration of Albino Mice against Hepatic Injuries Induced by Phentolep Drug

Sameena Gul Memon, Pashmina Shaikh, Fahmida Gul, Tahseen Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 228-233
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32118

The major theme of our research was to evaluate the condition of the regenerative capacity of liver with proper consumption of phenytoin medicines with proper precautionary factors. DNA damage was measured through the comet assay via hepatocytes and histological examination was conducted in order to ensure the liver injuries.

Current study comprises of four different group of Balb/c albino mice, from them 1st group was facilitated with normal saline as per recommended dose of 1ml/kg. In 2nd group of mice, phenotolep drug was injected with the dose of 12mg/kg for two continuous weeks. Whereas; in 3rd group same, the drug is administered into the mice with same dosing regimen for 02 weeks and then allowed to recover for 02 weeks. In the last group of mice, phenotolep was given to the remaining mice with a similar regimen and managed for 04 weeks for normal physiological functions and it was concluded that induction of phentolep among various groups of mice can induce alteration the nucleus of hepatocytes and ultimately variation occurred within DNA. 3rd and 4th groups showed quite differ results than the positive group as regression was observed in these groups and restore the normal physiology of the liver and the current study indicates that hepatic injuries can be sorted out with passage of time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Systemic Serum Exposure and Acute Toxicity of the Aqueous Extract of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) Rhizomes in Wistar Rats

Ameaka Fatima Nkempu, Tembe Estella Fokunang, Bayaga Hervé Narcisse, Eustace Bonghan Berinyuy, Tabi Yves Omgba, Njinkio Borgia Nono, Ngameni Bathelemy, Fokunang Charles Ntungwen

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 242-252
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32120

Introduction: Liver toxicity has become a public health concern as more people globally get exposed to xenobiotics with the potential to cause liver damage and consequent liver cirrhosis. The increase in liver toxicant abuse has necessitated the exploration of xenobiotic exposure levels when addressing therapeutic measures using alternative herbal remedies. The increasing use of herbal products as alternative therapy needs regulatory alignment through evidence-based support for the safety and efficacy of these natural products. To undertake preclinical discovery of new metabolites from medicinal products, the objective of this study was to investigate the systemic serum exposure and acute toxicity of the aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes on Wistar rat models.

Methods: Phytochemical screening was carried out on the aqueous extract obtained by maceration of the dried plant rhizomes. Standard screening techniques for plant metabolites were used to screen blood serum after animal exposure with the extract. After a 500mg/Kg dose, systemic exposure was evaluated in blood samples collected at 30-minute intervals for one hour.

For acute toxicity, a single 2000mg/Kg by body weight dose of the plant extract and the reference (Silymarin 50mg/Kg) were administered to rats, and they were observed for 14 days. Biochemical markers of toxicity such as ALAT, ASAT, GGT, Bilirubin were quantified, and histological studies of the liver were carried out.

Results: No secondary metabolites were identified at 30 mins and 1hr in rat serum following a 500 mg/Kg oral dose. Administration of a 2000 mg/Kg oral dose to rats was well tolerated, and there were no deaths or significant target organ toxicity. The plant showed no lethality at the dose of 2000mg/kg body weight and decreased liver toxicity markers such as ASAT, ALAT, GGT, and Bilirubin. Histology revealed no significant damage to liver hepatocytes, no central vein occlusion, and no evidence of fibrosis.

Conclusion: There were no systemically available secondary metabolites at a dose of 500 mg/Kg after the qualitative screening; more sensitive and specific methods are required to test these secondary metabolites in serum. This study confirmed the safety margin of Curcuma longa with no lethality following a single oral dose of 2000mg/Kg and after observation for 14 days. There was a low expression of biochemical markers of toxicity ALAT, ASAT, and no histological indication of liver damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Benzoic Acid, Sorbic Acid and HMF in Grape Molasses Produced by Traditional and Modern Methods

Senem Şanli, Sercan Altınbaş

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 330-336
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32131

Sorbic acid and benzoic acid have long been widely used in the food industry to inhibit the growth of various bacteria, yeasts and fungi, especially in acidic media. The health effects have led to limitation on the concentrations that can be used in food. In most studies, HMF has been found to have carcinogenic effects such as cytotoxicity toward mucous membranes, the skin and the upper respiratory tract; mutagenicity; chromosomal aberrations; and carcinogenicity toward humans and animals. Because of these reason, the analytical determination of these compounds is important for consumer interest and protection. The aim of this study is to determine the concentration of sorbic acid, benzoic acid and HMF in grape molasses samples by using HPLC. For HPLC analysis, a Zorbax SB RP18 (150 × 4.60 mm i.d. × 5 μm) column was selected as the stationary phase at 25°C. In sixteen grape molasses samples (produced by traditional and modern method), sorbic acid, benzoic acid and HMF concentrations were determined by HPLC method. HMF was detected in all of the commercial and traditional type molasses samples. Only two commercial molasses sample, sorbic acid and benzoic acid were detected.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Quality of Life of Inguinal Hernia Patient in India: The Application of Hernia- Specific Quality of Life Assessment

Nitesh Ganesh Badwaik, Pankaj Gharde, Meenakshi Yeola (Pate)

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 337-345
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32132

Background:  In inguinal hernia patient post-operative recurrence rate has been decrease due to advancement in prosthetic mesh. The hernia outcome study should concentrate on hernia post-operative quality of life and various complications.


  • To study the application of HERQL INSTRUMENT in surgical practice.
  • To study the quality of life pre-operatively & post-operatively.
  • To utilise as HERQL INSTRUMENT in clinical management as a prognostic indicator to improve upon the healthcare system.

Methodology: All the patients of inguinal hernia presenting to Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi (Meghe), Wardha as an elective/emergency case will be included in the study after obtaining consent. Patient has to go through the HERQL questionnaire pre-operatively and post-operatively or post-operatively only. These patients will be enrolled in the study.

Results: We expect a causal relationship between formative symptomatic subscale and the reflective functional status demonstrated by HERQL. The assessment of summative pain in preoperative and immediate postoperative patient shows changes in summative pain and 3 month follow up suggestive of clinical response of HERQL.

Conclusion: This study will help to know quality of life in “post-operative” hernia patient with the help of “HERQL instrument”.

Open Access Case Report

The Efficacy of Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Program for Women Following a Modified Radical Mastectomy: A Case Report

Vibhuti Gaur, Shruti Deshpande, Tasneem Burhani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-65
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32099

Background: The most commonly identified cancer is breast cancer. In either the lobules or the breast ducts, the cancer normally grows. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma is the most common subtype. It may appear as a lump or mass; changes in the skin or nipple; breast rash or redness; or lymphadenopathy.

Presenting Complains and Investigations: the patient presented with the complains of  swelling and pain in the left breast in lower outer quadrant since 6 months, which was initially small in size and gradually increased and reached up this level 2x2 cm which placed in infra areolar region covering lower inner and outer quadrant. USG and cytology reports showed bilateral breast with axilla. Right breast was normal, enlarged lymph node in the right axilla measuring 15.2 x 4.6 mm with maintained hilum S/O reactive lymphadenopathy. In left breast there is E/O ill-defined taller than wider irregular hypoechoic lesion with spiculated margins, measuring approximately 15.9 x 12.4 mm in lower inner quadrant containing multiple foci of calcification within showing central vascularity OB doppler on elastography lesion is stiff, in left axilla there is E/O on enlarged USG lymph node present measuring 10.2 x 6.7 mm with maintained hilum S/O reactive lymphadenopathy. Impression of F/S/O malignant lesion in the left breast lymphadenopathy.

Diagnosis: Left sided infiltrating ductal carcinoma.

Therapeutic Intervention and Outcomes: Physical therapy intervention involved a variety of range of motion exercises, strengthening exercises, resistance conditioning, breathing exercises, lymphoedema treatment and scar management. This intensive outpatient program is a successful way to enhance the mobility of the shoulder and ROM during the initial 6-week treatment cycle after surgery. Shoulder range of motion was increased, patient was able to do basic activities of daily living like dressing, bathing, combing, etc. Edema was reduced.

Conclusion: Shoulder stiffness after modified radical mastectomy is the commonest complication. Upper limb mobility exercises reduced the shoulder stiffness. Breathing exercises improved the respiration. Strengthening and general aerobic exercises helped the patient to get back on her normal routine.

Open Access Case Report

Stress Induced Cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo) in a Post-Operative Pregnancy Induced Hypertension Patient Operated for Caesarean Section: A Case Report

Shweta Takalkar, Pratibha Deshmukh, Sweety Pasari, Priyanka Deshmukh, Vivek Chakole

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 146-150
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32109

This is a case of a 30 year old female, with Pregnancy Induced Hypertension and history of psychiatric illness in the past, subsequently developed TCM in the intra-operative period. ECG showed subtle fresh changes. There were multiple stressors for our patient namely acute blood loss, spinal anaesthesia and history of psychiatric illness. The decision on the timing and mode of delivery should be guided by obstetrical reasons. A multidisciplinary team of cardiologists, obstetricians, neonatologists, and psychologists should be involved. This case highlights the importance of being extra vigilant in patients having psychiatric disorders undergoing any surgical procedure especially caesarean section.

Open Access Case Report

Management and Outcomes of Pregnancy with Gestational Hypertension and Hyperthyroidism: A Case Report

Arundhatee Dagadkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 295-299
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32126

Introduction: Hyperthyroidism associated increases in thyroid hormone concentrations have to be differentiated from physiological adjustments in thyroid hormone economic system that rise up all through being pregnant, especially in the first trimester. For one thousand births, one or two instances of gestational hyperthyroidism exist. It's critical to stumble on hyperthyroidism in a pregnant female due to the fact it is able to have harmful outcomes for each the mom and the infant.

Presenting Complaint and Investigations: Patient’s chief complaints were vomiting, discomfort since 2 days. After physical examination and investigations, doctor diagnosed this as case of G2A1 with 35 weeks gestational age. This was a known case of gestational hypertension with hyperthyroidism. Investigations included Blood test, urine test, thyroid Profile, USG.

Obstetric History: Patient had bad obstetric history. 2.5 months spontaneous abortion was reported.

The Main Diagnoses, Therapeutic Interventions, and Outcomes: Gestational Hypertension with Known case of Hyperthyroidism. The patient had undergone various investigations like blood tests, USG, Physical examination. After physical examination and investigation doctor took a decision of emergency Lower segmental Caesarean section. Under spinal anaesthesia Lower segmental Caesarean section was done and outcome is good.

Nursing Perspectives: Administered fluid replacement i.e. DNS and RL, Fetal monitoring, monitored all vital signs and observed the outcomes of treatment.

Conclusion: Treatment and control of hypertension and hyperthyroidism in pregnancy at the right time increases the pregnancy's outcome.

Open Access Study Protocol

Self-Support Group for Chronic Renal Failure Patients and Caregivers on their Quality of Life: A Study Protocol

Ranjana Sharma, Seema Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 180-186
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32113

Background: Chronic renal failure (CRF) or Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an irreversible progressive loss of kidney functions in which, kidney fails to sustain the metabolic waste, fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. The prevalence of chronic renal failure is 15% to 17 % in adult population in many developing countries.

Objective: To find out the effectiveness of Self Support Group (SSG) for Chronic Renal Failure patients (CRF) and caregivers on their quality of life (QOL)

Methodology: It is a single arm trial, interventional hospital based study. The patients of chronic renal failure of age group 18 to 50 years and caregivers age group above 18 years. Selection of patients and caregivers as per inclusion criteria, detail explanation about nature and purpose of the study, from the subject will be taken before data collection by the investigator after that the formation of groups for chronic renal failure patients and caregivers. Empowerments of the group with knowledge of chronic renal failure and its management, than evaluation quality of life (QOL) for patient and their caregivers with use of QOL scale. The assessments of quality of life for four times, it include day one to three months, six months and nine months respectively. The setting of the study is selected hospitals of Vidarbha Region.

Expected Results:

  • Formation of Self Support Group for CRF patients and their caregivers in Hospital Setting
  • Improvement in knowledge regarding CRF of patients and their caregivers
  • Improvement in QOL for both CRF patients and caregivers

Conclusion: Conclusion will be drawn from the statistical analysis after completion of data collection.

Open Access Study Protocol

Development of an Improved Whole Blood Assay for Diagnosis of Latent and Active Tuberculosis Cases

Rupam R. Nashine, Amit R. Nayak, Aliabbas Husain, Gargi D. Mudey, Hatim F. Daginawala, Lokendra Singh, Rajpal S. Kashyap

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 197-209
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32115

Background: Latent TB infection (LTBI) is an infection where the presence of disease causing organism M. tuberculosis is there without any sign and symptoms of the disease hence mostly remains undiagnosed, though Tuberculin skin test (TST) and Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) were used to diagnose the LTBI. They have their limitations, TST gives major cross-reactivity with BCG vaccine and gives inaccurate results in individuals who have taken BCG and IGRA are very costly and variable sensitivity is repeated in various populations hence the modifications are needed in the IGRA for proper diagnosis of LTBI.

Objectives: In the proposed study we aimed to develop an improved whole blood assay                    towards a diagnosis of latent and active TB infection as an alternative to the Quantiferon QFT assay

Methodology: Synthetic antigenic peptides against latency specific antigens will be designed and synthesized. Designed peptides will be screened for LTBI specific cytokine by in-vitro experiments. Development & production of Whole assay using selected peptides evaluation of developed assay through ELISA in clinical samples.

Expected Results: Latent specific peptides will be identified and peptide-based whole blood assay for detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis will be developed as an indigenous alternative for the existing QFT assay.

Conclusion: An improved whole blood assay will be developed for screening of LTBI in the Indian population.

Open Access Study Protocol

Topical Application of Glycerine – Paraffin Combination in CKD-associated Pruritus and Uremic Xerosis: Study Protocol for a Randomized Control Trial

Veena Verma, Meenakshi Yeola, Ruchira Ankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 234-241
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32119

Background: Chronic kidney disease associated pruritus (CKD-ap) and xerosis is intensely annoying and unpleasant manifestations associated with maintenance renal dialysis (MRD) among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It severely compromises the quality of life by disturbing normal sleep pattern and also adversely affect the mental health in CKD patients. Many proposed treatment plan for CKD –ap is tested but none of the treatment plan provide complete relief from itch associated with MRD. Glycerine accelerate barrier repair and also has rapid hydrating and smoothing effect while Paraffin preserve the barrier function against irritant. As a comparator Mustard oil is used as it is commonly used home remedy by people in Indian sub-continent for dry skin.

Objectives: The primary objective of the study is to compare the efficacy of Glycerine –paraffin combination with mustered oil on skin related quality of life among CKD patients with CKD-ap and xerosis.

Methodology: A randomised, single blind, controlled, clinical trial intending to investigate and compare the efficacy of Glycerine – Paraffin combination with mustard oil in CKD –ap and xerosis and overall SRQOL among CKD patients. The study aims to enrol 140 CKD patients having moderate to severe CKD-ap and xerosis by using GI gammal score (standardized tool for assessment of xerosis). They will be randomly distributed among 2 parallel group, experimental & control group. Allocation concealment will be maintained by using SNOSE technique. Experimental group will be instructed to apply glycerine paraffin combination and mustard oil to control group twice a day for 4 weeks. participant will be evaluated for xerosis and pruritus score at baseline, day 7, day 28 and day 56. Scores of SRQOL will be assessed at baseline and on 56 days. 

Conclusion: The RCT aims to identify & compare the efficacy of Glycerine –paraffin combination with mustard oil on skin related quality of life among CKD patients with CKD-ap and xerosis.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assessment of Indications, Risk Factors, & Materno-foetal Outcomes of LSCS (Emergency & Planned) in a Tertiary Care Rural Hospital of Wardha District, India

Anupama Gupta, Pramita A. Muntode, Abhay Gaidhane

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 253-258
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32121

Background: Occurrence of elective Caesarean Section (CS) is prevalent in the advanced age group, i.e. 26-30 years while higher incidence of emergency CS is seen in 20-25 years, the younger age group. Emergency caesarean delivery analogous with substantially greater maternal and foetal delivery complications in contrast to elective caesarean sections regardless of its growing acceptance as a preferable alternative to vaginal delivery. The study attempts to determine risk factors for emergency and scheduled caesarean surgeries, along with indications of LSCS and maternal-foetal outcomes.

Method: Prospective observational study will be carried out on post-natal care women who have undergone LSCS in the past 1 week in the rural tertiary care hospital, Wardha. Study participants will be approached in the OBGY Post Natal Care Ward 1or 2 days post-delivery after assuring their comfort. A predesigned & pre-structured questionnaire containing socio-demographic profile, maternal details, and reasons for planned/emergency C-section, neonatal details etc.

Results: From the baseline study, the average number of caesarean-sections was 55-60 %. Proportion of elective and emergency caesarean was 41.40 % and 58.60% respectively. Emergency group is expected to show all of the complications significantly higher in terms of both maternal and fetal outcome.

Conclusion: Previous c-section, foetal distress and misrepresentation of the foetus (Breech and Transverse Lie) were recorded as a most important indicator of caesarean section along with obstructed labour. Higher incidence of emergency CS was 20-25 years, while the incidence of elective C-Section was prevalent. in the age group of 26-30 years; Modifiable risk factors for the Caesarean Section, such as early marriage with its associated inadequate pelvic growth and unnecessary avoidance of hospital delivery due to fear of CS, should be discouraged.

Open Access Study Protocol

Preclinical Evaluation of Antidotal Property of Mritasanjeevana agada in Poisoning- A Study Protocol

Nilima Wadnerwar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 271-280
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32123

Background: As the poisoning is becoming a threat to rural India, it is necessary to increase the survival time to avail the primary treatment. For the treatment of poisoning, Agada is described in Ayurveda as an antidote. Agada is a polyherbal or herbomineral formulation constituted with combination antitoxic drugs along with some antioxidant, immunomodulator or hepatoprotective drugs. But they need to be revalidated for their efficacy and safety on the basis of contemporary assessment parameters

Aim: Evaluation of antidotal property of Mritasanjivana Agada in poisoning.


  • To increase the survival time after the administration of Mritasanjivana Agada in snake venom and aluminium phosphide poisoning in albino mice.
  • To compare the efficacy of Mritasanjivana Agada and Anti-snake venom as an antidote.
  • To standardize the Mritasanjivana Agada.

Methodology: Mritasanjeevana Agada will be prepared and standardized. Cobra venom poisoning and aluminium phosphide poisoning have been selected as the representative for the animate poison and artificial/ synthetic poison. After inducing poisoning in mice, one group will receive its standard antidote and other will receive standard antidote with Mritasanjivana Agada. The third group will receive only Mritasanjivana Agada without its standard antidote. All the groups will be assessed on the basis of hematology, biochemistry, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) level, Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and histopathology in case of death of the animals.

Results: Mritasanjeevana agada is expected to increase the survival time in the treatment of snake venom and aluminium phosphide poisoning in albino mice.

Conclusion: Mritasanjeevana agada may be as efficacious as Anti-snake venom as an antidote.

Open Access Study Protocol

Utilization of ICH Score on Patient Outcome in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Waseem Muhammed Ilyas, Gajanan Chavan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 306-313
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32128

Background: There is a very high morbidity and mortality rate in patients who have intra cerebral hemorrhage. The ICH Score is a very good predictor of outcome of 30-day mortality as found in multiple studies. The ICH Scores range from 0 to 5 and higher Score is associated with increased mortality after 30 days and thus it was found to be a good predictor of outcome. So it was decided to apply it in the assessing of patients with intra cerebral hemorrhage and to study it's outcome.

Aim: To study the ICH score utility in management of patients with intracerebral bleed

Objectives: To improve the quality indicators of Emergency Department, to cater the right management at right time in patients with intracerebral bleed and Inclusion of ICH score in the assessment sheet for screening.

Materials and Methods: In the study, the patients brought to Emergency Department who are diagnosed to have ICH on CT Brain will be evaluated for GCS, Age, Infratentorial origin, volume of the ICH, absence or presence of Intraventricular Hemorrhage to determine ICH score and outcome of the patients.

Expected Results: Patients having lower ICH score are expected to have poorer prognosis. Inclusion of ICH score in assessment of patients with ich is expected to provide better treatment for these patients.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Post COVID-19 Organizing Pneumonia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Talal Khalid Abdullah Alanazi, Nasser Faris Ali Alahmari, Faris Essa Ibrahim Qubays, Solaiman Hosaian ibraheem Alenezi, Meshal Faleh Mofadhe Alenezi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 259-270
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32122

Introduction: Several observational studies have found parallels between COVID-19 pneumonia and organizing pneumonia (OP). This study aims to investigate the published literature of OP related to COVID-19, estimates the prevalence of OP among COVID-19 patients, and assesses the risk or COVID-19 severity associated with OP.

Methodology: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic electronic search through PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, EBSCO, and Google Scholar was conducted to include relevant and eligible literature. The authors used Review Manager 5.4 to perform quantitative data synthesis for the condition of interest analyses.

Results: A total of 9 eligible study articles and 12 case reports were included in this study. The estimated pooled organizing pneumonia prevalence among COVID-19 patients was 45.6% [23.1%-68.2%]. The association between OP and severe COVID-19 infection revealed a pooled OR [95% CI] of 5.22 [-0.96-11.41].

Conclusion: COVID-19 patients had a rather high OP prevalence (43%). Surprisingly, cancer patients with COVID-19 infection had the lowest OP prevalence. OP was identified as a possible risk factor for the severity of COVID-19 infection.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Ethno Medicinal Plants used for Aphrodisiac Activity in North-East, India

Md Rejwan Ahmed Choudhury, Mrinmoy Basak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 314-322
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32129

North Eastern Region of India is the home for a wide variety of plants with high medicinal value. The wide availability of the plant with high medicinal value has provided the ease of their use for generations among the various ethnic communities of the region to treat various kinds of health issues. This paper presents an extensive review of the various plants that were pointed out in various ethno botanical surveys that are being used by the people of North Eastern India with aphrodisiac activity. The common name along with the biological names and the part used and other details have been reported in the paper with an intention of making it easier for researchers to develop newer herbal aphrodisiac formulations.

Open Access Short Communication

Intellectual Property Rights Issues in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

H. C. Bindusha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 281-286
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32124

Historically, India has neglected, and even made a farce of, pharmaceutical patents.  In fact, it was not until 2005 that India offered patent protections for pharmaceutical companies at all.  This has led to abuses of the compulsory licensing agreement with the World Trade Organisation, and has led to major criticisms of other global pharmaceutical companies like Pfizer, Roche, and Bayer. According to these companies, India’s generic drug manufacturing industry is destroying R&D funding and future innovation. This is because the companies which invented the brand name drugs are not receiving royalties; and therefore, losing out on profit, a lot of which would have been put back into R&D. While the World Trade Organisation under the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement (Doha Declaration) has provided for the use of compulsory licenses (temporary patent rights for life-saving pharmaceuticals), recently India has been more lenient in its use of this stipulation. In fact, the first use was in 2012 for Nexavar. Since then India has used the compulsory licensing provision at least five times. The total numbers of Indian Pharmaceutical Companies those who are having Research and Development facilities and also having Intellectual Property Rights for the past five years consecutively are take for this study.

Open Access Short Communication

A Brief Research on Cancer

Sonali Kotamkar, Rakesh Kumar Jha, Nandkishor Bankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 323-329
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i38B32130

Proliferation of cells that have managed to evade central endogenous control mechanisms is a hallmark of cancer. Cancers are classified not only by their organ or tissue of origin, but also by the molecular characteristics of the cancer cells themselves. Because of recent scientific advancements, it is now possible to examine the genetic structure of various cancer types in great detail in a limited amount of time, the growing body of information about cancer's development and progression can be used to develop more accurate diagnostics and/or less toxic cancer treatments. In the long run, the aim is to provide each cancer patient with a treatment regimen that is optimally adapted to his or her condition and circumstance.