Open Access Case Report

Eclampsia: A Well Preparedness Can Save the Day

Kirti Gujarkar Mahatme, Pratibha Deshmukh, Priyanka Deshmukh, Shiliveri Sadhan Siddardha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 106-109
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31932

Maternal mortality is one of the indicators of an efficiently working healthcare system. Eclampsia is one of the preventable causes of maternal mortality and thus it is important to identify the signs in the preeclampsia phase and treat it efficiently to prevent the mishap. Many times, the detection of eclampsia is delayed due to improper history, late referral, ignorance, and delay in transportation or hospitalization. This report presents a 22 yr. old pregnant female, who presented to the hospital and before considering her for admission and shifting to ward, she threw convulsions. This report emphasizes on successful and timely management of such cases and the precautions which help to reduce maternal and fetal mortality.

Open Access Case Study

A Successful ART Treatment of Advanced Maternal Age Pregnancy with HRT Along with Donor Oocytes: A Case Study at Wardha Test Tube Baby Centre

Bhagyashree Bhandekar, Akash More

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 169-175
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31939

Introduction: This case report refers to 54 years old infertile woman who visit ACHARYA VINOBABHAVE RURAL HOSPITAL for her ARTHRITIS PROBLEM with her husband (age 61-year-old). During her treatment, she got to know about IVF/ART procedures. As she belongs to a rural area and is not so educated, she was not aware of this and start investigating it and found it interesting. After knowing about all these procedures, a new ray of hope was awakened in her that, she can also give birth to her baby after so much waiting and facing so much criticism by society as a barren woman. In the 36th week of gestation, one healthy baby girl has been delivered by Cesarean section. In this way, the faith between patient and doctor was built-up and inevitably, we can appreciate this case of postmenopausal gestation (Geriatric Pregnancy) As A Therapeutic Victory For Wardha Test Tube Baby Centre and for the patient as well. This infertile couple was not that financially strong and even this all procedure is too much unaffordable to them still after all these, their urge to having a baby is so high that, they invest financially as well as emotionally and also mother put her health in peril while going through IVF/ART procedure. Being an infertile woman, she has to face a lot, and in such conditions, women go through psychological torture, and from this depressive phase, many health issues arise.

Main Symptoms and/or Important Clinical Findings: Menopausal woman, qualitative analysis of AMH show 0 ng/ml, means diminished ovarian reserve (DOR).

The Main Diagnoses, Therapeutic Interventions, and Outcomes: The woman is pinpointed with primary infertility for 26 years. The couple suggested going for IVF/ICSI treatment with donor oocytes(frozen) and self-sperm sample, ICSI is performed and sequential embryo transfer is done and gets conceived in the first cycle of ART. As being a menopausal woman, the dose of oral intake of estrogen hormone tablets doubles as an HRT treatment.

Conclusion: Intake of the double dose of estrogen orally (hormone replacement therapy, HRT) than the normal women whose age is not much and who is not menopausal, increases the endometrium thickness and its receptivity which helps the woman to conceive in the first cycle through ART.

Open Access Short Research Article

Does Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Powder Extract Contain Fluoride?

Ramya R. Iyer, Avinash Kumar Seth, Ghanshyam Parmar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 87-90
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31929

Background: Green tea being a rich source of fluoride, may provide anti-caries benefits when incorporated in toothpaste formulation.

Aim: To estimate the concentration of fluoride in dry green tea extract.

Methods: Prior to the estimation of fluoride in the sample, the dry green tea extract powder was tested for its physical characteristics, analytical characteristics, active ingredients and contaminants. Microbial assay was done for quantifying E. Coli, yeast and Salmonella. Fluoride estimation was done by IS 3025 P 60 method.

Results: Fluoride was not detected in the dry powder extract of green tea dry extract powder.

Conclusion: Green tea powder extract incorporated in herbal toothpastes cannot be read as a natural substitute of fluoride in toothpaste.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Combination Therapy of Methotrexate with Sulfasalazine and Hydroxychloroquine: Comparative Clinical Trial

Qurrat-Ul-Ain Bukhari, Kauser Moin Mirza, Muzna Hameed Dar, Afshan Abbas, Hina Faisal, Faiza Hassan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31922

Aims: To study the role of two combination therapies in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Study Design: This an open-label, randomized 180-days clinical trial.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, BMSI and Medical unit ward 6.

Methodology: Eighty-nine patients were enrolled (69 women, 20 men; age range 28-62 years). A and B were the groups assigned to the patients.  MTX 7.5-20 mg/ week orally and SSZ 10-20 mg / day orally as maximally tolerated were prescribed to the 55 patients of group A. MTX 7.5-20 mg/ week orally and HCQ 200 mg twice daily were prescribed to the 54 patients of group B..

Results: When we compared group A with group B, group A showed major progress in mean swollen joint count (1.9 ± 0.97) as compared to group B (2.7 ± 1.78). Group B showed major progress in mean physician’s global assessment (2.7 ± 0.92) as compared to group A (3.8 ± 1.22). For that reason, our study showed that patients receiving both the combinations responded equally in terms of efficacy but the combination of MTX and HCQ is better tolerated than the combination of MTX and SSZ.

Conclusion: Both combinations of MTX & SSZ and MTX & HCQ were equally effective but the combination of MTX & HCQ was superior in terms of tolerability than the combination of MTX and SSZ.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Global Response to Abortion – with Special Focus on India’s Medical Termination of Pregnancy Bill

Asawari Deshpande, Shashikala Gurpur, Sujata Arya, Shireshi Shambhulinganand

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 16-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31923

The 2020 Amendment Act, of Medical Termination of Pregnancy has reinvigorated the discussion with regards to bodily autonomy and reproductive rights in India. This comes at a juncture of time, where the discussion regarding reproductive rights is an important part of the global socio-political narrative. The aim of this paper is to study the developmental trajectory of reproductive rights by gauging how the right to abortion has fared in various countries across the world by analysing specific legislations, judicial precedents and statistical data. We examine how one may secure the reproductive health rights of a woman better by analysing the two functional methods adopted thus far - either through liberal legislations that guarantee full autonomy to the woman or more restrictive laws that permit abortions only in certain circumstances - a major. The second half of this paper focuses on India, a country whose culture is traditionally perceived to be deeply rooted in orthodoxy and conservatives. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act was enacted in 1971, and the 2020 Amendment has garnered acclaim for its more progressive outlook and direction. Even though the amendment has addressed some of the major concerns voiced out by reproductive rights’ activists, there are still a few systemic and practical dogmas that are still pervasive in the reproductive rights domain. The paper discusses these prevalent lacunae at play at length and emphasizes on the need for comprehensive and quick solutions. These will contribute to the prevention of unwanted pregnancies while simultaneously reducing the physical and psychological harm that is caused to vulnerable women across the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Fermented Coffee Extracts on Spatial Cognition and Memory of Alzheimer’s Disease Induced Rats

R. Vidhya Shree, R. Praveen, Prabhu Sukumaran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31924

Aim: The current study hypothesizes that ingestion of polyphenols-enriched preparation such as yeast fermented extracts of green and roasted coffee beans will demonstrate neuroprotective and stimulatory function.

Study Design: Optimizing yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mediated fermentation conditions of C.Arabica beans →Extraction by the sonication-agitation method before and after roasting to obtain Fermented Green Coffee Extracts (FGCE) and Fermented Roasted Coffee Extracts (FRCE) →Phytochemical profiling of the fermented extracts was performed → Animal Study (in vivo evaluation).

Place and Duration: The research work was conducted during December, 2019 to May, 2020 at the Department of Biotechnology, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Post Bag No.1, Pennalur, Sriperumbudur Tk, Kancheepuram Dt TN-602117, India.

Methodology: The FGCE and FRCE extracts were prepared and subjected to comparative phytochemical profiling for in vitro analysis. Further, the in vivo analysis was performed on 24 Albino Wistar rats, which were divided into four groups (Group I (Control group) received normal diet; Group II (AD induced group) received AlCl3; Group III received FGCE and AlCl3, Group IV received FRCE and AlCl3). In order to represent the most exact model that mimics AD the rats were injected with AlCl3 .6H2O at dose 70 mg / kg I.P for 6 weeks. During induction the rats were subjected to spatial memory tests (T-maze) and motor co-ordination tests (burrowing assay).

Results: The FGCE had a higher amount of polyphenols (1.20 ± 0.02 GAE mg / ml) compared to FRCE (0.99 ± 0.047 GAE mg / ml). Also, the ferric reducing anti-oxidant potential was higher in FGCE (5.14 ± 0.17 mmol Fe2+ / g) than in FRCE (3.7 ± 0.2 mmol Fe2+ / g). As a result of behavioural analysis, the fermented green coffee extract consumption in Alzheimer induced rats had a prominent positive effect on memory retention and motor co-ordination.

Conclusion: This study elucidates the potential nature of FGCE in decelerating the progression of AD at a higher rate than FRCE.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Various Irrigants Used with Self- Adjusting File System on Smear Layer: An In Vitro Study

S. Mann Navjot, Kaur Manpreet, Jhamb Ashu, Rana Manu, Batra Divya, Sarwal Aaron

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-61
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31926

Aim: To assess the efficacy of various irrigants used with Self-Adjusting File (SAF) system on smear layer.

Materials and Methods: Forty extracted mandibular teeth were taken and decoronated. All samples were instrumented manually up to number 20 K file. SAF file was further used to prepare the canals. All the samples were randomly divided into four Groups: Group I: Neem Extract Group II:  Amla Juice; Group III: 5.25% NaOCl+ 20% Citric Acid; Group IV: 5.25% NaOCl solution was used for 4minutes. All roots were sectioned longitudinally in the buccolingual plane and viewed under electron microsope.

Statistical Analysis Used: The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical evaluation and Mann-Whitney ???? test was used for multiple comparisons

Results: Comparison between same thirds of group showed statistically significant difference in coronal and middle parts. Group 3 showed the best results for smear layer removal. Group 4 showed least efficacy of smear layer removal.

Conclusion: Group 3 showed the best removal efficacy followed by group 1 and 2 with least being for group 4.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Transversus Abdominis Strength and Lumbar Lordosis in Young Adults

Niketa Patel, Deepali Dinesh Patil, Lata Parmar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 62-70
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31927

Background: The researchers and clinicians are emphasizing on function of Transverse Abdominis (TrA) which is a deepest abdominal muscles because there is an evidence that TrA is recruited independently of the other abdominal muscles in many different tasks and plays an important role in lumbar stability.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between TrA muscle strength and lumbar lordosis in young adults.

Methods: Total 394 subjects were recruited from the constituent institutions of Sumandeep Vidyapeeth with the age range 18-35years. All the subjects, Lumbar lordosis angle and their TrA strength were measured with the Flexicurve and Pressure Biofeedback Unit respectively. Lumbar lordosis angle was calculated using established formula. Average of 03 trials was considered for TrA strength.

Results: Pearson correlation coefficient was -0.18 on correlating Lumbar lordosis angle with TrA strength, -0.09 for age with TrA strength and 0.11 for age with lumbar lordosis angle.

Conclusion: This study concludes that there is negative relationship between lumbar lordosis and TrA i.e. as the lumbar lordosis angle increases, the strength of TrA muscle decreases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Phytoconstituents using GC-MS and Determination of Antimicrobial and Antimycobacterial Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa L. Leaves

Rahul Kumar Sharma, Veer Inder Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 71-86
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31928

Background: To identify bioactive phytoconstituents and evaluate antimicrobial and antimycobacterial potential of Boerhaavia diffusa leaves against selective human pathogens.

Methods: The extract of Boerhaavia diffusa leaves was carried out by using methanol. Bioactive compounds was identified by GC-MS. Antimicrobial and antimycobacterial activity of methanolic extract Boerhaavia diffusa leaves was tested in vitro by Kirby-Bauer well diffusion method and rapid culture - MGITTM DST method against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus & Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida, Aspergillus and M. tuberculosis (H37RV ) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria resistant to Isoniazid & Rifampicine.

Results: The obtained results of the GC-MS of Boerhavia diffusa led to the identity of 16 bioactive compounds. The crude extract showed antimicrobial activity against E.coli (Sensitive), Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sensitive and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Sensitive) but extract did not show antimicrobial effect against, E.coli (ESBL), Klebsiella pneumonia (Sensitive), Klebsiella pneumonia (ESBL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Resistant), Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigates. The result of anti-mycobacterial activity showed that extract not showed antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis (H37RV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria resistant to Isoniazid & Rifampicine.

Conclusion: The study result proved that methanolic extract of Boerhavia diffusa leaves has antimicrobial potential due to the presence of the bioactive compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simultaneous Determination and Validation of Flupirtine Maleate and Paracetamol in Combined Dosage Form by Chromatographic Technique

Dillip Kumar Dash, Ashim Kumar Sen, S. Saisivam, Piyushkumar Sadhu, Shivkant Patel, Sunil Baile

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 91-98
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31930

Objective: The focus of this research was to establish a validated high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for analysing Flupirtine maleate and Paracetamol in a combined dosage form.

Method: Paracetamol and Flupirtine maleate were measured using a mobile phase of Ethyl acetate: Chloroform (7:5 v/v) at 286 nm. This technique was validated in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines.

Results: The Rf value for paracetamol was 0.31 and 0.52 for Flupirtine maleate in this existing technique. Paracetamol's linearity was found to be in the range of 3250-6500 ng/band, while Flupirtine maleate's linearity was found to be in the range of 1000-2000 ng/band. The method's accuracy was determined by recovery experiments, which revealed a percent recovery of 98 to 102 percent. The % RSD was determined to be less than 2 in the Precision investigation, and the assay result for both compounds was within the limit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wound Healing Study of Panchavalkal Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats

Vaikhari Dhurve, Pravin Jawanjal, Mukesh Naria, Tukaram Dudhamal, Minal Kalambe, Sonal Muley

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 110-116
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31933

Introduction: Panchavalkal is a well-known Ayurvedic poly-herbal formulation that has been reported to be used against inflammation, to clean ulcer, wound.

Aims and Objectives: To investigate the wound healing activity of Panchavalkal ointment.

Materials and Methods: Wistar strain albino rats of either sex weighing 200±20 g were used for the experiments divided in four groups each consisted of six rats.

 Statistical Analysis: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the mean values of quantitative variables among the groups followed by Dunnett’s multiple ‘t’ test

Observations & Results: Sesame oil and Panchvalkal ointment showed almost similar wound healing effects in comparison to control group.

Discussion: Panchavalkal ointment showed statistically highly significant percentage of contraction of excision wound area compared to the normal control. Epithelization period was significantly decreased in oil and Panchavalkal ointment treated group.

Conclusion: Panchavalkal ointment decreased the pain, tenderness, redness and swelling that helps to control infection and enhanced the rate of wound healing in albino rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Study the effect of Traditional Back Exercises vs Exercise Ball Exercise on Pain Intensity, Core Endurance and Limitation of Activities in Individuals with Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Comparative Study

Jay Kumar Soni, Edrish Contractor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 117-123
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31934

Aims: Non specific Low back pain is defined as pain without any known pathology which affects almost all the leading occupation where body's awkward posture, twisting and stress forces are commonly encountered across the globe and it is highly prevalent 60% to 70% in a year. Studies have shown various exercise regimen individual effect on the same but superiority of regimen out of these is not clear.

Study Design: Comparative Study

Place and Duration of Study: Ahmedabad Institute of Medical Sciences, Duration 2013-15

Objective: To assess and compare the effect of core stability exercise, back school program and Swiss ball exercise on Pain, core endurance and Functional disability.

Methodology: A group of 24 patients having non-specific low back pain between age groups 18-40 were randomly selected and allocated in to two groups. Group A(n=12) received traditional exercise whereas Swiss ball exercise was given to Group B(n=12). The subjects were treated for two weeks. Baseline data for VAS, Core endurance and MODI were taken on day1 and at the end of two weeks

Result: The results were analyzed by wilcoxon signed rank test within both groups. Both groups showed significant improvement in VAS, core endurance and MODI at the end of 2weeks.Comparison between both the Group A and Group B was done by Mann- whitney U test and statistically no significant difference was seen in VAS, core endurance and MODI between the groups

Conclusion: The study concluded that both the exercises are equally effective in reducing pain intensity, improves core endurance and functional status in subjects with non specific low back pain

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Haematological Parameters Correlates with the Physiological Variables among Mild COVID-19 Patients Admitted in the Tertiary Care Hospital of Pune District

Suchita Sachin Palve, Pallavi Sachin Chaudhari, Deepa Devhare, Gauri Milind Kulkarni

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 124-137
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31935

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has put global health at stake by creating havoc all over the world, due to which the world, as well as health agencies, are experiencing the greatest challenges of all times. This disease is a health emergency due to its high level of infectiousness and due to the non-availability of any specific treatment. COVID 19 is a health emergency due to its high infectiousness, as currently, there is no treatment available

Objectives: To determine the significance of physiological and haematological parameters in the diagnosis of COVID 19 infection and compare these parameters according to comorbid conditions during the disease progression among mild COVID 19 patients.

Methodology: This retrospective, observational study was carried out in a designated tertiary care hospital to address COVID19 patients in the Pune district. Various parameters like age, height, weight, BMI, various physiological variables, haematological parameters, and CRP levels were assessed among 202 COVID 19 diagnosed patients on day one and on day 10 of the hospital stay. Results: Out of the total study participants, 112 were male, and 90 were females with an average age of (43.43±15.07) and (51.8±16.35) respectively.

Conclusion: Study of physiological and haematological parameters and their interrelation will help in understanding the impact of COVID 19 infection on the reactive inflammatory responses and will help in understanding the prognosis of the disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for the Estimation of Lansoprazole in Presence of Related Substances by QbD Approach

Sachin B. Gholve, Jaiprakash N. Sangshetti, Omprakash G. Bhusnure, Ram S. Sakhare, Pratap H. Bhosale, Md. Ismail Mouzam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 138-150
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31936

A rapid specific RP-HPLC method has been developed for the determination of Lansoprazole impurities in the drug substance. The control of pharmaceutical impurities is currently a critical issue in the pharmaceutical industry. The International Council for Harmonization (ICH) has formulated a workable guideline regarding the control of impurities. The objective of the recent study was to develop and validate a HPLC method for the quantitative determination of process-related impurities of Lansoprazole in pharmaceutical drug substance. Lansoprazole, 2-[[[3-methyl-4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-2-pyridinyl] methyl]-sulfinyl]- 1H-benzimidazole is an proton pump inhibitor used in the management of gastric ulcers. Chromatographic identification of the impurities was carried out by response surface methodology, applying a three-level Box Behnken design with three center points. Three factors selected were a mobile phase, flow rate, column temperature. Evaluation of the main factor, their interaction, and the quadric effect on peak resolution were done on Waters Symmetry C8, 250 x 4.6mm, 5µm column is used for the development of the method. The mobile phase consists of buffer and acetonitrile. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.0 ml/min with gradient elution. The column temperature is ambient and the detection wavelength is 235 nm. The injection volume was 10 µL. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines for linearity in the range of 50-150 µg/ml and the LOD & LOQ values obtained were 0.437×10-4 and 0.1325×10-3 µg/ml respectively which specifies the method's sensitivity. The proposed method was successfully used to determine the Lansoprazole impurities in drug substances.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Mental Health and Aggression against Co-Workers in Indian Banks during COVID 19

Shivani Dutt, Rashmy Moray

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 151-162
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31937

Most representatives working in banks have been affected severely due to COVID 19 widespread in India. This comprehensive examination's key goal is to carefully examine mental health problems such as anxiety and depression among the bank employees and identify their relationship with aggression against their co-workers during COVID-19 circumstance. A non-probability snowball testing procedure has been utilized to direct online surveys from 536 employees. A moderate level of information has been perceived about COVID 19 among the employees working in banks. Besides COVID-19 related information, anxiety was surveyed by English adaptation of GAD-scale; an English version of CES-D has been used to gauge the depression and aggression against co-workers and is assessed by Conflict Tactics Scales. Affiliations between aggressions against co-workers with mental health problems have been recognized using multiple logistic regressions. The predominance of anxiety and depression is 24.27% and 47.72%, respectively. Additionally, the prevalence of the union of depression and anxiety is 20.81%.  71.1% of participants show frequent aggression against co-workers. The research findings depict that frequent aggression against co-workers was particularly connected with mental health issues during the COVID-19 flare-up. These detections ensnared that the administration needs to consider psychological well-being issues, particularly depression and anxiety among bank employees.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Efficacy of Metoclopramide Versus Dexamethasone for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea Vomiting during General Anesthesia

Sunil Arjan, Naila Zahoor, Kenza Nadeem, Farah liaquat, Tariq Hussain Mughal, Muneeba Arshad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 163-168
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31938

Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of Metoclopramide versus Dexamethasone for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting during general anesthesia.

Study Design:This is a Randomized control trial (RCT) study.

Setting: Study carried out at Department of Anaesthesiology, Surgical Intensive Care Unit and Pain Management, Clinic, Dow University of Health Sciences and  Dr. Ruth Pfau  Hospital Karachi, from December 2018 to June 2019.

Materials and Methods:110 patients undergoing elective surgeries, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and gave informed consent were included in the study. They were randomly assigned to either group M or group D, with 55 patients in each group. All patients were then administered either intravenous dexamethasone (8mg) in group D or intravenous metoclopramide (10mg) in group M at the time of induction of anesthesia. The main outcome measure was postoperative nausea and vomiting, at the end of 6th hour postoperatively. The SPSS version 21 was applied to the data.

Results: Majority of the patients 66 (60%) were of age 35 years or less. Mean age of the patients was 35.09±11.55 years. There were more females than males, with male to female ratio being 1:1.03. Overall, in patients receiving metoclopramide, 12(21.8%)  had postoperative nausea and vomiting, while in patients who received dexamethasone, only 4 (7.3%) patients had post-operative nausea and vomiting. When comparing two groups, there was statistically significant (p= 0.02) reduced postoperative nausea/vomiting among those patients who had received intravenous dexamethasone.

Conclusion: Intravenous dexamethasone is more effective than Metoclopramide in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients during general anesthesia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation and Characterization of Novel Non-Ionic Surfactant Based Aceclofenac Gel as a Potential Drug Delivery System

Mamta Kumari, Piyushkumar Sadhu, Dipti Gohil, Shivkant Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 176-187
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31940

Background: Aceclofenac is considered to the first line drug in the symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoartheritis and ankylosing spondylitis. The successful treatment of arthritis depend on the maintenance of effective drug concentration level in the body, for which a constant and uniform supply of drug is desired. The short biological half-life (about 4 hrs) and dosing frequency more than once a day as well as (70-80%) of dose is excreted by renal transport make aceclofenac an ideal candidate for formulation of niosomal gel.

Methodology: The niosomal gel of aceclofenac in order to sustain the release of aceclofenac topically, decreases the side effect of GI disturbance by maintaining the concentration of the drug in the blood and decrease the renal excretion as well as frequency of dosing. Niosomal gel was prepared by coacervation phase separation method. Preformulation studies, structural analysis, in-vitro drug release study, mechanism of drug release kinetic and data analysis (zero order, first order and higuchi’s model), percentage entrapment efficiency and stability study were performed (n=3). Anti-Inflammatory study was performed for final optimized formulation.

Result and conclusion: It is revealed from preformulation studies that materials obtained for study did not show any incompatibility. Particle size was determined in the range of 9.46±1.055 to 12.91±3.587μm by using an optical microscope with calibrated eyepiece micrometer. Scanning Electron Microscopy of niosomes was performed to observe surface morphology and percentage entrapment efficiency of niosomes were reported in the range of 63.49±0.265% to 78.55±0.425%. From release kinetic modelling, it was analysed that the drug was released from niosomes by a diffusion-controlled mechanism. Lastly, stability study of all formulations was done in two different temperature and anti inflammatory activity of final optimised formulation was compared with marketed formulation (Voveran Emulgel). Results shows that the aceclofenac Niosomal gel showed fair anti-inflammatory activity but it was not as good as the commercial product.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Cigarette Smoking on Haematological Parameters and Lipid Profile in Vidharbha Region, India

Gangaram Bhadarge, Ranjit Ambad, Nandkishor Bankar, Raunak Kotecha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 213-217
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31943

Introduction: Cigarette smoke increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, such as coronary heart disease and peripheral vascular disease. Atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke are also examples of ischaemic heart disease. Cigarette smoke contains more than 4,000 substances that have a negative or minimal effect on human health, including free radicals, nicotine, and the most important carbon monoxide in the pharmacy. Tobacco smoke kills 6 million people a year, many from lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). When opposed to never-smokers, smokers lose 10–15 years of life on average, and they begin to develop tobacco-related disorders such as coronary disease.

Aim: Study of Cigarette Smoking on Haematological parameters and Lipid Profile in Vidharbha Region

Material and Method: 25 subjects were smokers and 25 subjects were non-smokers. Patients went directly to the Observed Treatment Short-course focus in the Dept. of Medicine and Dept. of Respiratory, Datta Meghe Medical College and Shalinitai Meghe Hospital and Research Center.

Result: Patients who were non-smokers and smokers were compared. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and VLDL are statistically higher in smokers than non-smokers, but the same is true for HDL-cholesterol. Smokers had slightly lower HDL cholesterol than non-smokers.

Conclusion: The smokers in this sample had dyslipidaemia as well as a large rise in haemoglobin and haematocrit. The RBC count rises as the rate of smoking rises, as it does in heavy smokers, and the altered lipid profile worsens. This dyslipidaemia in smokers can expose the vascular endothelium to potentially atherogenic lipoproteins, placing smokers at higher risk of developing atherosclerotic plaques and heart disease. As a result, quitting smoking early can alter these processes, which may prevent any major health risks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts of Terminalia chebula and Piper nigrum against Streptococcus mutans: An In Vitro Study

Pavani Bellamkonda, Ramesh Kumar Koothati, Aamina Bee, Abhishree Desai, G. K. Aarthi, R. Aarthi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 218-224
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31944

Objective: Dental caries is an infectious disease in which S. mutans plays a key role. Haphazard and irrational use of antibiotics leads to antibiotic resistance and fatal diarrhoeal diseases in children. Antimicrobial potency of Terminalia chebula and Piper nigrum extracts against several bacterial strains have been documented. The aims of this study were to assess and compare the antimicrobial activities of T. chebula and P. nigrum extracts against S. mutans with Ciprofloxacin as the positive control.

Materials and Methods: For this purpose, S. mutans was isolated from plaque samples of people with active caries lesions.  Antimicrobial potency of both T. chebula and P.nigrum were tested using agar well diffusion method.

Results: All the tested extracts showed antibacterial activity against S. mutans bacteria. Regarding the two tested herbs extracts, a higher antimicrobial activity was shown by the methanol extract of T. chebula with a mean diameter of inhibition zone was 26.75mm and a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 25mg /ml concentration followed by acetonic extract.

Conclusion: These findings confirm the Antimicrobial potency of T. chebula which can be used as an alternative antibiotic and/or in combination with allopathic antibiotics to prevent the antibiotic resistance.

Open Access Review Article

Diet during COVID-19 Pandemic

Aayushmann Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31921

A group of respiratory cases brought about by a formerly obscure infection were noted in December. This infection is currently notable as the extreme intense respiratory condition Covid 2 (SARS-CoV-2), bringing about the improvement of the Covid illness 2019 (COVID-19). The sickness has spread worldwide and has been grouped by the World Health medical organization as a worldwide pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 appearance may be asymptomatic or moderate to serious with hacking, fever, and windedness. In more serious cases, inconveniences can incorporate intense respiratory misery condition, intense heart entanglements, numerous organ brokenness disorder, septic stun, and passing. These entanglements are accepted to be identified with what has been portrayed as the chemical mediators storm, in which the virus triggers an anomalous solid arrival of chemical mediators and other invulnerable related boosts, bringing about more -irritation.

Open Access Review Article

Karnini Yonivyapad (Cervical Erosion): A Review

. Sonam, V. Asokan, Babita Roy, Karishma U. Pathan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31925

Health status of women is essential for healthy society. In today's fast and competitive world, there is change in the lifestyle of women which leads to their physical and mental stress, women mostly get affected by this environment and are prone to gynaecological problems. Common health problem or gynaecological problem in women is white discharge, foul smell discharge, itching at vulvar region, burning micturition. Cervical erosion is a condition seen in the age group of 20-40 years with more of Kapha dominance. Kandu, Yoni Srava and other features of Kapha Pittadushti are seen in cervical erosion. It is seen as red circular granular surface surrounding the cervical os bathed in discharges. On the study of etiological factors, sign and symptoms the disease is found to be caused by Kapha – Pittadosha Prokopa affecting Yoni and Garbhasayamukha leading to Samprapti which manifests as cervical erosion. Based on symptomatology, cervical erosion can be correlated with Karnini Yonivyapad. Karnini is an abnormal proliferation of cervical epithelium which may produce abnormal discharge, alter the vaginal pH and cervical mucus plug. Chikitsa of Karnini Yonivyapad is Yoni Prakshalana,Yoni Pichu Dharana, Yoni Varti Dharana, Agni Karma and Kshara Karma. Kaphahara line of treatment should be done. Diet also plays an important role in cervical erosion so proper Pathya Apathtya are to be followed.

Open Access Review Article

Role of Drugs in COVID 19 Patient: A Review

Avni Bhatia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 99-105
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31931

Background: No specific drug treatment is available for the COVID-19. Various drugs are being used and repurposed as COVID-19 treatment.

Summary: COVID-19 has no defined treatment course because it has no precedent. Various drugs are tried and tested to be used upon patients to treat particular symptom. Hydroxycholoroquine, lopinavir, ritonavir and so on are the famous drugs being repurposed as COVID-19 treatment drugs. Prophylactics are not widely listed but supplements and drugs which contain anti-inflammatory properties and anti-oxidants should be inculcated in the diet so that innate immune response can fight off the external pathogenic invasion all by itself.

Conclusion: Drugs listed for repurposing method must be tried and tested before administered it to a severely ill patients or to a large chunk of population. Proper study needs to be done before administered and starting full-fledged usage of any existing drug not meant for the treatment of COVID-19.

Open Access Review Article

Early Recovery after Caeserean Section What is Possible in Our Setup to Travel the Less Trodden Path: A Review

Pratibha Deshmukh, Priyanka Deshmukh, Parag Sable, Vivek Chakole

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 188-194
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31941

Enhanced recovery after surgery is a concept put forward by Henrik Kehlet in 1997 for colorectal surgery & presented a protocol. Since then, it is adopted for various surgical procedures in many developed countries. Obstetricians & obstetric anaesthesiologists are also following the same line. In 2020 Society for obstetric anaesthesia & perinatology (SOAP) USA published a consensus statement on “early recovery after caesarean section”, presenting the pathways. Is it possible to adopt it fully in our country? Do we need to modify here & there? We are trying to find out the answers.

Open Access Review Article

An Insight into Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Ethnotherapeutically Important Trans Himalayan Medicinal Plants: A Review

Anupama Sharma Avasthi, Navkiran Kaur, Shivani Sharda, Sabari Ghosal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 195-212
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31942

The high altitude of the Himalayan cold desert represents a valuable habitat of natural resources. The extreme climatic condition manifested by intense mutagenic UV-radiation, physiological drought, desiccation and strong winds, makes the survival of plants really difficult. As a consequence of this atmospheric stressor, the plants produce unique metabolites which play a preventive role in intrinsic mechanism of sustenance. Many plant species of this region have been investigated in search of novel antioxidants and antimicrobials. Plants synthesize several antioxidants that aid in antioxidant defense system, thereby protecting plants against damage caused by active ROS. These compounds include chlorophyll derivatives, alkaloids, essential oils, phytosterols, phenolics and polyphenolics. Some of the antioxidants that have been isolated from plants include curcumin, quercetin, ascorbic acid, resveratrol amongst many other compounds. Additionally, the emergence of resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents has become a major threat to public health. Hence, fresh efforts towards new drug identification and development are greatly needed. Plants have long been used in traditional Indian medicine for numerous therapeutic benefits and low toxicity. Considering the growing interest in quest for search of plant based antimicrobials and antioxidants; an effort has been carried to systematically record the antioxidants and antimicrobial potential of plants of Himalayan region.

Open Access Review Article

Dhoopana-A Concept of Fumigation in Ayurveda

Punam Sawarkar, Gaurav Sawarkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 225-248
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i36A31945

Concept of disinfection or fumigation is very important as every host has not optimum level of immunity to defence himself against pathogens causing diseases and so it is commonly practised in many developed nations to prevent transmission of viral diseases which are airborne in nature such as COVID -19. However various review of modern fumigating physical & chemical agents e.g. Formalin  which are expensive, having crumblesome technique & toxic nature are generally used for this purpose.Therefore, current situation of COVID pandemic demands for the replacement  in Ayurveda  e.g. Dhoopana Karma for  such techniques.As  it is  cost effective, safe, convenient, effective, and lucrative  method of sterilizaion. Main aim of this paper is to compile all scattered information regarding Dhoopana Karma from different Ayurvedic sculptures. All information of these karma which is in dispursed form is complied & described under different heads such as history pf Dhoopana Karma, synonyms, classification, indications (general & specific), various drugs useful for Dhoopana, their period for collection, different formulations for Dhoopana, instruments for Dhoopana, different modes of administration / procedure, method of storing and preservation of Dhoopana Dravya & duration of procedure in descriptive manner & tabular form. Extensive review related with Dhoopana Karma shows that that Dhoopan Karma which is a most common method of sterilization described in an ayurveda & it is categorised under topical (Bahiparimarjana) treatment.Broad spectrum utility of these different formulations of Dhoopana  suggests demands for researches in future to study their various  pharmacological properties & actions such as bacteriostatic or bactericidal, wormicidal, anti-inflammatory ,antiseptic, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal anti –pyretic. Suchpe of vivid research may become helpful to prevent the need for medical intervention in entities such as COVID-19. On the basis of this review, it can be concluded that Dhoopana Karma can be used as a type of fumigation for massive & local sterilization in current dreadful outbreak of COVID-19.