Open Access Case Report

Pre-Prosthetic Rehabilitation in Post-operative Transtibial Amputation Patient: A Case Report

Ruchika Zade, Gunjan Shende, Priyanka Sahu, Tejaswini B. Fating, Shruti Deshpande, Pratik Phansopkar, Waqar Naqvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 110-115
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31909

Background: Amputation is that the removal of injury by, undue constriction, surgical condition or surgery of associate degree extremity. Below-knee amputation (BKA) may be a transtibial amputation that involves separating the foot, ankle joint, and distal shinbone and leg bone from associated soft tissue structures. This surgical treatment carries wide morbidity, but, provided adequate indications; it remains a therapeutic tool with very important clinical price and generally life-saving importance. The majority of transtibial amputations is due to peripheral vascular disease or lower limb circulation disease (60 percent -70 percent).The main goal of rehabilitation procedures is to generally increase healthy and impaired limb strength, patient flexibility, cardiovascular ability, and equilibrium. . Health care is burdened by comprehensive recovery and long-term care. Mobility is essential to independence recovery; however, the effect of multiple comorbidities in this patient population will render mobility recovery a particularly difficult task

Clinical Finding: An 65 year old male complains of pain in right foot since 3 month. Swelling was appeared and skin over the black lower leg turned black with foul smelling discharge from foot. He was diagnosed with right lower limb gangrene and referred to Physiotherapy department for prosthetic prescription and rehabilitation after trans tibial amputation.

Diagnosis: Duplex colour Doppler study of left lower limb show triphasic flow in CIA, EIA, IIA, SFA, POP, ATA, PTA arteries of right lower limb, dampened flow noted in right dorsalis pedis artery and atherosclerosis wall thickening in the arteries of right lower limb.

Conclusion: This case report provides patient with inclusive recovery which help to decide on a patient’s suitability for a prosthetic limb prosthetic fitting.

Open Access Case Report

Case Report on Hypothyroidism in Infertile Woman with IVF Conception

Damini S. Mohadure, Leena Fating

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 148-151
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31913

Introduction: Hypothyroidism affects 2–4% of women in their reproductive years. Anovulatory cycles, luteal phase defects, hyperprolactinemia, and sex hormone imbalances are all symptoms of sex hormone imbalances are all consequences of hypothyroidism on fertility.

Main Symptoms/or Important Clinical Findings: A 33 years old female admitted in AVBRH on date 19/1/2021 with chief complaint of infertility with hypothyroidism since 8 year, pain in abdomen, irregular menses.

Obstetric History: Patient had obstetric history of menarche start age of 15 year and flow of bleeding in slow/light. After irregular menses, she received IVF cycle and she was conceived the pregnancy in 1st IVF cycle.

The Main Diagnoses, Therapeutic Intervention, and Outcome: After physical examination and investigation, doctor was detected a case of primary infertility with hypothyroidism. Patient was treated with tab.thyronom50 mg drug to reduce the symptoms of hypothyroidism.

Nursing perspective: Administered flued replacement i.e. DNS, RL, monitored fetal heart rate and vital sign per 4 hourly.

Conclusion: Pregnancy conceived with in vitro fertilization increasing the more risk of gestational hypothyroidism as well as fetal complication. Treatment and management improves the outcome of pregnancy.

Open Access Case Report

An Interesting Case of Achalasia Cardia with Co-Existing Coronavirus 19 Infection

Rishabh Gupta, Gaurav Mishra, R. P. Dhande

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 194-198
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31920

With this case report, we emphasize the unique fact that chest pain and discomfort in COVID-19 infected patient can be due to other causes and it should not be overlooked. The SARS-CoV-2 is a novel strain of coronavirus, the homo-sapiens have recently been attacked in a large number.

Common clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients infected include high grade fever, weakness, dry cough, breathlessness and chest pain with discomfort.

We are presenting a case report of covid-19 infected patient having chief complaints of chest pain and discomfort. The patient was evaluated using computed tomography imaging and- Achalasia cardia was diagnosed and needful was done. It should be noted that multiple conditions can co-exist along with COVID-19 infection for which proper and complete evaluation needs to be done keeping other possibilities in mind.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Use of the Wearable Device in Telehealth during Covid-19

Hinal Pankaj Chauhan, Kanchan Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 29-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31895

The purpose of the review is to find out the extend of wearable devices in the field of telehealth and other technologies used to implement telehealth, as this was the immediate solution to the COVID-19 pandemic for maintaining the social distance and also to treat the patients for disease or consult them, without the physical presence. In the research systematic literature review is being followed. Various databases like pubmed, medline and Google scholar is used to extract information for the list of papers downloaded. Screening based on filters was done removing papers other than English language and included only research papers, excluding articles editorial, etc. Also, some papers were added by snowballing technique while going further with the research. The review helps find some great telehealth technological findings, like wearable technologies and data accumulation. The research has been followed by 28 papers and focuses on the enablers of telehealth and the implication of wearable technologies in times of COVID-19. Originality: The independent search on telehealth and wearable technologies has been combined with reviewing this study and building the framework and the existing studies have been used for the review.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Observational Study on Drug Utilization Pattern in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients using Anti-Hypertensive Drugs in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

Rajesh Hadia, Hemraj Singh Rajput, Vidhi Mehta, Pushti Shah, Arti Muley, Jyoti Thakkar, Arti Muley, Trupal Rathod, Dhaval Joshi, Rajesh Maheshwari, Vikas Chandrakar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31893

Background: There is a strong relationship between Hypertension and chronic kidney disease. HTN is highly prevalent in CKD patients, contributing to high cardiovascular risk.

Objectives: This study aims drug utilization pattern of Antihypertensive drugs in CKD. The objective of the study to determine the occurrence of co-morbidities, the prevalence of CKD stages in chronic kidney patients and to prepare a protocol of anti-hypertensive in CKD.

Methodology: This was an observational/cross-sectional study that was carried out for six months at Dhiraj General Hospital, Vadodara. CKD patients who were prescribed antihypertensive agents were included as per study criteria. Data was collected by filling the patient medical record sheet.

Results: A total of 60 CKD patients with HTN were included in the study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Out of 60 patients, we noticed that number of inpatients was 67% while the number of OPD patients was just 33%. Comparing gender proportionality, male represents 63% and female represents 37% were found between the age group of 18-65 years. The recorded systolic BP in mild case in the overall study population was found to be 140-159 mmHg and diastolic BP was found to be 90-99 mmHg. In moderate case systolic BP was 160-179 mmHg and diastolic BP was found to be 100-109 mmHg. In severe cases systolic BP was ≥180 mmHg and diastolic BP was found to be ≥110 mmHg. Among antihypertensive Calcium channel blockers was prescribed in 34.18% of patients and mostly recommended drug for hypertensive chronic kidney patients was furosemide which was 19.34%. Most participants were treated with multi-drug therapy.

Conclusion: In Hypertensive CKD patients, calcium channel blockers and furosemide were highly recommended which do not diverge from National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease, Outcome Quality Initiative guidelines.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Healthcare and Fitness Influencers during COVID Times

Tushar Kumar Roy, Smita Mehendale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-28
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31894

Influencer marketing has played a significant role in marketing to present its products on a digital platform. In this study, we are trying to gauge the effectiveness of healthcare and fitness influencers on Instagram. More specifically, the researchers are trying to find how the one-way interaction and the influencer's credibility are related to purchasing intention. Also, the researchers are trying to find the indirect relationship between purchase intention and social attractiveness, physical attractiveness, and attitude homophily. The researchers have used a linear regression process to analyse the data. This research paper studied the effect on purchase intention due to both source credibility and PSI. We also found the indirect relationship between purchase intention and attitude homophily, physical attractiveness and social attractiveness. Again, these outcomes will benefit both the companies and the bloggers to gain a competitive advantage over other market players. In this research paper, we have studied the consumer buying behaviour of a  particular segment (healthcare and fitness) on Instagram. Also, our respondents are located in various parts of India. Due to these reasons, the researcher cannot generalize their results to other media platforms and other segments. The authors find that the source's credibility has a greater impact on purchase intention than a single source of interaction between the user and the influencer. Both credibility and Para social interaction displayed a positive relationship to purchase intention.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Emerging Transdermal Drug Delivery System: Fabrication and Characterization of Natural and Biodegradable Polymeric Microneedles Transdermal Patch

Deepesh Lall, MOHD. Javed Naim, Shruti Rathore

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-54
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31897

Promising drug agents are limited by their inability to reach in systematic circulation system when applied on skin, because of the excellent barrier of biological membranes, such as the stratum corneum (SC) of the skin. It is the outermost layer of the skin, SC, the principal barrier to all the topical application applied on skin. Various strategies were employed by many research group and pharmaceutical companies worldwide, for the formulation of microneedles. Therefore, microneedles (MN’s), used to puncture skin, it created the transient aqueous transport pathway and enhanced the trandermal permeability. Microneedles (MN’s) fabricated with natural and biodegradable polymer, such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and dextran. Inverse replication of micro milled master mould reproduced, solid out of natural polymeric microneedles, were subsequently assembled into transdermal patch and physiochemical characterized for dissolution index, mechanical strength constructed physical strong and uniform shape and size and inert profile. Although, dissolvable PVP and PVA based microneedle showed physical stability and MN’s, their different analyzed parameter is of promise for the fabrication matrix device of natural biodegradable polymeric microneedle transdermal drug delivery system.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Cross-sectional Observational Study to Find out the Pattern of Drug Utilization and Medication Adherence of Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AEDs) among Epileptic Patients at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

Sunil Kardani, Rajesh Hadia, Jay Patel, Jeel Patel, Trupal Rathod, Dhaval Joshi, Chaturbhuj Rathore, Sunil Baile, Kushalkumar Gohel, Rajesh Maheshwari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 62-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31903

Background: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are the mainstay of the therapy for epilepsy, despite the development in recent years of new therapeutic options, such as brain stimulation or Surgery. Objective: To understand the pattern of drug utilization and medication adherence of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) among epileptic patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital.

Methodology: A cross-sectional observational study of a total of 120 subjects receiving anti-epileptics was done. All the patients with epilepsy were prescribed with anti-epileptic drug who visited, admitted, or referred to the Department of Neurology. All inpatients and outpatients of epilepsy were screened for the study.

Results: A total of 120 patients were included in our study into which (38.33%) were inpatients and (61.67%) were outpatient. The male (56%) patients were more as compared to female (44%) patients. A maximum number of patients were from the age group of 21-40 (41%) year. The majority of the patient were suffered from focal epilepsy (63%), remaining were having a generalized seizure. The highest comorbidities were found to be HTN and diabetes mellitus. Monotherapy was highly prescribed as compare to polytherapy. Among single AED, the maximum prescribed drug was Carbamazepine [30% (N=17)] followed by 25% (N=14) of phenytoin and levetiracetam 21% (N=12). In two AED Combinations, the most prescribed drugs were clobazam + Levetiracetam and Midazolam + phenytoin 12% (N=5) followed by sodium valproate + clobazam 10% (N=4). Highest combination of three AEDs that were prescribed the highest were carbamazepine + Levetiracetam + clobazam and phenytoin + phenobarbitone + sodium Valproate 20% (N=2)

The highest medication adherence was found in patients who were on single AEDs and the lowest adherence was found in the patients who were on more than two AEDs.

Conclusion: Antiepileptic drug monotherapy was highly prescribed as compare to polytherapy. Phenytoin was the most commonly prescribed AEDs followed by carbamazepine and highly prescribed single AEDs were found to be carbamazepine. The patients who were on single epileptic drugs showed the highest adherence as compared to the patients with more than two AEDs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ranked List of Effective Measures for COVID-19 Preparation in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Garret Ranking Method Approach

Akarsh Chaudhary, Ankit Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31904

In the current times of COVID -19, most healthcare providers are struggling to ensure patient safety and keep the healthcare-associated infection under check. However, various measures are adopted by tertiary care hospitals to provide safe and effective healthcare services in the current pandemic situation. However, various healthcare professionals have different perceptions about the effectiveness of the measures adopted. The current study is carried out in a tertiary care hospital of Noida city of India, where a questionnaire containing demographic data and the measures adopted in the hospital were given to twenty-seven medical professionals to rate the measures following their effectiveness in times of COVID-19. The collected responses were analysed with the help of the Henry Garret Ranking Method. The analysis of the results revealed that the top three effective measures out of all the measures adopted by the hospital included spreading awareness about modes of transmission of infection (First Rank), Creation of isolation ward in the hospital for contagious diseases (Second Rank), providing adequate care in intensive care and high dependency unit in a systematic manner (Third Rank). This study provides a ready reckoned list arranged in the ranked order for the effective measures in times of COVID-19, from medical professionals' perspectives to all the healthcare institutions who are struggling to adapt .to the COVID-19 requirements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Its Impact across Industries – Unlocking the True Potential of Digital Healthcare (A Case Study Approach)

Sourajit Roy, Pankaj Pathak, S. Nithya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 86-98
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31906

During the advent of the 21st century, technical breakthroughs and developments took place. Natural Language Processing or NLP is one of their promising disciplines that has been increasingly dynamic via groundbreaking findings on most computer networks. Because of the digital revolution the amounts of data generated by M2M communication across devices and platforms such as Amazon Alexa, Apple Siri, Microsoft Cortana, etc. were significantly increased. This causes a great deal of unstructured data to be processed that does not fit in with standard computational models. In addition, the increasing problems of language complexity, data variability and voice ambiguity make implementing models increasingly harder. The current study provides an overview of the potential and breadth of the NLP market and its acceptance in industry-wide, in particular after Covid-19. It also gives a macroscopic picture of progress in natural language processing research, development and implementation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Electrophysiological Parameters as an Early Indicator for Nerve Root Involvement among the Patients with Acute Lumbar Radiculopathy

Suchitra Palve, Sachin Palve

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 116-122
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31908

Electrophysiological parameters especially the late responses which include H reflex analysis are of great significance and importance in diagnosing and predicting the level of nerve root involvement radiculopathy patients. The main objective of the present study was to analyse the electrophysiological parameters like amplitude and latency for prediction of nerve root involvement in lumbar radiculopathy patients. The present research project study was undertaken on 50 diagnosed patients of lumbar radiculopathy. The study participants were between the age group of 30-60 years and were having the low back pain ranging from 30-60 days. The bilateral nerve conduction studies were performed for posterior tibial nerve, sural nerve, and late responses like H waves were studied and analysed for amplitude and latency for all the patients. Patients with radiculopathy showed significant reduction in the amplitude of sural sensory nerve, the latencies were prolonged among the patients with L5-S1 root involvement based on the MRI findings. H wave’s amplitude asymmetry was significantly noted among the patients with L5-S1 root involvement suggesting the axonal compression at nerve root level earlier than the changes in the latencies for H waves. Prolonged latencies is reduction in the amplitude of sural nerve as well as, the amplitude asymmetry for late responses like H waves can be considered as one of the earlier signs of compression of the nerve roots in lumbosacral radiculopathy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Antibiogram of Escherichia Coli Isolated from the Urinary Tract Infection in Patients from Tertiary Care Hospital

Nandkishor Bankar, Dhruba Hari Chandi, Praful Patil, Gaurav Mahajan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 123-128
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31910

Introduction: UTI occurs when bacteria that live inside intestine find their way into the urinary tract through the urethra. Women are familiar to be a lot of at risk of UTI than men, with a five hundredth probability of a UTI in their life.

Aim: The aim of this study was to find the antibiotic resistance pattern in Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection with commonly found antibiotics among different age and sex groups.

Materials and Methods: All positive urine samples for Escherichia coli obtained from patients were included. On the basis of colony morphology and biochemical tests Isolates were identified. The antibiogram profile of the isolates was determined by commonly used antibiotics.

Result: In this studied, total 250 patients with UTI of both sexes were included and divided into age group. Samples processed only 250 samples with the growth of E. coli were included in this studied. The isolated E.coli showed more resistant to some degree to all the antibiotics tested.  The greatest resistance was shown against Amoxycillin (15.2% isolated were sensitive) and the least resistance was shown against Imipenem (96.4% isolated were sensitive).

Conclusion: The pattern of antibiotic resistance varies from place to place, region to region, and country to country. Antimicrobial resistance should be monitored on a regular basis in both the community and hospital settings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Behavior of Medical Students toward Over-the-Counter Drugs in Comparison to Students from Other Faculties, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Amar Fathi Mohamed Khalifa, Yasser Nabil AlKhudairy, Adel Ahmed Algahtani, Bandar Mohammed Abduljabbar, Fahad Majed Aldawsari, Faisal Hunaidi Kharsa, Khalid Mohammed AlSafadi, Mazen Abdulla Mahjoub, Naif Suliaman AlAli, Rakan Abdulrahman AlAdwanie, Salah Adel Abduljabbar, Sameh Moetaz Alrouh, Shaikh Shaheer Salim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 129-135
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31911

Background: Over-the-counter-drugs (OTC) are drugs that can be obtained by patients without a prescription from a physician. In Saudi Arabia, it has been reported that more than half of university students practiced self-medication and used OTC drugs.

Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study, among medical and non-medical students in Riyadh. The sample size was 421, by systemic random sampling. A pre-coded pre-tested online questionnaire was used. Data was analyzed using SPSS V 23. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.

Results: There was no significant relationship between what the participants were majoring in and the usage of OTC drugs (p value= 0.373). Gender also had no relation with the use of OTC (p value= 0.168). Panadol appeared as the most commonly used OTC drug 62.9% for the relief of the most commonly mentioned factor which is headache 50.12%. 

Conclusion: Medical education didn’t have much of an effect on the use of OTC drugs. Moreover, professional guidance or advice was not considered most of the time for taking OTC, but the majority of respondents portrayed good behavior towards usage of OTC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs of Adults and Elderly Outpatients Regarding Pneumococcal Vaccination at Taif Hospital Cluster

Tahani Alrahbeni, Mohamed Salman Alamri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 136-147
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31912

The whole world is invaded by many micro organisms which are not only killing people but also ruining the quality of life of the people worldwide. Vaccination against major micro-organism is the only way out to protect the people. Pneumonia and influenza are two leading causes of death especially the elderly within the globe.

Objective of the Study: It was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of adults and elderly outpatients regarding pneumococcal vaccination at the Taif hospital cluster and to understand the factors that may influence pneumococcal vaccination among the elderly and younger adults.

Materials and Methods: It was a cross sectional questionnaire study where Self-administered Monkey surveys was administered to a cohort of elderly and younger adult participants. The study was conducted for 4 months. Age group of the participants were within 20 - >80 years and included both Saudi and Non Saudi individual. The collected data were subjected to descriptive analysis to obtain the frequencies of the different variables and the correlation between them using cross tabs, paired-sample T-test, and Pearson’s Chi-square. p-value < 0.05 was taken as significant.

Results: Overall 301 people participated in the study (response rate 91%). A total of 32.56% responded that they had received the pneumococcal vaccine. From the respondents above 12.45% were between 20-40 years old, 10.72% between 41-60 years old, and 8.65% between 61-70 years and 2.07% between 71 to > 80 years of age, indicating lower rates of vaccination among the elderly. Vaccination depends on the patient's health conditions. Despite the positive knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of the participants about the importance of the vaccine, yet they did not respond well to take the vaccine as recommended by the international health authorities.

Conclusion: From the present study it can be concluded that gender has no statistically significant association with vaccination. More is the education more is the adherence to vaccination. Saudi nationals adhered more to vaccination as compared to non Saudi. The results from our study showed that healthcare guidance and recommendation significantly influenced vaccine uptake in both the elderly and younger adults.

Open Access Original Research Article

Root Cause Analysis of Medication Administration Error by Nursing Staff at a Number of Medical Institutes in Riyadh

Tahani Alrahbeni, Muteeb Eid Alenezi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 152-161
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31914

Background: Medication errors genuinely influence patient safety, staying cost in hospital and integrity of nursing job, because the nurses play a specific part in managing the medication for the patients. The present study was done with the aim to investigate factors associated with nurses’ medication errors in a number of medical institutes (Ministry of Health) and the role of clinical pharmacist in these errors.

Methodology: The present study was a cross-sectional study based on standardized questionnaire which was designed and distributed to the target nurses in a number of medical institutes (Ministry of Health). The target number was (171) which was achieved depending on the calculation of sample size after the questionnaires was gathered; data was subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: The highest mean score of error was obtained in the factor related to medication packaging reason, which includes that different medications look alike, and the names of at least 60 medications were similar by 82.7%.  The second group of reasons was system associated, which included: abbreviations were used instead of writing the orders out completely, overall 60.5% of the times nurses were pulled between teams. Third reason, overall 45.3% of the times the errors were associated with pharmacy when they did not prepare\label the medication correctly, and clinical pharmacist did not give education workshops to the nurses. Documentation issues were the fourth reason, 39.5% of the times nurses were interrupted while administering medication to perform other duties and nurses on the same unit did not adhere to the approved medication administration procedure.

Conclusion: The data of the current study suggested the ranking of five reasons or root causes of why medication errors happened. These are medication package, system related, pharmacy related, documentation-transcription reason and physician-nurse related respectively. Furthermore, clinical pharmacists must thrive to improve the nurses' knowledge of how these factors will lead to critical errors and help them discover strategies to prevent these errors from happening.

Open Access Original Research Article

Retrospective Monocentric Study on Career Preferred by Ayurveda Alumni

Jagruti Chaple, Dhirajsingh S. Rajput

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 169-174
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31916

Background: Alumni studies are considered valuable as such works are done to assess the outcomes of efforts made by faculties of relevant organization and its actual effect in professional life. These studies serve as source of information to increase the effectiveness of related organization and thereby students quality of education.

Aim and Objective: The study was centered on exploring the quality and impact of teaching-learning modalities on career proffered by alumni.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective monocentric cohort study was conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Ayurved College, Hospital and Research Centre (MGACHRC), Salod (H), Wardha (Maharashtra) from 2007 batch to 2012 BAMS (Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery) batch which include total 281 Alumni who has completed BAMS course from MGACHRC. The survey was done by using a questionnaire and responses were collected via receiving filled questionnaire via email or filling the questionnaire through telephonic communication with alumni. Results: The survey study reveled that after completing graduation from MGACHRC, the career chosen by alumni of 2007 to 2013 batches include post graduation (PG), working as faculty in other institute, established general clinical practice (GP), joined as medical officer in government or private hospitals (Govt. MO, Private MO) and engaged in other activities such as business, profession other than medical services, become research researcher etc and the percentages of alumni in aforementioned career are 43.42, 8.54, 21.00, 9.96, 12.10 and 4.98 respectively. Higher proportion of females is noted in all batches and most of the alumni gave preference for post graduation followed by clinical practice and occupation as medical officer either in government of private hospitals.

Conclusion: The study represents that obtaining specialization is not possible by completing BAMS and hence post graduation is first preference. However the all careers chosen by alumni of MGACHRC are satisfactory and thus indicate well teaching-learning methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Calcium Hydroxide-based Therapeutic Pads as the Main Material in the Treatment of Deep Caries

Tamara Georgievna Tsagaraeva, Madina Kazbekovna Slanova, Tamiris Aslanovna Aldatova, Amina Ahmedova Kurueva, Evgeniya Nikolaevna Semkina, Edita Garnikovna Margaryan, Kristina Timurovna Tamoeva, Konstantin Anatolevich Zenin, Sergey Nikolaevich Povetkin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 175-180
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31917

The article is devoted to increasing the efficiency of treatment of deep caries, which is an urgent problem of modern dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of the treatment of deep caries using the KERR "Life" calcium hydroxide treatment liner, which is a radiopaque, durable material based on calcium hydroxide and salicylate ester, recommended for direct or indirect pulp capping and as a cementitious base for all restorative filling materials. The study involved 26 patients. The studies carried out have confirmed the efficiency of the treatment of deep caries with the Life pad and confirmed the possibility of its widespread use in practice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Body Mass Index and Skin Fold Thickness in Young Females

Neha Mukkamala, Pooja Patel, Gauri Shankar, Jay Soni, Lata Parmar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 188-193
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31919

Background: Anthropometric indicators are used to evaluate the prognosis of chronic and acute diseases, and to guide medical intervention. In anthropometry, body mass index (BMI) is widely accepted in determining obesity and skin fold thickness measurements provide good estimates of body fat.

Aim: To see the relationship between BMI and skin fold thickness in young females.

Study Design: Observational study

Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study. Measurements of height, weight, BMI and skin fold thickness were obtained for young adult females. Triceps, suprailiac and abdomen skin fold thickness were measured by using a skin fold calliper. For skin fold thickness, all measurements were taken three times and an average value was recorded.

Results: Total 251 participants took part in the study. The mean skin fold thickness in the triceps was 22±6.02 mm, abdominal was 24.41±5.84 mm, and suprailiac was 21.23±5.74 mm. There was a significant correlation seen between BMI and triceps SFT (ρ=0.816,P=0.000), BMI and Abdominal SFT (ρ=0.854,P=0.000) and BMI and suprailiac SFT (ρ=0.850,P=0.000). There was a significant association between BMI and physical activities (P=0.000).

Conclusion: There was a significant correlation seen between BMI and SFT at triceps, abdominal and suprailiac region. There was a significant association between BMI and physical activities.

Open Access Review Article

Causes and Management of Hyperkyphosis

Khaled Nasser Almujel, Abdalah Emad Almhmd, Abdulrahman Arshed N. Alharfy, Ibrahim Abdullah Said Albalawi, Tariq Bander F. Alanazi, Aysha Jaber Alshehri, Bedour Eid H. Alatawi, Abdullah Dhafer Alshehri, Meshari Salman Alhawiti, Shumoukh Homoud Alshehri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31892

Hyperkyphosis is identified when kyphosis angle exceeds the normal ranges. In overall, hyperkyphosis upsurges with age, particularly after the age of 40. It arises as a consequence of multifactorial causes and is associated with increased health susceptibility. Separately from the penalties of typical aging, as declining muscle power and degenerative vicissitudes of the spine, additional influences lead to the growth of the kyphosis angle. Besides fractures, other adverse health outcomes associated with hyperkyphosis include worsening physical function, falls and earlier mortality. Given the growing older population and the high prevalence of age-related hyperkyphosis, better delineation of associated ill-health outcomes will help inform the development and testing of effective kyphosis managements. The sequence of handling with kyphosis start conventional and rolling to surgical interference as a previous option if the patient’s symptoms do not recover with conventional treatment or if the curving is too significant.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on COVID-19 Face Mask Detection using CNN

Kavita R. Singh, Shailesh D. Kamble, Samiksha M. Kalbande, Punit Fulzele

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31896

The World Health Organization claims (WHO),Corona Viruses the COVID-19 pandemic is causing a nationwide crisis, wearing a mask on a face in public places is an effective protection measure. The COVID-19 pandemic forced governments all over the world to implement quarantine measures in order to deter virus spread. Reports suggest that the risk of transmission is clearly minimized by wearing face masks when at work. An effective and economic approach to the use of AI in a manufacturing setting to build a secure environment. Using a face mask detection dataset, we will use Open CV to perform real-time face detection from a live stream from our webcam. Using Keras, Python, Tensorflow and Open CV, and, it will build a COVID-19 face mask detector with computer vision. Using computer vision and CNN, I aim to decide whether or not the person in the image or video streaming is wear a mask.

Open Access Review Article

COVID-19 and Impact on Pregnant Women

Deepali Rajnalwar, Swaroopa Chakole

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 55-61
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31898

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19 is the viral infection pandemic that has spread all over the world. Although all people are prone to the infection almost equally, some of them after catching infection may produce more severe clinical symptoms. These are called vulnerable groups and pregnant women are one of them.

Summary: Pregnant women were thought to be not affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in the first wave, but recent observations from the second wave which harbors the mutated versions of novel coronavirus, said to be more virulent and lethal, suggests that pregnant women are not only vulnerable to catching the infection but they can show severe clinical outcomes. Also case fatalities, preterm births are also high among COVID-19 infected pregnant women.

Conclusion: More vaccination among pregnant women is needed to safeguard them as the severity of the symptoms is lowered post-vaccination. To solidify more results, more comprehensive and frequent studies are needed so that correlation can be established.

Open Access Review Article

Risk & Hazards of COVID 19 Pandemic on Occupational Professionals

Shivani S. Bonde, Chaitranya A. Kulkarni, Waqar M. Naqvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-85
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31905

Coronavirus outbreak 2019 causes health-care employees an occupational safety concern. Several thousand health-care workers have been contaminated already. There are various reasons where, various occupational individual expose to the various types of the infections in the surrounding. The infections then have chances to spread in the community via these professionals. World Health Organization therefore has developed some of the Ideal precautionary measures to tackle or overcome this kind of the spreading of such infections. Therefore it is a concern to avoid intra-hospital spread of the communicable disease. Based on the Patient Safety Model Systems Technology Framework, approaches and interventions to protect healthcare workers in an emergency tertiary hospital are defined. In the fields of job activities, technology and equipment, environmental causes of job and organizational conditions. Faced with a possible pandemic, the concept of zero workplace infection remains an ambitious target that all health-care programs must aspire for. Various Technology and Equipment are therefore mandatory to provide to health care individuals, such as, Face mask, Hand gloves, face shield, Personal Protection Kit (PPE), hand sanitizers etc. Also awareness talks from the health care professionals are podcasted in different radio channels, news stations are continuously been published, Also the hospital waste management has primary role to dump out the hospital waste at given professional manner.

Open Access Review Article

COVID-19 Crisis: What is the Role of Telehealth?

Fatema Turkistani, Aseel Bin Sawad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 99-109
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31907

Background: The adverse outcomes of COVID-19 on the healthcare system has prompted the enactment of social distancing and self-isolation or quarantine to minimize the spread of the contagious virus. The need for social distancing and isolation has made telehealth a game-changer in the war against COVID-19.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were: (1) To evaluate the current trends of using telehealth during COVID-19 pandemic, (2) To discuss regulatory and policy changes related to telehealth at the service provider level, (3) To analyze recommendations by professional organizations, and (4) To evaluate challenges and recommendations for best practices.

Methods: This is a narrative review. Most current information (focused on the measures that the healthcare system has adopted to integrate telehealth in the coronavirus response measures) was obtained from peer-reviewed journals and the website of payers, pharmacies, and professional organizations.

Results: Response and management of COVID-19 has seen a surge in the use of telehealth and mobile applications. Health insurance providers have reformed their payer policies to integrate telehealth in COVID-19 response. Waiving premiums, co-pays, and cost-sharing are the most common changes across the industry. For example, Cleveland Clinic has reported a 1,665% increase in the number of telemedicine visits, recording 60,000 visits in March compared to 3,400 before coronavirus. The expansion of telehealth in the era of COVID-19 has presented practical challenges stymying progress.

Conclsion: Telehealth is indisputable in promoting social distance, which is a proven public health promotion intervention for curbing the spread of coronavirus.

Open Access Review Article

Self Support Group for Chronic Renal Failure Patients

Ranjana Sharma, Seema Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 162-168
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31915

Self-support groups bring the patients together who is suffering from the same kind of disease conditions or problems or illnesses to share their experiences. Chronic renal failure patients and other illness support groups are a growing need in many communities.

When planning for the management for CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease) patient, if involve the patient or patient is participating actively, it will help in effective management of chronic kidney disease.

It may aid in the patient's prognosis and can be postponed in part by self-management. Self-management of Chronic Kidney Disease is complicated due to the progressive nature of the condition and its progression. The management of Chronic Kidney Disease by a self-help group is difficult to assess, particularly over time. SMS (Self-Management Support) is important for this progressive disease because of the special nature of Chronic Kidney Disease self-management. SMS stands for the programmes that health-care providers provide to their patients in order to help them better control of their health. Dissemination of health information, patient education, telephone support, and participation in a support group are all part of you.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of Psychological Behaviour and Social effects of COVID-19 Lockdown

Yash Abhinav Bhaskarwar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 181-187
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35B31918

The world is facing a difficult situation, which is a pandemic caused by the Novel Corona virus, which first appeared in China's Wuhan Province in December 2019. One of the main problems in this difficult and crucial situation is coping with pregnant women all over the world. The COVID-19 pandemic is wreaking havoc on society in a variety of ways, the most serious of which is mental health. This outbreak began as a result of a laboratory accident in Wuhan, China. People are suffering from mental problems as a result of disruptions in many aspects of society, the most critical of which is "socializing." The government's sudden decision to put the country on lockdown has caused significant social rifts. Their psychosocial thinking is directly impacted by this social distancing. People have begun to overthink everyday problems that have not been fully addressed as a result of the lockdown. The many issues associated with this quarantine have now been illustrated as a result of the rise in time and alienation from society.