Open Access Case Report

True Umbilical Cord Knot Leading to Fetal Distress – an Obstetric Emergency

Twisha Patel, Sandhya Pajai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 60-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31878

Background: Umbilical cord true knot is a rare condition which affects about 1% of all pregnancies. Though the incidence is lower, it often goes undetected in antenatal period despite the availability of prenatal sonography and may lead to a compromised fetal outcome as presented in this case. In this case the presence of true knot of umbilical cord was missed despite routine sonography done just 1 week prior to delivery, when patient presented to casualty with complains of decreased fetal movements since 24 hours. This modality is said to be associated with adverse fetal outcome such as birth asphyxia or in adverse cases intra uterine fetal demise. Risk factors include long cord, polyhydramnios, small sized fetus, etc.

Case Summary: 27 years old gravida two, para two, with 1 live issue with k/c/o hypothyroidism with previous lesions came with complaints of decreased fetal movement since 24 hours at 36 weeks 3 days of gestational period. The patient recorded regular ANC checkups and routine investigations within normal limits. Her USG scan done at 34.2 wks showing single loop of cord around neck and normal doppler findings. On examination her vitals were normal .Her abdominal examination showed uterus of 34 wks size, longitudinal lie, cephalic presentation and irritable with mild contractions present with scar tenderness . Her FHS were present/irregular/112 bpm with less variability. On p/v examination os was admitting tip of finger, cervix soft, 25% effaced, station high up, presenting part vertex, membrane present. She was advised admission and a cardio-tocography (CTG) was done which showed recurrent deep atypical variable decelerations with decreased beat to beat variability. An emergent cesarean section was taken. Newborn was a female diagnosed with true umbilical cord knot, 2 cm away from fetal insertion with cord length of 84 cm. The baby was shifted to NICU in view of respiratory distress.

Conclusion: Despite of modern day ultrasonography and Doppler studies, true umbilical cord knot still remains a lesser diagnosed entity and so every pregnant patients should be monitored carefully with a watch for daily fetal movement count (DFMC)and weekly non stress test (NST) for fetal well being.

Open Access Original Research Article

Voice User Interface-Based Artificial Intelligence enables Child Daycare Assistance System Framework

Vaidehi Vartak, Pranita Ranade, Tanmoy Goswami

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31867

Daycare is a child-care alternative that permits guardians to drop off their kids during the day for care, management, and learning. Significantly, kids who participate in early child-care programs will be more beneficial and more fruitful in school. Child-care educators can share assets, thoughts and even get together in a nearby play area. Each parent has an alternate thought of what they need for their kids. There are various sorts of child-care offerings, Private child-care chains: An organization normally runs these as establishments, Private or independent nurseries: These are controlled by people or a group of people, home-based child-care: In India, this is a typical type of child-care, most of the time run by homemakers, Daycares connected to schools: Certain schools may decide to set up child-care appended to their school, Workplace childcares: Companies now and again have nearby child-care for youngsters. Several companies offer onsite child care support for their employees. Few organizations are Google, Johnson and Johnson, Boeing, Nike, Procter, Gamble, etc. Parents have the main concern that they want to know how their child is doing while they are away. Are their child's needs being met? Are they being heard when sharing important details about their child's care? Can they reach the facility at any time, and can staff reach parents regardless of where they are during the day? A central communication hub can help parents communicate important information such as dietary restrictions or special drop-off or pick-up instructions to address all these above concerns. Also, touch-free devices that would allow teachers to communicate hands-free, leaving them to focus on their most important task caring for children, require the hour. In this paper, a framework of voice user interface-based AI enables child daycare assistance system has been proposed that reviewed by baby sitters and parents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antihyperglycemic Activity of Syzygium cumini (Jamun) in Diabetic Rats

Sarita Mulkalwar, Vishwanath Kulkarni, Teja Deshpande, Harshavardhan Bhide, Abhi Patel, A. V. Tilak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31868

Background: Recently with the changes in population lifestyle, prediabetes is constantly on the rise. Management of prediabetes currently is with lifestyle modifications like weight loss, exercise and diet control. Better drugs with acceptable safety profile are needed for better control of prediabetes. This study was thus designed to evaluate the antihyperglycaemic effect of one such potential compound Syzygium cumini (SC) (Jamun)in comparison to conventional antidiabetic drug Metformin.

Methods: Rats were divided into four study groups (SC 100mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, metformin 90 mg/kg and SC 200 mg/kg with metformin 90 mg/kg). The glycaemic changes were followed up for a period of 8 weeks.

Results: Streptozotocin (STZ) induced significant rise in blood glucose levels in the rats. SC100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg caused a reduction in BSL (192.50 ± 6.189 & 175.00 ± 6.782 respectively). SC 200 mg/kg alone and in combination with metformin caused a significant reduction in HbA1C levels at the end of 8th week (8.84 ± 0.65 &6.86 ± 0.40 respectively) as compared to their baseline levels. Increase in dose had led to more significant reduction in BSL at the end of 8th week in groups A & B (p < 0.05). However, reduction of BSL was superior with Metforminalone (159.17 ± 13.060) compared to Syzygium cumini administered alone. Also antihyperglycemic effect of Syzygium cumini administered along with metformin was significant (p < 0.05) compared to either doses of Syzygium cumini given alone.

Conclusions: Syzygium cumini demonstratedantihyperglycemic activity in diabetic rats but less significant when compared to metformin. Antihyperglycaemic effect of Syzygium cumini with metformin was significantly better than either drugsgiven alone. In prediabetic or diabeticindividuals Syzygium cumini seed powdercan be suggested as a potential add-on therapy with conventional antidiabetic drugs. However more non-clinical and clinical studies need to be conducted to confirm the findings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biological Activities of Ethanol Extract from Karanda (Carissa carandas L.) Fruits

Yuttana Sudjaroen, Kanyapat Petcharaporn, Jutamas Moolwong, Khiseo Jodnok, Narin Kakatum

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31869

Carissa carandas L. fruits are is contain high amount of iron, vitamin C and pectin. These fruits have been applied for folk medicine in the reliving of human disorders; and reported for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory and lipase 1 activity. Aims of this study were to determine antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammation activities of ethanol extract from karanda fruits. Fresh fruits were cleaned, air dried, and extracted with 95% ethanol by maceration. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid measurements (TFC) of karanda fruit extract was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and colorimetric method. 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity of extract was evaluated and compared with ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol, respectively. In vitro inflammatory activity was evaluated by monitoring of degraded-albumin reduction and compared with diclofenac diethylammonium. Anti-microbial activity of was evaluated against pathogenic bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aureus; and pathogenic yeasts, Candida albicans by disc diffusion method. TPC and TFC of ethanol extract were 11.39±0.18 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 9.15±1.31 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g, respectively. DPPH and NO radical scavenging activities of karanda fruit extract were preferable (IC50 = 0.56±0.05 and 50.95±14.29 mg/ml). However, this extract was poorly inhibited lipid peroxidation (IC50 > 1,000 mg/ml), and lack of anti-inflammation activity. Karanda fruit extract was slightly inhibited S. mutans and S. aureus, therefore there was unable to inhibited C. albicans. The results may support application of karanda fruit for oral anti-septic and sore-throat relieving herb.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Kegels Exercises and Fitness Exercises in Improving the Stress, Urge or Mixed Urinary Incontinence (U.I.) Among the Elderly Seniors Using an Adult Urinary Diaper Pad Method

K. Vijayakumar, Suresh Babu Kondaveeti, Soham Chandratre, D. Dineshkumar, J. Pranu Chakravarthy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31870

Urinary incontinence (U.I.) is a medical condition in which there an inability to control the urine during rest or even in some strenuous activities. Aging, Overweight, anxiety, and stress were the predisposing factors in developing U.I. 28 healthy male volunteers between the age group of 65-75 were analyzed in this interventional study. A urinary diaper pad was used to assess the leakage during strenuous activities. According to the American college of sports medicine (ACSM) guidelines, the exercises were prescribed and executed. SPSS software version 18 has been used for the analysis of statistics obtained with a confidence interval of 95%. By implementing descriptive statistics Mean and standard deviations (S.D.) were noted. To get the effectiveness of the intervention, paired t-test was done, and a p-value with <0.05 was set as a level of significance for all the tests conducted. Positive changes were observed in the reduction of urinary leakage among the participants. The present study reports about finding the effects of Kegels exercise and fitness exercises among the elderly seniors with Urinary Incontinence, designed by the guidelines provided by ACSM health-related fitness components.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Effect of Nitrosamine Stress in Progression of Leprosy

Anita D. Kadam, Dipali M. Khopade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31872

Objective: In several countries, including India, leprosy is an older disease & till now continues to be an important health issue. Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease, the contributing agent for this is mycobacterium leprae. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a significant role in immunity to fight against bacteria. But increased NO can harm host tissue by causing altered structure of thiol-containing compounds, which is a significant event that influences the pathogenesis of leprosy. Considering this, the study was planned to determine the type of relationship between NO, nitrothiols, and thiols as disease advances.

Methods: 50 newly diagnosed leprosy patients & 50 healthy controls were included in the study. In the leprosy group,16 were Paucibacillary (PB), and 34 were Multibacillary (MB) type, leprosy patients.

Results: Serum NO and serum nitrothiol significantly increased (p<0.01) in leprosy patients than controls. Further, Serum NO and serum nitrothiol significantly increased (p<0.01) in MB leprosy patients than PB leprosy patients. On the other hand, we found a significantly decreased (p<0.01) level of total thiols in leprosy patients compared with controls. Serum thiols  significantly decreased (p<0.01) in MB leprosy patients than PB leprosy patients. Among Both leprosy patients, the negative correlation of NO with thiol and nitrothiol with thiols was observed.

Conclusion: Thus, in leprosy, increased nitric oxide causes modification of thiol groups of proteins and impaired their activity which may be responsible for the severity of disease; hence therapy aimed to reduce nitrosative modification of proteins leprosy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Functional End Ranges of Lower Limb Joints in Positions Commonly Used for ADLs in India

Niketa Patel, Lavina Rajesh Khatri, Lata Parmar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31873

Background: In many countries of Asian continent, floor sitting is preferred instead of chair supported sitting. Indian population differs noticeably in its cultural practice and daily tasks which involves squatting and cross-legged sitting on the ground.

Aim: The purpose of the study was to assess the functional end-ranges of the hip, knee and ankle joints in healthy Indian subjects in positions commonly used for ADLs in India which includes squatting and cross-legged sitting.

Methods: 66 healthy subjects were recruited from rural and urban populations with age range 30-50 years. Joint ROM of the lower extremities was measured using Universal Goniometer. All the subjects were asked to acquire squat and cross legged positions which were graded.

Results: Our results finding showed that the subjects in cross leg sitting grade 2 (independent CLS) had hip flexion ranges ≥1150, hip abduction ≥ 410, hip external rotation ≥ 420, ankle plantar flexion ≥ 460, p<0.005.  For squatting, grade 2 (independent squat) had hip flexion ranges ≥ 1130,p>0.005, Knee flexion ≥1200, p>0.005 and ankle dorsiflexion ≥150, p<0.005.

Conclusion: From the results, it is suggested that squatting and cross-leg sitting multiple times a day can prevent the early closer of end ranges of the lower limbs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drivers of Home Healthcare Industry: Contrasting Views of Users and Providers in a Developing Country

Ankit Singh, Ajeya Jha, Shankar Purbey

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-80
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31874

Home healthcare fills an important void in a country's healthcare system; factors promoting home healthcare growth vary. In this study, the perceptions of the users and providers are analyzed to identify the important factors. Survey analysis was done for ten identified factors on 378 nurses and 394 patients. Responses were analyzed with Garret Ranking Method. The systematic random sampling method was used after acquiring the list of nurses working in home health organizations. The preference should be given to the user's perception as the customer is the king; it is encouraging for Indian home health providers that users are feeling they are deriving benefits from home health service usage; however, this feeling can be further enhanced by focusing on the right factors such as doctors recommendation, the rise of chronic diseases and the cost advantage associated with home health over Institutional care. Results revealed a disparity between the perceptions of the providers and users. This study suggests that home health agencies highlight features, such as cost-effective care, medical professionals' recommendation, and utility in providing relief to chronic disease patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Symptomatic Hypocalcemiain Neonates Due to Maternal Hypovitaminosis D in Rural Tertiary Care Center: A Case Series

Nitin S. Lingayat, Saloni Manwani, Bratati S. Mishra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 81-87
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31876

Vitamin D deficiency in neonates is not uncommon and is characterized by severe hypocalcemic symptoms. In babies with poor vitamin D resources, calcium, phosphorus, and homeostasis are affected, leading to neonatal hypocalcaemia clinical manifestations. Newborn babies with vitamin D deficiency are at risk of deficiency and hypocalcaemia. Therefore, vitamin D supplementation in pregnant and lactating mothers should be routinely considered. Of newborns with symptomatic hypocalcaemia admitted in Level III NICU in the rural part of western Maharashtra from October 2019 to September 2020 were reviewed. These babies were admitted to NICU due to several illnesses, including suspected sepsis, tachypnea, jaundice, etc. They were investigated for sepsis screen including Complete Blood count, CRP, Blood culture, CSF analysis. Cranial USG through anterior fontanelle and Neuro imaging and Electroencephalogram were done wherever necessary. This study intends to highlight the manifestation of maternal hypovitaminosis D on the mother and its effects on the neonate. Maternal hypovitaminosis leads to neonatal hypovitaminosis D and can present as hypocalcaemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acute Polyhydromnios: A Rare Entity

Tanvi Chaurasia, Deepti Shrivastava, Himanshi Agarwal, Geeta Chaurasia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 88-92
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31877

Acute Polyhydramnios is defined as accumulation of amniotic fluid rapidly complicating approximately 0.2 TO 1.6% of all pregnancies, whereas gestational diabetes (GD) is glucose intolerance in pregnant women, a major health issue in pregnant women. The prevalence rate of glucose intolerance in pregnant women is between 4.6%–14% in well developed areas and 1.7%–13.2% in rural areas. Pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilisation (IVF) have been associated with higher risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (11.7%), gestational hypertension (9.3%), preeclampsia (4.0%), ICP (11.8%), placenta previa (7.1%), placental abruption (1.6%), PROM (9.9%), placental adherence (7.7%), postpartum haemorrhage (7.3%), and polyhydramnios (2.2%), as compared to spontaneously conceived pregnancies.

Case Description: A 35 years primigravida, 33 weeks gestational age with IVF conception with preeclampsia with breech came with pain in abdomen since 2-3days.On clinical examination, polyhydramnios was diagnosed. On admission she presented with deranged sugar level which was abnormal and sudden rise in Glycosylated hemoglobin seen. Patient was managed conservatively by termination of pregnancy and successful outcome of pregnancy was obtained despite of liquor more than adequate and deranged sugar levels.

Objectives: We examined the routine antenatal profile, radiological changes as well as doppler changes in IVF conceived pregnancies and further management on the basis of clinical, haematological and radiological investigations will be planned accordingly.

Conclusion: Acute polyhydramnios and Gestational diabetes is common in patients conceived through in vitro fertilisation and is associated with poor foe to maternal outcome. Regular antenatal investigations and radiological investigations done to keep her pregnancy in check and reduce the long term effects by modifying treatment modality and by following healthy lifestyles in such patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Prospective Study on Adverse Drug Reactions in Inpatients of General Medicine Department in a Tertiary Care Hospital- A clinical Pharmacist-led Study

Shereen Hassan, U. Ujwal Kumar, Venessa Mascarenhas, G. Suresh, K. C. Bharath Raj, Prashant Nayak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 111-122
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31880

The present study was carried out to determine the incidence of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in general medicine department and to assess and analyze the causality, severity, and preventability of ADRs. A prospective observational study was conducted in the general medicine department for six months. All patients receiving drug therapy are considered and are selected based on the inclusion criteria. Patient demographic details like age, gender, diagnosis, past medical history, concomitant medications, etc., are recorded from the patient data gathering form. The causality assessment is accomplished using Naranjo and WHO scales. The severity is carried out using the Modified Hartwig and Siegel scale. The preventability evaluation is accomplished using the Modified Schmock and Thornton scale. The study included 385 patients were between the age group of 18 years and, out of which 34 patients developed adverse drug effects including female and male. Patients between the age group of 40-50 years (18.1%) developed a high incidence of ADRs. The causality was assessed using Naranjo’s causality assessment scale, 44.1% reactions were probable; 29.4% reactions were certain, 23.5% reactions were possible and 2.9 % reactions were conditional. When the reactions were assessed most of them were assessed 55.1% were moderate and 61.8% were probably preventable. Appropriate observation of the drug effect is essential to ensure the safety of the patient. This also will have the advantage of reducing the incidence of the ADRs, thus deplete the complications and helps to improve the quality of life of the patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Thiazolidinedione Derivative as Novel Antidiabetic Agents

Shivkant Patel, Ashim Kumar Sen, Dillip Kumar Dash, Piyushkumar Sadhu, Mamta Kumari, Sunil Bhaurao Baile

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 123-133
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31881

Thiazolidinedione derivative have Antihyperglycemic activity, they are agonists for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), which controls glucose synthesis, transport, and utilization via regulating the transcription of insulin-responsive genes. A number of novel insulin sensitizers are currently being researched. Several of these are derivatives of Thiazolidinedione, but others have different chemical structures. In this work, we created some new Thiazolidinedione derivative based on structure–activity relationship as closely as feasible. The Thiazolidine-2,4-Dione derivatives were manually developed and synthesized using the proper synthetic techniques, then tested in vitro for antihyperglycemic action using the Sucrose loading model (SLM) and the Alloxan induced diabetes model (AIDM). The newly synthesized Thiazolidine-2,4-Dione derivative was characterized using infrared (IR) and proton (H) nuclear magnetic resonance. In this study we found that Compound M-4 has a lot of antihyperglycemic action, thus it's a good idea to think about using it as a lead material for the creation of anti-diabetic drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Insilico and Antibacterial Activity Studies of Substituted Dihydro-1, 2-Oxazole Benzopyran-2-One Hybrids

Alphonsus D’souza, Pankaj Kumar, Abhishek Kumar, Soundarya M. Rai, Prashant Nayak

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 134-144
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31882

A series of substituted dihydro-1, 2-oxazole benzopyran-2-one (SR1-SR6) were synthesized through the intermediate substituted benzopyran-2-one chalcones and were characterized using spectral analysis.   Compounds were docked with receptor DNA Gyrase B (PDB code: 5L3J) to know its interaction and binding energy; ranges -3.38 to -2.15 kcal/mol. Further these compounds were tested for antibacterial activity using tube dilution method and MIC values were observed; ranges 3.12 to 25 µg/ml. Compound 3-(5-(m-tolyl)-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-3-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one (SR3) showed the best interaction with binding energy -3.38 kcal/mol and antimicrobial activity having MIC 3.12 µg/ml.



Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge Attitude and Practices in Community Health Programs by the Pharmacists in Lahore, Pakistan

Rehan Ahmad Khan Sherwani, Maria Aslam, Sajjad Ali Gill, Muhammad Farooq, Sana Saeed, Amna Younas, Hira Shahid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 145-151
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31883

Introduction: A public health program intends to improve the health care services in society to lessen the disease burden particularly in the case of non-infectious diseases. This research work investigates the knowledge, practice, and attitude of pharmacists in community health programs offered by the government concerning their demographic associates.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey from 75 registered pharmacists is conducted in Lahore, Pakistan to explore the role of pharmacists in public health programs by using a self-administered questionnaire from January 01, 2021, to January 15, 2021. The collected data is analyzed through frequencies, percentages, and a chi-square test of association.

Results: Most of the pharmacists were in favor that the disease burden can be reduced by indulging pharmacists in public health programs. Many pharmacists already working on public health issues were screening of the blood glucose, blood pressure, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking cessation.

Conclusion: Like many other countries, Pakistan may also effectively accomplish its public health goals by offering training to the pharmacists and retaining them in public health programs at the pharmacy level.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study on Adverse Transfusion Reactions in a Secondary Care Hospital of Rural India

Bogireddy Sahithi, Polamada Prathyusha, Kandibedala Chandana Sree, Ramagoni Alekya, Goruntla Narayana, N. Hariharanadha Sarma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 152-157
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31884

Aims: The study aims to assess the incidence, causality, and severity of adverse transfusion reactions in patients transfused with blood or blood components at a secondary care referral hospital.

Study Design: A prospective observational study was conducted in the secondary care referral hospital located in rural settings of Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study was conducted for a period of six months from May 2019 to October 2019

Methodology: All the patients transfused with blood or blood components in the hospital located in Andhra Pradesh during those six months study period were included. The transfusion reactions were reported to the blood bank in the Adverse Transfusion Reaction Report Form (ATRRF). Descriptive statistics were used to represent the adverse transfusion reactions.

Results: From 2549 transfusions, 30 adverse transfusion reactions were reported (1.17%).Most of the reactions reported were febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions FNHTRs (73.3%) followed by allergic reactions (20.0%). Transfusion reactions were predominant in females 21 (70.0%) than males 9 (30.0%). Most of the reactions were confirmed/definite (46.6%) in causality assessment and moderate (63.3%) in severity assessment. The incidence of adverse transfusion reactions was found to be 1.17%.

Conclusion: The study concludes that there was a low incidence of adverse transfusion reactions indicating probably underreporting in the healthcare system. This would be due to lack of knowledge regarding importance of surveillance and reporting of adverse transfusion reactions by blood or blood components. There was a need to conduct continuous educational programs (CEP) on hemovigilance system towards healthcare providers to improve the reporting practice. The study provides insights about type of adverse transfusion reactions and their causality and severity. This data helps in motivating the healthcare staff to report ATRs and also to develop strategies to handle preventable ATRs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Sports Injuries before and during COVID-19 Quarantine among Adults of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Moaath A. Alamir, Reem A. AlMohaini, Ahmed A . Alharbi, Mohammad K. Almazied, Ghada F. AlSwaji, Yousef T. Khoja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 165-175
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31886

Aims: This study aims to compare the incident rate of sports injuries before and during the COVID-19 quarantine among active and nonactive adults and identify and compare patterns, types and sites of sports injuries.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: A self-administered online survey was conducted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between June 2020 to November 2020.

Methodology: We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional web-based survey on active and nonactive adults of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 537 respondents from Riyadh completed the questionnaire. The study included adults active during quarantine who are also residents of Riyadh. Residents of other cities and respondents younger than age 18 or older than 64 were excluded.

Results: A total of 537 participants fulfilled the criteria. More than half of the respondents were aged 18 to 24 years (54.7%). Of those who did not exercise before quarantine, 42.9% (n = 91) started during quarantine, while 26.5% (n = 86) of respondents who exercised before quarantine stopped during the quarantine. Running and walking were the most common sports practiced by 70.9% of respondents during quarantine and 63.1% before the quarantine. Muscle strain/tears were the most common injuries before quarantine (26.2%), while bruises were the most common injury during quarantine (28.6%). Soccer and basketball were the most affected by quarantine.

Conclusion: The number of active individuals had increased during quarantine. Paradoxically, the prevalence of sports injuries decreased. Soccer and basketball were the most significantly affected by a lack of participation during the quarantine; both were a common cause of sports injuries. Medical providers should investigate and support preventive measurements on sports that cause most injuries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detecting the Cause of Depression using BECK Depression Scale among Patients

Jaya Gawai, Pooja Kasturkar, Trupti Uke

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 176-185
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31887

Background: The onset of Depression is a cause of concern. And various factors have been found to spark off this psychological set back among different groups of people.  

Aim: This investigation aims to identify various trigger factors causing depression. BECK Depression scale will be the reference to gauge the intensity of depression among psychiatric patients at selected Health care institutions.

Objectives: Identifying and determining the type of trigger factors of depression.

Materials and Methods: Research design: Descriptive and evaluator approximation. Data Collection would be based on ‘BECK’ depression scale, translated in the vernacular language (Marathi) for its utility.

Sampling Technique: Purposive, of the size: 100 participants attending psychiatric OPD primarily diagnosed with depression. 

Results: Cause factors of depression include: 1) Family history of mental illness, 2) emotional setback: Death or job lay-off, 3) discriminatory and sexual harassment at work place, 4) Chronic medical challenges and 5) Prolonged drug abuse in the view of physical infirmity. Most of the victims evaluated revealed   stress in the background, developed pessimistic approach and un-convivial relationship among family members.

Conclusion: Chronic infirmity requiring, prolonged medical attention, lack of facilities, cost of the treatment, negligence, are the significant factors affecting the Indian rural community.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation, Overall Acceptability, Nutritive Value Assessment of Gluten-free, Vegan Bread and Comparison with Contemporary Gluten-free Bread

Akansha Laddha, Pankaj Deshpande, Shamal More, Radhika Hedaoo

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 186-196
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31888

Gluten-free and vegan bakery items have been gaining popularity. Their demand has increased over the past few years, with India being one of the largest gluten-free food consumers. The gluten-free pieces of bread available in the market are crumbly in nature and have a dry mouthfeel, reducing its overall acceptability among consumers. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to develop gluten-free and vegan bread and enrich it with a functional component such as flaxseeds and assess its overall acceptability and nutritional value compared to gluten-free bread available in the market. Once the product was standardized for its serving size and yield, various sensory evaluation trials were conducted using 9 points hedonic scale on bread attributes with the help of semi-trained(n=30)and trained panellists(n=3). Proximate analysis of macronutrients was conducted along with the microbial analysis. The proximate analysis showed that the experimental product had a higher protein content(18.26g)and a lower fat content (5.58g) as compared to the market-bought control sample of gluten-free bread (Total protein content was 3.44g and total fat content was 9.20g). The experimental bread microbial analysis indicated that the total plate count, yeast and mold count, and coli form count were in the acceptable range. Salmonella and E.coli were absent in the sample Statistical analysis using paired t-test was performed found a significant difference between the experimental and control group among the following characteristics: taste/flavour, texture/mouth feel, and overall acceptability (p≤0.05). A shelf-life study of the bread was conducted, and it was seen that the bread remained sensorial acceptable for three days at a refrigerated temperature and four days at room temperature. The bread had a higher nutritional profile than the control sample and received higher overall acceptability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Phytochemical Constituents by GC-MS and Antitubercular & Antimicrobial Potential of Ceiba pentandra and Parmotrema perlatum against Resistant Strains

K. Varalakshmi Devi, E. Bhargav, G. Swaruparani, M. Vijaya Jyothi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 197-203
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31889

Ceiba pentandra and Parmotrema perlatum lichen are two illustrious spices. Apart from their benefit as aromas, These are known for various therapeutic activities. Both are well known as appetizers. Decoctions of theses powders are used to relieve cough, anorexia and helminthiasis etc. Though several studies on antimicrobial activities of these two plants are available, studies on resistant microorganisms and anti tubercular activity are very limited. Hence, the author made an attempt to identify the phytochemical constituents present in methanolic and n-hexane extracts of Ceiba pentandra and Parmotrema perlatum using phytochemical tests and GC-MS method          then to evaluate antibacterial activity against 5 resistant microorganisms by microtitre broth dilution method using ciprofloxacillin & streptomycin as reference standards. Methanolic extracts of Parmotrema perlatum and Ceiba pentandra had shown a considerable antibacterial activity than n-hexane extracts and exhibited 90% growth inhibition against H37Rv resistant strain of mycobacterium at 80 & 320 micrograms/ml respectively. N-hexane extracts of both species were found to be poorly effective against H37 Rv.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the effect of Baricitinib on the Course of COVID-19

Alina Yuryevna Maslova, Alla Aslanbekovna Tskaeva, Zuleykha Abdulkerimkizi Ashurova, AlinaTemrukovna Abazova, Magomed Muradovich Ismailov, Maryam Muradovna Ismailova, Igor Spartakovich Baklanov, Artem Evgenevich Mishvelov, Sergey Nikolaevich Povetkin, Olga Aleksandrovna Baklanova

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 204-213
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31890

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the inhibitor of janus kinase – baricitinib ("Olumiant") on the course of COVID-19. This drug baricitinib is able to suppress the systemic inflammatory response, which is one of the common causes of death in COVID-19, is an urgent problem of the study. The study was carried out in the Regional Specialized Budget Infectious Diseases Hospital of Stavropol (Russian Federation, Stavropol Region). In a multivariate analysis, it was shown that the use of baricitinib was associated with a decrease in the frequency of the primary endpoint of death/need for invasive lung ventilation. The use of baricitinib was quite safe, but in some patients there was an increase in the level of transaminases. No cases of hypercoagulation have been reported while taking baricitinib. It was found that patients with a normal BMI are more sensitive to therapy than those who are overweight.75% of patients in the first group had a temperature above 38.0oC. However, against the background of taking the standard treatment regimen and baricitinib, it was noted that the temperature stabilized during the day and did not rise again. Against the background of taking baricitinib, the elimination of the phenomena of respiratory failure and the refusal of an oxygen mask occurred 3.1 times more often than without baricitinib. The authors concluded that the use of baricitinib can be considered as an additional therapy for moderate forms of pneumonia in patients over 65 years or in patients with concomitant chronic diseases in order to suppress the reactions of systemic inflammation and the development of serious respiratory and other system lesions caused by COVID-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Risk Factors Associated with Low-Birth-Weight Neonates in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital: A Case-Control Study

Rajesh Hadia, Riya Gandhi, Padmja Dave, Niyati Patel, Dhaval Joshi, Trupal Rathod, Manish Rasania, Hemraj Singh Rajput

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 214-221
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31891

Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is still a significant public health problem globally and is associated with a range of both short- and long-term consequences. Overall, it is estimated that 15% to 20% of all births worldwide are low birth weight, representing more than 20 million births a year.

Objective: We aimed the study to assess the risk factors associated with low-birth-weight neonates in a rural tertiary care hospital.

Methodology: A prospective observational Case-Control Study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit) and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dhiraj Hospital, Vadodara with the sample of 240 women who were admitted for the delivery. The patient interview was done based on the questionnaires (Proforma).

Results: Area of residence, Parent's education, Anaemia among pregnant women, Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) less than 23 cm, Maternal age, and antenatal visits <4 were found as significant risk factors associated with low birth weight in the study. Study findings suggest that 91.3% of cases were from rural areas compared to 71% of controls from the same area. Similarly, Anaemia though prevalent in both case and control groups was seen as a significant predictor more in the case group. Other factors such as parity, spacing between babies, and consumption of drugs and alcohol by pregnant others were also recorded but were protective of LBW.

Conclusions: The study concluded that delay age of first pregnancy, lacking iron/folic acid supplementation, not taking nutritional food during pregnancy, anemia and other factors were independently associated with LBW.

Open Access Original Research Article

Addressing the Burden of Non-communicable Diseases: Saudi Arabia’s Challenges in Achieving Vision 2030

Fahad Albejaidi, Kesavan Sreekantan Nair

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31871

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) pose critical challenges in achieving Saudi Arabia's Vision 2030. This paper provides an overview of NCDs in Saudi Arabia and identifies various critical issues and challenges in reducing the burden of NCDs. All relevant data for this paper was extracted from existing published literature in various database including Medline, Scopus, ScienceDirect and PubMed. Google Scholar search engine was used to identify papers and reports on relevant literature published after the year 2000. NCDs account for about 73% of all deaths in Saudi Arabia. Deaths due to cardiovascular diseases account for 37% of all deaths, cancers 10%, diabetes mellitus 3% and other NCDs cause 20% of all deaths. Economic costs of NCDs likely to increase with the undesirable life style of youths and increasing share of old population. Further, the shortage of local health workforce, lack of primary health care focus and covid-19 pandemic are likely to affect the government efforts to prevent and control NCDs. Ministry of Health (MOH) needs to play a catalyst role in raising awareness of population through multi-sectoral linkages and policies to reduce the exposure to NCD risk factors. There is a need to review all relevant policy documents to ensure consistency of these policies with prevention and control measures of NCDs.

Open Access Review Article

Hand Hygiene during Pandemic

Aditya Hiware

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 51-59
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31875

After authoritatively announced as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), radical measures to limit human developments to contain the COVID-19 contamination are utilized by the greater part of the nations. Keeping up high close to home cleanliness by continuous handwashing and being cautious of clinical signs are generally prescribed to diminish the sickness trouble. The public and global wellbeing organizations, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the WHO, have given rules to counteraction and treatment ideas. Here, in this short article, in view of accessible clinical data, the writer examines why handwashing could be defensive of COVID-19 contaminations. Albeit a definite and inside and out conversation of different preventive and defensive measures is past the extent of this article, this survey will zero in on the utility of continuous handwashing in limiting the danger of spreading COVID-19 contamination

Open Access Review Article

Natural Products in Drug Discovery: Approaches and Development

Pious Soris Tresina, Murugeswaran Santhiya Selvam, Authinarayanan Rajesh, Asirvatham Doss, Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 93-110
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31879

Historically, natural products (NP’s) have played a significant role in drug discovery, not only in cancer and infectious diseases, but also in other therapeutic  areas including cardiovascular diseases and multiple sclerosis. Profit and loss, Partnerships and averages, natural products also present certain challenges for drug discovery, such as technical obstacles to screening, isolation, characterization and optimization, which added to decline in their search by the pharmaceutical industry from the 1990s onwards. In recent days the applications of molecular biological techniques have increased the availability of novel compounds that can be conveniently produced in bacteria or yeast or plant sources. In addition to this, combinational chemistry approaches are being based on natural product scaffolds to create screening libraries that closely resemble drug-like compounds. Employing these technologies gives us a chance to execute research in screening new molecules by means of a software and data base to ascertain natural products as a major source for drug discovery. It lastly directs to lead structure discovery. This review discusses plant based natural product drug discovery and how innovative technologies play a role in next generation drug discovery and highlights from the published literature on plants as sources of antiinflammatory agents.




Open Access Review Article

A Review on Impact of Lower Extremity Muscle Length

Anushree Pawar, Pratik Phansopkar, Avanti Gachake, Komal Mandhane, Riddhi Jain, Shivani Vaidya

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 158-164
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i35A31885

Muscle length is known as the length at which muscle is able to generate the maximum amount of force. This length is determined by the joint angle corresponding to that muscle. Length of muscle is an important parameter of length-tension relationship. Muscle functions and its mechanics helps in surgical decision making, to establish primary ergonomic advice recommendations and to form a structure of recovery program using the benefits of length-tension relation. Understanding the optimal muscle length as well as its comparison between the extremities is very important as a part of examination in physiotherapy, particularly in the cases of musculoskeletal disorders. Several tests are available for testing the muscle length. However standardize and reliable tests are been chosen to prevent the error while testing as such  measurement of hamstring, iliopsoas, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius length is been acquired through standard goniometer. The methods used for the assessment comprised of; active knee extension (AKE) tests the hamstrings, Thomas and modified Thomas test to evaluate iliopsoas and rectus femoris while prone, figure-four position accompanied by dorsiflexion for gastrocnemius. Many studies have done and their results had shown that there was difference in the lengths of muscle of lower extremity which was assessed in different players along with that normative data about the length of muscle was established. However there is paucity of study on the muscle length testing of individuals who are completely normal who are not having previous history of trauma to their lower limbs and those who are not an athlete.