Open Access Case Report

Specific Exercise for Spine can Improve Lumbar Spondylosis: A Case Report

Ruchika Zade, Priyanka Sahu, Gunjan Shende, Tejaswini Fating, Pratik Phansopkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 133-139
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31855

Background: At some stage in their lives, between 60-85% of adults suffer from low back pain (LBP). Fortunately, symptoms are mild and intermittent for the vast majority of people, with 90 percent subsidization within six weeks. An approximate 15-45 percent of the individuals affected by chronic back pain, defined as symptoms such as pain that last beyond 3 months. The effect on the livelihoods and economic results are significant for the minority with intractable symptoms. Considering the high incidence of low back pain, the diagnostic strategy and treatment options are complex and sometimes conflicting and within the general population. Rising the expense and inconsistency of management throughout the nation. In fact, this is because it is impossible for most patients to establish a particular etiology, with established axial spine-wide nociceptive pain generators identified.

Clinical Finding: Patient having complaint of pain in lower back region and Radiated in the posterior part of the thigh, as well as lower limb numbness. Morning stiffness was present. On examination active movement (Range of Motion) of lumbar flexion, lumbar Extension and lumbar lateral flexions lightly restricted and painful at the end of range of motion.

Diagnosis: MRI was done, it shows posterior annulus tear on the level of L4-L5, L4-L5 –Diffuse disc bulge with right-sided bulge subarticular is disc protrusion causing indentation on anterior thecal sac with moderate to severe narrowing of bilateral neural foramina with propensity toward right side with compression of traversing and exiting nerve roots.

Conclusion: This case report provides patient with inclusive recovery which helped her to relieve pain.

Open Access Systematic Review Article

Phytochemical Profile and Pharmacological Aspects of Achyranthes aspera Linn- An Overview

Prakash Nargatti, Sudhir Patil, Kiran Wadkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 187-206
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31860

Background: Achyranthes aspera Linn, commonly known as Apamarga in Ayurveda (Prickly Chaff flower in English, Aghara in Hindi, Aghada in Marathi), is aannual, perennial herb that belong to Family Amaranthaceae and Genus Achyranthes consisting of several species which are popular as folk remedies. Certain ayurvedic and Unani practitioners use various parts of plant to treat various diseases. The present review aims to provide up-to-date information on different aspects of plant involving its botanical description, phytochemistry and bioactivities of different extracts to assess its therapeutic potential as a valuable source of natural compounds with beneficial effects on human health.

Methodology: Systematic search of scientific databases like Google, Google scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, SciFinder, Springer link were used to find potentially significant scientific research and reports of Achyranthes aspera Linn using combination of relevant keywords.

Results: Achyranthes aspera Linn is a popular folk remedy in the traditional medicinal system in all tropical Asian and African countries. So far, 58 important compounds have been isolated and identified from various parts of plant. These isolated constituents are mainly flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, phytosterols; phenolic compounds etc which posseses activities like anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, spermicidal and other various important medicinal properties.

Conclusion: Even though this plant consists of a wide range of phytochemicals and evaluated for biological activities using various in-vitro and in-vivo models but they are limited. More attention should be paid to identify mechanisms that underlie beneficial therapeutic potential. It is essential to conduct the next level of research, by extending pharmacological to design novel drugs.

Open Access Case Study

Schizophrenia with Co-morbid Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Case Series

Prakash B. Behere, Pooja Raikar, Debolina Chowdhury, Aniruddh P. Behere, Richa Yadav

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 69-74
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31849

The frequency of co-morbidities like Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is common in schizophrenia. Some studies have reported earlier age of onset, more positive and negative symptoms, more depressive symptoms, and worse prognosis in such patients. The phenomenology and management of OCD in schizophrenia is understudied. Evidence claims that the course of illness of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders may be affected by obsessive-compulsive disorder whereas in other cases antipsychotic induced obsessive-compulsive symptoms have been observed. A meta-analysis of of schizophrenia and its co-morbid psychiatric conditions, found a prevalence of 12.1% for obsessive compulsive disorder, 9.8% for panic disorders, 12.4% for post-traumatic stress disorder and 14.9% for social phobia. SGAs like amisulpride and aripiprazole are found to be useful in the treatment of comorbid OCD in schizophrenia due to their negligible serotonergic properties. A combination of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) with antipsychotics has been recommended by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) for treatment of comorbid OCD in schizophrenia. Escitalopram at a dose of 20 mg/day has been found to be beneficial in such cases while psychosis worsened with the use of fluvoxamine and clomipramine. Below is a series of seven cases of schizophrenia with co-morbid obsessive-compulsive symptoms who are on treatment for their illness from the psychiatric outpatient department of a rural hospital in central India.

Open Access Minireview Article

Preventive Measures to Conquest COVID-19: A Mini-review

Gaurav Sawarkar, Punam Sawarkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 28-32
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31845

Ayurveda is the bunch of blooms having multiple spectrums to prevent health and immune to fight with present and future trends of viruses. The principles of Ayurveda make life span extensive and healthy. COVID-19 is the todays crisis situation, world wide people are in dread to respiratory disease symptoms as primary indicators of corona virus. So, Ayurveda literature have the various remedies to strengthening respiratory system with preventive measures like Pranayama, Yoga, Meditation, Good sleep, Diet, Lifestyle and Medication. Prevention is the need of the time to fight with COVID-19 because there is no treatment and vaccines till date. 

Open Access Minireview Article

Synthetic Advances against Coronaviruses: A Short Review of the Recent Literature on Newly Synthetized Derivatives and Recently Developed Strategies

Weiam Hussein, Fawaz Alheibshy, Farhan Alshammari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 207-216
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31861

The coronavirus pandemic is a modern social emergency and the biggest global challenge since the Second World War. Since the pandemic began in China at the end of 2019, the disease spread to every landmass except Antarctica. The effect of antiviral drugs on the new corona virus has been tested, but no basic and complete cure has been found, although there are many drugs such as  interleukin-6 inhibitor,  monoclonal antibody and corticosteroid which remarkably reduced mortality of critically ill COVID-19 patients in a major clinical trial. Although not enough experimental data has been released yet, many researchers have hailed the result as a step in the right direction. In this review, a series of the newly chemical derivatives were synthesized and evaluated against human coronavirus. Many derivatives found to be active in inhibiting the cellular infection of human coronavirus which causes the SARS-CoV-2pandemic. This mini- review summarizes the synthesis of these new antiviral derivatives that target coronaviruses and describes general current strategies and models for developing antiviral drugs. The review aims to provide a starting point for medicinal chemists to synthesize necessary and effective drugs against coronaviruses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Kinaesthetic Learning Skills among Slow Learners in Physiology to Improve Their Academic Performance

Devi R. Nithiya, Suchita Palve, Sachin Bhaskar Palve, Arun Tipandjan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31842

Background: Kinaesthetic learning, a form of student-centric active learning technique, takes learning to the next level. Kinaesthetic learning enables better understanding and effective retention of information, especially among students who don't adapt to conventional teaching-learning techniques in large groups and isolated textbook learning.

Methodology: The present study was conducted for three consecutive years among Phase I MBBS students who needed additional curricular support. The students were divided into groups with 4 to 5 students each. They were offered topics to make either a 2D poster or a working model displayed in an exhibition cum competition. A feedback questionnaire was administered to the participants at the end of the competition.

Results: The majority of the students who participated either agreed or strongly agreed that the kinaesthetic learning technique facilitated them to read beyond the conventional textbooks and understand the concepts better. We also observed that the students reported increased confidence to face the exam. Comparing the marks scored by the participants and the non-participants, the students who participated in the kinaesthetic learning exercise scored significantly higher than the non-participants (p=0.002)

Discussion: Kinaesthetic learning skills using 2D posters and 3D working models preparation helped to improve the academic performance among students in need of additional curricular care by enhancing their critical thinking skills and team-building capacity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drinking Water Practices, Quality and GIT Disturbances at Household Level in Rural Setting of Wardha District, Maharashtra, India

Saloni Agrawal, Sarika Dakohde, Brijpal Singh, Shital Mahajan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 18-27
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31844

Introduction: Limited availability of safe drinking water and poor sanitation can lead to water borne diseases. In India, alone waterborne diseases are projected to have an economic burden of approximately USD 600 million a year. Rural population face water, sanitation, and hygiene-related health issues. In India, many programs are running since decades, but there is need to understand current scenario of drinking water practices in the community.

Objectives: To assess the drinking water practices, purification methods, drinking water quality at household level and Gastrointestinal GIT disturbances among the visited household.

Methods: This community based cross-sectional study was conducted during July-December 2019 in purposively selected three villages of field practice area JNMC, Wardha. Sample size is calculated to be 96 household and rounded up to 100 for each village (total 300 household). Households of Village A, B, and C are 392, 388 and 381 respectively. 100 household were selected by systematic random sampling method. Information was collected by interviewing adult at home after verbal consent by using Pre-structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Randomly ten water samples from each village tested for quality.

Results: Most of the household i.e. 80% have water source in their premises into dwelling (47%) or own yard (32%). Overall 61% of the household had adopted purification method. Village-wise distribution for adoption of purification methods, it is found significantly highest in village C and lowest in A (X2 -8.54, p=0.013). On an average 25% of the household reported that family members were suffered from gastrointestinal disturbances. Village-wise distribution for GIT disturbances cases, it is found significantly highest in village A and lowest in C (X2-19.25, p=0.0001). Most common purification method is filtration by using cloth or net by 41%. Total 76.67% water samples were contaminated.

Conclusion: Village which shows higher percentage of HH adopted purification method suffered less from GIT disturbances. Most of water samples were unsafe for drinking purpose. Hence community can be aware through an integrated approach such as Village, health sanitation and nutrition committee can be strengthened.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Formulation, and Physicochemical Evaluation of Occimum sanctum Containing Honey Based Hydrogel

Akhilesh Shewale, Sneha Puri, Rashmi Bele, Mahvash Fatema

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 33-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31846

Background and Aim: The present study aims to formulate a hydrogel containing Tulsi (O. sanctum) and honey, to obtain a pharmaceutical topical preparation having desirable healing effects and antibacterial properties of both the ingredients.

Material and Method: Topical honey hydrogel formulation were prepared using 75%honey and 10% Occimum sanctum (Tulsi) with polymer carbopol 934. The prepared formulation was assessed for its pH, spreadability, swelling index and in-vitro release

Result: The pH and spreadability were in the range of 4.74 ± 0.02 and 7.75 ± 0.04 cm respectively. Carbopol based Honey –Tulsi Formulation showed a concentration-dependent increase in the amount of honey and O. sanctum diffused through dialysis method.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, the results of our present study suggest that the studied Honey –Tulsi based hydrogel could be an economic indigenous substitute which is non-toxic, natural and efficient for clinical application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Outcome and Associated Factors among Adult Tetanus Patients Admitted to Jimma University Medical Center: A Retrospective Study

Enisha Tekle, Markos Mehertab, Dheeraj Lamba, Rebecca Moren, Vinod V. Bagilkar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31847

Background: Although, tetanus is a vaccine preventable disease mortality remains high. And despite the establishment of intensive care unit in Jimma University Medical Center the overall mortality reaches up to 40%. This study will question why the outcome of patients has not improved despite the improvement in the setup of ICU and tries to come up with possible associated factors that prognosticated the outcome.

Objective: The objective of this study will be to assess the outcome and factors associated with adult tetanus patients treated at JUMC, ICU from 1st Nov 2019 to 31st March 2021.

Methodology: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at JUMC on admitted patients with the diagnosis of tetanus. The study recruited all admitted patients from 1st Nov 2019 to 31st March 2021 at medical and surgical ICU. A structured checklist will be developed and the relevant information from the patients’ card will be entered in the structured checklist. Outcome will be defined as a binary variable (death, survival) independent variables will be examined for possible association with the dependent variable. Descriptive statistics like means, frequency and tabulations will be used.

Conclusion: Tetanus has high case fatality rate. Prevention of tetanus could have minimized the mortality. Delayed health care seeking by patients had determinant role for management outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Qualitative Portrayal of Esomeprazole Magnesium by Exploring Diverse Analytical and Investigative Approaches

Kapil Kanwar, Surya Prakash Gautam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-68
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31848

Purpose: The present study was intended to qualitatively analyze and drive meaningful statistics for Esomeprazole magnesium; to establish its inherent properties qualitatively & quantitatively.

Methods: Esomeprazole magnesium was analyzed using various traditional & modern analytical and investigative tools viz FTIR, HPLC, UV spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, zetasizer.

Results: The absorption maxima were found at 301 nm with UV Spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. The particle size of the drug was analyzed through Malvern zetasizer employing water as diluent and found to be 11.818 µm. The quantitative solubility of Esomeprazole magnesium was predicted in various solvents at 25 0C and found that it was most soluble in methanol and was least soluble in distilled water. Solubility was also found to be pH-dependent. Solubility increases with an increase in pH. The order of solubility determined was; Methanol (1.214 mg/ml) > Phosphate buffer pH- 7.4 (0.521 mg/ml) > Simulated Intestinal fluid pH-6.8 (0.475 mg/ml) > Phosphate buffer pH- 6.8 (0.466 mg/ml) > Simulated Gastric fluid pH-1.2 (0.147 mg/ml) > 0.1 N HCl (0.131 mg/ml) > Distilled water (0.017 mg/ml). The predicted log P value was found to be 2.39.

Conclusion: Esomeprazole magnesium was qualitatively analyzed using various analytical techniques to establish its inherent properties quantitatively. It is an off-white amorphous powder with a characteristic obnoxious odor and slightly bitter taste. The drug was identified through FTIR, using the classification of characteristic peaks of functional groups in the spectrum and also additionally through analytical methods viz HPLC, UV spectroscopy and found the absorption maxima at 301 nm. The linear regression analyses of a standard plot from UV spectrophotometric analysis demonstrate an unswerving relationship in the concentration range of 5-30μg/ml. The log P value indicates that the drug is significantly lipophilic. Various Micromeritic parameters like the Angle of repose, compressibility index, and Hausner's ratio predict the inherent flow properties of Esomeprazole magnesium as Fair (aid not needed). The present study will be an asset in the development of a modified released quick action formulation (Tablet-in-Tablet), to offer quick and protracted relief in gastritis and allied disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Fungal Bioactive Compounds Targeting MMP-9 for Endometriosis- An In silico Approach

Farnaz Nabiya, C. Anchana Devi, M. Rajamiriyam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 75-88
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31850

Background: Endometriosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the female reproductive system characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus that affects 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age, which is approximately 176 million women in the world. The women suffering from endometriosis have been reported to have high levels of matrix metalloproteinase (especially MMP-9) which regulates the inflammatory process. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the naturally available anti-inflammatory fungal compounds that can target the MMP-9 by various in silico approaches.

Methodology: A wide variety of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds were screened and five compounds were further selected based on ‘Lipinski’s rule of five’ using the PubChem database. The bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, ADMET properties and biological activity of these compounds were predicted computationally using databases such as SWISS-ADME, PubChem, pkCSM and PASS. The target 1L6J (Crystal structure of human matrix metalloproteinase MMP-9) structure was retrieved from the PDB database. Comparative analysis of the bioactive compounds with the target was performed by AutoDock 4.2.6 and further visualisation of the target residues interacting with the compounds was performed using LigPlot v.2. 2. tool.

Results: Based on the docking results, the compounds namely, Ergosterol peroxide, Lovastatin, Javanicin, Asperlin and Ergothioneine exhibited binding energy value of -10.25 kcal/mol, -8.4 kcal/mol, -7.64 kcal/mol, -7.07 kcal/mol and -6.19 kcal/mol respectively whereas Elagolix (control drug) exhibited binding energy value of -4.88 kcal/mol, thus, indicating that the selected bioactive compounds were seen to have better binding energy comparative to the control drug. 

Conclusion: Ergosterol peroxide derived from edible mushroom might act as a potential lead compound for designing a therapeutic drug for treating endometriosis and this compound can further be explored to evaluate its level of toxicity and efficacy in the wet laboratory studies by in vitro and in vivo methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantitative Assessment of Age and Gender Related Changes in Human Lacrimal Fluid Composition in Subjects

Ohwin Ejiro Peggy, Ofulue Ofioritse Ogheneyoma, Nwogueze Bartholomew Chukwuebuka, Agbonifo-Chiiokwu Ejime, Omeru Oghenerukevwe, Nwangwa Eze Kingsley

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 89-99
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31851

Purpose: The frequency of eyelids blink rate has effect on the integrity of the tear fluid and replacement of old of tears on the ocular surface. Comprehension of the effect of advancing age and gender on tears fluid stability and quality is contentious. Basal tears continuously bathe the ocular facet lubricating and providing protection from viral and bacterial infections, cooling the surface as warmth encourages pathogen. Basal tear dysfunction basically results in conjunctival and corneal conditions which exposes the ocular facet to dryness, ulceration, opacity and even blindness. This study determined the quantitative assessment of age and gender related changes in human lacrimal fluid composition in subjects

Methods: The design involved 400 (192 males and 208 females) human subjects aged 6 years and above who do not wear contact lenses, not on topical medication and having healthy eyes grouped into twelve groups based on age and gender.  Maximum blink interval (for tear break-up time) and phenol red thread procedure (for tear volume) were carried out monocularly for each subject.

Results: Findings from this study have established that tear fluid stability among different age groups; are often higher for group 6-12years and lower for 60years and above; therefore, study established that tear fluid stability is age dependent. In addition, tear fluid stability (average MBI. Tear volume and flow rate) are gender independent.

Conclusion: The present study revealed that tears fluid breakup time increases with decrease in tears fluid flow rate, volume and flow.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Vacation on Employee Stress, Health and Well-being, and Productivity

. Pradhan, Abhishek Tripathi, . Vishal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 100-111
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31852

Leisure activities have an important part in promoting health and well-being for employees. This research attempts to determine the link between holiday and the health and well-being of employees, while also demonstrating a precedent in improving productivity. There was a study of 75 workers working in India to assess the culture, stress causes and holiday pattern of their employees. The primary indication of our results was a survey of people operating in the Indian subcontinent. The opinions of participants were the information analysed to establish a relationship between health and well-being of employees and productivity. Impacts of better insurance on employees. The consequences of enhancing the insurance procedure would have a greater level of motivation, retention and productivity for employees. This interpretative sociology would help companies build a workforce that can perform better. The researchers investigated the present condition of employees working in India after using academic ideas and assessing their existing perceived workplaces. At the time of holidays which was the most favoured leisure activity in our survey, we sought to develop a better model to achieve employee health and wellbeing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhancing Memory Skills of Autism Spectrum Disorder Children using Gamification

Tanmoy Goswami, Tanay Arora, Pranita Ranade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 125-132
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31854

Sharp memory of growing children is important for education and learning of any new skills. Learning new languages is an important aspect for all children. Kids with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) need extra attention to enhance the memory skills. ASD is a developmental issue that influences communication and social conduct. It leads to the slow development of certain skills in children. The reasons for ASD are yet to obscure; however, it is normal in children having parents of higher age groups. Individuals with ASD generally avoid social communications, lack confidence in the eye to eye contact, fiddle a great deal, and regularly experience the ill effects of other issues like ADHD, OCD, etc.They tend to get distracted very easily. They are often obsessive about particular things and ignorant or indifferent about everything else. ASD does not include mental retardation (MR). Even though individuals experiencing ASD are improper at conveying, they sometimes have a better than average IQ. In this paper, a memory-enhancing mobile game has been designed that would help ASD children to improve the memory and help increase the stock of words that would eventually help in communication skills. The proposed mobile game would help Children diagnose with ASD to increase their memory retention power and help parents’ track their progress using gamification concepts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prolonged Exposure to Antimicrobials Induces Changes in Susceptibility to Antibiotics, Biofilm Formation and Pathogenicity in Staphylococcus aureus

Mbarga M. J. Arsene, Podoprigora I. Viktorovna, Volina E. Grigorievna, Anyutoulou K. L. Davares, Das M. Sergeevna, Sharova I. Nikolaevna

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 140-151
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31856

Introduction: Frequent exposure to certain biocidal agents such as hypochlorous acid (HOCl), triclosan and benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has been reported to induce significant changes in Staphylococcus aureus. However, very few studies of this type have been conducted with conventional antimicrobials.

Aim: The current investigation aimed to explore the phenotypic changes (susceptibility to antibiotics, biofilm formation and relative pathogenicity) that occur in S. aureus after recurrent exposure to antimicrobials.

Methods: We compared the effects of long-term exposure to ampicillin, cefazoline, kanamycin and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on their susceptibility to antibiotics, biofilm formation, growth rate and pathogenicity in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using the microplate mircodilution method and the bacteria were exposed to increasing concentrations of each antimicrobial (MIC/2 to MIC) prepared in the BHIB for 8 days. The sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics was assessed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, the biofilm formation with crystal violet bacterial attachment assay and relative pathogenicity was assessed through a Galleria mellonella waxworm model.

Results: The data in this investigation indicate that long-term exposure to antimicrobials may induce several changes in S. aureus. The exposure to ampicillin induced resistance to ceftazidime, tetracycline and ceftriaxone while the susceptibility to ceftazidime decreased in bacteria exposed to cefazolin and Kanamycin. Meanwhile, exposure to AgNPs induced some changes in susceptibility to trimethoprim and ceftazidime without causing resistance. Similarly, the strains exposed to ampicillin and kanamycin grew more rapidly and produced more biofilms than the control strains whereas the strains exposed to the AgNPs produced less biofilms. On G. melonella model, cefazolin seems to have attenuated the pathogenicity while the 3 other strains were more pathogenic than the controls.

Conclusion: Long term exposure of S. aureus to antibiotics and AgNPs induces several changes in susceptibility to other antibiotics, growth rate, biofilm formation and pathogenicity; and these changes should be taken into account when choosing antibiotics for treatment of diseases caused by S. aureus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study the Efficacy of Rodhradigana Vasti in the Management of Sthaulya (Overweight)

Shweta Parwe, Poonam Ashtankar, Piyush Bhagwat, Milind Nisargandha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 158-166
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31858

Background: Obesity (Sthaulya) has been one of the primary diseases of the modern period, with its changing lifestyles, climate, and eating habits. Everyone has become a victim of many diseases caused by poor eating habits, and obesity is just one of them. Obesity is the privilege of the new era of robots and materialistic devices. In 2008, the WHO assessed that 1.5 billion individuals, were overweight and more than 200 million men and almost 300 million women were fat.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of Rodhradigana Vasti in Sthaulya.

Study Design: This was an open-labelled single-arm interventional clinical study.

Methods: 15 patients of Sthaulya were registered from Panchakarma, and Rodhradigana Vasti was administered for 15 days.

Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test for Subjective Parameter and paired t-test for Objective Parameter.

Results: In this study, decreased weight, lipid profile and subjective parameters show positive finding after the intervention of Vasti.

Conclusion: Rodhradigana Vasti is one of the best remedies for relieving Sthaulya.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Antibacterial Activity of Nanosilver Coupled Edible Plant Extracts Against Streptococcus mutans, the Cause of Dental Caries

Hayam S. Abdelkader, Aisha A. Alayafi, Hanaa E. Ahmed, Rawan A. Bin Osail

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 167-186
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31859

Streptococcus mutans strains were found to have a substantial role in the development of caries. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential antibacterial activity of some edible plant extracts against Streptococcus mutans isolates. Fifty oral dental plaque specimens were obtained from various dental clinics in Jeddah city from 23 males and 27 females with median ages ranging between 19.9 to 51.25 years. All isolates were subjected to microbiological, biochemical, and molecular identification. The results showed that 36.3% of the bacterial isolates were identified as Streptococcus mutans, 4.5% as Streptococcus gallolyticus, and 4.5% as Staphylococcus aureus followed by two Yeast species Candida albicans (45.4%) and Candida glabrata (9.0%). The PCR products of the size of 600 and 517 bp DNA fragments were successfully amplified from 16S rRNA and glucosyltransferase gene (gtfb) from the S. mutans isolates and reference strain ATCC25175. The gtfb sequences were submitted to NCBI and assigned accessions MW491783, MW491784, MW491785, and MW491786. Six plant extracts (Guava leaves, Olive Leaves, Clove, Garlic, Green Ginger, and Cinnamon), Nanosilver 25 nm, and 15% of two commercially available toothpastes (A and B) were evaluated against the S. mutans isolates by agar well diffusion test. Most plant extracts tested exhibited considerable inhibitory effects when coupled with Nanosilver 25 nm (1:1). Clove/SNP; 106.8±4.95, and Garlic/SNP; 105.3±3.2) had the greatest mean values of MIC, whereas (Olive/SNP) exhibited the lowest (56.5±3.89). In conclusion, although there are lot of studies on edible plant extracts, incorporating nanoparticles can synergistically increase its antibacterial effectiveness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Puzzle Out the Reason behind Prolonged Hospital Stay among Children

Bela Shaikh, Samina Ghoto, Abdullah Khilji, Muhammad Khan, Faizah Mughal, Tayyaba Kazmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 217-222
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31862

Aim: To find out the reasons behind prolonged hospital stay among children.

Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at the People university of medical and health sciences hospital during the period of November 2020 to April 2021.

Methodology: All the children between the age group of 1 year to 12 years, who were admitted in pediatric ward of the hospital for any reason, were included in the study. Prolonged hospital stay was labelled when it exceeded above 7 days. A self-designed proforma was made which consisted of demographic data, total duration of stay and the most probable cause of stay. Data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. p-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant

Results: The mean age of the study participants with standard deviation was 6.8 ± 2.3 years. Half of the participants (50.9%) admitted in hospital for prolonged duration were from the age group of ≤ 5 years. About 55.7% of the participants were female and majority were from the lower socioeconomic class (53.8%) Mean and standard deviation of duration of hospital stay was 11.85 ± 2.29. In majority of cases (n=80) there was delay in consulting a physician which was followed by resistant to the therapy and acquiring nosocomial infection while very few of the cases were having some invasive procedure done so increased duration of stay.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the younger age group that is less than 5 years is the most significant risk factor while the most common reason is the delayed consultation to the physician.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biofilm Formation and Multiplex PCR detection of icaABCD Operon in Staphylococcus capitis

Aziyah Abdul-Aziz, Mohamad Faiz Foong Abdullah, Sharifah Aminah Syed Mohamad

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 223-234
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31863

Aims: The ability to form biofilm is a major virulence factor in the virulence of the Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) group of bacteria. Being the most predominant member of CoNS, the ability of S. epidermidis in causing biofilm-associated infections has been well established. On the other hand, S. capitis and has always been regard as a non-pathogenic species although recently it was found to be responsible in a variety of infections. Hence, this study aimed to determine the biofilm formation capabilities and the presence of icaABCD genes in clinical isolates of S. capitis, which have emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen in clinical settings.

Methodology: S. capitis was isolated and identified from 17 out of 200 clinical samples. Biofilm formation assay was performed quantitatively using a microtitre plate method. Mulitplex PCR primers for icaABCD genes were designed from DNA sequences coding for the icaA, B, C, and D structural genes of S capitis JF930147.1 which was compared together with five other species of Staphylococcus. Amplification of the icaABCD genes was performed using the designated primers.

Results: From the 17 strains of S. capitis clinical isolates, 14 were identified as S. capitis subsp capitis while the remaining three were identified as S. capitis subsp ureolyticus. Except for two of the S. capitis subsp capitis isolates, the remaining strains were able to form biofilm, with majority of them were strong biofilm formers. Multiplex PCR was successful in amplifying the four icaABCD genes which was demonstrated in all the S. capitis isolates, including the two non-biofilm forming isolates.

Conclusion: Majority of the S. capitis isolates were able to form biofilm phenotypically suggesting the possibility in causing opportunistic infections through indwelling medical devices. Multiplex PCR however was able to detect the presence of the icaABCD genes in all the S. capitis isolates. This suggests that the biofilm assessment on microtitre plate is not a definitive tool in determining the production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA) but the production of the icaABCD genes could be a better assessment in determining biofilm production in Staphylococcus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Factor Viii and Factor IX Activity among Primary School Children in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

I. L. Okoroiwu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Lilian Nneka Egbuobi, Adaobi Maryann Ibekwe, C. C. N. Vincent, Bright Chukwuebuka Unaeze, Calista Ndidi Adike, Udunma Olive Chijioke, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Ayomide Olusiji Soremi, Ejike Felix Chukwurah, Bart I. Ifionu, Confidence Ogechi Anyanwu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 235-241
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31864

The values of factor VIII (FVIII) and factor IX (FIX) were evaluated among some primary school children in Owerri zone Imo State. The aim was to assess deficiency state or reduction in activity among these children. A total of two hundred and ten (210) venous blood samples were collected from primary school pupils whose parents consented to, and whose answers to the distributed questionnaires suggested symptoms of haemophilia. The samples were collected from pupils between the ages of five and thirteen years, and from different primary schools to represent different areas of Owerri (Works Layout Area, Nekede Area, Trans Egbu Area, and Akwukuma Area). Samples were preserved using trisodium citrate anticoagulant and transported to the haematology unit of the Federal Medical Centre Owerri within 3 hours for analysis which was done using Rayto semi auto coagulation analyzer RT 2204C with its normal ranges for factor VIII and IX activities as (50% - 200% and 70% - 200%) respectively. Out of the 210 samples collected, 16(7.6%) have <50% of factor VIII activity and 14(6.7%) have <70% of factor IX activity. Akwakuma area produced highest occurrence of factor VIII deficiency (14.8%, 8 pupils) while Works Layout and Trans Egbu Areas produced the least incidence (3.8%, 2 pupils) each. Factor IX deficiency was most prevalent at Trans Egbu Area 6(11.5%) and least at Works Layout 0(0.0%). Six children between the ages of 5 and 7 years had the highest incidence of FVIII deficiency (23.1%), while eight pupils between the ages of 11-13 years showed the highest incidence of FIX deficiency. Eight Females were found to have the highest incidence of both  FVIII and FIX deficiencies (8.2% for both defects ), while the males presented a lower incidence of the same defects (7.1%, 8 pupils and 5.4%, 6 pupils respectively). The mean levels of FVIII and FIX in all the pupils evaluated are 78.61 and 89.98 respectively while the standard deviation of the results from the mean are 2.584 and 1.473 for factor VIII and IX respectively. These data show that haemophilia A and B exist in Owerri and considering the danger it portends to lives of the citizenry, Government should provide facilities in our hospitals to take care of the affected pupils to ensure a healthy society.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contribution to Lab Errors as a Healthcare Professional

Sanjyoti Panchbudhe, Shilpa Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 242-248
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31865

With the emergence of new diagnostic markers every day, laboratory investigations have become an essential and integral part of healthcare. It is prudent to ensure that this dependence on diagnosis and treatment in laboratories is serious and responsible. This responsibility does not lie solely within the confines of a laboratory but extends to any healthcare personnel involved in the process of report generation. Reviews revolving around this topic focus on the laboratory's roles and conclude with the emphasis on paying attention to the extra-analytical phases. In this review, we attempt to expand our audience to include all healthcare professionals and highlight their role in increasing or minimizing laboratory errors. The process of creating a reliable report will be viewed as a shared responsibility. This includes the patient who has the responsibility to follow the direction given before specimen collection and extends to the doctor who interprets the results, keeping in mind all the inherent limitations that a test encompasses.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of Arches of Foot: A Comparison between Ink Foot Print Method and Custom Made Podoscope Device Method

K. Vijayakumar, Rameshkumar Subramanian, S. Senthilkumar, D. Dineshkumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 249-256
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31866

The present study aimed to assess the validity of the podoscopic images compared with ink footprint methods (comparing the two different methods using the same parameters). Objective: The evaluation of the reliability and accuracy of arch angle (AA) is the purpose of this paper's study. It includes Chippaux-Smirak Index (CSI), Staheli Index (SI), and Arch Index (AI) by comparing footprints obtained from ink footprint and custom-made podoscopic footprints. Methods: Measurements of AA, CSI, SI, and AI are obtained from ink footprints and custom-made podoscope among 416 healthy participants (aged 21 to 65). Accuracy and reliability were calculated for all the footprint indices obtained using the two methods. Minimal detectable change and the Standard error (SE) of measurement were also calculated. Results: SPSS Statistical software (version 20) at 95% confidence interval was used to execute and observe the statistical analysis. Descriptive analysis was used to calculate the Mean and standard deviations (SD). The intrarater reliability of ink footprints and podoscopic footprints were analyzed using Intraclass correlation (IC) executed at 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Reliability of the podoscopic method was interpreted when the values (≥0.75) as excellent, (0.4-0.74) as moderate, and (0-0.39) as poor. Our study reported that AA, CSI, SI, and AI obtained from the ink footprints and podoscope had high intrarater reliability and reproducible. The podoscope was designed in a lightweight manner for transportation purposes and utilized in under-served and rural areas. This custom-made device may be utilized in orthopedics, and it can also be used to collect data and for diagnostic purposes.

Open Access Review Article

Levothyroxine Administration Timing in Hypothyroidism Patients

Mohammed Saleh Daher Albalawi, Shoog Mohsen R. Alharbi, Reem Hammad M. Albalawi, Khaled Abdullah S. Alasmari, Nada Sulaiman E. Alatawi, Thamer Awad Alatwi, Marwan Fahad H. Altemani, Lina Saleh S. Alahmadi, Abeer Abdulrhman Basmih, Asmaa Ali Z. Sayis, Doaa Mohammad S. Filmban, Ahmed Abdullah Y. Alzahrani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31840

Levothyroxine is a synthetic T4 hormone that is biochemically and physiologically identical to the natural hormone, and it is used when the body is deficient in the natural hormone. This study was conducted to summarize the current evidence that compare evidence supporting morning dose to evening dose of levothyroxine in patients with hypothyroidism‎. A simple systematic review was carried out, searching databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and EBSCO. The authors extracted the needed data. There is conflicting data regarding effectiveness of morning dose versus evening dose in management of levothyroxine. More studies reported effectiveness of bedtime dose more than breakfast dose in hypothyroidism management. Numerous studies reported effectiveness of bedtime dose more than breakfast dose in hypothyroidism management. The most resent evidences recommended that, if possible, L‐T4 be consistently taken either 60 minutes before breakfast or at bedtime (3 or more hours after the evening meal), for optimal, consistent absorption.

Open Access Review Article

Brain Targeting Through Intranasal Route: An Overview

Sorakayala Venkata Anusha, Jonnala Ratna, Srirama Swarnalatha, Maruvajala Vidyavathi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 112-124
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31853

Brain targeting has always been challenging due to the presence of physiological barriers by Changing the integrity of these barriers, so as to allow the toxic substances, bacteria and viruses into the brain, Which may severely damage the central nervous system .This problem can be reduced by delivering drugs through the intra nasal route, which by passes the blood brain barrier and reaches into the brain. Nasal route is a non-invasive type, widely used for the local treatment as well as used for systemic therapy as drug delivery directly goes in to systemic circulation. Nasal route provides good absorption of small molecules compared to that of large molecules, absorption of small molecules and large molecules can be increased by absorption promoters. Different drug delivery devices are developed for nasal administration like liquids, semi-solid and solid formulation are consider to deliver the drugs to treat most of  the CNS diseases (i.e. Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s disease) because it requires specific targeting of drugs to the brain. This review highlighted the challenges, approaches for brain targeting and various drug delivery systems developed with different drugs targeting to brain through nasal administration.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Lockdown and its Effects on Mental Health Due to Corona Pandemic

Sparsh Dixit

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 152-157
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i34B31857

The Covid-19 pandemic is affecting society in various aspects of life. This outbreak was initiated in a laboratory accident centered in Wuhan, China. People are suffering from psychiatric disorders due to the disturbance in several sectors of the society which includes the most important “socializing”. The abrupt step of lockdown taken by the government authorities has led to a severe social distancing. This social distancing has a direct impact on their psychosocial thinking. Due to this lockdown people have started to overthink on daily normal issues which were not completely dealt with. Now due to the increase in time and isolation from society, the various problems associated with this quarantine have been highlighted. The government has enforced lockdowns from time to time. These lockdowns have created not only mental health issues but also physical and social health problems. Along with health issues, the country suffered economical losses and the GDP went to negatives. Many people suffered losses. There were shortages in food and other day to day facilities. With only the essential services going on, people were in a lot of trouble. But listing down the cons of lockdown, we have to believe that this very lockdown was one of the perfect measures by the government. This very lockdown is the reason that the cases have declined to a great extent.