Open Access Systematic Review Article

A Bibliometric Analysis of Pharmaceutical Sciences-Related Articles in Qatar from 2013-2020

Sourour Idoudi, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim, Feras Alali, Nashiru Billa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 116-126
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31670

Backgrround: Pharmaceutical science is an important area in drug discovery and therapies.The research output generated from pharmaceutical sciences research is critical for psychological, physical, and social wellbeing.

This study was carried out to analyze Qatar's quantity and quality of pharmaceutical sciences-related research and map out a national research roadmap and priority areas.

Materials and Methods: A systematic search was carried out in the Web of Science, Scopus, Pub Med, and Google Scholar databases using the search terms “Pharmaceutical Science,” “Pharmaceutical Chemistry,” “Medicinal Chemistry,” “Pharmacology,” “Pharmaceutics,” “Pharmacokinetics,” “Physiology,” “Pharmaceutical Science research,” “Study,” other relevant terms related to Pharmaceutical Sciences field and “Qatar.”The search covered eight years. The data extracted included the title, keywords, publication date, authors, publishing journal, journal ranking, impact factor, type of article, number of citations, the sum of citations, H-index, etc.

Results: The search yielded123 studies. Most were original articles (n=100, 81.3%), published in 2019 (n=27, 22.0%), applied research (n=68, 55.3%),indexed in Web of Science (n=120, 97.6%),published under the subject of pharmacology (n=43, 42.6%), focused on cancer (n=46, 37.4%)and produced by five authors (n=19, 18.8%) and more than eight authors (n=19, 18.8%). Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) was the main collaborator (n=16, 13.0%). Fifty-four (43.9%) of the articles were published in journals ranked as Q1.

Conclusions: A total of 123 articles were published, with an average annual growth rate of 6.7% in publications and 946 citations. A high number of publications were in Q1 and Q2 journals. The research focus (e.g., cancer and cardiovascular) was established according to the country’s research roadmap and priority areas.

Open Access Study Protocol

Efficacy of Nursing Skin Care Protocol on Prevention of Skin Related Problems among Newly Diagnosed Diabetic Patients

PascalineJohn David, Meenakshi Yeola, Ruchira Ankar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31658

Background:Approximately 400 million people would be afflicted with diabetes by 2025, projected worldwide.In India, about 50.9 million people suffer from diabetes, and this figure willgo up to 80 million by 2025. Diabetes leads to blindness, kidney failure, heart attacks, stroke and foot ulcer. Skin problems are increasing in diabetic patients. It is estimated that 30% of diabetes patients will experience a skin problem at some stage throughout the course of their disease. Many skin care guidelines are given for diabetic foot care, but nursing skin care protocolfor diabetic patients is not available. Less attention is given to complete skin care in diabetes routine care.There is need to develop Nursing skin care protocols for prevention of skin problems in diabetes.

Objectives:To validate the developed nursing skin care protocol on prevention of skin related problems among newly diagnosed diabetic patients, to assess the skin problems in experimental group and control group, and to assess the efficacy of nursing skin care protocolin experimental group and routine skin care with coconut oil in control group.

Methodology: Study design is randomized controlled trial.Study will be carried out in hospital setting with 140 participants. Random allocation and concealment with single blinding will be done.Intervention is Nursing skin care protocolconsist of Daily skin inspection, Bathing, Drying, clothing, Application of lotion, Hydration, Injury prevention, Nail careandHair care, Sugar control, Dermatological consultation and Physician consultation. Semi structure questionnaire, skin assessment tool[ GI, Glammal score for xerosis,Visual Analogue Scale for pruritus, Questionnaire on erythema,hair and nail colourchanges] and self-reported practice checklist will be used to collect data.

Expected Results: Investigator expects newly diagnosed diabetic patients will not develop any skin related problems after using Nursing skin care protocol.

Conclusion: Diabetic patients will be able to utilized developed nursing skin care protocol routinely to prevent skin related problems.

Open Access Study Protocol

Effect of Vibratory Therapy in Decreasing the Vaccination-induced Pain in Infants: Randomized Controlled Study

Amar Taksande, Shruti Chaudhary, Abhilasha Singh Panwar, Aditi Jhamb, Rupesh Rao, Patel Zeeshan Jameel, Sachin Damke, Revat Meshram

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-18
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31659

Background: Different non-medical therapies such as Non-nutritive sucking (NNS), oral sucrose with or without NNS (non-nutritive sucking), wrapping with thin blanket or cloth, kangaroo mother care (KMC), songs as well as multi-sensory stimulation are beneficial in pain reduction among neonates and infants.  According to the gate control theory, vibrations applied sat a site on the body block the nociceptive signals via the A???? and C fibers reducing the pain perception. When used along with many other nonpharmacological methods, This technique has been shown to minimize discomfort in pain-inducing treatments such as Intravenous cannulation, vaccines, heel prick, etc. The primary purpose of this study is to analyze vibrational therapy effects on infants  pain perception, thereby, providing evidence for a better pain management strategy in vaccination centers.

Objective: To determine the efficacy of vibration therapy on pain perception by infants during vaccine administration.

Material and Methods:  Out of total 90 eligible healthy infants who come for routinely immunization will be given either vibrational therapy (interventional group) or breastfeeding(control therapy) after doing randomization in this randomized controlled trial. The baseline vitals include cardiac rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and oxygen (SpO2) will be recorded before, during, and after vaccination during this treatment. Similarly, we will report Visual analog scales (VAS), Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), and Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale, Modified Behavioral Pain Scale (MBPS)  after giving the vaccine to the infant.

Results: After completion of the study we will come to know the effect of vibratory therapy on pain control. The pain intensity with the help of the NIPS score will get less in the vibratory group than in the control group. The level of distress by using the Color Analogue Scale, MBPS scale, and FLACC scale, during the vaccine-related procedure will get a lower score in the infants  who has taken vibratory therapy than the control group.

Conclusion: study will probably give us information about vibration therapy, which will be an effective method for managing the pain after vaccination in infants.

Open Access Study Protocol

Assessment of Different Technique of Eliciting the Planter Reflex in Term Neonates

Amar Taksande, Rupesh Rao, Sachin Yedve, Patel Zeeshan Jameel, Revat Meshram

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-31
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31661

Background: Planter reflex is still an essential part of the neurological examination. The usual plantar reflex involved bending of the big toe or no response. There is a positive Babinski signal with corticospinal dysfunction, which involves big toe dorsal flexion and the accompanying fanning of the other toes. It’s one of the infant reflexes that disappers as the infant nervous system grows. The plantar reaction is primarily extensive in stable, term neonates. Many have researched this reflex's accuracy but very few studies have analyzed the various techniques of the planting reflex.

Objective: To assess the five different technique of eliciting the plantar reflex in newborn babies.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the eligible healthy newborn will be given the different methods for the elicitation of the plantar reflex i.e. Oppenheim sign, Gordon sign, Gonda’s sign, Chaddock sign, and Schaefer sign. During this procedure, we will record  the baseline RR, HR, and SpO2 before, and after the procedure. Three pediatric residents of the different years will be selected for examining the newborn reflexes throughout the study period.

Results: After completion of the study, we will come to know the negative likelihood ratio, negative predictive value, positive predictive, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and sensitivity of the Oppenheim sign, Gordon sign, Gonda’s sign, Chaddock sign, and Schaefer sign.

Conclusion: The study will probably give us information about the sensitivity and specificity of the Oppenheim sign, Gordon sign, Gonda’s sign, Chaddock sign, and Schaefer sign for the elicitation of the plantar reflex in the neonates.

Open Access Study Protocol

Study on Prevalence of Hyperlipidemia among Medical Students in Wardha District – A study Protocol

Pooja Pawar, Saroj Tirpude, Shweta Parwe, Milind Nisargandha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 70-75
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31665

Background: Hyperlipidemia is a therapeutic word that indicates unusually increased levels of lipids in the blood, which is generally termed as increased cholesterol. There are mainly 2categories of cholesterol known as high-density lipoprotein, also known as good cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, also called as bad cholesterol. However, hyperlipidemia can be inherited, resulting in an unhealthy lifestyle and sedentary lifestyle and regular intake of oily food, junk food , fatty food rich in cholesterol, etc.

Aim: Aim is to study the Prevalence of hyperlipidemia among medical students in Wardha District.

Objectives: To determine the dietary pattern among medical students and evaluate the level of lipid profile among medical students.

Methodology: Cross-sectional observational study will be done on medical students of the Wardha district. Based on a well-structured questionnaire on each student's dietary schedule and by collecting fasting blood sample for lipid profile test to observe the level of HDL and LDL in the blood and to observe the Prevalence of hyperlipidemia among medical students in Wardha district of 18 and above years of age group. Written consent of the subject will be taken before collecting their blood samples.

Results: The result will be analyzed statistically based on the study.

Conclusion: Conclusion will be based on observation and analyzed data.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Comparative Study between Conventional Sutures, Staples and Adhesive Glue for Clean Elective Surgical Skin Closure

Kiran Mastud, Y. R. Lamture, Meenakshi Yeola(Pate)

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 90-97
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31667

Background: A surgeon's signature is 'scar' [1]. On a regular basis, surgeons face various kinds of wounds which must be healed. The healing process and cosmetic result can be influenced by wound and incision closure techniques.

The Goal of this Research is to Compare 3 Skin Closure Techniques: conventional skin sutures, adhesive glue, surgical stapler. These methods will be used to determine which of them is superior in terms of wound healing and cosmetic outcome in clean elective surgeries.


  1. To compare duration between closure by 3 methods.
  2. To compare prices amongst the 3 methods.
  3. A comparison of the cosmetic appearances of the skin after closure.
  4. A comparison of post-operative pain between the 3 methods.
  5. To assess surgical site infections after closure with these 3 methods

Methodology: 90 patients, undergoing clean elective surgeries, will be included in this study. 30 patients will be included in every group. Hospitalised under Department of General Surgery in Datta Meghe Institute Of Medical Sciences, Wardha. The study will be conducted between October 2020 to October 2022.

Results: The result would be undertaken in SPSS software.

Conclusion: Conclusion will be based on findings of study protocol.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of Mustadi Yapan Bastiand Baladi Yapan Basti in the Management of Oligozoospermia-Study Protocol

Abhijit Murlidharrao Ahire, Shweta Parwe, Milind Nisargandha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 208-216
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31686

Background: Nowadays most upcoming disease that affecting 8 to 12% of the world population is Infertility.The affected area of this problem have no bar irrespective of metro cities as well as small towns population..Modern treatment with steroids and other medication and interventions shows limited results.Bastichikitsa itself is the best remedies explained in Ayurved text for the treatment of ksheenshukra.Yapan Basti in Ayurveda is known for its action as balya, i.e. giving strength to the sharirdhatu.Incase of Oligozoospermia there is vitiation and loss of formation process of shukradhatu properly as per Ayurveda. Using YapanBasti,the strength of Shukradhatu can be regain and ultimately correction can be seen in oligozoospermia cases. By doingbastikarma,we are trying to establish and confirm the role of yapanbastiexplained in Ayurvedonoligozoospermia.

Aims and objectives: To study the efficacy of MustadiYapan Bastion sperm count sperm motility, semen volume.SemenPH,abnormal sperm count along with serum testosterone,GH and FSH level in the management of Oligozoospermia in comparison with BaladiYapanBasti.

Methodology: Age ranging between 25 to 50 years will be considered for the study. Secondly Sperm count < 15 million/ml will be consider for the study, also the patients who shows cardinal symptom i.ePratyatmakaLakshana of KshinaShukra, Pathological sample of Semen sample must suggestive of oligozoospermia will be considered for the study.30 Patients in each group will be given Basti for 16 days as explained in classics of Ayurveda .The process of giving basti will be using bastiputak,Basti will be prepared as per the niruhabasti preparation method.Bastigamankal and bastipratyagamankal will be observed properly.Follow-up will be taken after 28thday from starting of treatment.

Results: Results will be drawn from the observations of objective parameters.

Conclusion: MustadiYapanBasti will be effective in oligozoospermia.

Open Access Short Research Article

Improvement of Infection Control Measures during Dental Manipulations

Alexandra Andreevna Fundovnaya, Daria Alexandrovna Noskova, Yuri Dorofeev, Irina Sergeevna Egorova, Alexander Olegovich Dubinin, Danizat Zaurovna Masaeva

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 19-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31660

When performing dental manipulations, infection control plays a special role, since its violation will negate all the efforts of the dentist, as well as allow various infectious and bacterial complications to develop in the body, as a result of which the patient's health will be significantly harmed.

Infection control in dentistry is especially important at the present stage, when the spread of coronavirus infection has not yet been stopped, and the world is already experiencing the third wave of COVID-19. So, today it is very important to evaluate the existing infection control measures taken in dental health organizations, both private and public, and to investigate the measures proposed in the literature to reduce the transmission of both the new coronavirus and other infectious diseases to patients.

Infection control measures in dentistry are aimed at minimizing the cross-transmission of mainly blood-borne pathogens. However, the high degree of contagion of the new coronavirus, as well as the possibility of the appearance of such viruses in the future, makes specialists already think about the need to improve infection control measures in order to preserve the health of patients and make dental manipulations as safe as possible for them. This is especially important for elderly patients, in whom complications from coronavirus-like infectious diseases can be fatal.

In dental practice, many people are at risk, such as the practitioner, assistants, patients, administrative staff, cleaners, and possibly accompanying people. Standard precautions are usually not sufficient during the active spread of infections, so it is important to use proper PPE and follow hand hygiene. The sequence of consultations and scheduling of appointments with patients, as well as making changes to the waiting area, are also important. To minimize aerosol contamination, mouthwash should be performed before treatment. It should be taken into account that fans with NERA filters can significantly reduce the number of aerosols and, accordingly, reduce the level of pathogenicity of viruses.

The aim of the work is to consider the measures proposed in the publications aimed at improving the measures of infection control during dental manipulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Importance of Risk Communication and Risk Analysis in Medical Device Industry

Akash Sharma, Gaurav Luthra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 32-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31662

In medical device industry the risk management plays a very vital role. There should be proper communication from each and every stakeholder related to risk management of each respective department, it can be Production, Design and Development or Quality Control and all other  departments. In this current research work the role of risk analysis which   had been done accordingly ISO 14971 for risk management of medical device using FMEA is implemented. FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) plays important role in risk analysis by having several steps for mitigation of risk. Also it had been used for identifying hazard of each risk throughout the lifecycle of the medical device. Risk communication should be advanced so, that the risk identified can be easily controlled by taking appropriate risk control measures. In any medical device industry risk analysis should be done properly and as well the risk communication channel should be strong for proper and immediate action. In this research paper practically the role of Risk communication and risk analysis is covered. Risk management of any of the organization can only be effective if the risk analysis is done strongly and the communication related to risk is proper. In this research    FMEA analysis for risk analysis is done on a medical device and also the communication from risk manager to the other entire stakeholders of the risk management from various departments are fully taken into the consideration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of Ethanol Extracted Secondary Metabolites of Plants from Thal Desert (Pakistan) for In vitro Changes in Haematological Indices

Ghulam Yasin, Mubasharah Sabir, Iqra Anwar, Adeela Altaf, Syeda Amna Batool, Ikram Ul Haq, Ali Noman, Khalid Hussain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31663

Plants are adapted to stressful environments by synthesizing secondary metabolites as antioxidant having either toxicological or medicinal properties. Before utilizations of metabolites one should explore reality about their nature. By testing their in vitro effects on blood, their curing or toxic potential for influence on physiology and health status of an individual can be evaluated. In this experiment, secondary metabolites of some shrubs of Thal desert of Pakistan were extracted in ethanol and used to explore their in vitro effects on some hematological attributes as enlisted in tables. Results were statistically analyzed using Analysis Of Variance. Means of data were compared to control by DMR (Duncan’s multiple range) procedure. Ethanolic extract increased the leucocytes count granulocytes percentage, monocytes lymphocytes MCV, MCH and platelets except extract of Haloxylon stem. HBG were decreased by extract of stems of Leptadenia, Calligonum and Salsola. Leptadenia stem extract also decreased the platelets. Lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and RBC were increased by most of the plant extracts. The practical application of the plant secondary metabolites needs careful further extensive study.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Callogenesis and Screening of Antimicrobial Activity of Callus and Seed of Caesalpinia bonducella F.: A Threatened Medicinal Plant of Western Ghats

Rajani Shirsat, Ajit Kengar, Aruna Rai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 76-89
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31666

Aim: Caesalpinia bonducella Flem is a dioecious scrambling woody liana of Caesalpinoideae, a subfamily of Leguminosae. The plant is threatened and distributed in the deciduous forests of the Western Ghats of India. Being an important medicinal plant Caesalpinia bonducella F. attracted many scientists to exploit various activities associated with a number of phytoconstituents. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the most suitable media and suitable concentrations of plant growth regulators for in vitro Callogenesis and screening of antimicrobial activity of callus and seed of Caesalpinia bonducella.

Materials and Methods: Callus was initiated from stem explants, on 1x and 0.5x MS medium plus supplements. The effects of plant growth regulators on callus cultures were studied and observations were made. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed by using extracts of callus and seed of Caesalpinia bonducella in petroleum ether and methanol against multidrug resistance organisms. The organic extracts of seed and callus of the plant at concentrations of 0.02 mg/ml - 0.1 mg/ml were taken and their activities were measured.  

Results: The combination of 2.5 mgL-1 2,4-D  with 2 mgL-1 BAP, resulted in the highest frequency and the highest mean percentage of callus formation (2.35 ± 0.294) with yellow friable callus. The results revealed that all the extracts had a variable degree of antibacterial activity.

Conclusions: It was observed that 2,4-D at 2.5 mgL-1 in combination with BAP,2.0 mgL-1 BAP resulted in early initiation, highest induction percentage, with frequency highest mean percentage of callus formation, Antimicrobial tests with methanol and diethyl ether extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seed powder against the clinical isolates showed the zone of inhibition for all the pathogens tested with concentration of methanolic extract of C. bonducella seed powder.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional Analyses of Domestic and Poultry Chickens and Evaluation of the Subsequent Effects on Lowering Blood Glucose Levels in Alloxan-Induced Wister Rats

Mahbuba Khatun, Md. Motiar Rahman, M. Manirujjaman, Meftah Uddin, Mst. Gulshan Ara, Ismail Hossain, Masudul Hasan Khan, Mohammad Amirul Islam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 98-109
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31668

In the recent decades, peoples concentrate more on reduced-consumption of diets containing saturated fatty acids and replace them with essential polyunsaturated ones, including omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, due to their promising nutritional benefits. Therefore, the production of chicken meat having lower fat compositions, and riches in pro-healthy fatty acid and other macro-and micronutrients deserves great attention in the food industry. The research aimed to characterize meat oils of two commercially available, domestic and poultry, chickens in the Northern part of Bangladesh (Rajshahi), followed by the investigation of their nutritional compositions and hypoglycemic effect in vivo. In this work, the oil was isolated from the dried meat sources by Soxhlet extractor and purified using a rotary evaporator. We subsequently characterized meat oil in terms of various parameters, such as iodine value, saponification number, unsaponifiable matter, free fatty acid (FFA) contents, peroxide value, and acid value. Besides, the nutritional parameters of chicken oil were investigated as percentages of essential fatty acids and several other micro-and macronutrients using gas-liquid chromatography and other conventional methods. Finally, Alloxan-induced Wister rats were fed with oil and chicken flesh to investigate the hypoglycemic effects. The experimental analyses show that chicken oil possesses a significant proportion of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid, macro-and micronutrients. Besides, oil and flesh were found to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic rats despite flesh could not significantly show hypoglycemic properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy with Pre-eclampsia and Maternal Outcome

Sabreena Abbas, Sajida Yousfani, Fouzia Shaikh, Farhat Sultana, Najma Shaikh, Sidra Tahira

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 110-115
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31669

Objective: To determine the Prevalence of Pre-eclampsia in women with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) and to compare the maternal outcome in cases of PPCM who develop pre-eclampsia with those cases who are normotensive.     

Study design: This is a prospective observational study.

Setting: Study carried out at department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Liaquat university hospital Hyderabad from 20th February 2019 to 19th February 2020.

Materials and methods:  This prospective observational study was conducted in department of Gynecology and Obstetrics and department of Cardiology Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad. Inclusion criteria were patients admitted with a diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy diagnosed clinically and confirmed by echocardiography. Exclusion criteria were cases with multiple pregnancies, smokers, those with chronic hypertension and chronic renal disease or diabetes. We assessed patients for pre-eclampsia. Outcome measures studied were serious maternal complications like Pulmonary oedema, Cardiogenic shock, intensive care unit admission, and death.

Results:  During one year study period, there were 71 cases of peripartum cardiomyopathy. The mean age of patients was 29.77±6.8 years. Pre-eclampsia was seen in 62% cases of Peripartum cardiomyopathy. Mean ejection fraction was 33.24±6.49. In patients of PPCM, serious maternal complications including cardiogenic shock 11(15.5%) cases, intensive care unit admission 10(14.1%) cases, pulmonary oedema 35(49.3%) cases and prolonged hospitalization 58(81.7%) cases. 

Conclusion: We conclude that pre-eclampsia has high prevalence in patients with PPCM. Both when combined, significantly increase the chances of serious maternal complications including death.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Agmatine on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by Type 2 Diabetes in Rats

Samar F. Miski, Mai A. Alim A. Sattar Ahmad, Ahmed Esmat

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 127-134
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31671

Aim: To determine the potential hepatoprotective effect of Agmatine (AGM) on NAFLD-induced by Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rats.

Study design:  Forty male Wistar rats weighing from (200 -250 g) were distributed at random into five groups (8 rats per group): group 1 as control; group 2 as untreated-T2DM; groups 3 & 4 as T2DM cotreated with AGM (40 & 80 mg/kg/d), while group 5 T2DM cotreated with Silymarin (100 mg/kg/d).

Place and duration of study: Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, king Abdul-Aziz University; between October 2020 and January 2021.

Methodology: A rat model of T2DM with NAFLD complication was established by feeding rats with 10% fructose in drinking water and intraperitoneally injecting them with a single low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (45mg/kg). The fasting blood glucose was detected, serum levels of hepatic biomarkers were all assessed. Moreover, histopathological examination was performed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining.

Results: STZ induced T2DM in rats causes a significant (p<0.05, n=8) rise in serum levels of FBG, ALT, AST, TB, TC, TG, and LDL in comparison with the corresponding control group. Co-treatment with AGM (40 & 80 mg/kg) and silymarin significantly alleviated hyperglycemia and amended hepatic biomarkers that was reflected on improved histopathological changes.

Conclusion: The current data suggest that oral AGM co-treatment could have a hepatoprotective effect against T2DM associated with NAFLD in rats. Further investigations are recommended to elucidate molecular mechanisms accountable for the useful effects of AGM on hepatocytes.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Identify Patterns of Drug Usage among Patients Who Seek Care in Psychiatry Outpatient Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Mehrukh Zehravi, Rubeena Maqbool, Mudasir Maqbool, Irfat Ara

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 135-140
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31673

Background: An examination of drug use is done in a particular setting, searching for drug use that isn't fair. At the population level, the use of psychotropic drugs for mental illness can be an effective way of identifying and tracking the level of treatment for these conditions. They also provide information on ethical drug use, informed by the currently available information on a medication's benefits and risks.

Objective: A major objective of the research was to gather data on patterns of drug use in the psychiatry outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India.

Methodology: The drug use research was performed in a tertiary care hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir, India, in a psychiatry outpatient clinic. This research was observational, cross_sectional, and open_ended in nature. All patients who attended the Psychiatry OPD and fulfilled the inclusion criteria over the course of a six_month cycle were included in the study.

Results: Over a period of six months, 600 patients from the psychiatry outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India were assessed. All patients were classified into seven age groups: up to 14 years old (A), 15 to 25 years old (B), 26 to 35 years old (C), 36 to 45 years old (D), 46 to 55 years old (E), 56 to 65 years old (F), and over 65 years old (G). Clonazepam was the most commonly prescribed medication (152 cases), followed by olanzapine (132 cases), lorazepam (105 cases), and escitalopram (92 cases).

Conclusion: Measuring drug use in treatment centres not only explains drug use rates and prescribing behaviour, but it also helps in the identification of causes of polypharmacy and the problems associated with it. Making a habit of setting standards and gauging the quality of clinical treatment using performance feedback should become standard clinical protocol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceptions of Athletes about Usage of Painkiller Medications for Fatigue Slackening during Sport Trainings

Saeed Javed, Abida Naseer, Sajjad Ali Gill, Fehmida Ayub, Abd Rahim Mohd Shariff, Badar Mohy ud Din, Usman Ibn Sonfada, Imran U. Khan, Faryal Gul, Qasid Naveed, Waheed Javed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 141-145
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31674

Objective: The purpose of the present research was to find out the perceptions of athletes about the usage of painkiller medications for fatigue relief while their sport trainings.

Methodology: The data was collected from the athletes (n-80) having vast sport experiences who belonged to two public sector universities through online questionnaires. Afterwards, the collected data was edited into SPSS (v.26) and further analyzed the responses through descriptive statistics.

Results: The majority of the athletes affirmed their intake of painkiller medications for the purpose of getting relief to their working group of muscles without claiming any harm or threat physically.

Conclusion: These painkillers may be a source of less fatigue and provision of better blood flow to the working muscles of the athletes. Therefore, the athletes should use the painkillers with consultation of the doctor so that they may save themselves from their side effects if any.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Performance of IHI Global Trigger Tool in Identification of Adverse Drug Events: A Prospective Observational Study

Narayana Goruntla, Krishna Yasaswini Nitturi, Krishnapriya Pujari, Lavanya Jayanthi, Venkata Ramana Gurram, Kasturi Vishwanathasetty Veerabhadrappa, Pradeepkumar Bhupalam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 146-156
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31675

Aims: The study aims to evaluate the performance of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) global trigger tool in the identification of adverse drug events.

Study design: Prospective observational study.

Place and duration of study: The study was conducted in a General Medicine department of a secondary care referral hospital located in rural, resource-limited settings of Bathalapalli, Anantapur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study was conducted for a period of six months, from June 2019 to November 2019.

Methodology: A pre-designed data collection form was used to collect the data from the study participants. The required data was obtained from the patient case sheet, lab reports, treatment charts, daily nursing notes, daily physician notes, and direct patient interviews. The global trigger tool developed by IHI was used for the rapid review of inpatient medical records and to generate clues for the identification of ADEs. Descriptive statistics were used to represent the findings of demographics, clinical characteristics, ADE profiles, IHI triggers, and clinical alterations. ADE incidence was shown in a measure of ADE per 1000 patient days. IHI global trigger tool performance in detecting ADE was measured by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value.

Results: A total of 192 patients were enrolled in the study. Among them, 225 triggers and 123 ADEs were detected. The incidence of ADEs in the inpatients estimated by the IHI method was estimated as; 20.2 ADEs per 1000 patient days,64.0ADEs per 100 admissions, 56.2percent of admissions with ADE. Majority of ADEs are shown possible relationship with drug (60; 48.7%), level-2 severity (49; 39.8%), and not preventable (52; 42.2%). Most IHI global triggers showed high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for detecting ADEs.

Conclusion: The study shows that most of the triggers in the IHI Trigger tool have shown good accuracy in identifying ADEs. Thus, using the IHI Trigger Tool to identify ADEs can help to improve patient safety. Therefore, the study recommends incorporating IHI global trigger tool in routine, conventional ADE screening techniques to improve the detection rate and promote drug safety.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Characteristics of Urogenital Fistulas in PMCH Nawabshah: A Cross-sectional Study

Aneela Tehzeen, Hazooran Lakhan, Shazia Awan, Mona Rani, Shahida Baloch, Muhammad Ali Suhail, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 157-163
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31676

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of urogenital fistulas reported at PMCH Nawabshah. 

Methodology: A cross-sectional study, concluded in three years from January 2018 to December, 2020 in all ages patients with urogenital fistulas (UGF). The referred cases of UGF to gynecology and Urology Departments of the PMCH Nawabshah. The females with UGF results after elective caesarean section and gynecologic surgery including hysterectomy, prolapse repair and myomectomy were included whereas patients with UGF results due to other operative measures which includes emergency caesarian section, traumatic and congenital were excluded from this study. The data were analyzed thru SPSS version 22.0.

Results: Total 247 patients were included in present study. The age of patients were 20 years to 66 years with mean age 38.99+SD7.992. Frequency and percentages of different variables that were included in this study were for the demographic and co morbidities. Majority of patients were from rural setup, house wives having low education profile, belonging to low socioeconomically and educational status. DM and HTN were the common co-morbidities observed in study population. The different frequencies and percentages were calculated for the different surgical procedure adopted before the development of fistulas, UVF and OF was assessed in different procedures. Hysterectomies was most common surgical procedure than C/S and others. P value was statistically insignificant here 0.696. Wound infections were also seen in post operated cases with high ratios due to contaminations; wound infection was present in 20.6% cases, which was very high.

Conclusion: Present study revealed that the many of urogenital fistulas treated and repaired patients at our hospital setup, associated with iatrogenic obstetric origin and no any patients of UGF associated with obstructed laboras it is contrasting with other developing countries. Recorded fistulas were cured after the first surgical repair.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Validated Reversed-Phase HPLC Analytical Method for the Analysis of Rosuvastatin Calcium in Bulk Drug and Tablet Dosage Formulation

Awdhut Pimpale, Rajendra Kakde

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 164-171
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31677

Aims: The current research work has desired the validated reversed-phase analytical technique for the assurance of rosuvastatin calcium in bulk and tablet formulation.

Study design: Experimental research work.

Place and duration of study: UDPS, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur, Maharashtra State, India between June 2019 and March 2020.

Methodology: The segregation was obtained on a reversed-phase Princeton (C18) column with dimensions (250mm × 4.6mm, 5μ). The solvent system employed was a mixture of buffer, and methanol in the proportion (20:80) v/v, flow rate one ml per minute. Detection wavelength at 240 nm. The retention time (RT)beneath the developed chromatographic condition was found to be 2.848 minutes for rosuvastatin calcium.

Results: The technique indicates linearity within the range of 2-16 µg per ml with a correlation coefficient (r2) is 0.9999. The analysis of marketed tablet formulations was erect to be 99.98%. The percentage RSD was ˂2% and % recovery was found to be 97.94-100.37%.

Conclusion: The advanced reversed-phase HPLC technique was erect to be simple, specific, linear, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise, economical, and can be utilized for daily quality control of rosuvastatin calcium in tablet and bulk formulations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Characterization of Pioglitazone Nanoparticles for the Effective Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

Revathi A. Gupta, P. Odaya Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 172-182
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31678

Pioglitazone is designated as a BCS class II medication since it is weakly water soluble.The goal of this study was to create starch nanoparticles for the administration of Pioglitazone in attempt to lessen dose-related side effects and maybe prolong its release in the treatment of diabetes.Using starch as a polymer, tween 80 as a stearic barrier, and citric acid to enhance stability, nanoparticles were constructed using the solvent evaporation technique. In-vitro characterization techniques for drug-polymer compatibility, size, surface morphology, encapsulation efficacy, and delivery properties were performed on framed nanoparticles, followed by In-vivo studies.The compatible nature of selected excipients for the manufacture of Pioglitazone nanoparticles was shown by FTIR findings.The results of the XRD analysis revealed that the generated Pioglitazone nanoparticles were non-crystalline in nature.The selected developed Pioglitazone nanoparticles were in cubic phase with average particle size of 160.5 ± 11.24–245.4 ± 15.96 nm with charge ranging from 10.5 ± 6.21-138.6 ± 5.31mV.The encapsulation efficiency of Pioglitazone nanoparticles produced ranged from 57.24 5.80 to 89.96 1.9%. The In-vitro drug release studies of Pioglitazone nanoparticles showed controlled drug release profile. Furthermore, In-vivo investigations on blood glucose profiles revealed that the created Pioglitazone nanoparticles for the treatment of diabetes mellitus had a substantial effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Green Tea on Obesity and Type-II Diabetes Mellitus Male Individuals

Tazeen Shah, Saira Dars, Saima Ashfaque Sheikh, Farheen Shaikh, Shafaq Ansari, Naheed Akhtar, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 183-187
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31679

Objective: To evaluate the effects of Green tea on obesity and hyperglycemia.

Methodology: This observational study was carried out at the department of physiology, in affiliation to Medical Research Centre Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro. The sample was collected by convenient random sampling. Total 100 participants, 50 controls and 50 obese diabetics were enrolled. Informed written consent was taken from participants. The body mass index (BMI) of the participants was taken at the time of recruitment, and later at 16 weeks of consuming green tea. The serum glucose levels were assessed by fasting (FBS) and random blood sugar (RBS) levels, and HbA1C. The levels of serum Blood glucose were obtained with the glucose oxidase method. Data analysis was done on SPSS 21.0, analysis of variables was done by applying student t-test, the p-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant.

Results:100 participants recruited out of which 50 controls and 50 obese diabetics men, it was found that the prolong consumption of green tea for 16 weeks with 20-30 minutes’ walk had statistically significant declined in FBS, RBS, HbA1c, and BMI in the obese diabetic subjects, as compared to the controls.

Conclusion: This study concludes that the green tea has positive effect in reducing the total body weight and BMI and helps in maintaining the normoglycemic levels in Type 2 DM.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Effect of Different Plant Extracts against Phytopathogenic Fungi Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum Isolated from Tomato Plant

Haytham M. Daradka, Abdelrahman Saleem, Wael Abdulghani Obaid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 188-197
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31681

The antifungal activity of 10 plant extracts was tested against the phytopathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum, the pathogens of early blight and wilt diseases of tomato. Plants tested related to different families. Three doses (10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) of plant extracts were assayed on A. alternata and F. oxysporum by measuring the inhibition zone of mycelial growth of fungi by disc-diffusion method on the Potato dextrose agar (PDA). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of plant extracts were determined. The inhibitory effect of plant extracts ranged from 10-29 and 12-31 mm against A. alternata and F. oxysporum, respectively. The extracts of Pulicaria crispa and Olea chrysophylla were the most effective antifungal followed by Citrullus colocynthis, Psiadia arabica and Otostegia fruticosa. These plant extracts contain biologically active major compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. The remaining plant extracts did not emerge any inhibitive effect on tested fungi. The MIC and MFC of plant extracts ranged 6–38, 7-34 and 28-56, 22-50 mg/ml for A. alternata and F. oxysporum, respectively. Therefore, these plant extracts have biologically active compounds and have a potential to control fungal phytopathogens in agricultural crops.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vivo and In vitro Antifungal Activity of 2,3-Dimethylquinoxline

Abdelbagi Alfadil, Hamoud A. Alsamhan, Ahmed S. Ali, Huda M. Alkreathy, Mohammad W. Alrabia, Hani Y. Abdullah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 198-207
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31684

Aims: To explore the antifungal activity of 2,3-dimethylquinoxaline.

Study Design: A preclinical study of a compound against 10 fungal species.

Backgrounds: Severe fungal infections cause significant clinical problem and need more effort to search for new antifungals.

Methodology: We evaluated the susceptibility of 2,3-dimethylquinoxaline in vitro against a wide range of pathogenic fungi, including six Candida species, two Aspergillus species, one Cryptococcus species, and one Trichophyton species. Also, we evaluated the susceptibility of 2,3-dimethylquinoxaline in vivo against oral candidiasis using a mice model.

Results: The highest score of the minimum inhibitory concentration was 9 µg/ml against Cryptococcus neoformans. While, the lowest score was 1125 µg/ml against Candida tropicalis. The oral candidiasis in a mouse model was resolved using 2,3-dimethylquinoxaline 1% gel.

Conclusion: The 2,3-Dimethyquinoxaline has interesting antifungal activity. Quinoxalines in general need to be further developed as a promising antifungal candidate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytopharmacological Assessment of Some Medicinal Plants of Thal Desert of Pakistan

Zunaira Khalid, Ghulam Yasin, Adeela Altaf, Syeda Amna Batool, Asma Kanwal, Sobia Sohail

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 217-226
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31687

The presence of secondary metabolites and various ions in a plant determines its phytophamacological potential. Desert plants are adapted to stressful environmet by synthesizing secondary metabolites and ions accumulation as osmoticum.The present study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacological potential of Thal desert plants in term of their metabolites and nutrient ions concentrations. Five specimens of seasonally available herbs and three of trees of Thal desert plants were colected. After collection specimens were analysed for alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, sugar and ion contents. The data were analyzed statistically and means were compared by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Among the herbs Panicum antidotale root showed highest terpenoid, K+ ion and Ca+ ion contents. The herb Aerva javanica stem showed lowest alkaloid, tannin, soluble sugar, phosphorus, potassium and calcium contents. Among trees specimens, Tamarix aphylla leaves showed highest soluble sugar, phosphorous, potassium and calcium contents. Stem of Acacia modesta showed the lowest alkaloid, terpenoid, phosphorous and potassium contents.

Open Access Review Article

Recent Advances in Elastic Liposomes: Current Status and Future Perspective

Ravika Nanda, Raman Deep Singh Narang, Anmoldeep Kaur, . Mehak, . Karanbir, Jasjeet Kaur Narang

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-69
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i31A31664

Elastic liposomse (ELs) are the flexible liposomes formulated using phospholipids as well as edge activators. Edge activators provide elasticity to the Els. Els provide advantages over other formulations and have the ability to be delivered by different routes such as topical, transdermal, nasal, ocular, etc. Potential of encapsulating not only lipophillic but also hydrophillic drugs in a single vesicle, ability to pass through channels 1/10th of their diameter, increase in drug permeation, enhanced solubility of drug, patient compliance, prevention of degradation of drug makes them efficient carriers of drugs and leads to increased interest of researchers in them. This review provides understanding of composition of Els, advantages, method of preparation and the adaptable role played by ELs in the administration of numerous drugs for different diseases.