Open Access Study Protocol

A comparative Clinical Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Anuvasan Basti with Brahatchaglyadi Ghritam and Guggulutiktam Ghritam in the management of Gridhrasi (Sciatica): A Study Protocol

Arun Kumar Gupta, Shweta Parwe, Trupti Gupta, Milind Nisargandha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 119-136
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31623

Background: Gridhrasi is such a Ruja Pradhaana Vatavyadhi. In Gridhrasi intense shooting pain characteristically radiates from Sphika (gluteal region) to Pada (foot). Based on symptoms of Gridhrasi, it can be equated with the disease sciatica in modern science. The lifetime incidence of low back pain is 50-70%, with Sciatica more than 40%. Charaka has considered Basti therapy as half of the disease's treatment, while some authors consider it as the complete remedy for all the ailments. Basti is one of the unique procedures explained for the management of Vatavyadhi (Neurological Disorder) where Gridhrasi (Sciatica) is being the predominant of Vata dosha, Basti is being used widely for the management of Gridhrasi (Sciatica). Therefore we have taken the Basti modality for the treatment of Gridhrasi (Sciatica). Hence the study is carried to evaluate the effect of Anuvasanbasti with Brihachagalyadi Ghritam & Guggulutiktaka Ghritam in the management of Gridhrasi (Sciatica).

Aims and Objectives: Evaluate Anuvasan Basti's efficacy with Brihatchagalyadi Ghritam & Guggulutiktaka Ghritamin the control of Gridhrasi (Sciatica) and to compare the effectiveness of Brihachagalyad Ghritam & Guggulutiktak Ghritam Anuvasan Basti in the direction of Gridhrasi. Methodology: Procedure: This study, a total of 66 patients, will be separated haphazardly divided into 2 groups (33 in each). In Group A (Interventional Group)- will Treat with Brihachagalyadi Ghritam as an Anuvasan Basti in increasing dose pattern for nine days and Group B (Control Group ) –patients will Treat with Guggulutiktaka Ghritam as an Anuvasanbasti in increasing dose pattern for nine days. The evaluation will be recorded on 0 and 9thday.

Conclusion: It may be more beneficial and more effective in pain as well as other subjective and objective parameters.

Open Access Study Protocol

Comparative Assessment of Kukkutanda Pinda Sweda and Patra Pinda Sweda in the Management of Manyastambha (Cervical Spondylosis) - A Study Protocol

Vivek Kumar Verma, Shweta Parwe, Milind Nisargandha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 137-145
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31624

Background: At the present time, human beings are easily prone to get several degenerative disorders because of their stressful and reckless lifestyle. 'Manyastambha' is one such lifestyle disorder instigated from excessive use of vehicle, excessive travelling, continuous sitting and working for hours, jobs that require heavy lifting or a lot of bending and twisting, lack of exercise, unhealthy food habits and suppression of natural urges. Thus the avoidance is not possible, and a better curative area is to be identified. Ayurveda suggested many treatments for Vata vyadhi. The cervical problems mimic the Vata disorders. Thus the Vata managements of Kukkutanda pinda Sweda and Patrapinda Sweda through local apply manya-pradesh are better management for the identified clinical condition Manyastambha (Cervical Spondylosis) in the present study.

Aim: studies the effect of Kukkutand Pinda Sweda and Patra Pinda Sweda and compare the impact of both procedure in the management of Manyastambha (Cervical Spondylosis).

Objectives: To Comparative assessment of Kukkutanda Pinda Sweda and Patra Pinda Sweda in the Management of Manyastambha (Cervical Spondylosis). And to compare the effect of Kukkutanda pinda Sweda and Patra Pinda Sweda on pain, stiffness in neck bones and joints and X-rays Cervical spine and Goniometer Study.

Methodology: In this study, 60 patients will be divided randomly into two groups (30 in each). In Group (A) –Kukkutanda pinda Sweda will be externally administered a day at morning for 15-20 minutes or samyak swinna lakshan for 7 days. In Group (B) – Patra pinda Sweda will be externally administered a day at morning for 15-20 minutes or samyak swinna lakshan for 7 days, and an assessment will be recorded on 0 and 7th and 15th day.

Results: Changes will be observed in objective outcomes.

Conclusion: Based on the result conclusion will be drawn.

Open Access Study Protocol

A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of Lekhana Basti and Modified Vachadi Gana Basti in Combination with Navaka Guggulu in Sthaulya (Obesity) -A Study Protocol

Amiya Bhonsle, Shweta Parwe, Milind Nisargandha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 154-161
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31626

Background: Sthoulya described as Obesity occurs due to the vitiation of Kapha & Vata. The signs and symptoms of Sthoulya can be correlated with Obesity. This has been said in Ayurveda and Sthaulya purusha (Obese person) is considered one of the nindita Purusha. Lekhaniya gana contains the drugs like Triphala, Shatpushpa, Madhu (Honey), Ushaka, Kasis, Tuttha, Shilajit, Saindhava (Salt), Yavakshar, Gomutra (Cow Urine) which are having specially lekhaniya (Scraping) properties, Kapha and Meda (fat) hara property, in sthaulya increased kapha and meda (fat) is seen, the medicine having these lekhaniya property helps to scrap the excess fat from the body so this medicine is helpful to reduce fat. While Modified Vachadi Gana (Group of herbs) contains Devdaru (Cedrus Deodara), Shunthi (Zingiber Officinale), Vacha (Acorus Calamus), Haritaki (Terminalia Chebula), Ativisha (Aconitum Heterophyllum), Nagarmotha (Cyperus Rotundus), Ushaka, Kasis (Ferrous Sulfate), Tuttha (Blue Vitriol), Shilajit (Asphaltum), Saindhava (salt), Yavakshar (Hordeum Vulgare), Modified Vachadi gana having  vata and kapha hara property & Lekhaniya (Scraping)  property both.   So it is used in vata kaphaja vikara like sthaulya so to treat it vata kapha reducing medicine is to use. Modified Vachadi Gana having those above properties apart from that also having lekhaniya property. Hence, it also helps to scrap the excess fat from the body, so this medicine is helpful to reduce fat.

Aim: To study the effect of Lekhana Basti & Modified Vachadi Gana Basti along with Navak Guguulu  in sthoulya (Obesity).

Objectives: To study the impact of Lekhana Basti on body mass index, body circumference measurements, skinfold thickness, lipid profile, To study the impact of Vachadi gana yoga basti (Modified) on body mass index, body circumference measurements, skinfold thickness & lipid profile, To compare the efficacy of Lekhana Basti and Modified Vachadi Gana basti on body mass Index, body circumference measurements, skinfold thickness & lipid profile.

Materials and Methods: A total of 35 patients will be selected in each group from the outpatient department of Panchakarma MGACH & RC. Basti will be done in Yog basti pattern. In Group A, Lekhana Basti & In Group B, Modified Vachadi Basti will be used. After Basti Krama 16 Days, Parihara Kala is to be given.

Conclusion: Based on the result conclusion will be drawn.

Open Access Study Protocol

Protocol on Comparative Clinical Efficacy of Tryushanadi Guggul and Navaka Guggul in Sthoulya (Overweight)

Ashvini Dineshrao Pardhekar, Sadhana Misar(Wajpeyi), Vinod Ade

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 169-175
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31628

Background: Sthoulya is Medovaha Strotodushtijanya vyadhi, which includes abnormal and excessive accumulation of Medodhatu in the body. This is caused by lack of physical and mental activity, daytime sleep, excessive intake of madhur (sweet), snigdha ahar (oily diet) results in  increase Kaphadosha and meda which results in Sthoulya (overweight) having symptoms of mild dysponea, thirst, drowsiness, excess sleep, appetite, offensive smell from the body, incapability to work and incapability to participate in sexual intercourse.

Aim: Comparative clinical efficacy of Tryushanadi Guggul and Navaka Guggul in Sthoulya (overweight).

Materials and methods: Total 60 patients of Sthoulya will enrolled and will divided into two groups (each group contains 30). Patients in group A (experimental group) will be given 1 gram Tryushanadi Guggul two times a day after meal with honey and in group B (control group)1 gram Navaka Guggul will administered two times a day after meal with honey for 30 days. Dietary changes and walking (30 minutes) will be advised to patients of both groups. Follow up will be taken on 15th day and 30th day. Assessment of subjective parameters like kshudrashwasa (exertional dyspnoea), swedadhikya (perspiration), atikshudha (increased appetite), nidradhikya (increased sleep) and objective parameters like body weight, B.M.I., mid arm circumference, waist-hip ratio and lipid profile will be done before and after treatment.

Results: Subjective and objectives outcomes will be assessed by statistical analysis.

Conclusion: It will be drawn from the result obtained.

Open Access Study Protocol

Research Protocol for Assessment of Solitary and Combined effect of Guduchi and Punarnava on Structural and Functional Changes of Ageing in Liver and Kidney in Wistar Rats

Kalpana Tawalare, Pradnya Dandekar, Priti Desai, Kiran Tawalare

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 187-193
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31630

Background: The liver and kidney play a central role in metabolic and detoxification processes leads to structural degeneration of organs with aging, which may hamper the functional ability of these organs. Acharya charaka suggests to use drugs of vayasthapana mahakashaya in different combinations to prevent ageing. Guduchi (Tinospora cardifolia) and punarnava (Boerhavia diffusa) are two drugs chosen to evaluate the solitary and combined effect on structural and functional changes in liver and kidney of Wistar rat.

Materials and Methods: After identification and phytochemical study of test drugs, the 32 healthy, male rats of 18 months will be divided into four different groups, with eight rats in each group. 1st to 4th group will receive distilled water, guduchi kwath, punarnava kwath, guduchi and punarnava kwath respectively for 30 consecutive days at the rate of 8.1ml/kg dose, orally. Before administration of control drug and test drug blood sample assessment will be done for LFT, KFT, and SOD level. The same investigation will be repeated after one month trial period. Then after 60 days,120 days and 180 days, two animals from each group will be sacrificed, organs such as liver and kidney will be extracted and preserved for histopathological study, and blood samples will be collected for investigation. The remaining animals will be returned to the animal house for their reuse.

Expected Results: Guduchi and punarnava may provide strength to liver and kidney and thus helpful in delaying degenerative changes of organs.

Open Access Minireview Article

Diagnosis of Dysglycemia in Diabetic Patients in Primary Health Care

Mohammed Ibrahim Habadi, Muslima Muaidh Alrashidi, Ibrahiem Fahad Mutaki, Khaznah Awad Alshammari, Jawaher Hussain Alothayqi, Abdassalam Fhid Alenezi, Saeed Ahmad Hethwell, Yasser Meshal Alruwaily, Yasir Awadh Allah Aloufi, Turki Ramadan Almulla, Malak Abduallah Al-Bogami

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31609

An early diagnosis of diabetes is a cornerstone for achieving the best prognostic outcomes. The potential complications take time to develop. For this reason, diabetic patients, especially type 2 are usually diagnosed with the disease after complications have been arisen. Dysglycemia is a term that has been used to describe the fluctuations in the plasma glucose levels, including the high (hyperglycemia) and low (hypoglycemia) levels, and can also refer to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Many modalities have been developed to assess plasma glucose levels. Studies have shown that advantages and disadvantages are reported for each modality when assessing dysglycemia and screening for diabetes. The aim of this review is to discuss the previously reported diagnostic approaches of dysglycemia among diabetic patients according to the existing published studies in the literature. The study is related to the following: the 50-g oral glucose challenge test, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, random blood sugar, and oral glucose tolerance tests in the assessment of the blood glucose fluctuating levels. Based on the findings, it is recommended that HbA1c levels assessment should be simultaneously conducted with the random and fasting blood glucose tests to decide which patients are required to perform an OGTT. Moreover, HbA1c tests might not be affordable in some healthcare settings although they are important indicators of long-term glycemic control.

Open Access Minireview Article

Effective Anesthesia during Various Manipulations in Maxillofacial Surgery and in Dental Practice: Overview of Medicines

Ripsime Armenovna Davtyan, Mariya Vladimirovna Khamarova, Alexander Markov, Vitaly Viktorovich Goncharov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 91-96
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31619

In the practice of modern specialists of maxillofacial surgery and dentists, the use of local anesthetics is a necessary condition for comfortable medical manipulations. Accordingly, in order to achieve the medical goals, it is necessary to make a competent choice of anesthetic medicines. Most often, drugs that are used contain amides, the method of administration of which is blocking or infiltration anesthesia.

The specialist should take into account that not all patients will always have the same effective response to a particular local anesthetic, for this reason, it is necessary to constantly update information about modern local anesthetics in order to apply them in medical practice.

The aim of the work is to review the medicines used for local anesthesia both in the practice of dentists and maxillofacial surgeons when providing care for the patients over the age of 18.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anticancer, Anticollagenase and in Silico Docking Studies of Anethum sowa L. Herb Oil against HCT 116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line

Divya Joseph Pereira, B. S. Mahanash Kumar, Prashantha Karunakar, Seema Tharannum

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31608

Aim: Anethum sowa L. isan aromatic plant with pharmacological potential. The chemical composition and the therapeutic of Anethum sowa L. herb oil grown in South Karnataka is very few; moreover, its essential oil and extract together is not being studied and compared for its effects on colon cancer cell lines HCT -116 and anti collagense study .

Methods: The current investigation was intended to sight see the incidence of components present in the herb oil examined by (GC-MS), antioxidant , antimicrobial , anticancer & anticollagenase potential was investigated and further the insilco docking studies to unleash the potential drug like molecules in the therapeutic plant was studied .

Results: 5-Oxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-c]pyridine-3-propionic acid methyl ester, (17.41%),beta-Amyrin(8.20),ritodrine(6.49),1-Naphthalenol,decahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(methylethylidene)-,[1R-(1.alpha.4a.beta,8a.alpha)](2.39%),meta-Cymene(1.95%),trans-z-alpha-Bisabolene epoxide (1.80), and Viridiflorol(0.77%) were the new compounds isolated from this therapeutic plant, and Anethum sowa L. herb ethanolic extract contained many potential phytochemicals. The total phenol and flavonoid of the herb extract were 0.136mg/ml. and 0.108mg/ml respectively . Anethum sowa L. herb extract ABTS antioxidant assay showed excellent activity with an IC50 of 540µg/ml which was in power with gallic acid which showed an IC 50 of 393µg/ml. Essential oil of Anethum sowa L. herb exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against all the three microorganisms E-coli strain (MTCC 433), Klebsiella pneumoniae strain (MTCC 3384) Streptococcusmutants strain (MTCC 497) with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 20% herb oil . Cytotoxicity of Anethum sowa L.herb essential oil and ethanolic extract against Colon cancer cell lines – HCT -116 , showed that herb oil and herb ethanolic extract repressed the cell growth of the cell . Herb oil with an IC50 79.75µg/ml was more effective than the herb extract . Herb essential oil showed the maximum capacity in inhibiting the collagenase when compared to ethanolic extract of herb, the percentage of inhibition of Anethum sowa L. herb essential oil was found to be 60.89% and that of herb extract was (15.18%).

Conclusion: Herb oil showed very good anticancer, antimicrobial and anticollagenase activity and by the In silico docking performed between the compounds present in the herb oil, MAI-150 and APC of Homo sapiens, it was found that lupeol showed the highest binding affinity with APC when compared with MAI-150 and rest other compounds present in the herb oil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study to Determine the Incidence of High HbA1c in Patients with Ischemic Stroke at Bilawal Medical College, Kotri, Sindh, Pakistan

Atif Ahmed, Kuldeep Poorani, Mohammad Amjad Kalhoro, Nisar Ahmed Khokar, Abdul Ghaffar Dars

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31610

Aim: To study the incidence of HbA1c elevation in patients with ischemic stroke whose blood glucose levels were normal within the last six months.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration: This cross-sectional study of the 96 patients with cerebral ischemic disease selected from the internal medicine department of Bilawal medical college Hospital Kotri, Sindh, Pakistan for one-year duration from August 2019 to August 2020.

Methods: Crossectional study was conducted in the internal medicinal department of Bilawal Medical college Hospital, Kotri Sindh, Pakistan for the period of one year from August 2019 to August 2020. Total 96 study subjects were selected with cerebral ischemic disease, 62 were males and 34 were females. Many factors such as age more than 20 years, ischemic stroke and RBG (Random Blood Glucose) were also evaluated from each participant. SPSS 23.00 version was used for statistical analysis of research data.

Results: 57.01 ± 13.4 years was the mean age of the patients. 62 (64.6%) patients were male and 34 (35.4%) were female. The male to female ratio was 2:1. HbA1c was elevated in 35 (36.5%) of 96 patients, while 61 (63.5%) had normal HbA1c.  The distribution of HbA1c elevation by gender showed that 20 (57.1%) patients with elevated HbA1c were men and 15 (42.9%) were women. Forty-three (70.5%) of 61 patients with normal HbA1c were male and 18 (29.5%) were female.

Conclusion: it was concluded that glycated haemoglobin plays an important role for reducing the macro complication of Diabetes and the major macro complication observed was cerebral ischemic stroke among the people with elevated HbA1c.

Open Access Original Research Article

Advancing Computer-Aided Drug Discovery (ACADD): In-Silico Approach towards Nuclear Receptors by Big Data

K. Palaniammal, M. Saravana Roentgen Mani, R. Mohan Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-46
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31612

The progression of drug discovery and development is time consuming and costly. Advancing Computer-aided drug discovery (ACADD) is an effective tool in reducing the time and cost of research and development. This study deals with the evaluation of the nuclear receptors for the in-silico biological activity using ligand betulinic acid and dexamethasone. Docking results showed that binding energy was -74.190 kcal/mol when compared with that of the standard (-51.551 kcal/mol). Interaction energy -44.16 & -25.14 kcal/mol) of the ligands also coincide with the binding energy. These ligands have shown the best ligand-receptor interaction based on their structural parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Level of Keratoconus Awareness among the Saudi Population in Riyadh

Turad Alkadi, Shahad Alruwaili, Shahd Al Mahfud, Fahad Alomair

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 47-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31613

Aims: This study aims to reveal misconceptions about keratoconus, to assess the level of knowledge among Saudi nationals and to compare the level of awareness of keratoconus between affected and unaffected individuals.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online survey on a study population that consisted of Saudi nationals over the age of 18 from November until December 2020 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to assess the level of knowledge of keratoconus among the Saudi population.

Results: Three hundred and ten responses were obtained, the age range of the participants was between 18 to 50 years oldof which 182 were females and 128 were males. Thirty percent of participants stated that they had acquired their knowledge of keratoconus from the internet, while 29% stated that they had no knowledge of keratoconus at all. The majority of the sample (38.4%) had a high level of knowledge about keratoconus, 31.3% had a moderate level of knowledge and 30.3% had a low level of knowledge. A significant correlation between the level of knowledge and the diagnosis of keratoconus was found, in which keratoconus patients had a higher level of knowledge (44.2%) (p value < .05). Moreover, males (60.1%) had a higher level of awareness compared to females (23.1%) (p value < .05). Age had no significant effect on the level of knowledge (p value > .05).

Conclusion: The level of knowledge about keratoconus among the Saudi population in Riyadh is moderate to high. Keratoconus patients had a higher level of knowledge compared to unaffected participants. We recommend further assessment of the level of knowledge about keratoconus with a larger sample size in different provinces of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Salivary pH, Viscosity, Flow Rate in Children with and without Early Childhood Caries – An Observational Study

Dhanalakshmi Ravikumar, Pratibha Ramani, R. Gayathri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-60
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31614

Background and Objectives: Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is a chronic disease of childhood affecting the primary dentition. It is also termed as nursing caries or baby bottle tooth decay. It has a multifactorial etiology and salivary parameters are considered as one of the important etiological factors of ECC. The present study was done to compare the salivary pH, flow rate and viscosity in children with and without ECC.

Materials and Methods: It is a cross-sectional observational study conducted at Saveetha Dental college and Hospitals. Children between 3-6 years were examined and 20 caries free, 20 children with ECC and 20 children with Severe ECC were recruited for the study. The examination and sample collection were done by a single qualified Pediatric dentist. The samples were collected and analysed for salivary pH, flow rate and viscosity.

Results: The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences in salivary pH levels in children with and without ECC. Statistically significant difference was evident in salivary flow rate and viscosity in caries-free, moderate ECC and severe ECC children.


  1. There is no significant difference in salivary pH levels in children with and without ECC.
  2. There is a significant difference in salivary flow rate and viscosity among caries free, moderate ECC and Severe ECC children
  3. Higher flow rate and low viscosity results in reduced caries occurance

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Cardiac Patients Regarding Reversible Risk Factors

Faraz Qurban Rajper, Ali Qureshi, Ikram Ahmed Tunio, Sajid Ali Mojai, Muhammad Ilyas Siddiqui, Arslan Ahmer, Ayaz Unar, Khalida Unar, Tahseen Ahmed, Waqar Ahmed Sabzoi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 61-66
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31615

The major aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of numerous risk factors of cardio vascular disease among the local population of Sukkur district. Embracing of western culture and quick conversion of rural areas into urbanization leads to enhance the cardio vascular burden on the population of modern world. Developing countries has not enough medical facilities to overcome the burden of Cardio vascular Disease (CVD) and it is co-related with education and awareness about the cardiac disease.

Descriptive Crossectional study was carried out at National Institute of Cardio Vascular Disease (NICVD) Sukkur for the period of 06 months from July 2020 to December 2020. Total 186 patients were included in the study and the selection criteria for study subjects was depends on the different factors such as patients, who had admitted in the hospital for more than 03 days with positive Troponin T and disturbed ECG reports.  A well designed questionnaire was used for the collection of demographic and clinical data from the patients regarding research.

From the obtained data 123 were male patients and area of residency of mostly patients was rural areas. 39 patients complain about chest pain, 74 about shoulder pain, 44 had severe headache and 29 were presented with cardiac arrest. 109 patients were diagnosed with hypertension, 34 had Diabetes Mellitus, 26 had gastric issues. Trop T test was positive among 91 patients, 109 had disturbed ECG. 64 patients were aware about various risk factors of CVD.

In our research it was concluded that people of interior Sindh were unaware of modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease when presented with heart problem, most of the population even couldn’t identify the obesity, physical exercise, heavy diets and smoking as major reversible risk factors for CVD. Mass counseling and seminar should be conducted from time to time in order to overcome the raising issues of cardio vascular disease and its risk factors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Copper Status and Some Red Cell Parameters of Pregnant Women in Enugu State, South Eastern Nigeria

Richard Eze, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Arvin Nwakulite, I. L. Okoroiwu, C. C. N. Vincent, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Ejike Felix Chukwurah, Udunma Olive Chijioke, Chukwudi Ofodile Amaechi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 67-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31616

Copper is an essential trace mineral (micronutrient) that is naturally present in some foods and is available as a dietary supplement. Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.This study was desiged to assay the copper level of pregnant women in urban area and to evaluate  the effect of the obtained valves on some blood parameters of the pregnant women. In this study, a total of 100 subjects and 50 controls was used. subjects were pregnant women while the controls were non-pregnant women. The copper level in subject was assayed with a serum copper test kit using automation with Bio E-lab fully automated chemistry analyzer and result of the complete blood count was gotten using Mindray Hematology analyzer. The mean for subjects (M=102.83±1.38) and control (M=102.68±0.94), p = 0.71. These results suggest that the difference between the copper level for subjects and controls is not really much.. The variables copper level and MCV were found to be slightly correlated, r(150) = ..018., p > .005. Additionally, copper levels in the subjects was also found to negatively correlated with MCH, r(150) = .907, p > .005. One-way analysis of variance showed that the correlation of copper levels was not significant on all of the red bloodcell parameters in the serum of the pregnant women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mitigating the Psychological Impacts of COVID-19 in Southern Nigeria; Public Awareness of Routine Exercises and Preventive Measures

Eucharia Ijego Asogwa, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Okechukwu S. Abonyi, Chinyere Ori Elom, Ifeyinwa Chizoba Akamike, Dioma U Udeoji, Chukwuenyegom Joseph Egbumike, Elizabeth Ukamaka Agunwah, Clementina Nkiru Eze, Bessie Nonyeleum Esimai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31617

Psychological impacts of COVID-19 outbreak include anxiety and depression. These effects of the pandemic could be avoided by awareness of preventive measures to control the spread of the disease, and to prophylactic measure (routine exercise) to mitigate the psychological impacts of the pandemic. This study aimed at investigating the level of public awareness to the preventive and prophylactic measures against the psychological impacts of COVID-19 outbreak in southern Nigeria. A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted with 1200 community-dwelling working-class individuals were purposefully recruited from three states in the southern Nigeria. Data collected was analysed and presented in descriptive (Frequencies and percentages) and inferential (Chi-square) statistics. P-value was 0.05. Result showed that few respondents (34%) were aware of the preventive measures against psychological impacts due to COVID-19 widespread, through information got majorly from mass and social media. Majority (63%) of the respondents were aware of the efficacy of the prophylactic measure, routine exercises, to mitigating anxiety and depression due to COVID-19 pandemic. There was less public awareness of the effects of the preventive and prophylactic measures on the psychological impact of the pandemic in southern Nigeria. Thus, there is need for policy makers to broaden and strengthen awareness strategies on both measures to improve psychosocial wellbeing especially in the faces of endemic and pandemic.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hellp Syndrome and Heart Disease: A Cross Sectional Study in Jeddah- KSA

Hanyah Abdulhadi Al-Khify, Manal Abdulaziz Murad, Fatima Ibrahim Albeladi, Hoda Jehad Abousada, Issam Shams Muhanna, Sara Khaled Aljohani, Anwaar Ayedh Alharbi, Ghufran Mohammed Alshawmali, Ahmed Khairat Alkhairat, Baylasan Abed Alsahafi, Aseel Osama Murshid, Abdulaziz Sulaiman Alotaibi, Abdulmalik Ayed Alotaibi, Saad Abdullah Alqarni, Khawabai Abdu Abubaker

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 84-90
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31618

Background: HELLP is a potentially life-threatening conditions which has some similarity with preeclampsia therefore, it poses a challenging diagnostic and management issues for clinician. It is composed of H=hemolysis, EL=elevated liver enzymes and LP=low platelets. The aims of this study are to assess the prevalence of HELLP syndrome among Saudi Arabian, besides, assessing the risk factors related to it.

Methodology: This is an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in kingdom of Saudi Arabia (female who previously get pregnant) from 07/08/2020 till 29/11/2020. The study was depending on using of online questionnaire assessing demographic factors including age and nationality besides disease-related information: Heart disease, Smoker patient, related risk factors of disease and DM patient.

Results: We included 457 women who agreed to participate in the study and completed the questionnaire. 36.1% of participants were aged between 25-35 years. 13.3% of the sample had reported that they are smokers and 6.1% as X-smokers while 16.8% of the sample had diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of HELLP was 38.3%. It was found that age is not a significant factor in occurrence of HELLP symptoms except in having distribution of liver function (P=0.005). Cardiac diseases are another significant risk factor in developing symptoms of HELLP especially high blood pressure where 46% of patients with cardiac disease reported having high blood pressure during pregnancy with a risk of eight times over those with no cardiac disease (OR=8.03, 95% CI=4.2100 to 15.3, P=0.000) however, it has no significant effect on developing disturbance in liver function.

Conclusion: we had found the 38.3% of females in Saudi Arabia had HELLP in their pregnancy, with increase the prevalence of some other conditions including smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and autoimmune diseases which all found to increase the risk for developing HELLP in females. More investigation is needed to explore the same prevalence using hospital based study design.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Foeniculum vulgare on Hemoglobin, Red Blood Cell Indices and White Blood Cell Count: A Laboratory Based Randomized Controlled Study

Afshan Abbas, Rahila Ikram, Abeer Adil, Qurrat ul Ain Bukhari, Faiza Hasan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 97-102
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31620

Aims: Anemia is prime health issue of the population in developing region of world mostly due to dietary deficiencies and poor sanitation. Supplementary medicines as well as iron rich foods are utilized to combat this problem. Herbal products also have value in such diets. We evaluated role of Foeniculum vulgare incorporated diet on hemoglobin concentration and related indices.

Study Design: laboratory centred randomized controlled trial.

Place and Duration of Study: Pharmacology Department of University of Karachi, Karachi between June 2018 and September 2018.

Methodology: After selecting 30 healthy rabbits of either sex, we placed them in three groups; Control, 2% Foeniculum vulgare and 4% Foeniculum vulgare group. Control group, 2% and 4% Foeniculum vulgare groups were maintained on standard rodent diet, standard rodent diet containing 2% and 4% Foeniculum vulgare crushed seeds, respectively. Complete blood count of all rabbits was done twice after interval of a month.

Results: In comparison to control group, hemoglobin levels increased in both the study groups, while leucocyte count (WBC) increase was noted only in 4% Foeniculum vulgare group.

Conclusion: Foeniculum vulgare may have some role in maintenance of hemoglobin levels if not improving it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Salivary Protein Profile and Dietary Habits in Children With and Without Early Childhood Caries

Dhanalakshmi Ravikumar, Pratibha Ramani, R. Gayathri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 111-118
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31622

Background and objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the total salivary protein concentration and dietary habits in Caries-free, Early childhood Caries and Severe Early Childhood Caries children.

Materials and methods: The present study included Thirty children who were divided into three groups. They were further divided into Caries-free, Early childhood Caries and Severe Early Childhood Caries with 10 children in each group. Information was collected regarding oral hygiene practices, feeding habits and dietary pattern through a face-to-face interview with the parent/caretaker of the child. Unstimulated saliva was collected and total protein concentration was estimated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relative contributions of dietary and feeding patterns between children with and without ECC. ANOVA was done to identify the difference in mean protein concentration between the groups.

Results: Risk factors specific to the ECC group were Breast feeding <24 months (OR 2.1, 95% CI, 0.35-13.0), bottle feeding (21.0, 95% CI, 2.8-15.7), snacking more than 3 times per day (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.283-5.734), consumption of less protein diet (OR 4.1, 95% CI, 1.99-8.81), consumption of less milk products (2.33, 95% CI, 1.67-6.77). Results also revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in total protein concentration between Caries-free, Early childhood Caries and Severe Early Childhood Caries group.

Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, we can conclude that, Breast feeding less than 24 months, bottle feeding, snacking more than thrice per day, consuming low protein diet and low milk products had a high risk of developing ECC. There was no significant difference in the mean protein concentration between caries free, ECC and S ECC group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Androgenetic Alopecia as a Marker of Metabolic Syndrome

Faryal Hussain Memon, Abdul Ghani Rahimoon, Pardeep Kumar, Shahid Hussain Memon, Erum Siddiqui, Tarachand Devrajani, Samar Raza, Syed Zulfiquar Ali Shah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 146-153
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31625

Background: Alopecia induced by androgens in genetically predisposed individuals is termed as Androgenetic alopecia (AGA). There is proof appearance the relationship between Androgenetic alopecia and metabolic condition.

Objective: To determine frequency of metabolic syndrome in Androgenetic alopecia as a biomarker of disease in adult male patients.

Materials and methods: It was a Cross Sectional Study conducted at the Department of Dermatology, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Hospital, Jamshoro/Hyderabad.

Total 178 diagnosed male patients of Androgenetic alopecia were included. The grading of male pattern Androgenetic alopecia was done according to modified Norwood-Hamilton classification. Norwood-Hamilton Stage I-III were regarded to be mild to moderate and Stage IV and higher were regarded as severe. Vein was engorged by a tourniquet applied above the cubital fossa. Blood glucose levels were estimated. The level of triglycerides was determined. HDL-Cholesterol was estimated by a pre­cipitant method. Descriptive statistics were calculated using SPSS. Chi square tests were applied to determine the relationship of independent variables with metabolic syndrome.

Results: The overall mean age of the patients was 39.08±10.14 years. The mean waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and fasting blood glucose were 94.71±12.30 cm, 133.83±13.27 mg/dl, 48.10±7.89 mg/dl,102.94±17.67 mmHg, 76.88±8.56 mmHg, and 93.06±9.78 mg/dl respectively. A total of 10.1% of the patients were found to have metabolic syndrome. There was a significant association between metabolic syndrome and age and family income.

Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome was observed in 10.1% of the patients and this was more commonly found in: the age group >40 years, married individuals, low socioeconomic status individuals, and illiterate individuals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatoprotective Activity of Acampe praemorsa

Praveen Kumar Uppala, G. S. N. Koteswara Rao, A. Rajasekhar Reddy, K. Umasankar, C. Joshitha, Kanagala Anusha, Nadeem Siddiqui, Sarada Prasanna Mallick

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 162-168
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31627

Introduction: Liver is one of major functional organ in body, its damage can alter body metabolisms and other organs’ function. So, it is very important to maintain the healthy liver. Now a days, different chemicals and inadequate use of medicines are causing liver impairments including alcohol consumption. There is a need to identify safe hepatoprotective drugs against liver diseases from different natural resources including medicinal plants. Several medicinal plants have been using in traditional medicines against several diseases including liver disease and many of them are not scientifically proven. So, the current study was aimed to evaluate hepatoprotective nature of Acampe praemorsa.

Methodology: The hepatoprotective activity of A. praemorsa was carried on ethanol-induced liver toxicity on albino wistar rats by evaluating the levels of liver biomarker enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Total protein (T.ptn), and Total bilirubin (T.Bil).

Results: The extracts of Acampe praemorsa were found to be safe at different doses as there were no mortality and physio-psychological changes observed in toxicity study. The extracts of Acampe praemorsa has showed dose dependent hepatoprotective activity on controlling the altered liver biomarker enzymes when compared along with standard drug Liv 52. The hydroalcoholic extract showed better activity compared to ethyl acetate extracts. The percentage protection on liver biomarker enzymes levels of hydro-alcoholic extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg on AST, ALT, ALP, T.ptn, and T.Bil was found to be 62.72%, 60.06%, 61.77%, 63.96% and 58.58% respectively.

Conclusion: The results of recent study support traditional medicinal use of Acampe praemorsa and provides the information about its’ hepatoprotective nature. The hepatoprotective activity of A. praemorsa was definitely due to presence of different phytochemical compounds in it as it was compared with Liv 52 which was also an herbal drug.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of Direct Spectrophotometric Method for the Estimation of Glimepiride

Dilip Chafle, Lata Awale

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 176-186
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31629

Aims: To develop simple, sensitive and direct spectrophotometric methods for the estimation of widely prescribed antidiabetic hypoglycemic agent Glimepiride in pure and pharmaceutical dosage form.

Place and duration of study: Research Centre of Taywade Group of Institution Koradi, Nagpur affiliated to Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University Nagpur between June 2020 and March 2021.

Methodology: Two spectrophotometric methods were developed based on ion-pair formation of drug with Cresol Red dye (Method A) and Bromophenol Blue dye (Method B) in methanol and chloroform. The possible reaction mechanism was proposed with evaluation of statistical parameters. The methods were validated for its application to determine Glimepiride in bulk as well as in pharmaceutical formulations

Results: The Beer's law was found linear in the range 10 - 60 µgml-1 at 450 nm for method A and 2 - 20 µgml-1 at 578 nm for method B, respectively. The linear regression equation obtained by applying least square regression analysis for Glimepiride were found to be Absorbance = 0.0136 x Concentration in µgml-1 + 0.028; R2 = 0.9965 for method A and Absorbance = 0.0428x Concentration in µgml-1 +0.0722; R2 = 0.9949 for method B. The Sandell's sensitivity was found to be 0.0696 and 0.0177 for method A and B respectively. The apparent molar absorptivity calculated to be for both methods were 6.6724 x103 and 2.0999 x104 l mol-1 cm-1.

Conclusion: Two direct spectrophotometric methods for determination of Glimepiride have been developed successfully and validated for sensitivity, accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness as per ICH guidelines. The developed methods are suitable for the routine estimation of Glimepiride in pure and dosage form.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Validation of New Analytical LC-MS/MS Method for the Estimation of Antidiabetic Drugs Ertugliflozin and Sitagliptin in Combined Pharmaceutical Dosage form

Suleman S. Khoja, Laxman J. Patel

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 194-204
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31631

Ertugliflozin and Sitagliptin is combination of Antidiabetic drug in tablet Steglujan 15 mg/100 mg film-coated tablets®, a member Antidiabetic drug, is a recent drug developed by Merck Sharp and Dohme Company for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Ertugliflozin and Sitagliptin can be used alone or in combination therapy. A highly sensitive, precise and accurate Liquid Chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is developed and validated for the determination of Ertugliflozin and Sitagliptin in combined formulation. Chromatographic separation was carried out on Phenomenex Gemini, C18, (150 × 4.6 mm,5 μm) column. Isocratic method was based on 0.1% formic acid: acetonitrile (10:90, v/vas mobile phase, column temperature at 40°C and flow rate at 0.6 mL/minuteswere utilized. The mass spectrometer was operated under multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode using electrospray ionization by monitoring the transition pair (precursor to product ion) of m/z 437.10-328.95in the positive mode for Ertugliflozin and transition pair (precursor to product ion) of m/z 408.10-234.95 in the positive mode for Sitagliptin. The method was found linear in the concentration range of 15 to 450 ng/mL and 100–3000 ng/mL for Ertugliflozin and Sitagliptin respectively. The optimized method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) and FDA guidelines. The developed method was found suitable for the quantitation of Ertugliflozin and Sitagliptin in Pharmaceutical dosage form.

Open Access Original Research Article

HPTLC Profile and Screening of Antimicrobial Activity of Pongamia Pinnata Pierre

Rajani Shirsat, Ajit Kengar, Aruna Rai

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 205-215
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31632

Aim: Plant secondary metabolites are the alternatives for the control of the antibiotic resistant pathogens which are highly infectious to human and plants. With respect to these aspects present work was carried out with phytochemical studies and antibacterial screening of Pongamia pinnata Pierre.

Materials: The Preliminary phytochemical screening and HPTLC studies were performed with methanolic extracts of seeds and callus. The extracts of the seeds and callus was developed in the mobile phase of toluene: ethyl acetate (90:10) using standard procedures and scanned under UV at 254 nm, 366 nm and visible light at 540 nm.Further, the extracts of seeds and callus were made in diethyl ether and methanol used for in vitro antibacterial activity. It was performed against multi drug resistance organisms such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The organic extracts at a concentrations of 0.02 mg/ml - 0.1 mg/ml were taken to study the inhibition properties.

Results: The Pongamia pinnata Pierre HPTLC fingerprint analysis from the extracts showed a wide range of secondary metabolites. The methanolic extracts of seed and callus showed significant inhibition zones.

Conclusions: The study reveals the new antimicrobial agent in the form of Pongamia pinnata callus extracted with methanol will be definitely an alternative to synthetic drugs or antibiotic agents.

Open Access Review Article

Review on Adiponectin: A Benevolent Adipokine

Kinjal P. Patel, Dhanya B. Sen, Ashim Kumar Sen, Darshan Vaghela, Ramachandran Balaraman, Rajesh A. Maheshwari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31611

Adiponectin is a most abundant secretory protein produced by adipocytes of white adipose tissue. Adiponectin circulates in blood as three different (high-molecular, middle-molecular, and low-molecular weight) isoforms, gives its effects through AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 receptor. Primary data suggesting that adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing, anti-atherogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects. High serum level of adiponectin is positively associated with inflammation severity and pathological progression in chronic kidney disease, liver disease and inflammatory bowel disease. It has emerged as a valuable biomarker for insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular risk and inflammation. Adiponectin is gaining attention for its therapeutic role in Alzheimer’s disease. Adiponectin appears to play a crucial role not only in glucose and lipid metabolism but also the development and progression of different cancers. Adiponectin also produced locally in the retinas participate in defense of various eye diseases. This review summarizes the role of  adiponectin as benevolent adipokine in different disorders.

Open Access Review Article

Clinical Implications of Vitamin D in Oral Diseases- A Review

Deepa Jatti Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 103-110
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i30A31621

Oral health is a reflection of systemic health. The various nutritional deficiencies not only affect the systemic health but also have an impact on oral health. The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is rampant globally. Vitamin D (VD) is not only essential for skeletal growth during childhood and adulthood but has a great impact on oral tissues and odontogenesis. VDD has several implications on oral health from childhood to adulthood. VD can negatively influence the oral health of the mother and child and VD supplementation brings positive outcomes during and after pregnancy. In children, severe VDD can impair tooth mineralization, resulting in defects of enamel and dentin and predispose patients to caries. A remarkably high prevalence of periodontitis is seen in VDD and has implications on systemic health as well. A high prevalence of VDD is seen in oropharyngeal cancers. This review aims to provide the biological role of VD and its receptor, its implication on oral health and future strategies for targeted therapies in oral pathologies.