Open Access Original Research Article

Antidiabetic Effect of Katakakhadiradi kashayam by Improving the Insulin Expression and Glucose Metabolising Enzyme

Angelie Jessica Subbiah, M. Kavimani, Mukilan Ramadoss, Mudiganti Ram Krishna Rao, K. Prabhu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27A31486

Many plants provide a rich source of bioactive chemicals, which are free from undesirable side effects and possess powerful pharmacological actions. The present study was carried out to find the antidiabetic effect of   Katakakhadiradi kashayam (KKK) by improving the insulin expression and regulating properly the glucose metabolising enzymes. The diabetes was induced in combination with streptozotocin and nicotinamide injection to Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were treated with   Katakakhadiradi kashayam orally at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg/bw for 28 days, and the obtained results of parameters were compared with glibenclamide. The antidiabetic effect of Kashayam was measured by the expression of insulin by immunohistochemistry and restoring the normal clinical values of glucose metabolizing enzymes. The present study specified that hyperglycemia leads to pathological conditions in pancreatic tissue with decreased expression of insulin in β-cells whereas the   Katakakhadiradi kashayam normalised the production of insulin. The study found that the antihyperglycemic activity of   Katakakhadiradi kashayam L. is mainly due to their ability to restore the function of pancreatic tissues by causing an increase in insulin output and maintaining the glucose metabolising enzymes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health Related Quality of Life of Children with Sickle Cell Anemia and Their Parents; Quantitative Study in Albaha; Saudi Arabia

Turki Alzahrani, Raed Alzahrani, Amer Alzahrani, Abdullah Alzahrani, Abdu Adawi, Abdullah Alqthami, Abdulsalam Alshehri

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27A31487

Aims: To gain a better understanding of the quality of life (QoL) of children and impact of this disease on parents QoL.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in King Fahd Hospital, Albaha city, Albaha, Saudi Arabia, between March2020 and February 2021.

Methodology: We included 95 responses. Two different tools were used for the purpose of this study. PedsQL™ Sickle Cell Disease Module was used to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in healthy children and adolescents and those with acute and chronic health conditions. Moreover, PedsQL™ Family Information Form was completed by caregivers. Median and interquartile range were used for numerical variables since they were skewed. Bivariate analyses were carried out using non-parametrical tests and Pearson correlation. The prediction of QoL was accomplished through multivariate analysis.

Results: A total of (95) responses were analyzed. Female respondents were 52.6%. The age median was 12 (IQR=10-14). Mothers represented the most frequent informant 46.3% in this current study. Significant association was found between QoL and certain independent factors, some of which is parental level of education (P< .001) and marital support (P< .001).

Conclusion: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a major condition accounts for a huge burden on variable levels. This study reported that low QoL among children affected by SCD. Higher education and current marital status of the parents were significantly associated with high QoL in SCD patients. Number of workdays affected due to child health was significantly correlated with low QoL.

Open Access Original Research Article

Asymptomatic Bacteriuria, Prevalence Report during Antenatal Period at Pumhsw Nawabshah, Pakistan

Sikander Ali Sial, Bhojo Mal Tanwani, Amir Bux Detho, Kousar Parveen, Fouzia Rasool Memon, Sadia Bukhari, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 18-23
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27A31488

Objective: The aim of study is the determination of   prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria during antenatal period in PUMHSW, with prevalence of antenatal asymptomatic bacteriuria in neighboring countries.

Methodology: This study is Cross Sectional-Prospective, and conducted at the Department of Pathology Peoples University of Medical & Health Sciences (PUMHS) for Women Nawabshah (Shaheed Benazir Abad). All the samples (417) were obtained from the pregnant women attending the Outpatient Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics PUMHS Hospital Nawabshah.All mid-stream clean catch collected urine sample in sterile container processed for urine detailed report (physical, chemical and microscopic examination).All the demographic details were entered and analyzed by SPSS 20.More than 8 international as well as national databases were searched  to  the year 2020, consisting of  google, Pub-med, Science direct, Web of Science, Medline. The data obtained were analyzed and their results reported with a random-effects model with confidence level 95%.

Result: Out of 417 patients the mean age of the pregnant female was 29.32± 5.74 years.There were females with mean parity of 2.66 ±2.42 and mean gestational age was25.84± 11.80.Age when compared with asymptomatic bacteriuria revealed statistically significant value p value 0.000 with an increased incidence seen among age group of 26-30yrs n=33(44%).  The total prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) was 83(19.9%).Age when compared with asymptomatic bacteriuria revealed statistically significant value p value 0.000 with an increased incidence seen among age group of 26-30yrs.

Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy is increasingly found in younger age women, with increasing gestational age. Therefore urine cultures during antenatal period should be done to diagnose asymptomatic bacteriuria in order to make preventative planning and control of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vitro Antibacterial Activity of Acacia Nilotica against Lactobacillus casei

Abid Khan, Muhammad Owais Ismail, Mirza Tasawer Baig, Sadia Suri Kashif, Aisha Jabeen, Shumaila Sheikh, Uzma Shahid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 24-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27A31489

Background: The role of Ethno-pharmacology is important to discover the new biologically active compounds. The process usually starts with searching of useful plants from different records to the development of methods for the industrial production of drugs. World Health Organization (WHO) states that more than 80% of population of the world makes the use of plants for the treatment of diseases. The extensive use of plants for therapeutic purposes has the history of centuries. Herbal pharmaceuticals have treated many diseases and confirmed the importance of medicinal plants on curative ground. The aim of this study was to evaluate in-vitro antibacterial activity of traditionally used Acacia nilotica by aqueous and Ethanolic extraction, against Lactobacilli casei.

Methodology: Disc diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out according to the Kirby-Bauer method to assess the presence of antibacterial activities of Ethanolic and Aqueous extracts of Acacia nilotica, against Lactobacillus casei. Results: It was found that Ethanolic extracts have antibacterial activity which was close to the positive controls (standards) of the study; 2.5% Sodium hypochlorite and 2% Chlorhexidine.

Conclusion: it was concluded that Ethanolic extract of Acacia nilotica, possesses antibacterial activity against Lactobacillus casei.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agreement of BISAP and CRP in Assessment of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

Hina Tahseen, Sarika Bai, Haresh Kumar, Safdar Ali Pervez, Shahabuddin Rind, Rakesh Kumar, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-35
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27A31490

Background: Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain in patients presenting to tertiary care hospital. The prevalence of acute pancreatitis in Pakistan is 0.03%. Assessment of prognosis is important in management of patients with acute pancreatitis. A simple and clinical oriented scoring system to predict the severity of acute pancreatitis at the time of presentation is required.

Objectives: To determine the agreement between BISAP score and CRP in assessing severe acute pancreatitis.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care centre on 15 patients diagnosed as acute pancreatitis who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Demographic data was noted and their BISAP Score and CRP values were calculated and statistical analysis was done using SPSS 20.0 Software.

Results: Mean + SD age of the study participants was 46.73 + 8.29 years. Nine (60%) were males and six (40%) patients were females. The agreement of BISAP score and CRP level in assessing the severity of acute pancreatitis was 66.7%.

Conclusion: There is a substantial agreement in favor of both CRP criteria and BISAP scoring in diagnosing acute severe pancreatitis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Iron Status, Haemoglobin and Protein Levels of Pregnant Women in Owerri Metropolis

I. L. Okoroiwu, Jane Ugochi Chinedu-Madu, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, C. C. N. Vincent, O. M. T. B. Ochiabuto, Adaobi Maryann Ibekwe, Chukwudi Ofodile Amaechi, Chekwube C. Agu, Nonyelum Vivian Anoh, Nkiruka Millicent Amadi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 36-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27A31491

The study was done to determine iron status, haemoglobin and protein levels of pregnant women in owerri metropolis. A total of 100 pregnant women were recruited for this study. The mean Hb levels in group 1, group 2, and group 3· were 12.00±1.68g/dl, 10.06±1.J4g/dl and 10.96±1.19g/dl respectively. The mean Serum ferritin level of group 1 was 67.00±88.38ng/ml, group 2, 52.48±52.47ng/ml and group 3, 51.26±48.70ng/ml. The mean Serum iron in group 1, 2 and 3 were 46.72±16.41 g/dl, 79.59±63.24 g/dl and 83.35±53.04 g/dl respectively. In group 1, 2 and 3 the mean results. ( g/dl) of TIBC were 295.58 ± 109.53, 324.06 ± 178.00 and 319.88 ± 92.95 and % T.S (%) were 18.78 ± 11.77,26.59 ± 19.40 and 17.97 ± 10.87 percent respectively. The mean total protein was group 1,6.83±l1.77g/dl, group 2,6.39±0.70g/dl and group 3, 6.39 ±0.98 g/dl while the mean albumin (g/dl) in group 1, 2 and 3 were 4.84±0.47, 4.13±0.28 and 4.14±0.29 respectively. The mean values of globulin (g/dl) were 1.98 ± 0.91, 2.29 ± 0.87 and 1.89 ± 0.90 in groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. As gestational age increased; serum ferritin, total protein, and albumin levels decreased while serum" iron and TIBC increased. The differences in the mean results between the groups were statistically significant (p<0.05) while % T.S and globulin levels when compared showed no significant difference (p>0.05). Iron status showed no statistical difference with increasing parity (p>0.05). However, from this study iron deficiency anaemia was most prevalent in second trimester; hence iron status estimation should be an integral part of routine antenatal care test during second trimester of each pregnancy for proper assessment and management of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Levels of Anxiety and Stress during Pandemic of COVID-19 among the General Population of Karachi, Pakistan

Saira Shahnaz, Zaib- Un-Nisa, Syed Imran Ali, Israr ul Haq, Hira Akhtar, Ijaz Ali, Rasheeda Fatima, Najeeb Khatian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27A31492

Background:  The COVID-19 pandemic has affected not only the physical health, but mental health of general population.

Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the anxiety and levels of stress during COVID-among the population of Karachi.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted for the period of 8 months May 2020-December 2020, the required variables were collected on a questionnaire. Data was analyzed and descriptive statistics was applied using SPSS version 21 with 95% CI.

Results: Out of 450 participants, 45.8% males, 54.2% females. The majority (39.1%) of patients were in group of 51-70 years of age. The levels of anxiety were categories in mild (21.5%), moderate (38.2%) severe (15.2%) and no anxiety (25.1%). The contributing factors in stress and anxiety were the fear (68.3%), panic situation by media (58.5%) and stress due to pandemic (64.2%).

Conclusion: The pandemic of COVID-19 is a stressful situation which needs a proper management and counselling of community regarding the precautionary measures and guidance to control the psychological parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Rates of and Relationship between Anemia and Deficiency of Iron, Zinc, Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Hospitalized Children

Kamil Sahin, Murat Elevli, Yahya Paksoy, Macit Koldas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27A31493

Aim: Increased frequency of deficiency due to the insufficient intake of iron, zinc, vitamin B12-D and folic acid has been reported in the society. We aimed to investigate the rates of deficiency of these vitamins and minerals, as well as anemia frequency in children admitted to pediatric outpatient clinics of our tertiary hospital in a retrospective three-year period.

Materials and Methods: The frequency of micronutrient deficiency and the relationship between them was determined using statistical methods by evaluating the levels of hematocrit and other micronutritional elements in patients admitted to the general pediatrics outpatient clinics of our hospital between 01.06.2015 and 31.05.2018. The only patient inclusion criteria were being tested for zinc, iron, iron binding, hemogram, vitamin B12, folic acid, ferritin and vitamin D for any reason.

Results: After the evaluation of 64487 patients, we discovered the rates of anemia and iron, zinc, folate, vitamin D, vitamin B12 and ferritin deficiency as 30.8%, 52.1%, 41.1%, 18.2%, 32.4%, 20.1% and%26.7 respectively. Additionally, our results indicate that the frequency of folic acid deficiency decreased over the past years, whereas the rates of zinc and vitamin D deficiency increased over time. The final results show a negative correlation between anemia and folic acid, vitamin D, vitamin B12 and iron binding capacity, and a positive correlation between anemia and iron, ferritin and zinc.

Conclusion: Although it does not reflect the frequency of deficiency in the general population since the data are collected from hospitalized children, it could be argued that multiple micronutrient deficiencies are significantly common in Turkey and zinc and vitamin D deficiency has been increasing over the years, when compared with the results of previous studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Analysis, HPLC Profiling and Anti-oxidant Potential of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham

Muhammad Younus, Muhammad Mohtasheem ul Hasan, Shakeel Ijaz, Razia Riaz, Khalil Ahmad, Muhammad Hanif, Mohsin Abbas Khan, Muhammad Abdullah, Muhammad Kamal Shah, Uzair Nisar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-67
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27A31494

Euphorbia nivulia (EN) one of the members of Euphorbiaceae family, is a medicinal plant of Cholistan Desert (Punjab, Pakistan) that is traditionally used for a number of diseases. The plant is enriched with many phyto-constituents including flavonoids, triterpenes and polyphenols. In present study, crude extract as well as various fractions were assessed for phytochemical analysis, HPLC profiling, radical scavenging property and total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Hydro-alcoholic (70%) crude extract of EN was subjected to fractionation using different solvents including n-hexane, chloroform, butanol and aqueous. After performing the phytochemical screening and HPLC profiling, antioxidant activity was estimated by using DPPH and FRAP assays. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents were also estimated. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of flavonoids and polyphenols like quercitin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, benzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, syringic acid and ferulic acid in crude extract as well as butanol and aqueous fractions. Results revealed that butanol fraction showed maximum phenolic (143.26±2.65 mg/g GA/g) and crude extract showed maximum flavonoid (69.80±1.212 mg/g Q) contents. Maximum antioxidant potential was displaced by butanol fraction which was IC50=0.04±0.02 by DPPH and 1193.77±12.4 μmol TE/ml by FRAP respectively. Current study is the first information about the HPLC profiling of phenolic compounds in EN and its antioxidant potential that could be a step forward towards ethno-pharmacological based phyto-medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Irrational use of Antibiotics among the Local Population of District Shaheed Benazir Abad, Sindh, Pakistan

Durr-e-Shahwar Malik, Mirza Tasawar Baig, Ayaz Ali Unar, Faraz Qurban Rajper, Khalida Unar, Tahseen Ahmed, Waqar Ahmed, Syed Shafqat Ali Shah Rizvi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 68-75
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i27A31495

The aim of study was to assess the irrational use of antibiotics among the local population of Shaheed Benazir Abad, Sindh, Pakistan. Rational or proper medication means patients consume proper medicines for said diagnostic disease and after its consumption, the symptoms disappear. For rational use, selection of medicines is very important along with its proper dosing and it is also necessary to check the adequate time for proper treatment. Cross-sectional study was conducted at various out-patient settings located in Peoples University of Medical & Health Sciences, District Shaheed Benazir Abad for the period of 06 months. Total 374 study samples were collected by using simple random sampling technique. From the total study subjects, 209 were males and 165 females. 129 people had only primary qualification. 188 study subjects were married and 149 were unmarried, people use to take antibiotics due to less knowledge and trust on the medical prescriber and take as self diagnosis found among 48 and they didn’t have proper time to visit health care facility so the shortage of time was observed among 151 people. Ciprofloxacin and co-trimaxazole were frequently used by the participants due to different causes. Health Care professional should take proper action against the pharmacies and medical stores as they sale the drugs without any prescription and proper counseling session should be conducted, in order to educate the community regarding rational and irrational use of medicaments.