Open Access Case Report

A Long-Term Impact of Oscillatory Mobilization and Mckenzie Retraction Exercises in Cervical Radiculopathy Management: A Case Report

Apurva Deolankar, Payal Toshniwal, Tajuddin Chitapure, Rinkle Malani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 100-105
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21B31382

Cervical radiculopathy (CR) is the second most common problem in field of physiotherapy. The main aim of this case report is to determine the effect of oscillatory Mobilisation and Mckenzie retraction exercises in cervical radiculopathy. A case study was conducted at Musculoskeletal Department of MGM Physiotherapy Aurangabad. We approached patient treatment from multiple aspects which mainly include oscillatory mobilisation and McKenzie retraction exercises. We evaluated our outcome variables using numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), cervical range of motion and scapular muscle strength. We found that oscillatory mobilization associated to Mckenzie retraction exercises significantly decrease pain and improve cervical mobility and scapular muscle strength.

Open Access Original Research Article

Expression of Calretinin in Carcinoma Breast in Correlation with Various Histological and Molecular Subtypes

M. B. Sri Hansini, Hemalatha Ganapathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21B31373

Breast carcinoma is the second most common cancer following lung cancer. The incidence of cancer accounts for 24.2% and cancer death is about 15% among females. There are various prognostic and predictive factors for assessing the patient encountering carcinoma breast. Among the various prognostic factors, histological subtype and molecular subtype play a key role. The calretinin expression in carcinoma breast was seen in high-grade breast carcinomas and basal like subtype of carcinoma breast. Calretinin expression was predominantly noted in high grade II and III carcinomas as in other studies and other histological subtypes like metastatic carcinomas which are considered high grade tumours. The present study aimed to correlate the various clinicopathological parameters with the calretinin expression. The expression of Calretinin was seen mainly in grade II and grade III IDC- NST and metaplastic carcinomas. Among the molecular subtypes, the Basal like subtype and the Luminal B subtype showed calretinin expression. The calretinin expression was associated with tumours with a high proliferative index with Ki67 index >14%. This implies the importance of prognostic significance of calretinin expression, as cases with a high proliferative index are likely to have poor prognosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Salivary Ph in Periodontal Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Stuti Gupta, . Shradha, Ejya Sharma, Himani Sharma, Saransh Srivastava, Radhika Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-17
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21B31374

The aim of the study is to assess the effect of pre and post Non Surgical Periodontal Therapy on Salivary pH in patients suffering with Chronic Periodontits. Patients reporting to the Department of Periodontics, I.T.S Dental College, Hospital & Research Centre, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh are included in the study. It is a randomized clinical trial where patients are randomized into two groups of Generalized Chronic Gingivitis and Generalized Chronic Periodontitis. The study are performed with the Sample size of 30 patients and 2 months Period were included. Unstimulated Saliva is collected at the first visit when patient reports to the OPD for NSPT. Clinical Parameters are recorded and NSPT is performed for the patient. Post 14 days of the treatment, saliva is collected and analysed for pH and clinical parameters are recorded again. pH is determined using a pH meter. Data is collected and statistically interpreted. The statistical testing to be used in this study are Mann Whitney U Test, Chi- square test and Paired t-test. There was statistically significant difference in plaque index, gingival index and oral hygiene index between two groups. There was a definite reduction in pH post SRP but it was statistically non significant due to relatively smaller sample size. Further research is required to substantiate the results for the same.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Lympho-vascular Invasion in Breast Carcinoma Using Lymphatic Endothelial Marker (D2-40)

Moumita Dam, Hemalatha Ganapathy, S. Mary Lilly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 18-34
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21B31375

Breast cancer has become the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide, overtaking lung cancer. The Present study attempts to investigate the use of D2 -40 for the detection of lympho- vascular invasion in node negative breast cancer. Additionally the lympho-vascular invasion using D2 -40 and its association with distant metastasis and overall prognosis of the patient was also explored.

Open Access Original Research Article

Teamwork Conflicts; Medical Errors and Patient Safety as Perceived by Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study of Selected Hospitals in Hail City; Saudi Arabia

Hamoud F. Alshammari, Fahad D. Algahtan, Bandar Alsaedi, Badr K. Aldhmadi, Richard D. Dayrit

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 35-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21B31376

Patient safety is a global problem and one of the key elements of the quality of health care systems. The human factor is a major risk factor leading to medical errors that affect patient safety. To explore the impact of this factor on patient safety in the hospitals located in the Ha'il city in Saudi Arabia; the perceptions of nurses working in governmental hospitals were assessed using a self-structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were presented for the studied variables. Significant differences between the categories of the respondents’ characteristics in relation to risk factors were assessed using the Mann-Whitney test; the Kruskal-Wallis and the Spearman rank correlation test. Only 50% of the factors tested were perceived as moderate risk factors that were negatively affecting patient safety in Ha'il hospitals; namely: ‘Poor teamwork among medical staff’; ‘Unqualified medical staff’ and ‘Miscommunication among medical staff’. The substantial differences among demographic characteristics of the study sample in relation to the human resources risk factors causing medical errors was identified at P<0.05. Although the human risk factors were ranked as low to moderate; attention to and concern for all risk factors is needed by policymakers and hospital managers in order to improve patient safety in the healthcare settings in the Ha'il city in KSA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Expression of P53 in Prostatic Lesions

M. Preethi, . Jayaraman, Hemalatha Ganapathy, S. Mary Lilly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-56
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21B31377

Prostate gland is an accessory gland of the male reproductive system.Prostate begins development from the mesenchymal tissue, surrounding the urogenital sinus in the 3 rd month of gestation. Epithelial buds invaginate from the posterior sinus on either side of verumontanum. Concurrently, Wolffian ducts develop into seminal vesicles, epididymis, Vasdeferens and ejaculatory ducts that are stimulated by fetal testosterone. Histologically all malignant lesions encountered were Conventional Adenocarcinoma of Prostate. The commonest pattern seen was acinar followed bycribriform and fused glandularpattern. Conventional Adenocarcinoma forms the most commontype of prostatic carcinoma and they are moderately differentiated byGleason’s microscopicgrading. Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) levels increases proportionately with advancing clinical stage. Studies have shownthat serial increase in serum PSA is associated with incidence of occult carcinoma.In the present study, the TURP specimen received was ranged in the volume from 8 to 20cc. Every tissue was carefully examined for the presence of yellow and firm or gray hard areas and necrotic areas. After fixation and processing, 4 -5µ sections were cut and Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was done. In the present study all the benign lesions stained negative except for cases  were the  PSA  value is  more than  >50ng/ml with  p53 IHC and in prostate carcinoma positive indicating epithelial marker positive for prostate gland. In coclusio, the IHC expression of p53 is significantly up- regulated in malignant lesions and have importance in prognostic factors and disease survival. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinico Pathological Study of Central Nervous System Neoplasms

V. Sri Lakshmi Priya, B. O. Parijatham, J. Thanka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-76
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21B31379

The central nervous system consists of brain and spinal cord invested with meninges. It is made up of two types of cells, Nerve cells or neurons which show numerous long processes and Glial cells which are the supporting cells of the nervous system, which occupy the space between neurons. Four principal types of neuroglial cells are recognized: Oligodendrocytes, Astrocytes, Microglial cells and Ependymal cells. Central Nervous System (CNS) tumors account for 85% of brain tumors and 15% of spinal cord tumors, however metastatic tumors are usually extradural. Brain tumors are the second most common solid tumors in children next to Leukemia. Medulloblastoma is the commonest tumor among the pediatrics age group. Risk factors affecting brain tumors still persist unclear. Neoplasms of central nervous system accounts for approximately 1% of tumors of the human body, and they can be primary or secondary (metastatic), benign or malignant, and intra-axial or extra-axial. Neoplasms of the CNS can occur in both adults and pediatrics populations. Although adult and children may experience similar tumors, their incidences vary greatly with age. To study the spectrum of central nervous system space occupying lesions and the grade of neoplasms according to the guidelines provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). To correlate the diagnosis of these lesions with radiological findings in certain tumors, special stains and Immunohistochemistry were applied wherever needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alteration in Metabolic Cost of Blood Urea, Serum Albumin and Oxidative Stress Induced by Oral Contraceptive Pills (OCP) among Elite Females

Aftab Ahmad Jan, Alamgir Khan, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Butt, Samiullah Khan, Ejaz Asghar, Muhammad Jamil, Adnan Ahmad, Usman Muavia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 77-84
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21B31380

Background: For controlling unwilling pregnancy, sustaining gorgeousness and good health, among the elite level female athletes the use of contraceptive pills is quite common.                                                                                                                         Objective: Oxidative stress in female athletes is understudied. This research study was carried out in order to assess the alteration in metabolic rate of blood urea, bilirubin and oxidative stress induced by Levonorgestrel and Ethinylestradiol (oral contraceptive pills). The outcome of the study will reveal the impact of oral contraceptive pills on the overall health of the females.  

Methods: User and non-user of oral contraceptive pills were included as participants of the study. Sixty elite level female athletes using Levonorgestrel and Ethinylestradiol were recruited as experimental group and twenty four female (non-users) as a control group were taken as sample of the study. Blood sample (5ml) was taken from all the subjects. Blood urea and bilirubin metabolism were estimated through kidney functional test and for the measurement of oxidative stress FRAP assay was used. The data obtained through kidney functional tests and FRAP assay were processed through statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, Version 23.0)

Results: A significant difference was found between control and experimental subjects in FRAP values because (t (82) = 3.236, P <0.05). The mean value of subject was 110.54 and control was 137.95 in FRAP the mean value of subject is less than the mean value of control (509.3 <700.7). In case of bilirubin and serum albumin no difference was noted between control and experimental group as the value of significance is greater than 0.05.

Conclusion: Based on the analysis, the researcher concluded that oral contraceptive pills produced significant rise in oxidative stress, thus affecting the overall health of elite female athletes.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role p53 Protein Expression in Urothelial Neoplasm

Bijayalaxmi Sahoo, . Jayaraman, R. Govindharajan, Vindu Sivastava

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 85-99
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21B31381

The urinary bladder had a line with transitional epithelium. Urothelial neoplasms are the majority among the bladder neoplasms. Urothelial neoplasms were more common in males than in females. Urothelial neoplasms usually occur in the elderly age group. The majority of the tumor size was more significant than 3 cm, and papillary type is majorly found among the tumors. The present study aimed to identify the grade and staging of the p53 in urothelial neoplasms.

The bladder carcinoma (54) cases from Department of Pathology, Sree Balaji Medical College and hospital (during September 2015 to September 2017) were analysed. The median age for bladder carcinoma in the present study was 66 years. The clinical parameter studied was the size of the lesion based on the cytoscopic or radiological findings (31- 33). Based on tumor size, lesions were classified into two groups, less than equal to 3cm and greater than 3cm, which was found to be 42% and 58%, respectively This study concludes that p53 is useful in differentiating benign and malignant neoplasms in morphologically difficult cases. Immunohistochemistry for p53 is useful adjunct to histomorphology.

Open Access Review Article

Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. - A Review of its Medicinal Effects on Human Healthcare System

Nandhinipriya Vijayakumar, Kumudhavalli Suresh Kumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 57-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i21B31378

A current revision based on medicinal effects on the human healthcare system regarding Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. herb comes under the family Sapindaceae and frequently known as Balloon vine. It can be seen in tropical and subtropical areas mostly. Mainly used for rheumatism treatment for several centuries. Other than rheumatism treatment, it is widely used to treat snakebite and stiffness of limbs. Ayurvedic form of medicine and folk form of medicine was prepared from this herb and also widely used. From various parts especially the root, stem, leaves, and seed of this herb contains plenty of bioactive compounds and widely used as food and medicine to cure lots of disorders. Ethanolic extract and alcoholic extract of various part of this herb are used for many pharmacological activities like antibacterial and anti-biofilm properties, to treat ethanol induce gastric ulcer in rats, protective role against STZ induced diabetic rats, and fertility of male rats using leaf extract, the antiparasitic activity of extract using in vivo method, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties by ex vivo and in vivo method, etc. Different evaluation of this herb is done for controlled toxicity and deterioration regarding quality to ensure safety for the usage of this herb in the form of medicines can be taken into consideration for upcoming researchers to develop and apply different methods based on the separation of bioactive compounds for the treatment of different disorders.