Open Access Original Research Article

Endoscopic Findings and Histopathological Correlation of Esophageal Lesions

E. Harish Kumar, B. O. Parijatham, Vindu Srivastava

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20B31353

Incidence of neoplastic and non-neoplastic esophageal lesions. The present study aimed to evaluate the site of occurrence of esophageal carcinomas and to study the various types of esophagitis with histochemical stains. A total of 104 esophageal lesions were received by endoscopic biopsy. A thorough Microscopic evaluation was done in each case. This proves that microscopic examination is the confirmatory diagnostic tool. The microscopic examination along with the accessory histochemical stain, immunohistochemistry for HSV antigen, p53 expression helped to arrive at an accurate diagnosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of RP-HPLC for the Estimation of Allopurinol and Its Related Substances in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form

Ch. Jaswanth Kumar, Prachet Pinnamaneni, Siva Prasad Morla, K. N. Rajini Kanth, Rama Rao Nadendla

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20B31354

Aims: The main aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple and cost- effective method for the estimation of allopurinol and its related substances by using RP-HPLC.

Study Design:  Estimation of Allopurinol and its related substance in bulk and tablet dosage forms by RP-HPLC.

Place and Duration of Study: Chalapathi Drug Testing Laboratory, Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chalapathi Nagar, Lam, Guntur-522034 between October 2020 to January 2021.

Methodology: Method development was carried out by using Schimadzu, Prominence-i series LC 3D-Plus autosampler embedded with lab solutions software, equipped with PDA detector using YMC column (150 mm X 4.6 mm, 3 μm) and 0.1M Ammonium acetate buffer as a mobile phase in the ratio of 100% at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min at a wavelength of 255nm. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines.

Results:  The linearity was observed in the range of 20-100 µg/ml with a regression (R2) value of 0.999. Developed method was specific with no interactions and accurate with 100.11% for allopurinol and 99.54% for its related substance. The limit of detection for allopurinol was 2 µg/ml and for related substance was 0.0.1 µg/ml. The limit of quantification for allopurinol was 6 µg/ml and for related substance was 0.03 µg/ml respectively. The percentage relative standard deviation was found to be NMT 2 which indicates that the proposed method was precise and robust.

Conclusion:  The developed method was simple, precise and accurate and can be successfully employed for the estimation of allopurinol in bulk and tablet dosage form.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Clinicopathological Study of Lichen Planus

M. Noori Fathima, S. Mary Lilly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 21-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20B31355

Introduction: Lichen planus is an unknown origin subacute or chronic inflammatory, autoimmune disease occurring mainly in the epidermal parts of the body such as skin. Apart from commonly arising on cutaneous surfaces, it was also shown affect the oral mucosa, genital mucosa, scalp, or nails. and significantly affect the life styles of the humans. Lichen planus lesions can be explained the six P's -planar [flat-topped], purple, polygonal, pruritic, papules, and plaques. Lichen planus is said to have no cure and only the symptoms can be relieved or healed. Since there are different types of Lichens planus, it is important to study the types in detail for proper treatment.

Objective: The present study is aimed to explore the spectrum of lesions in Lichen Planus and its prevalence on the patients.

Methodology: Out of 100 cases analyzed in our study, 84 cases were clinically analyzed as Lichen planus of which 80 cases were diagnosed to be Lichen planus both clinically and histopathologically and 4 cases were diagnosed as Lichenoid dermatitis (HPE).

Results: The correlation of clinical and histopathological types of Lichen Planus Sex incidence is higher in females (55%), having the ratio of 1:1.2 with a male to the female. Duration of the disease ranged from 10 days to 8 years. Majority of the cases (73%) showed less than 3 months’ duration of the disease.

Conclusion: Our study revealed that the successes of the therapeutic regimes are purely dependent on the types of the lichens and an urgent need to take severe action against it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antibiotics Activity among Hospitalized Patients in Iraq

Qayssar Joudah Fadheel, Rana Talib Naser

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20B31356

Objectives: The study was conducted to evaluate the activity of different antibiotics used for various diseases and compare between their different effects among hospitalized patients.

Study Design: Randomized prospected clinical study.

Place and Duration of Study: It was carried out in Al-Zahraa Teaching Hospital and Al-Sader medical city, Iraq/Al-Najaf Town. The present study began at November 2017 and end  at December 2018.                                                       

Methodology:  Sample of 100 patients in Al-Zahraa teaching Hospital and al-Sader Medical City, was randomly collected 90 cases in Al Sader Medical City ( 35 cases of medical ward and 55 cases from Surgical ward). We collected 10 medical condition in Al-Zahra Teaching Hospital from Gynecological and obstetric ward in random manner.

Results: The results of present study reveal a significant difference between ceftriaxone and ceftazidime  and meropenem in treatment intraabdominal operations infection (appendectomy and cholycystectomy) , the results of present study show that 70% of patient used ceftriaxone for treatment of appendectomy and only 30%of patients used ceftazidime for this condition  so there is a significant difference between these two antibiotics (P-value less than 0.05) and only 10% of patients used meropenem (P-value less than 0.02). Other result of present study show significant difference in use meropenem over ceftriaxone in treatment diabetic foot ulcer(60% rate use meropenem over ceftriaxone 40%), in acute kidney injury, there's very high difference in use meropenem 80% versus 10% of vancomycin use (P-value 0.1).

Conclusions: From current study we concluded that the antibiotics used greatly in surgical ward of Hospital followed  by medical ward , in addition to that antibiotics used in postoperation are  more effective than those used in medical ward , so there are a significant differences obtained among antibiotics used in surgical ward.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Knowledge and Attitude among Medical and Dental Students Towards COVID-19

Fareya Usmani, Saba Arshad, Nasima Iqbal, Zakia Saleem, Hira Mehmood, Muhammad Aitmaud uddolah Khan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-49
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20B31357

Aim: To assess and compare the knowledge and attitude of medical and dental undergraduates towards COVID-19 in current setup

Study Design: Cross-sectional

Place and Duration of Study: Study was done at Ziauddin university Karachi during the period of October 2020 to December 2020

Methodology: Medical and dental students from 1st year to final year were enrolled in the study. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.71. The questionnaire was consisting of demographic variables, questions regarding the knowledge towards COVID-19 and the attitude of medical and dental students. Analysis was done by using SPSS version-20. Frequency and percentages was used to present the categorical data. Comparison between demographic variables and knowledge score was done by using the independent t-test and one-way ANOVA test as appropriate. p-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: About 56% of participants were female and from 3rd year (25.2%). Comparing with socioeconomic status, the upper class of medical students were having higher score. As the year of study upgraded the students reported higher knowledge score with significant p-values among both medical and dental students. Medical students were having higher knowledge about COVID-19 than the dental students but dental students were having more knowledge about the safety measures. Looking over the attitude, majority of medical students were interested in gaining information about COVID-19.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that medical students are having more knowledge about the COVID-19 but the dental students were more aware of the protective measure which should be taken. Both groups of medical and dental students having positive attitude towards limiting the spread of COVID-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of EBV and Associated Gastric Malignancies

B. Supraja, . Vardarajalu, P. Karkuzhali, J. Thanka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 50-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20B31358

Introduction: Epstein Barr virus (EBV), is a member of the genus Lymphocryptoviridae and Herpesviridae subfamily. It is pervasive and infects more than 90% of the adult population worldwide. In childhood and early adulthood primary infection occurs through salivary contact. The majority of children are asymptomatic, but some adolescents and young adults can develop infectious mononucleosis with harmless clinical manifestations.

Objective: To analyze the expression of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) Latent membrane protein – 1 (LMP-1) in various histological subtypes of gastric carcinoma.

Materials and Methods: Out of the 43cases, 32 cases were proven to be malignant, out of which 30 cases who had adequate clinical data were included in the study. The materials were processed and sections were cut at 5 microns. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections was done. Histopathological examination of these sections was done.

Result: The most common presenting symptom associated with Gastric carcinoma was upper abdominal pain (epigastric pain). Both the LMP-1 IHC positive cases showed a  low score when assessed using the LMP-1 immunohistochemistry scoring system (used in nasopharyngeal carcinomas). This may be due to the older age group of patients. For the effective control of viral cancer, there should be rapid, sensitive, specific, cost-effective diagnostics assays and management.

Conclusion: Hence our study justifies the role of EBV in the oncogenesis of gastric carcinoma. More elaborate and extensive studies are warranted to further emphasize this theory.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hospital Characteristics and the Patient Satisfaction in Lahore, Pakistan

Rehan Ahmad Khan Sherwani, Sajjad Ali Gill, Shumaila Abbas, Sana Saeed, Hira shahid

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-69
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20B31359

Objective: Organizational set up of a hospital is broadly responsible to the transfer of services, their usefulness, and structural performance in patient outcomes. In current research, we study the relationship between hospital characteristics and several dimensions of patient satisfaction.

Methods: Cross sectional data of 1680 patients admitted in 14 public and private hospitals located in Lahore, Pakistan was collected through a self-administered questionnaire during March, 2015 to August, 2015. Pearson and Spearman correlation techniques were used in SPSS 21 to find the desired relationships.

Results: Patients were significantly (p<0.05) less satisfied in old aged hospitals as compared to the hospitals recently start operating. High income patients were less satisfied with the hospital than the low income patients. In addition, patients with long duration of stay at hospital were more satisfied than the short stay.

Conclusion: Patient satisfaction is a key component in choosing a hospital for receiving services and also for recommending it to others. It indicates the service quality as well as its delivery. A common tool to improve the quality of care in hospital is to conduct a patients’ satisfaction survey to explore the factors and areas affecting the satisfaction level and also to find out the reasons for dissatisfaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Carcinomas of Breast with Special Reference to Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Her 2/neu

Sharmistha Rout, . Varadaraju, A. Josephine, Vindu Srivastava

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 70-82
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20B31360

Carcinoma is a major health issue worldwide. Breast cancer is by far the most common of all cancers diagnosed in women, in the world. The incidence of breast cancer has risen in India (22.9%). Breast cancer cases in India are expected to increase by 26% by 2020. There be existing 2,088,849 new cases of breast cancer worldwide foremost to 626,679 deaths in 2018. Among the Indian women, cancer cervix and breast carcinoma account for 60% of the total cases, of which the incidence of breast carcinoma is 10.4%. Angiogenesis is nothing but the growth of new vasculature from the pre-existing vasculature. This physiological process is involved in organ and embryonic development, wound healing, and reproductive functions in the adults. However, pathologically, angiogenesis is implicated in macular degeneration, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and tumour growth. HER2/neu status has recently become clinically very relevant because it has been demonstrated that HER-2/neu positive tumors have worse prognosis than HER2/neu negative tumors. To correlate the expressions of the Immunohistochemical markers HER-2/neu and Vascular Endothelial Growth factor (VEGF) with the various clinicopathological parameters like age, tumour size, histological type, grade, stage and lymph node metastasis status. It concludes an unequivocal association between the expressions of the two immunohistochemical markers, HER-2/neu and VEGF in breast carcinoma cases and its implication in guiding therapy against HER-2/neu over-expressing tumors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Dentists towards Dental Procedures under General Anesthesia in Children

S. Keerthika, Geo Mani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 83-93
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20B31361

General anaesthesia is used in routine pediatric dental practice. Although they are considered effective and safe in controlling pain during dental procedures, complications related to their use appear inevitable. Aim of the study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dentist towards dental procedures under general anesthesia. It was a university setting study. Questionnaires consisting of ten questions [Fig. 1] focused on the perceptions and experiences on protocols followed by general dental practitioners and specialists on general anesthesia. Data was entered in excel in a methodical manner and was imported to SPSS software 20. Chi square association was done to compare the responses between general dentist and specialist and were represented in the form of bar graphs. In relation to association between Qualification and common indications of general anaesthesia. (Pearson Chi Square = 2.789, P value = 0.425(<0.05), hence statistically not Significant). Among General dentists, 37.5% of them agreed with Extreme non- cooperation followed by 25% for long surgical procedures and strong emetic and 12.5% for Extreme dental fear as a common indication for general anesthesia. Among Specialists, 38.2% of them agreed with long surgical procedures followed by 35.2% for extreme non cooperation, 17.6% for extreme dental fear and 8.82% for strong emetic reflex as a common indication for general anesthesia [Fig. 5]. Both General dentist and specialist have fairly good knowledge about paediatric general anaesthesia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Immunohistochemistry Markers (p53 and CEA), in Study of Colorectal Tumours

Sapam Chingkhei Lakpa, R. Vinoth Kumar, Mary Lilly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 94-106
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20B31362

Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women globally. There is a marked variation in the incidence of colorectal carcinoma worldwide, where western countries having high rate compared to others. p53 tumour suppressor gene is one of the most intensively studied tumour markers in the colorectal tumours. Two markers were used, p53 (oncoprotein p53) and CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) in the study. The 102 cases of paraffin-embedded samples were processed for the immunohistochemistry examination. After the analysis of the selected patients regarding the antibodies distribution, statistical analysis was performed. The current study showed that there was a statistically significant correlation existing between p53 and CEA in each tumour type irrespective of its histological grades. The immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on 4-µm thick sections from 10% formalin- fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks.