Open Access Original Research Article

P16INK4a Expression of Uterine Cervical Biopsy Specimen in SBMCH

Tongbram Soni Devi, Mary Lilly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20A31343

Introduction: The cervix is the lower portion of the uterus which connects this organ to the vagina through the endocervical canal. It is divided into the vagina (portiovaginalis) and one that lies above the vaginal vault (supravaginal portion). The outer surface of the portiovaginalis is known as the  ectocervix or exocervix and the portion related to the endocervical canal corresponds to the endocervix. Carcinoma cervix accounts for the most common form of cancer by 13% of all the women affected cancers. The P16INK 4a is  a tumour suppressor protein which is a CDKN2A gene product, an  inhibitor  of  cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6 which is encoded  by  tumour suppressor gene INK 4a.

Objective: The present study is to evaluate the P16INK 4a expression in cervical biopsy specimens and to correlate it with the histopatholgical findings.

Materials and Methods: Cervical biopsy specimens were processed using rotary microtome and tissue blocks cut in sections of 3-5 μm was taken.

Results: P16INK4a expression on cervical biopsy specimen showed that those with inflammatory cervical histology, benign lesions of the cervix along with premalignant lesions of cervix are negative for P 16INK4a and all malignant lesions are P 16INK4a positive.

Conclusion: Hence P16INK4a immunoreactivity may be used for the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions of the cervix. But in our study, only a small size sample was positive. So, P16INK4a is used as one of the valuable markers for diagnosing neoplastic lesions of the cervix.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Diamond Nanoparticles on the Efficiency of Vinblastine against Ehrlich Solid Carcinoma in Mice

Abdulaziz M. AL-Ahmari, Salim M. El-Hamidy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20A31344

Aim: This investigation pointed to estimate skeletal muscle efficiency of diamond nanoparticles in enhancing Vinblastine (VBL) effects. 

Methodology: One hundred Albino mice, weighing (23- 28 grams) were utilized in this research, after a week of habituation, the mice were divided into five groups at random (20 mice each). Group 1 (control) obtained distilled water infusions, Group 2 (ESC group) injected Ehrlich cells via intramuscular infusion (IM), and Group 3 (ESC+VBL group) gained Vinblastine only, Group 4 (ESC+VBL+ND) received an IM injection of Vinblastine loaded on diamond nanoparticles and Group 5 (ESC+VBL+CS+ND) received IM administration of Vinblastine stacked on Chitosan with nanodiamond. Finally, blood specimens were taken. Serum was obtained to measure Asparaginase aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, and Creatinine kinase. The muscle was removed and observed under a light microscope.  

Results: Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Creatinine kinase levels in the blood were elevated in ESC than in normal and treated groups. Levels of these enzymes were enhanced after treatment of VBL, diamond nanoparticles and chitosan. 

Conclusion: Nanodiamond are influenced in the VBL delivery system for the therapy of Ehrlich Solid carcinoma in mice models. The embattled VBL liberates tumor cells and reduced the side effect of VBL on skeletal muscle.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Lesions of Upper Respiratory Tract

K. Anbukkarasi, Hemalatha Ganapathy, J. Thanka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20A31345

The development of the organ systems are highly regulated in physiological conditions and the development of nose and paranasal sinuses commences in the 3rd week of gestation, when the primordial structures first appear and continues until completion in early adulthood when sinus pneumatization and bony growth have ceased. Their misregulation lead to the development of many cancers and primitive nasal septum Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper respiratory tract ranks as the sixth leading cause of cancer worldwide.In the current study, out of 31 cases, maximum cases were found to be moderately differentiated grade amounting to 64.5%, followed by well differentiated grade (22.6%) and poorly differentiated grade (12.9%). The present study also showed that poorly differentiated SCC had higher Ki 67 proliferative index and it could be a useful tool for determining the stages of tumors.  Ki 67 proliferative index study of the tumor helps in better understanding of the tumor behavior so as to provide appropriate treatment and thereby increasing the survival rate of the patient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Obesity Associated Hypertension in University Staff at SMBBMU Larkana, Pakistan

Muhammad Parial Shahani, Arsalan Humayun, Zahid Shaikh, Ilyas Siddiqui, Mir Hassan Khoso, Saba Naz, Fahad Jibran Siyal, Khalida Unar, Ayaz Ali Unar, Raheela Saleem, Rahul Sagar Advani, Saeed Ahmed Shaikh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20A31346

Objectives: To determine the association of obesity and hypertension among the faculty members of ShaheedMohtarma Benazir Bhutto University Larkana.

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 340 subjects from SMBB Medical University. A self-administered questionnaire, mercury sphygmomanometer, stethoscope, weighing and height  scales were the research instruments, data was entered and analyzed using the statistical program for social sciences SPSS version 19.

Results: A 340 subjects were included in the study. There were 123 (36.2%) female and 217    (63.8%) male participants, Prevalence of hypertension in the sample was 31.5% (27.6% in females and 33.6% in males) Hypertension was more comparatively more prevalent in overweight group (39.3%) and obese group (32.5%).

Conclusion: Obesity is an important public health challenge in the study setting and its highly associated with HTN. Prevalence of Obesity and hypertension among university teachers was observed significantly higher compared to the general population. Measures to prevent the obesity and hypertension are strongly recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinicohematological Study of Different Patterns of Anemia in Infancy and Childhood

F. K. K. Jasima Nilofer, Rajalakshmi V. Mary Lilly

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-55
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20A31347

Objectives: Pediatric anemia is one of the major health problems in India and in many parts of the world, as it results in reduced exercise tolerance, slower rate of growth, impaired development and cognition, and delayed wound healing. Anemic children are also at a higher risk of death due to complications associated with malnutrition and infection.

Aim: To evaluate the clinical features and the basic hematological parameters of anemia in                infants and children, in the age group of 6 months to 14 years. To study the morphological        patterns of different types of anemia on peripheral smear & correlate the corresponding clinical presentation.

Methodology: The study was conducted on 100 patients between the age group of 6 months to 14 years in the pediatric ward of Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital, Chennai. The hematological analysis was made by using automated analyser (Sysmex KX-21 autoanalyser). The complete haemogram was done from Peripheral smears for each participant. The reticulocyte count was done by the supravital staining technique using Brilliant crystal blue. The experiments were done in triplicates and statistical analysed were performed by using Graphpad Prism (Ver.5).

Results: The present study showed that anemia was more prevalent among male children than female counterparts and pre- school children were severely affected. The commonest presenting condition was acute gastroenteritis followed by respiratory symptoms. The most common morphological type was microcytic hypochronic anemia and iron deficiency anemia was the most common etiological type.

Conclusion: Pediatric anemia is quiet common due to the fact that children are the most vulnerable population for anemia to occur. This compels prompt screening and diagnosis at an early stage through necessary investigations & utilization of available advanced technical modalities in order to initiate timely treatment and management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Factor Assessment of Helicobacter pylori Infection in a Rural Community of People with Gastritis: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

Suresh Jaiswal, Bishnu Raj Tiwari, Dinesh C. Sharma

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 56-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20A31348

Aim: The purpose of this study was to detect the incidence and risk factors of H. Pylori infections in patients with gastritis.

Study Design: A community-based cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Mahagadhimai-5, Province 2 in a rural setting of Nepal from November 2019 to March 2020.

Methodology: Stool samples were collected from the gastritis patients and were subjected to detection of the H. pylori stool antigen following the procedures recommended by the manufacturer. A questionnaire was completed by the investigators with the cooperation of each participant for the potential risk factors as designed and completed.

Results: Out of 150 participants, 82 (54.7%) were female and 68 (45.3%) were male participants. Out of 150 participants, 32.7% (49) were positive for H. pylori antigen. No significant association was seen with sex, age group while others did not show significant relation with socio-demography. Association of food habits with H. pylori antigen has significant association with smoking habits with P-value 0.049 OR 0.518 at 95% CI (0.249- 1.080) while others did not show significant relation.

Conclusions: Nearly one-third of the population was infected with H. pylori in Mahagadhimai-5, Province 2. The socio-demographic profiles, socio-economic factors and lifestyle are worth taking into consideration to prevent diseases associated with H. pylori infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Thrombocytopenia: A Prospective Study at Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, India

Tirumala Kanakadurga Sripati, S. Palaniandavan, . Govindarajan, J. Thanka

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-73
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20A31349

Thrombocytopenia is a physiological deficiency in platelet counting. Fragmented RBC can be a chronic   trigger   for a subclinical micro angiopathy that results in chronic consumption of platelets. The platelet is a small, lentiform, anucleated cell that play a vital role in hemostasis and are produced in the bone marrow from megakaryocytes. To evaluate different etiological factors of thrombocytopenia by the study of clinical profile and laboratory parameters in patients with thrombocytopenia carried out in Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. After evaluating all cases of thrombocytopenia, it is concluded that infective causes are more common than non-infective causes. Infections like dengue, malaria and septicemia were the common causes of thrombocytopenia along with megaloblastic anemia. Whenever thrombocytopenia is detected, a further investigation has to be done for specific diagnosis in the most of the cases so that appropriate treatment can be given.

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Docking and Dynamics Simulation of a Screening Library from Life Chemicals Database for Potential Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) Inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein

Hasanain Abdulhameed Odhar, Salam Waheed Ahjel, Ahmed Fadhil Hashim, Ali Mahmood Rayshan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 74-84
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20A31350

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus 2 represents a major challenge for global public health authorities. Coronavirus disease 2019 can be fatal especially in elderly people and those with comorbidities. Currently, several vaccines against coronavirus 2 are under application in multiple countries with emergency use authorization. In the same time, many vaccine candidates are under development and assessment. It is worth noting that the design of some of these vaccines depends on the expression of receptor binding domain for viral spike protein to induce host immunity. As such, blocking the spike protein interface with antibodies, peptides or small molecular compounds can impede the ability of coronavirus 2 to invade host cells by intervention with interactions between viral spike protein and cellular angiotensin converting enzyme 2. In this virtual screening study, we have used predictive webservers, molecular docking and dynamics simulation to evaluate the ability of 3000 compounds to interact with interface residues of spike protein receptor binding domain. This library of chemicals was focused by Life Chemicals as potential protein-protein interactions inhibitor. Here, we report that hit compound 7, with IUPAC name of 3‐cyclohexyl‐N‐(4‐{[(1R,9R) ‐6‐oxo‐7,11‐ diazatricyclo [7.3.1.02,7] trideca‐2,4‐dien‐11‐yl] sulfonyl} phenyl) propenamide, may have the capacity to interact with interface of receptor binding domain for viral spike protein and thereby reduce cellular entry of the virus. However, in vitro and in vivo assessments may be required to validate these virtual findings.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Placebo Effect on COVID Patients: When the Mind Cures the Body

Kirti Mishra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 85-93
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20A31351

In this time of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) when everyone is looking for the right treatment and the vaccine a psychological effect can really help make the situation better at homes. There is no doubt in an ideology that the human mind is a compelling tool and so powerful that it is well aware about the concept of placebo effect. It somehow convinces the human body that the placebo medication given in the procedure is equivalent to the proper Medication.  This paper aims to analyses the placebo effect in curing the pain and its role in curing the symptoms of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) because it is possible that this method may have healed the body of COVID patients. This has been done by considering the related experiments and researches of placebo effect. In this paper conducting the online survey which is help to find the placebo effects on the COVID-19 Patients and taking their opinion towards it and 280 patients for using as a sampling which help to find the approximation of placebo effect on COVID-19 patient. The influences of the placebo effect on the medical business and COVID treatment both have been highlighted. A discussion in futuristic sense about the placebo effect in treatment of COVID-19.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of Efficacy of Oral Terbinafine and Oralitraconazole in Tinea Corporis / Tinea Cruris Infection

S. Brigida, Arul Amutha Elizabeth

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 94-105
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i20A31352

Dermatophytoses which are superficial fungal infections of the skin, hair, and nail are among the most common infective dermatoses seen in dermatology outpatient clinics. Today, we are facing an onslaught of chronic and recurrent dermatophytosis in volumes never encountered previously. Itraconazole was found to be the  better antifungal  in terms of clinical cure,mycological  clearance  and less need for extension of treatment than Terbinafine. Overall, oral Itraconazole 200 mg/day for 2 weeks proved to be a better agent with excellent and significantly better cure rates than  oral Terbinafine 500mg/day for 2 weeks. With Itraconazole, the contra-indications, drug  interactions must be kept in mind to prevent loss of efficacy/ potentially hazardous interactions. Both drugs had a good safety profile and few minor adverse events. The reasons for  extension of treatment comprise chronicity, previous treatment with OTC steroid preparations, and misuse of systemic antifungal drugs, diabetes, and obesity. Poor personal practices and hygiene also havetheir contribution. Significant associations were also noted between diabetes and chronicity.