Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Influence of Local Strains of Lactobacillus on the Experimental Model of Ulcerative Colitis

G. J. Kutlieva, N. A. Elova, B. I. Turaeva, D. K. Nurmukhamedova, B. S. Tulaganov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1631290

The article is devoted to one of the most important effects of local strains of lactic acid bacteria - the detection of anti-inflammatory action. For this purpose, studies were conducted on an experimental model of ulcerative colitis caused in experimental animals (mice). The data proving that the effect of various probiotic bacteria is unequal are presented.  The ability of probiotic lactic acid bacteria in vitro and in vivo systems to influence the production of pro - and anti-inflammatory cytokines, to stimulate antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and protective effects have been shown. It is shown that it is necessary to study the specific effect of local lactobacillus strains on anti-inflammatory properties for a more adequate, effective selection of probiotic drugs in the treatment of intestinal ulcers. Data have been presented proving the positive effects of probiotic bacteria on the wound key.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Total Phenolic, Flavonoid and Antioxidant Capacity of Fish Singgang Extracts

Nur Atikah Anwar, Anis Nafisah Jamain, Norhaslinda Ridzwan, Mimie Noratiqah Jumli, Norhayati Abd Hadi, Mohd Adzim Khalili Rohin, Roslan Arshad, Che Abdullah Abu Bakar, Ahmad Zubaidi A. Latif

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 12-21
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1631291

Aim: To evaluate the ash and moisture contents, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant potential of Terengganu singgang extracts.

Study Design: Experimental study.

Place and Duration of Study: Central Laboratory, Tissue Culture Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Terengganu between April 2019 and July 2019.

Methodology: Samples comprised three types of singgang dishes, which were prepared, cooked, and then extracted with distilled water and ethanol (EtOH) in different strengths, 50%, 70%, and 100%. These singgang samples were chub mackerel (ST), Indian mackerel (SK), and a control sample with no fish(SC). Extracts were analyzed for their moisture and ash content. Also, the total phenolic content (TPC) was assayed using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, while total flavonoid content (TFC) using AlCl3 colorimetric assay, and antioxidant activity using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) was also evaluated.

Results: Experimental assays showed that the SC sample extracted in 100% EtOH produced the highest yield (3.7%). SK samples were lower than SC and ST in moisture content and ash content with 94.21%, 96.37% and 93.03% moisture content and 0.85%, 0.71%, and 0.96% ash content. Meanwhile, the extract of ST in 100% EtOH yielded the highest TPC (315.0 mg GAE/100g) and T-AC (8.8 U/mL) but the lowest in DPPH scavenging activity (12.2%). On the other hand, the extract of SK in 70% EtOH gave the highest TFC with 6485.3 mg QE/100g. The correlation of TFC and TPC with DPPH and T-AOC assays was positively significant.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the ST extract yielded the best antioxidant capacity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Anti-tubercular Activity of Ofloxacin Chalcone Conjugates

Ramakrishna Chintakunta, Venkata Subbareddy Gopireddy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1631292

Synthesis and characterization of Ofloxacin Chalcone derivatives were carried out and evaluated for their antitubercular activity. Synthesized Ofloxacin Chalcone derivatives (Compound A to F). These molecules are characterized by analytical methods (TLC), melting point, and Spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, Mass, NMR). The evaluated antitubercular activity of molecules of synthesized compounds and Ciprofloxacin Pyrazinamide, and Streptomycin as standard drugs. concentrations of synthesized derivatives were prepared (0.8, 1.6, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 µg/ml) by using sterile deionized water as a solvent. Antitubercular Assay was Performed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the MABA method. Analyzed MIC values. Compound E showed the best results among 6 Compounds at a very low concentration at 3.12 µg/ml.

Open Access Original Research Article

Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Predictors

Zayed M. Altowerqi, Zainal Abidin Bin Zainuddin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 31-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1631293

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is an emerging health problem and has increased globally. This research aims to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) among Saudi Arabia adults and identify the associated predictors of MS among Saudi Arabia adults. One hundred and one (101) male adults aged between 26 and 60 participated in this study. The researchers collected data on height and weight as well as blood samples. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 56.4%. Of the sample, 73.3% ate fast food, 30.7% were smokers, 41.6% were overweight, and 36.6% were obese. It was also found that only 35.6% of participants engaged in low levels of physical activity, 29.7% had a waist size ≥ 102, 70.3% had fasting blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dl, 48.5% had blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmHg, 20.8% had triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl, 94.1% had high density lipoprotein < 40 mg/dl. Adhoc intervention programmes for non-communicable diseases should be set up in Saudi Arabia to decrease the prevalence of MS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical & Postural Determinants of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Dental Healthcare Professionals

Arsalan Humayun, Parveen Imdad Memon, Aneela Atta Ur Rahman, Fahad Jibran Siyal, Muhammad Ilyas Siddiqui, Sania Pirzado

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-41
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1631294

Background: According to World Health Organization, work-related health deals with all facets of health and determinants of one’s health may vary in different occupations. Identifying those determinants may be crucial for primary prevention of risks and adverse health conditions.

Objective: To identify the physical and postural determinants of musculoskeletal disorders among dental healthcare professionals.

Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out amongst public and private sector dentists of Hyderabad. The data was collected through pre-tested questionnaire from 132 participants. Participants’ socio-demographic characteristics, personal information, work-related factors, physical load related factors and prevalence of different musculoskeletal pain sites were analyzed through frequencies. Associations were assessed using Pearson’s coefficient the strength of association was determined via Chi-square test.

Results: Females (39.4%) as compared to males (60.6%) were more affected and most subjects falling in the age group of 24-28 years with +0.66 SD. The postgraduate (77.3%) individuals were more affected as compared to their graduate counterparts. Furthermore, majority complained of neck pain (65.8%) followed by back (64%) & shoulder (59.6) pain. The study also found out that majority of the dentists (95.6%) have a reduction in activity due to MSDs. The only significant association (P value = 0.039) was found between sleeping hours/day and occurrence of MS disorders.

Conclusion: Musculoskeletal disorders amongst dentists were found in remarkably high number. Wrong posture and poor physical ergonomics of workspace are attributed to higher incidence of MSDs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness of Folic Acid Intake among Women of Childbearing Age in Ha’il region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Farida Habib Khan Khan, Shog K. Alahmed, Wijdan S. Alsaad, Ashwaq H. Alshammari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 42-54
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1631295

Background: Folic acid deficiency is one of the most common vitamin deficiencies among women of childbearing-age. Folic acid is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin. Although the deficiency is easily corrected by administration of folic acid, but still the prevalence of folic acid deficiency is high. It can lead to neural tube defects (NTDs) in fetus, which are a major cause of severe disability and mortality among infant population, occurring in over one quarter of a million new-borns per year, worldwide. NTDs occur in the very early phase of pregnancy when the mother herself does not know that she is pregnant. This study has assessed awareness of women of childbearing age on folic acid i.e., timing of folic acid supplementation, different sources, symptoms of its deficiency, toxicity and its effect on fetus. Study was conducted in Ha’il region and its suburbs, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the period between October 2020 and February 2021.

Methodology: An analytical cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 842 women aged between18 and 45 years using a close-ended questionnaire.

Results: In total, Folic Acid was taken by just 23.87% of participants. Only 33% knew that Folic Acid deficiency causes neural tube defects in fetus. Further it was revealed that postgraduates had a significantly better knowledge on Folic Acid  0.000) than others. Similarly, those who belonged to household where total monthly income was 5000 Saudi Riyals or more had better awareness on Folic Acid than participants who belonged to low socioeconomic status (  0.05).

Conclusion: It’s concluded that in Ha’il and its suburb area, women of childbearing age do not possess adequate knowledge on Folic Acid. Neural tube defects in fetus due to folic acid deficiency were not known by a large majority of respondents. However, awareness has a strong association with educational level and socioeconomic status. Hence it is recommended that female literacy and female employment should be promoted, encouraged and supported in Kingdom in order to improve our health indicators.

Open Access Original Research Article

Echocardiographic Evaluation of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Shishirakumar A. Goudar, Virendra Chandrashekhar Patil

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 55-61
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1631296

There is an overlap of risk factors between heart disease and COPD like cigarette smoking, sedentary lifestyle and old age. The economic burden of COPD is also very high. It is now proven that the only strategy which can reduce COPD incidence is cessation of smoking. The Aim of the present research is to study the Two-dimensional transthoracic Echocardiography (TTE) findings in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).The method is that all the enrolled patients were subjected to chest radiography, pulmonary function test, Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiogram and Doppler study, according to the standard protocol. The findings in our study are consistent with previous studies about the COPD. Total 111(60.7%) of the patients had echocardiographic evidence of pulmonary hypertension and 83(45.4%) of the patients in this study had evidence of cor pulmonale.  We found significant difference between the duration of smoking and severity of the disease based on FEV1 values (p= 0.005). A significant moderate inverse correlation existed between pack years of smoking and FEV1 scores. (r= - 0.379, P < 0.001).

Open Access Original Research Article

Colistimethate Sodium Dosing and Nephrotoxicity among in-Patients at Tertiary Care Hospital Karachi, Pakistan

Javeria Mohammad Arif, Mirza Tasawer Baig, Uzma Shahid, Ambreen Huma, Samina Sheikh, Aisha Jabeen, Quratul Ain Pirzada, Saba Shaikh, Arva Rawat, Abdul Kadir, Muhammad Kashif

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 62-68
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1631297

Introduction: Colistimethate sodium (CMS) is a polymyxin group of antibiotics which were throw out for many years, due to their potential adverse reaction neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The different guidelines were reported regarding CMS dosing some based on Creatinine clearance (CrCl) and some on weight and CrCl. There are many discrepancies in the prevalence of nephrotoxicity that has been reported which included various definitions of acute renal injury and many CMS doses used in a variety of literature. In EMA guideline they suggested the dose as 9 MIU which is equivalent to 300 mg of CBA given as a maintenance dose with normal renal function patients.  In FDA standard dosing of CMS remains 5 mg/kg CBA per day used and also dose is dependent on patient weight. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dosing criteria of colistimethate sodium associated with nephrotoxicity.

Methodology: A prospective observational study was conducted in private sector tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, for duration of six months from July 2020 to December 2020. Sample size was comprised of 157 patients, calculated at 35% prevalence, 95% Confidence Interval and 7% margin of error. Patient included were ≥ 18 years of age, who have received intravenous CMS therapy for greater than 48 hours. Patients having an acute kidney injury or on dialysis (at start of therapy) were excluded. Loading dose and daily dose of CMS was calculated by using actual body weight and Creatinine clearance (CrCl). Cockcroft and Gault equation was used to estimate CrCl before and after the therapy. Nephrotoxicity was assessed by using the RIFLE criteria. SPSS-20 was used for frequency distribution and percentage calculation to show categorical variable.

Results: Among 157 enrolled patients, 101 (64.3%) were male and 56(35.7%) were female (Table 1). Table 2. represents that 68(43.3%) patients were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) and 89(56.7%) were in medicinal ward; 22.9% patients were in between the age range 60-70 years (Table 3). Among all patients 63(40.1%) patients were at risk of nephrotoxicity, 27(17.2%) patients were developing injury and 14(8.9%) patients were diagnosed to kidney failure and 53(33.8%) patients were found not to developed nephrotoxicity (Table 4). Table 5 exhibits that 48.4% of the patients were receiving dose of CMS using EMA guideline while 51.6% patients were receiving dose of CMS 2.5-5 mgCBA/kg/day according to FDA. Nephrotoxicity was high among FDA regimen (44.5%).

Conclusion: It was concluded that CMS dosing criteria have a significant impact on nephrotoxicity. Close monitoring of renal function, particularly the first week of CMS therapy should be considered to evaluate the renal toxicity of CMS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Infections and Use of Antibiotics in Pregnancy among the Pregnant Women Reported at Gynae Opd Civil Hospital Khairpur Mirs Pakistan

Nusrat Fozia Pathan, Bushra Ramejo, Bushra Noor Khuhro, Anwar Ali Jamali, Farheen Shaikh, Qurat Ul Ain, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 69-75
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1631298

Introduction: Pregnancy presents uncommon issues regarding anti-infection treatment. A significant concern is the conceivable teratogenic or harmful impact on the fetus.

Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess the infections and use of antibiotics in pregnancy among the pregnant women reported at Gynae OPD Civil Hospital Khairpur Mirs Pakistan.

Methodology: This was an observational cross-section study conducted at Gynae OPD Civil Hospital Khairpur Mirs Pakistan from July 2020 to January 2021. A total of 400 sample size was calculated by using Slovin’s Formula. Data were collected by purposive sampling technique. Finally, collected data were analyzed by using a statistical package for social science (SPSS) software version 24. 

Results: Results reported commonly prescribed antibiotics during the pregnancy in which Phenoxymethylpenicillin was most commonly prescribed i.e. 31% and it was indicated for Maxillary sinusitis 40% and Acute tonsillitis 74%. The infections which were diagnosed during pregnancy among which vaginal candidiasis was high 117 (29.2%). Common antibiotics duration of treatment was observed in which penicillin frequency for 8-10 days was high 39 (9.7%). Common prescribed antibiotic dosages during pregnancy were observed in which the frequency of penicillin's recommended dose was high at 80 (20%). Antibiotics timing during pregnancy was observed in which Metronidazole+Tinidazole were mostly used during II trimester.

Conclusion: The antibiotics use in Khairpur Mirs is very high. The dosage regiment should be properly monitored, according to the pharmacokinetic data of particular antibiotics during the pregnancy.

Open Access Review Article

Doses of Са2+, Mg2+, K+, Nа+, Mn2+ and Zn2+ in Mountain Spring and Mineral Waters in Hydration Reaction During Sport Training and Recovery; Combination with Vitamins

Ignat Ignatov, Mariana Angelcheva, Ivan Angushev

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 76-85
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1631299

The human body consists of 55-60% water in the case of young adults. There are numerous studies conducted in the 21st c. concerning hydration reaction in sports training and recovery.

Dehydration is a natural process during training and competition. Athletes lose both water and minerals. This is accompanied by formation of lactic acid and inorganic phosphate as well as by decrease of calcium (Ca2+). We have studied optimal doses of water and mineral intake during training, post-competition recovery and rest days. Electrochemically activated Catholyte water was successfully applied in sports practice. Bulgarian mineral and mountain spring waters were proposed as favorable during athletes’ training. In addition, herbs used as food supplements were classified according to their vitamin content. Our aim was to verify the efficiency of proposed intake doses for athletes’ hydration. They also include vitamins which, in combination with water, have anti-inflammatory effect and enhance sports performance. We have observed a tendency towards faster elimination of biochemical compounds appearing as side effects of athletic competitions and training.