Open Access Systematic Review Article

Occurrence of Cardiovascular Complications Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Systematic Review

Daniele Melo Sardinha, Karla Valéria Batista Lima, Thalyta Mariany Rêgo Lopes Ueno, Yan Correa Rodrigues, Juliana Conceição Dias Garcez, Anderson Lineu Siqueira dos Santos, Ana Lúcia da Silva Ferreira, Ricardo José de Paula Souza e Guimarães, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa Lima

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-20
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1431270

Cardiovascular Diseases represent the main cause of death in the world, and are associated with risk factors that cause serious complications in cases of infections, such as those of the respiratory tract. In March 2020 the World Health Organization declared a pandemic for SARS-CoV-2, a new coronavirus causing severe pneumonia, which emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The objective is to investigate the occurrence of cardiovascular complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is a systematic review, quantitative, in the databases, PubMed and Science direct, including primary studies with hospitalized patients confirmed for COVID-19 and who presented cardiovascular complications, the form used tools for evaluation of quality and evidence, following the PRISMA recommendations. Results: 12 studies were included. The occurrence of cardiovascular complications was: 27.35% of the sample of 3,316 patients. Types: Acute cardiac injury 17.09%; Thromboembolism 4.73%; Heart failure 3.43%; Arrhythmias 1.77%; stroke 0.33%. Mean age 61 years. Conclusions: This study showed that there are several cardiovascular complications associated with SARS-CoV-2, that the main one is acute cardiac injury, which causes several instabilities in the cardiopulmonary system, and that it is associated with mortality.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Olea europaea L. and Juglans regia L. Extracts on Human Cancer Cell Line Viability with Studying of Hypoglycemic and Antiglycation Properties

Abdulkarim Dakah, Raida Khalil, Chahed Al Masri, Marwa Al Matar, Saba Hameed, Huzaifa Yousif, Eman Albsoul, Tala Issa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1431269

There is an urgent and continuous need to discover new sources of medicinal plants to obtain useful compounds with health properties. So the purpose of this study was to investigate activity of Olea  europaea L and Juglans regia leaves extract on Hela cell line viability, antidiabetic and Antiglycation. The aqueous extracts were obtained from leaves. Alloxan 180 mg /kg body was used to induce diabetes. Mice with blood glucose level of ≥200 mg/dl were considered as diabetic and were received 10 mg/kg of body weight of Extracts. For Antiglycation, SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) were prepared for the appearance of high molecular weight products. Hela cell line were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium for MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay analysis. The results showed that the mean of glucose levels decreasing in mice that treated with 10 mg/Kg extracts of O. europaea and J. regia. Also SDS-PAGE showed that extracts of J. regia were better than of O. europaea in inhibition of glycation induced protein cross-linking at all studied concentrations. MTT assay showed that the Cytotoxicity was increased with increasing the doses of extract and the cytotoxic effects of J.regia extract were higher than O.europaea at all concentrations. This study showed promising results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Evaluation of Mouth Dissolving Tablets of Montelukast Sodium Using Co-processed Excipients

K. Sampath Kumar, D. Maheswara Reddy, Y. Dastagiri Reddy, J. Balanarasimha Goud, Abdul Basith

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 21-29
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1431271

Background: The concept of formulating ODT containing montelukast sodium offers an appropriate, practical approach to accomplish fast release of the drug. Absorption of these tablets takes place directly into the systemic circulation which bipass the hepatic first-pass metabolism of montelukast sodium which ultimately results in the improvement in the bioavailability.

Method: In the present study ODT tablets of montelukast sodium were prepared by using different Superdisintegrants like natural and synthetic (tulasi, hibiscus, orange peel powder, Ispaghula, banana peel powder, Crospovidone). Thirteen formulations were designed, using a two level of Superdisintegrants (minimum and maximum concentration) and employing two Superdisintegrants at a time by using the co-processed technique.

Results: No significant drug and excipients interaction was observed. The prepared tablets were evaluated by weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, disintegration time, wetting time, in-vitro dissolution studies. A formulation containing 6mg of natural and synthetic Superdisintegrants was offered the relatively rapid release of montelukast sodium when compared with other concentrations employed in this investigation.

Conclusion: Montelukast sodium formulation were prepared by Crospovidone and ispaghula combination of Superdisintegrants were releases 98.91% drug in 30 min.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Various Causes of Hospitalization and Its Other Related Factors in Patients with Heart Failure

Hamid Reza Jafarie, Elahe Zare, Mohammad Shafiee

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 30-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1431272

Background: Heart failure has the highest rate of Rehospitalization with 20-33% readmissions within 1 to 3 months of discharge from the hospital. we decided to find out the frequency of different causes of hospitalization in patients with heart failure during 2017 to 2019.

Methods: This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study. A total of 120 patients with heart failure who were referred to Afshar Hospital of Yazd during 2017 to 2019 were enrolled. The random sampling method was used.The required information was collected from heart failure patients’ registry project. datum were collected and were analyzed by statistical tests and SPSS version 18.

Results: The mean age of patients was 53.53±12.36 years. Of the 120 patients under study,41.7% were women and 58.3% were male. The results showed that, 14.2% did not follow the recommended diet,14.2% had not regular use of drugs,14.2% had renal dysfunction,9.2% had miscellaneous causes,8.3% had pulmonary disease and 40% had idiopathic cause(where the cause of the condition is not known). There was no significant difference among the distribution of various causes of hospitalization in terms of the variables in the study.

Conclusions: It can be concluded that the most common reason for hospitalization of patients with heart failure is idiopathic cause.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Robustness of Spectrophotometric Method and High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Pioglitazone in Solid Dosage Form

Sara Zahid, Fatima Zahid, Asma Ahmed, Waqas Safir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-45
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1431273

Pioglitazone is a drug that reduces the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. It is included in the class of anti-diabetic drugs called “thiazolidinedione” that are used in the treatment of type II diabetes. It attaches to the peroxisomes proliferated- activated receptor gamma (PPARϒ) on tissues throughout the body and causes the cells to become more sensitive to insulin. As a result, more glucose is removed from the blood.The aim of the study is more precisely to find out the better analytical method for the quantitative measurement of the content of pioglitazone in commercially available drugs using two analytical methods i-e Spectrophotometric method and HPLC method.The analytical method for the pioglitazone hydrochloride was developed by HPLC, and then validated the method according to compendial requirements. Pioglitazone in various Dowglit and Gliden tablets was determined by this developed methodPrecision, Accuracy and stability of Pioglitazone was checked which came out to be100.40% and 100.19% respectively. The analysis of pioglitazone hydrochloride in solid dosage form using the HPLC method shows the results are more sensitive, accurate, validated and economical and can be easily applied to raw materials and finished goods compared to the Spectrophotometer method.

Open Access Original Research Article

Upper Gi Endoscopy-indications and Findings at Tertiary Care Hospital Hyderabad/Jamshoro

Jalpa Devi, Muhammad Akram Bajwa, Nasrullah Aamer, Rabia Farooque, Hira Laghari, Amerta Bai, Komal Kumari, Nandlal Seerani, Riaz Hussain Awan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 46-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1431274

Objective: To document different indications and findings of upper GI Endoscopy in our endoscopy suite.

Methods: A descriptive study of 500 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy was conducted in the Endoscopy Unit of PNS DRIGH LUMHS Jamshoro and Civil Hospital Hyderabad from April to September 2020. Included patients underwent UGI endoscopy. Demographic data including indications and endoscopic findings of the patients was collected via study proforma.

Results: Total five hundred patients were studied; their mean age was 42.4±16.8 years. Out of all 52.8% were males. Upper GI bleed was the commonest indication (33.2%) followed by dysphagia (21.6%), epigastrium pain (10%), surveillance and screening of varices (9% and 8.2% respectively).  The most common endoscopic findings were esophageal varices (32.2 %), gastritis (18.8%), and normal (11.4%). In patients with esophageal varices, 77.4% had chronic liver disease with positive serology for HCV and HBV in 63.4% and 23% respectively.

Conclusion: The most common indication was upper GI bleed with esophageal varices for upper GI endoscopy. The underlying etiology of varices reflects the high burden of chronic liver disease due to viral hepatitis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Pregnancy Induced Hypertension and Gravida in Teen Age Girls at People Medical College Hospital Nawabshah Pakistan

Ruqayya Chandio, Jawaid Hussain Lighari Baloch, Nusrat Fozia Pathan, Attia Ayoob, Noor Ali Samoon, Abrar Ali Sheikh, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 51-56
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1431275

Objectives: To assess of the pregnancy induced hypertension and gravida in teen age girls at People Medical College Hospital Nawabshah Pakistan.

Methodology: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 200 pregnant women from Gynecology & Obstetrics Department of Unit-1 and 2 People Medical College Hospital Nawabshah from January 2018 to December 2018. The sampling technique was convenience sampling. The frequency and association between the hypertension and Gravida were observed. Blood Pressure was taken by sphygmomanometer of mercury type B.P apparatus from 200 pregnant women and interviewed all the study subjects. A well designed and structured questionnaire (consist of age, gravida and hypertension related questions) was used for data collection and analyzed statistically. The data was analyzed statistically by SPSS Version 20.0.

Results: The mean age of married teenage girls was 16.6 Years with SD ± 2.3 Years. The study results show that 23.5% of Teenage mothers were suffering from Pregnancy Induced Hypertension. 83% women participants were in the age group of 17 to 19 years. Majority 80.3% of marriages were in the age of 13 to16 years. 76% of women were in 1st and 2nd Gravida. Conclusion: One fourth of Teenage married girls are suffering from Pregnancy Induced Hypertension. The maternal age of 17-19 years has been found most common age group for pregnancy induced hypertension, more common in 1st and 2nd Gravida.

Open Access Original Research Article

Clinical Pattern and Frequency of Co-morbidities among Patients Presented with Cholelithiasis’ at Tertiary Care Hospital

Juwereya Memon, Muhammad Jarwar, Sohail Ahmed Soomro, Abdul Sattar Memon, Riffat Jabeen Memon

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 57-62
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1431276

Background: Gallstone disease (cholelithiasis) remains the commonest medical issue leading to surgical intervention. Causes of the Gall stone has been not properly understood, but it is thought to have several factors. Untreated gall stones can cause the various complications like inflammation of gall bladder, tissue damage, gallbladder tears and infection.

Objective: To determine the clinical pattern and frequency of comorbidities among patients presented with cholelithiasis at Isra University Hospital Hyderabad, Pakistan.

Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at general Surgery department, Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad. All the patients having diagnosis of gall stone disease, age>18 years and either of gender were included in the study. Patients were selected on outpatient department (OPD) basis. Complete clinical examination was done including abdominal ultrasound and required laboratory investigations. Data regarding demographic information including clinical presentational and comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension and obesity was recorded and also smoking status was assessed. All the data was recorded via study proforma and was analyzed by SPSS version 20.

Results: A total of 149 patients were studied, their mean age was 49.23+7.33 years. Females were commonest as 57(38.3%) and males were 92(61.7%). As per clinical presentation pain was found to be most common, particularly as epigastrium pain was found in (93.95%) cases, right Hypochondrium pain (73.82%), pain radiation was more towards scapula (50.33%), dyspepsia was noted in (49.66%), nausea was observed in 44 patients, flatulence in 45 patients and vomiting was least common (21.47%). Diabetes mellitus was 76(51.0%), hypertension was 67(45.0%), overweight were 63(42.3%), obese were 25(16.8%), HCV positive cases were 34(22.8%) and HBV positive cases were 09(59.7%). However smokers were 48(32.2%) and 06(4.0%) were alcohol consumers. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity were significantly more prevalent in females as compared to males (p=<0.05). Smoking habits and alcohol consumption were mostly found in males (p=<0.05). However HCV and HBV infections were statically insignificant according to gender.

Conclusion: It was concluded that gallstone is a common problem and most of the patients who were diagnosed with gallstones were females, obese (BMI>27kg/m2), diabetes mellitus and belonged to fourth decade (40 to 50 years) of their life. Commonest clinical presentations were epigastrium pain, right Hypochondrium pain, pain radiation towards scapula and dyspepsia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Study and Anthelmintic Activity of Nine Congolese Medicinal Plants

Mikala Grâce Raycélia Merveille, Nkounkou Loumpangou Célestine, Kadja Amani Brice, Mamyrbekova-Békro Janat Akhanovna, Békro Yves-Alain, Ouamba Jean-Maurille

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 63-76
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1431278

Background: Despite advances in hygiene and preventive medicine, parasitic diseases, particularly digestive parasitosis, remain a public health problem in tropical countries. Elaborate the ethnobotanical survey carried out in Brazzaville - Congo, 21 plants (divided into 20 families, 20 genera) were identified, among them 9 were selected for this study. These were: Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L., Rauvolfia mannii Stapf, Aloe buettneri A. Berger, Garcinia kola Heckel, Piper guineense Schumach & Thonn., Aframomum alboviolaceum (Ridl.) K. Schum., Plagiostyles africana (Müll .Arg.) Prain, Morinda lucida Benth, Cogniauxia podoleana Baill.

Materials and Methods: The in vitro evaluation of the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extracts of these 9 plants was determined at concentrations of 10, 25 and 50 mg/mL against Lumbricus terrestris used as animal support in comparison to the Mebendazole (20 mg/mL). The phytochemical screening realized by TLC to detect phytochemical families in plant, also, the antioxidant potential with DPPH radical was determined by UV-Visible spectrophometry in comparison to the Vitamin C.

Results: Thus, P. guineense, A. conyzoides and A. alboviolaceum are those which presented significant vermicidal effect, after Mebendazole. Phytochemical screening into TLC revealed the co-presence of alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, sterols and terpenes.The antioxidant potential of the aqueous extracts of these different plants in comparison to vitamin C, has shown that the species A. Buettineri and A. alboviolaceum presented the best potential compared to 7 other species studied, with the  concentration  needed to  reduce 50% of the DPPH radical (CR50)  respectively 0.096 mg/mL for A. Buettineri, 0.098 mg/mL for A. alboviolaceum Berger and 0.015 mg/mL for vitamin C.

Conclusion: There is modern drugs against intestinal worms, it is necessary to identify the plants with anthelmintic activity, to determine phytochemical compounds that would be responsible for their use by traditional healers to treat the intestinal parasitosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Attitude towards Breast Cancer among Medical Undergraduate Students

Nasima Iqbal, Fareya Usmani, Ali Nawaz Bijarani, Muhammad Aitmaud Uddolah Khan, Muhammad Salman Khan, Syeda Noor Israr

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 77-82
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1431279

Aim: To find out the knowledge and attitude of medical undergraduate students towards breast cancer.

Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was performed in Ziauddin medical university during the period of October to December 2020.

Methodology: All the undergraduate Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) female students were included in the study irrespective of year of study. A self-designed, self-explanatory questionnaire was made and validated by doing a pilot study. Data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version-20).

Results: Mean age of the study participants was 22.2 ± 1.7 years. Data regarding knowledge about the risk factors reported that overall more than 62% of the students were aware of the risk factors leading to breast cancer. Looking over the individual risk factors, about 77.3% recognized increased age as a major contributing factor, followed by lack of breast feeding, nulliparity, obesity, use of contraceptive pills, late menopause, early menarche and smoking with 68.3%,54.9%,51.1%, 64.8%,61.6%,39,2% and 48.6%respectively. Focusing specifically the year of MBBS student, the level of medical education increases the awareness about the risk factor also increase. Looking over the attitude of undergraduate MBBS students, about 76.8% of the students consulted to the doctor for breast lump, out of them 41.6% immediately consulted, 27.3% delayed it for weeks and 7.9% waited for months for self-recovery.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that majority of undergraduate medical students were having enough knowledge about the breast cancer, associated risk factors, symptoms and diagnostic modalities along with having positive attitude towards seeking medical help.