Open Access Original Research Article

Protective and Antitumor Effects of Oxidal and Pyrucet in Hamsters with Experimental Graffi Tumor

Reneta Toshkova, Ignat Ignatov, Georgi Gluhchev, Georgi Dinkov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1231248

The use of combination drug therapy instead of monotherapy is a new positive and promising approach in the treatment of cancer. Oxidal® and Pyrucet® are food supplements containing Methylene blue (USP), Caffeine (USP), Salicylic acid (USP) and Ethyl Acetoacetate and Ethyl Pyruvate respectively. The therapeutic significance of each of these compounds (their derivatives) is well established, but no data are available on their combined action in in vivo experimental tumor models.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo protective effect of mono- and combined experimental therapy with dietary supplements Oxidal® and Pyrucet® in the Graffi myeloid tumor model in hamsters. For this purpose, the two drugs were administered alone or in combination in two treatment regimens - prophylactic (before) and therapeutic (simultaneously) with the transplantation of Graffi tumor cells. The protective effect was determined by the biometric parameters of tumor growth (transplantability, tumor size, mortality, mean survival time, survival rate) recorded during the experiment. The results showed a favorable effect of both drugs, administered alone or in combination, before and simultaneously with the transplantation of tumor cells on the appearance and development of Graffi tumor in hamsters. About 2-fold lower transplantability, prolongation of the latency period by 7 days, inhibition of tumor growth till 30thday of experiments, reduced mortality and increased individual and overall survival time between 7 to 10 days were observed in the Graffi tumor-bearing hamsters with experimental therapy compared to control-Graffi tumor-bearing hamsters, without therapy. The obtained data revealed that Oxidal® and Pyrucet® could be a promising candidate for the treatment of tumor diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of INVA Gene and Cytotoxin of Salmonella entertidis in Food Samples Using Molecular Methods

Maha Almas, Usaal Tahir, Mariam Zameer, Muhammad Imtiaz Shafiq, Syeda Yumna Farrukh, Nureen Zahra, Maham Mazhar, Sajjad Ali Gill, Faheem Hadi, Tahir Muhammad, Qurban Ali, Arif Malik

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-28
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1231249

Salmonella entertidis is a foodborne pathogen that causes various diseases in human beings worldwide. The toxin of Salmonella can cause infectious diseases. In this research project, Salmonella was detected through various microbial, biochemical and molecular tests in diverse food samples collected from highly populated, moderately populated and less populated areas of Lahore, Pakistan. Enriched cultures of all food samples such as apples, tomatoes, yogurt and mayonnaise was streaked on violet-red bile glucose agar, Simmon’s citrate agar and eosin-methylene blue agar (EMB).  Salmonella isolates were screened for the presence of toxin encoding gene through PCR. 27% apples, 19% tomatoes, 5% mayonnaise and 7% yogurt were found to be positive for INVA genes (invasion protein genes). In medical and pharmaceutical point of views the INVA gene can also help to develop specific medicines against salmonella. The cytotoxin that is protein in nature was confirmed by SDS PAGE in mayonnaise samples. This study illustrates that foods of highly populated areas are reservoir for Salmonella entertidis in Pakistan. There is need to develop specific drugs, precautionary measures to control salmonella and its disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Range of Medicines used in the Treatment of Skin Diseases

Ibragim Khalidovich Akhtaev, Elizaveta Vitalievna Romantseva, Danila Vasiliev, Anastasia Kulish, Mata Musaevna Altemirova, Vitaly V. Goncharov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 29-36
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1231250

The purpose of this article is to analyze the range of medicines that are used in the treatment of skin diseases. This topic is currently relevant, since the analysis of retail sales allows you to assess the financial condition of a pharmacy organization, identify unclaimed drugs, develop measures to stimulate sales, as well as study customer demand and develop a strategy for product movement. Accordingly, conducting a study of the main indicators of the assortment of this group of drugs will make it possible to expand their representation on the shelves of pharmacies, as well as to study the demand for them from potential consumers.

During the analysis, the following data were obtained. The range under study was represented in the pharmacy by 22 items. The analysis of dosage forms of medicines intended for the treatment of skin diseases showed that liquid dosage forms accounted for 22.73%; solid dosage forms - 4.55%; soft dosage forms – 59.08%; gaseous dosage forms -13.64%. When analyzing the drugs, it was revealed that the largest number in the assortment is synthetic drugs - 68.18%; the share of phytopreparations was 31.82%. Analysis of the producing countries showed that most of the drugs presented to the pharmacy by domestic producers (54,53%), in the second place drugs manufactured in India -18,17%; third place was shared by countries: Poland, Croatia, Belgium, Germany, Czech Republic, USA -4,55%. The analysis of price categories of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of skin diseases revealed that in the price category from 100 to 200 RUB presents 22,73% of drugs; in the category from 200 to 300 rubles-49,89%; from 300 to 400 rubles from 33.73%; from 400 to 700 rubles - on 4,55%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Medication Errors and Pharmacist Intervention at Government Hospital of Hyderabad, Pakistan

Raheela Saleem, Abdullah Dayo, Muhammad Ali Ghoto

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 37-43
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1231251

Background: Medication errors are of primary concern in hospitals of Pakistan but only few are reported. Prevalence and type of medication errors are essential for estimating the appropriateness of therapy. Pharmacist is key in improving therapy effectiveness and decreasing medication errors.

Objective: To assess the prevalence, type of medication errors and pharmacist interventions.

Methodology: An interventional study on prescriptions of inpatients was conducted at Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences (LUMHS) Hyderabad. Five hundred and fifteen prescriptions were collected randomly from medicine, gynecology and obstetrics and urology department during one year from 01-09-2017 to 31-08-2018. Medications errors were identified by Pharmacist by comparing the prescriptions with standard of British National Formulary (BNF) (edition 73) and informing physician for resolving medication errors. Data was analyzed with statistical package for social sciences version 25.0.

Results: Out of 515 inpatients prescriptions, male patients were 248 (48.2%) and female were 267 (51.8%) with male to female ratio of 1:1.08 and mean age of 37.7 ± 11.6 (18-60) years. 427 medication errors were reported in 303 (59.4%) prescriptions including; omission error 64 (15.0%), unauthorized drug error 41 (9.6%), wrong dose error 67 (15.7%), wrong time error 74 (17.3%), wrong dosage form error 27 (6.3%), wrong route error 23 (5.4%), wrong drug preparation 44 (10.3%), wrong rate error 56 (13.1%) and incorrect administration technique 31 (7.3%). 172 (40.3%) interventions of pharmacists were accepted by physicians.

Conclusion: Rate of medication errors in inpatients prescriptions are high with possible errors of dose, time, omission, rate, drug preparation and others. Pharmacist effectively intervening the prescriptions and playing active role in decreasing medication errors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Hirsutism among Females with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Hyperthyrodism at Tertiary Care Hospital of Sindh, Pakistan

Ambreen Huma, Maryam Qazi, Nusrat Fozia Pathan, Durr-e-Shahwar Malik, Marvi Metlo, Anwar Ali Jamali, Saima Samtio, Razia Sultana, Tahseen Ahmed, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 44-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1231252

Introduction: Hirsutism is in fact unwanted growth of hairs on the various parts of body of females. Hairs arises particularly on those parts of the body on which hairs are not grown normally in females such as chin, upper lips, abdomen, legs, shoulder and back of the body. Various reasons are reported till so far for the hirsutism development. The prevalence of hirsutism was very low.

Methodology: Across-sectional study was conducted at tertiary care hospital of Sindh, Pakisan for the period of 06 months. A well structured questionnaire was developed comprises on three parts. Which was given to the female students and all the participants were guided regarding filling of that proforma and Ferriman-Gallway scale was used to measure the frequency parameters of Hirsutism.

Results: The condition of hirsutism was found among 183 participants, the distribution of hairs was quite different in all selected study subjects. 26 females had hairs on chin, 154 females had hair grown on upper lips, 24 females had hairs on lower abdomen, 13 had hairs on upper abdomen,  11 participants had hairs on arms and legs whereas only 04 girls had hair grown on their shoulders and back of the body. As far as their family background is concern 41 females were belongs to upper class, 117 females belongs to middle class while 25 females were belonging to lower class families.

Conclusion: The prevalence of hirsutism was very much common among the females with the associated condition of Idiopathic hirsutism (53%), pulmonary chronic obstructive diseases (31.5%) and Acanthosis nigricans was the most widely recognized cutaneous finding related with   hirsutism.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Patterns of Exercise and Diet Intake among the Pregnant and Pre-pregnant Women Reported at Gynae OPD Civil Hospital Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan

Nusrat Fozia Pathan, Fozia Unar, Bushra Noor, Farheen Shaikh, Qurat ul Ain, Rehnaz Shaikh, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 51-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1231254

Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the patterns of exercise and diet intake among the pregnant and pre pregnant women visiting the Gynae OPD Civil Hospital Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan.

Methodology: This is a descriptive cross sectional study conducted at the Gynae OPD Civil Hospital Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan, from November 2020 to January 2021. A well-structured questionnaire was introduced to collect the study data and consent was taken. Sample size was calculated by Slovin’s Formula which was 400 with 95% confidence level and 5% margin of error. Results were analyzed by using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software version 23. Results: Results reported that, out of 400 women, during pregnancy 304 were not having gestational diabetes, before pregnancy 348 women did not exercise. It was also found that out of 322 having normal range of Body Mass Index (BMI) during pregnancy 36 of participants performed exercise, before pregnancy 40 performed the exercise, during pregnancy 256 did the household work, during pregnancy 42 followed the special diet.

Conclusion: It was concluded that women who visited the OPD do not exercise properly and do not take proper diet before and during pregnancy because of inadequate awareness of role of exercise and diet for pregnancy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Extra-Oral Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Mandibular Teeth Extraction

Ali Raza, Muhammad Shahzad, Ameer Gul, Babar Abro, Aftab Ahmed Kumbhar, Bashir Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 59-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1231255

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of Extra oral inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) technique in terms of pain during injection, onset of anesthesia and pain during extraction of mandibular teeth.

Methodology: This cross sectional study was carried out at the department of Oral & Maxillo-facial Surgery, Institute of Dentistry, Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences Jamshoro / Hyderabad, from May 2018 to November 2018. All patients in the age range of 18-45 years regardless of gender and having sub-mucous fibrosis were included. Affected teeth were diagnosed via clinical examination, intra oral periapical radiograph (IOPAR) and Orthopantomogram (OPG). Mandibular teeth were anesthetised by extra oral inferior alveolar nerve block. Visual analog scale was used to record severity of the pain during the injection of anesthesia and during the extraction. Onset of the anesthesia was recorded in minutes. Data was documented via self-made proforma and analyzed by SPSS 20 version 20.

Results: Overall 64 cases were studied. Out of which 34 were males and 30 were females. In most of the cases pain was not found, while 8 cases showed mild pain and 4 showed moderate pain. During extraction, there was no pain among 46 patients, while 10 had mild pain and only 8 had moderate pain.

Conclusion: It was concluded that extra oral inferior alveolar nerve block technique is the best treatment option with less pain during injection, rapid onset of anesthesia, and less pain during extraction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Research on Meeting the Demand of the Population for a Group of Medicines Intended for the Treatment of Skin Diseases

Maryam Magomedeminovna Radzhabova, Madina Aptievna Elgakaeva, Andrey Petrovich Kostikov, Tatiana Alekseevna Kabanova, Vitaly V. Goncharov, Ivan Gennadievich Subbotin

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-70
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1231256

The problem of the spread of skin diseases in Russia and abroad in the last period is quite acute. Among the reasons for the development of this group of diseases, researchers determine genetic factors, poor ecology, impaired liver function, etc. In this regard, those suffering from this group of diseases are necessarily provided with qualified medical care, and pharmacy institutions form the necessary range of drugs that can improve the standard of living of patients. For this reason, we consider it necessary to analyze the level of demand for certain drugs used for the treatment of skin diseases in the pharmacy network of Belgorod, as well as factors that allow us to assess certain aspects that affect the formation of the range of these drugs in pharmacies.

The purpose of the work was defined as follows: to conduct a study of meeting the demand of the population for groups of medicines intended for the treatment of skin diseases. The conducted analysis shows the following. Drugs intended for the treatment of skin diseases are in high demand (59.09%); 22.73% of drugs are in low demand, the lack of demand was observed in 18.18% of the studied group of drugs.

In this paper, recommendations were formulated to optimize the assortment policy of the World of Medicines pharmacy chain in Belgorod. Since it was determined that high demand drugs such as Argosulfan, Belosalic, Avekort, Cinocap, Candiderm, Alorom, Lomaherpan, and, Nitrofungin. It is for this reason that it is necessary to increase the volume of their purchases to better meet the demand of the population for these drugs.

It was also revealed that it is necessary to reduce the volume of purchases of drugs, the demand for which is reduced. It is drugs such as Daktarin, Adolen, Camadol, Ammifurin, Bramisil, Batrafen, and Hiporhamin (they came in the results of ABC-analysis to the group C). In addition, the pharmacy should promote this group of drugs to familiarize consumers with them and offer them at a reduced price, so as not to burden the turnover of medicines and not to reduce the effectiveness of the pharmacy.

The paper concluded that, according to the study, the demand for medicines used in the treatment of skin diseases is quite high. At the same time, the administration of the pharmacy chain should pay more attention to the analysis of the purchased groups of medicines in this category in order to prevent overloading the pharmacy balance with drugs, the demand for which is reduced, as this negatively affects the effectiveness of the pharmacy organization. In this regard, it is advisable to conduct an ABC analysis of the assortment groups of drugs at least once a quarter, as well as take the necessary measures to promote drugs used in the treatment of skin diseases that are in insufficient demand among the population.

Open Access Original Research Article

In Silco Study of MIR-124-1 Transcription Factors in Glioblastoma

Khloud M. Algothmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 71-83
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1231257

MIR-124-1 is a brain-abundant MIRNA, whose expression is important for neuronal tissue division, growth and actions. However, expression of miR-124-1 regulatory mechanisms controlling its actions in neuronal cells in health and diseases still poorly addressed. To understand mechanism for transcriptional and functional regulation of miR-124 in neuronal and glioblastoma cells, this study combined gene expression profiling data and computational transcription factor and microRNA target predictions. The present research focuses on transcription factors and DNA methylation, which are central to miR-124-1 expression regulation. A core promoter sequence of miR-124-1 was predicted to be 500 bp and 100 bp, upstream and downstream of its transcription start sites. Seventy three binding sites of fifty transcription factors in promoter region were found, using MatInspector software. Among these transcription factors, MEIS1, POU3F2, SALL2, ETV1, and MAZ, are known to be brain-enriched transcriptional activators. By using omics data analysis, expression of MAZ, PLAG1 KLF2 as well as a transcriptional repressor ZNF239 showed significant correlation with decline in miR-124-1 expression in glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, a potential CpG island was reported in the promoter, providing another mechanism for transcriptional inhibition of miR-124. As miR-124-1 regulates a number of neuronal physiological and pathological processes, we made an attempt to define its potential targets. A  computational prediction of miR-124-1 targets suggested 265 targets with two or more conserved seed sites. Pathway-based analysis of these target genes revealed a significant enrichment for axonal guidance and cancer signaling pathways. At least ten of these targets, SRGAP1, GNAI3, PLXNA3, SEMA5A, SEMA6A, CEBPA, CBL, RASSF5, MITF, and RPS6KB1, showed expected inverse correlation between their expression values and miR-124-1 suppression in glioblastoma cells. Taken together, our data form foundation of subsequent future validation researches for miR-124-1 expression regulation including transcription factors and CpG Island within its promoter as well as functional regulation comprising biological pathways controlled by its target genes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation of Silymarin–quercetin Loaded Nanoparticles by Spontaneous Emulsification Solvent Diffusion Method Using D-alpha-tocopheryl Poly (Ethylene Glycol) 1000 Succinate

S. Senthila, P. Manoj Kumar, P. Venkatesan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 84-94
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1231258

Silymarin, a flavonolignan, derived from Silybum marianum, family Asteraceae has long been used as a hepatoprotective remedy. Silymarin has cytoprotective activities due to its antioxidant property and free radical scavenging activity. The pharmacokinetic studies of past three decades revealed that silymarin has poor absorption, rapid metabolism especially by Phase II metabolism and ultimately poor oral bioavailability. Quercetin, a flavonoid present in edible vegetables and fruits, It is a potent antioxidant and shows a wide range of biological functions. Quercetin improves blood levels and efficacy of number of drugs since it is P-Glycoprotein inhibitor and also inhibits drug metabolizing enzymes. Both silymarin and quercetin were, poorly soluble in the water shows low bioavailability. The advanced type of formulation like polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) can be successfully utilised for bioavailability enhancement and targeting the Silymarin-quercetin to hepatocytes. A controlled release PNPs of silymarin-quercetin were prepared by spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion (SESD) method using Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) as biodegradable polymer, D-alpha-tocopheryl poly (ethylene glycol) 1000 succinate (TPGS) used as a solubilizer, as an emulsifier. TPGS as an emulsifier and further as a matrix material blended with PLGA was used to enhance the encapsulation efficiency and improve the drug release profile of nanoparticles. Different formulations with various drug: polymer ratios and volume and concentration of surfactant, centrifugation time were evaluated. The effect of formulation parameters such as drug/polymer ratio, volume and surfactant content were evaluated. The surface morphology and size of the nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Drug encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release profiles of nanoparticles were determined using UV spectrophotometry. The nanoparticles prepared with combination of both the drugs in this study were spherical with size range of 100–200 nm. It was shown that TPGS was a good emulsifier for producing nanoparticles of hydrophobic drugs and improving the encapsulation efficiency and drug loading and drug release profile of nanoparticles. Although the amount of the TPGS used had a significant effect on the nanoparticle size and morphology, the drug loading and release profile of nanoparticles