Open Access Minireview Article

Novel and Re-emerging Zoonotic Viral Diseases in India during Last Two Decades: An Overview

Priyanka Venugopal, Damal Kandadai Sriram, Melvin George

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 82-93
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1031236

Zoonotic diseases or zoonosis is an infectious disease caused by the transmission of pathogens from animals to humans. Depending on the pathogens, these diseases can be bacterial, viral, or parasitic and the route of transmission of the pathogens can be via reservoirs including birds, bats, pigs, and mosquitoes, eventually infecting humans. Spread among humans arises primarily through person-person contact and fomites, causing major outbreaks (epidemics and pandemics). Some of the major zoonotic outbreaks include plague, influenza, West Nile fever, brucellosis, and rabies. This review focuses on zoonotic viral outbreaks in India over the past 20 years highlighting the spread and severity of the disease, measures to control the infection and prevention, treatment and management of the infectious diseases. New or emerging and re-emerging viral diseases such as coronavirus, Japanese encephalitis, dengue and chikungunya are discussed. These outbreaks have been reported to cause high morbidity and mortality, in addition, pose a major risk to the health security, safety, and economy of the country. Insufficient knowledge of emerging diseases is a major challenge for producing effective anti-viral drugs and vaccines. Understanding the etiology and spread of the disease is essential for preventive measures and the development of efficient treatment strategies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Statistical Analysis of Cardiovascular Disease and Associated Risk Factors among Patients in Western Ethiopia

Gemechu Bekana Fufa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1031228

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major non-communicable disease-causing higher proportions of morbidity and mortality, impacting both in the rural and urban populations of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to analysis the Cardiovascular disease and associated risk factor of patients in Nekemte Specialized and Gimbi Comprehensive Hospitals, western Ethiopia. A sample of 950 Cardiovascular patients at selected hospitals were selected using purposive sampling from the study area, from June 2018 to September 2019. Survival and Hazard functions, Kaplan-Meier Estimator, Cox Regression model, Logistic regression models, and tests methods of data analysis were used in this study. The study variables: Age, Sex, Residence, Tobacco use, Alcohol use, Obesity (BMI) in kg/m2, Physical Activity, Khat Use, Diabetes Status, Family History of HTN, circumference, using fruit, educational level are the main variables included in the study. The result of the study shows that age of patients, smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, practicing physical exercise, body mass index, having diabetes mellitus and having a family history of hypertension were among the factors that were highly significant to determine the censored and death patients, but the residence of patients has less significant effect on the censored of patients at study area. The result of the study also shows that, Cardiovascular Disease risk factors are highly prevalent among the hypertensive patients, older age, smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol and not practicing of physical exercise in this study. Finally, the researcher recommends that, to increases the censored of the cardiovascular patients, not drink alcohol, not use tobacco, not chew chat, doing physical exercise and eating fruits were the main recommended activities for this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacy Students’ Perception towards Clinical Pharmacognosy Course

Nehad J. Ahmed, Abdulsalam Alonazi, Mehrukh Zehravi, Maged S. Abdel-Kader

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 15-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1031229

Aim: The aim of this study was to identify pharmacy student’s perception towards clinical pharmacognosy.

Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in Al-Kharj. The survey contains 2 parts; the Level of the students and pharmacy students’ perception towards the clinical pharmacognosy course. The data were collected and analyzed using Excel software.

Results: About 51.20 % of the students said that clinical pharmacognosy is an interesting subject. About 57.60% of them said that clinical pharmacognosy is an integral part of clinical pharmacy practice but only 28.80% of them agreed that clinical pharmacognosy should be a mandatory part of the pharmacy curriculum. Approximately 68.00% of the students agreed that clinical pharmacognosy provides sufficient knowledge about mechanisms of actions, indications, proper dosing and side effects of herbal drugs.

Conclusion: It is concluded that pharmacy students showed positive perceptions towards the clinical pharmacognosy course. It is important to increase the awareness of pharmacy students about clinical pharmacognosy in order to prescribe herbal drugs correctly and to educate health care professionals and patients about the efficacy and safety of the herbal products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Assessment and Biological Activity Evaluation of Different Brands of Olive Oil

Ishraga Eltayeb M. A-Elbasit, Amna El Amin Mohammed Ahmed, Nuha Mohammed Elhassan Satti, Mohd. Imran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-28
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1031230

Background: The quality of medicinal/food products is directly related to the consumer’s safety. Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) is a widely used oil in Saudi Arabia for cooking, frying, and salad dressing. It is also an ingredient of many pharmaceutical products. Therefore, its regular quality assessment is essential for the consumer’s safety.

Objective: To assess standard quality parameters of the marketed VOO brands in the Rafha City of Saudi Arabia and to perform their antioxidant activity evaluation.

Methodology: The different brands of VOO sold in the Rafha City of Saudi Arabia were collected from two supermarkets and one local shop. The quality of the different brands of the VOO was assessed for their physical appearance, solubility, relative density, refractive index, absorbance, acid value, and peroxide value. The standard procedures provided in the British Pharmacopeia (BP) were used to assess these parameters. The antioxidant activity of the oils was performed by the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method.

Results: The VOO sample test results revealed no significant change in the studied parameter's standard values. The VOO samples presented compliance with the specification of VOO provided in the BP. The VOOs were also free of Sesame oil, which is one of the possible adulterants of the VOO. The antioxidant activity data of the VOO samples (IC50 = 107 to 110 mg oil) also matched with antioxidant activity data of the reference VOO (IC50 = 105 mg oil). The antimicrobial activity of the VOO samples and the reference VOO was also comparable.

Conclusion: The different brands of the marketed VOO comply with the specification of VOO provided in the BP. They were suitable for their intended use/application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pharmacy and Medicine Students' Self-assessment of Their Knowledge about Rare Diseases

Nehad J. Ahmed, Abdulrahman S. Alrawili, Faisal Z. Alkhawaja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 29-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1031231

Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the knowledge of pharmacy and medicine students about rare diseases.

Methodology: This is a cross sectional study that was conducted in January 2021. The study included a questionnaire that was adapted from a previous study. The questionnaire was translated to Arabic and after validation it was converted to online form to be filled by the students.

Results: Most of the students were pharmacy students (60.78%) and the majority of them were females (72.55%).  Only 11.76% of the students reported that their knowledge is very good about rare diseases. About 52.94% of them said that they are prepared for caring for patients with rare diseases. The majority of the students agreed that they need to broad their knowledge about rare diseases (97.06%). More than half of the students said that they get knowledge about rare disease from internet (51.96%) and scientific literature and research (48.04%).

Conclusion: The present study showed poor knowledge of pharmacy and medicine students about rare diseases. There is an urgent need to raise the awareness of medical students on rare diseases and educate them about these diseases by adding a course on rare diseases in their medical curricula.

Open Access Original Research Article

Research on Novel Formulation of Model Drug Containing Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Doxcycycline Hyclate for Periodontal Disease

Gouri Shankar Birtia, Santosh K. Mahapatra

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1031232

In the present day circumstances, it has been reported that the Dental diseases are a most important physical condition problem in all parts of the globe, general in all age groups, races and genders. The proportion of dental diseases has developed to a great extent in current years. Around 70% of inhabitants suffer from dental problems. The human population is exaggerated by foremost of oral diseases. To treat dental problems such as pain due to dental caries, periodonitis, gingivitis, and other gum infections, painkillers alongside with antibiotics and various dental paints are the generally prescribed drugs by dentists as primary mode of treatment. However the general side effects of most of the painkillers are hyperacidity and gastric annoyance upon oral administration. On the other hand, nearly all antibiotics due to measured onset of action and hepatic “first-pass” consequence fail to construct prompt and extend actions. Furthermore, most of the dental formulations are washed out by saliva inside a few hours of application. To conquer the above-mentioned problems, a soft polymeric mold containing antibiotic and anasthetics drugs and having a suitable constancy to stick to the tooth, was developed for continued drug release to endow with improved relief in dental patients. Carbopol 934, Ethyl cellulose, Gum tragacanth, Hydroxy propyl cellulose, and PEG 400 were used to organize the formulation containing Lidocaine hydrochloride and doxycycline hyclate individually and in combination, by addition and solvent evaporation technique. Dissimilar physicochemical characterization studies such as mucoadhesion test and swelling index were conceded out. In vitro drug release studies showed sustained release of Lidocaine hydrochloride and doxycycline hyclate in simulated saliva for 24 h. Additional studies are necessary to succeed with these formulations in humans. Upon accomplishment, this type of dosage form may open up new avenues towards dentistry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Phytochemical Constituents of Extracts of Kigelia africana Fruit and Sorghum bicolor, Stalk in Lagos Nigeria

Nkem F. Obianagha, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Ufuoma Chukwuani, Omobolanle Abioye Ogundahunsi, Steve O. Ogbonnia, Emmanuel Ifeanyi Obeagu, Hassan Thabit Haji, Othman Hakum Said

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-58
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1031233

The use of herbal medicines and phytonutrients or nutraceuticals with numerous secondary metabolites continues to expand rapidly across the world, with many people now resorting to these products to treat various health challenges in different national healthcare settings. Therefore, the study is aimed at evaluating the phytochemical composition in the fruit extract of Kigelia africana and Sorghum bicolor stalks bought from the Mushin market in Lagos, Nigeria to ascertain its numerous pharmacological activities and identify the various chemical compounds responsible for these activities. Ethanol extracts of identified fresh fruits of K. africana  and S. bicolor stalks (L) were prepared for phytochemical screening using established methods for Alkaloids, Tannins, Phenols, Flavonoids, and Terpenoids testing as well as Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis (GC-MS) for the analysis of the extracts. The chemical constituents present in both extracts were tannins, phenols, flavonoids, and saponins as well as alkaloids found only in K. africana. Also, the chromatogram of K. africana revealed the presence of forty-four (44) phytochemical constituents. At the same time, that of S. bicolor were twenty-nine (29) phytochemical constituents that could contribute to the medicinal quality of the plant with 9, 12-Octadeadienoic acid (Z, Z), and 13-Docosenoic acid, methyl ester, (Z) found as the major compounds respectively. The K africana and S. bicolor African indigenous plants in Lagos, Nigeria, possess different phytocomponents of scientific importance, biological action, and potential medicinal properties. There is a need for more standardization and purification of this herbal formulation for the treatment of diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency and Severity of Depression in Cancer Patients Presenting to Tertiary Care Hospital

Rakesh Kumar, Haresh Kumar, Sarika Bai, Azra Shaheen, Safdar Ali Pervez, Shahabuddin Rind, Arslan Ahmer

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 59-70
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1031234

Introdution: Cancer and depression, independently, cause massive human suffering worldwide. By the end of 2030 the unipolar major depression disorder could be as the chief source of ailment as estimated by World Health Organization.

Objective: Objective of this study is to detect prevalence the frequency and severity of the depression in cancer patients presenting to tertiary care hospital of Karachi.

Methodology: The current prospective cross-sectional research was performed over a period of six months from August 2020 to January 2021 on 179 patients in the Department of Oncology of Civil Hospital Karachi, after approval of synopsis from CPSP and the ethical committee of Civil Hospital. All patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and visited OPD of Civil hospital were selected in the study. Informed consent was taken after explaining the procedure, risks and benefits of the study.Patients were assessed clinically by using ICD-10 criteria and then for validity and reliability, patients were screened for presence of depression and its severity through PHQ-9.Patients scoring higher than 4 was labeled as having depression and PHQ-9 score of 5 to 9, 10 to 14, 15 to 19, 20-27 were labeled mild, moderate, moderately severe and severe depression correspondingly. Observed data was entered in the predesigned Performa was gathered and SPSS version 20.0 was used for data analysis. Mean ± SD of age was 47.75±14.901years. Out of 179 patients 95 (53.1%) were male and 84 (46.9%) were female. 93(52%) cancer patients were depressed while 86(48%) were normal. Patients suffering from mild depression were 3.2%, moderate depression were 54.85%, moderately severe depressed were 19.4%, while 22.6% cancer patients were severely depressed. It is to be concluded that out of 179cancer patients 93(52%) diagnosed to have depression while 86(48%) did not have depression. Based on our study findings, it is suggested that depression commonly presented in cancer patients and there is a need to screen all cancer patients for depressive disorder.

Open Access Original Research Article

Post-marketing Assessment of Esomeprazole and Lansoprazole Enteric Coated Products Available in Saudi Arabia Based on Quality Control

Doaa Hasan Alshora, Mohamed Abbas Ibrahim, Ahmed Mohammed Alomar, Tahani Nasser Alsufian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 94-106
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1031237

Introduction: Esomeprazole (ESM) and Lansoprazole (LNZ) are proton pump inhibitors, used in the treatment of peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Different marketed generic products for both drugs are now available in Saudi market as enteric coated dosage form. Different factors can affect the drug release from enteric coated formulation, and therefore, the final product should be tested.

Methodology: In this study three different ESM generic products (20 and 40 mg) and four LNZ generic products (15 and 30 mg) were assessed and compared to the innovator products based on quality control tests.

Results: For ESM, it was found that the content uniformity results for the innovator product (Nexium®) and all other generic products lies between 85-115% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 6%. Also, the calculated Acceptance values (AV) was less than 15% (L1), which met the US Pharmacopeia. The in-vitro dissolution test in acid stage for Nexium® and other ESM generic products was less than 10% which met the requirement. In case of LNZ, 4 different generic enteric coated pellets filled in capsules were studied and compared to its innovator (Lanzor®), the content uniformity results showed that all products met the requirement with AV less than 15%. The in-vitro dissolution studies showed that all products met the requirement and release less than 10% of the drug in the acidic media, except LNZ-P2 containing both 15 and 30 g LNZ, which exhibited release more than 10% in the acids stage.

Conclusion: post-marketing assessments for drug products play an important rule to figure out the non-effective products.

Open Access Review Article

An Empirical Study on Image Segmentation Techniques for Detection of Skin Cancer

M. Kavitha, A. Senthil Arumugam, V. Saravana Kumar, S. Anantha Sivaprakasam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 71-81
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1031235

Skin cancer is a crucial predicament in most of western countries including Europe, Australia and America. It is quite often curable whenever perceived and treated early. The significant hazard factors related are skin shading, deficiency of sun-lights, atmosphere, age, and hereditary. The most ideal approach to distinguish melanoma is to perceive another spot in the skin or recognize that is fluctuating in size, shape and shading. Early detection of skin malignancy can stay away from death. Finding of the skin ailment relies upon the extraction of the anomalous skin locale. Right now, methods to separate the skin injury districts are proposed and their outcomes are looked at dependent on the measurable and surface properties. In this study, the myriad kind of features of Dermoscopy image analysis has been thoroughly explores. Moreover, disparity segmentation techniques for detecting Melanoma Skin Cancer are discussed. The ultimate aim of this discussion is to provide suggestions for carrying a future research based about this relevance and limitations.