Open Access Short Communication

“Caffeine and Its Impact with Physical and Status of Mental Health among University Students in the United Kingdom”

Shimaa Mohammed Hasnin Aboelnaga

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 32-38
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i131135

This research study aims to analyze the impact of caffeine on the physical and mental health of university students within the United Kingdom. The research has made use of a mixed-methods methodology, involving both the qualitative and quantitative analysis methods, to collect and analyze secondary data to meet the objectives. The data for this study has been collected from case studies enunciated and highlighted in the previous research studies in this subject area and using that data, the analysis was conducted to analyze the impact of caffeine in the context of the target population. The results of the study suggest that impact is a function of the quantity of caffeine consumed by university students. This is to say that if the quantity suggested by the health experts has been consumed by students, then there is no potential negative health outcome. But if an increased quantity has been consumed, then, as per the findings of this study, several negative mental health statuses of students in the UK may be observed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Lipid Profile and Serum Creatinine Kinase in Subjects with Hyperlipidemia on Moderate Intensity Statin Therapy Attending a Postgraduate Teaching Hospital in South India

T. K. Mohammed Muneersha, R. T. Saravanakumar, K. G. Revikumar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i131132

Atherosclerosis of large and medium sized arteries are believed to be the major reason behind the development of Coronary Artery Diseases and Hyperlipidemia has been found to be one of the most important contributing factors. Appropriate lifestyle changes along with proper drug therapy lead to a considerable reduction in mortality rate due to coronary artery disease. Reduction of LDL Cholesterol is the primary goal of cholesterol-lowering therapy, but most of the patients are usually unable to achieve the treatment goals with lifestyle modifications alone; and in such situations, drug therapy is essential to prevent the disease progression and further future complications. The aim of the study was to demonstrate impact of three moderate intensity statins on lipid profile and biomarker representing muscle toxicity. It was a prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in south India. Patients of both gender falling the age group between 30 and 70 years with newly diagnosed Hyperlipidemia attending the Department of Medicine OPD, were enrolled in the study. Total 229 participants were enrolled in study and all the drug treatment were found to be effective in achieving the treatment goal; at the same time Rosuvastatin 10 mg treatment group exhibited better efficacy along with minimal muscle toxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Females Awareness and Attitudes Regarding Breast Self-Examination and Breast Cancer in Riyadh Province

Nehad J. Ahmed, Saad M. Alshahrani, Alanoud Almutiran, Abdulrahman S. Alrawili, Faisal Z. Alkhawaja

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i131133

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the awareness and attitudes of females in Riyadh province regarding breast cancer and breast self-examination.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study that was conducted using a survey that was adapted from previously published studies that were conducted in Northeast Nigeria and Jordan. The survey was distributed both as a paper-based survey or as an online survey.

Results: Most of of the respondents who filled the paper-based survey said that they are aware about breast cancer (88%). The main source for their knowledge was social media (67.67%). More than 95% of the respondents who filled the online survey said that they are aware about breast cancer. The main source for their knowledge was social media (53.85%). Most of the respondents of paper-based survey respondents said that they heard about breast self-examination but they didn’t practice it (54.00%). Most of online survey respondents said that they heard about breast self-examination but they didn’t practice it (62.67%).

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that females had good knowledge about breast self-examination and breast cancer but a high percentage of the females don’t practice breast self-examination. It is recommended to increase females’ level of knowledge about breast self-examination through intensified awareness programs and also to encourage them to perform the examination regularly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Syzygium aromaticum, Cinnamonum tamala, Cinnamonum cassia Plant Extract

Ramesh Kumar Kushwaha, Holavanahalli Nagaraju Deepa, Pooja Karkera, Sadasivam Jayashree

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-31
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i131134

Syzygium aromaticum (Clove), Cinnamonum tamala (Bay leaf), Cinnamonum cassia (Cinnamon bark) are well known plants in India. All three plants are a rich source of secondary metabolites that find use as antimicrobial agent, in pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics, food and agriculture industry. In regards of antimicrobial activity, green silver nanoparticles were synthesised by using these plants aqueous extract (25%w/v). For silver nanoparticle synthesis different concentration of plant extract were mixed with AgNO3 solution and exposed to sunlight and estimated by the UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Powdered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were dissolved in autoclaved distilled water at different concentration (20mg/ml, 10mg/ml, 5mg/ml, and 2.5mg/ml) and performed antimicrobial activity through agar well diffusion method. Silver nanoparticles of all three plants were showed antimicrobial activity against human bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The inhibition zone increased with increasing concentration of all three plants (S. aromaticum, C. tamala and C. cassia) AgNPs, so maximum inhibition zone was observed at 20mg/ml for both pathogens. At higher concentration, the inhibition zone of E. coli were 2.25 ±0.05, 1.7 ±0.1 and 1.85 ±0.05 cm in presence of S. aromaticum, C. tamala and C. cassia AgNPs respectively. Although, The presence of phytochemical terpenoids, tannin and glycosides are was confirmed by the chemical reagent test. In modern era, the nanoparticle based medicine is explored in pharmaceutical and medical science. Therefore this green synthesis of silver nanoparticle can be explored in pharmaceutical science.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency of Carbonated Beverage Drinking, Knowledge Regarding its Risks on Health and Association with Bone Mineral Density in Medical Students

Syed Sohail Abbas, Bushra Begum Ramejo, Asadullah Mehar, Khush Muhammad Sohu, Syeda Abiya Amber Naqvi, Sobia Aftab

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 39-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i131136

Background: The carbonated drink manufacturing companies has set young school/college going children as their primary target customers who are consuming it on daily basis and frequency of drinking vary depending on affordability and need. The consumption of carbonated drink has been increased recently that has led us to think about its unwanted effects on health. It has been identified that consuming more carbonated drinks may cause low bone mineral density.

Objectives: To identify the frequency of consumption of carbonated drinks in medical students and to assess the knowledge regarding adverse effects of theses drinks and association of BMD.

Methodology: It was a cross sectional study conducted at Baqai Medical University Karachi from May to August 2020. Students of MBBS 4th year and BDS final year were approached, sample size was calculated at 50% precision of total population i.e 100 participants were recruited by convenient sampling from the mentioned classes. Preformed questionnaire was administered to identify the frequency and knowledge regarding the subject and bone mineral density through Single x-ray absorptiometry (SXA).

Results: The study participants almost (90%) were aware of the name carbonated drink of, 85.5% were aware regarding the harmful effects, and 75.5% were having knowledge about the ingredients. Majority were aware regarding health related effects but they were not having knowledge about names of the specific diseases. There was no significant (0.079) association between carbonated drink consumption and BMD.

Conclusion: Students were aware of health related hazards caused by carbonated drinks there was no association of carbonated drink consumption and BMD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antifungal Activity of Samadera indica

S. Jaiswal, R. A. Gupta

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-51
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i131137

Samadera indica plant is an antifungal and bitter plant spread all over India. The applications of NDDS in phytopharmaceuticals have been widely investigated and various commercial formulations of plants are available in the global market. The goal of nano drug delivery system of herbal extract is to reduce toxicity, to improve drug efficacy, to improve better therapeutic effect, etc. Nanomicelles of samadera indica were successfully prepared by solvent evaporation method and studied various parameters such as Preliminary phytochemical screening, Scanning electron microscopy, and antifungal study. In present methodology, it was concluded that the Nanomicelles of methanolic extract of samadera indica plant was successfully prepared. It was safe and non- toxic. Plant extract contained flavonoids, triterpenes, and alkaloids which is responsible for antifungal activity. This research work concludes that the samadera indica is used as antioxidant, antimicrobial as well as antifungal compound. Novel drug delivery system is a advanced technology for delivering the drug with their so many advantages. Nanomicelles is an excellent pharmaceutical carriers by using bioactive constituents of plant having no side effects, effective formulation for various diseases especially in case of skin diseases. Novel formulation enhanced the topical drug delivery system of Samadera indica in order to treat skin infections was developed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wrist Arthrodesis in Severe Wrist Arthritis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Retrospective Study

Amit Lakhani, Ena Sharma, Harsh Mander

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 52-60
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i131138

Objective: Osteoarthritis of wrist is an uncommon disorder but in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), wrist and metacarpophlangeal joint are involved in early stages. RA of wrist leads to severe pain and loss of function in a large number of patients. Conservative treatment is required in early stages, but in severe cases arthroplasty or total wrist arthrodesis is the treatment of choice. Problems in wrist arthroplasty include implant breakage, cystic erosion in the surrounding bone, and marked synovitis, which requires revision in most of cases. Total wrist arthrodesis is treatment of choice in severe wrist arthritis patient, who want to have good grip and wish to do heavy labour.

Material and Methods: A retrospective review of 15 patients of RA with severe wrist arthritis, managed by wrist arthrodesis using 3.5 mm reconstruction plate and iliac crest bone graft was done. Patients were evaluated for pain relief, functional improvement and radiographic analysis. Patient function measures included: Visual analog score (VAS), the Mayo wrist score, and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score.

Result: All 15 cases united well with marked improvement in wrist strength and diminished pain allowing improved function and heavy labor. Mayo wrist scores increased on an average of 37.5 Points (preoperative) 10 to 65 (postoperative). The average DASH score has decreased significantly up to 47 Points.

Conclusion: Wrist Arthrodesis provides pain relief and functional hand in sever wrist arthritis in RA cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Pregnenolone in vitro

Teodora P. Popova, Ignat Ignatov, Toshka Petrova, Georgi Dinkov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 61-67
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i131139

The antimicrobial effect of pregnenolone on clinical and reference strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was tested. Pregnenolone was found to have inhibitory activity against all tested bacterial strains. Slightly higher sensitivity is shown by the strains of S. aureus. When applied directly, pregnenolone has a weak antimicrobial effect due to its very low water solubility, as it is in oleose state because the formulation studied in this experiment contains tocopherol (a fat-soluble vitamin) as a co-solvent. When emulsified with lecithin, as well as with methanol, its solubility in water increases and penetrates over a longer distance in the agar around the points of its application. Applied as an emulsion, it shows significantly higher inhibitory activity against E. coli and S. aureus. Even the non-emulsified version should still be useful in vivo due to the fact that intracellular environments are much more lipophilic than serum, the target of most antimicrobial substances is the intracellular space, and non-emulsified pregnenolone has been shown to have very high intracellular uptake.

Open Access Original Research Article

In-vivo Hypoglycemic Activity of Grewia asiatica Fruit Extract in Streptozotocin Mediated Diabetic Rats

Zuneera Akram, Aisha Noreen, Muzammil Hussain, Maryam Inayat, Sobia Akhter, Usman Ghani Farooqi, Anum Akram, Waqar Ahmed Sabzoi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 68-75
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i131140

Diabetes mellitus has high global prevalence and occurrence and is considered to bean endocrinological and/or metabolic disorder. Conventional drug treatment is costly and has toxic side effects, although it is successful in treating diabetes mellitus. If effective and less toxic, herbal medicine will thus include alternative therapy. This research has been designed to investigate the role of Grewia asiatica extract in the control of diabetes in male albino rats with Streptozotocin mediated type 2 diabetes. Grewia asiatica fruit extract at a dose of 200mg/kg was given to Streptozotocin mediated type II DM Rats. A known anti-diabetic drug, Glibenclamide has been used as a standard drug. The method of the research was to monitor the effect of Grewia asiatica on the blood glucose level of Rats. In this study, Rats were split into four categories i.e. Control, Streptozotocin treated, Streptozotocin + Glibenclamide treated and Streptozotocin +Grewia asiatica extract-treated group.  Grewia asiatica fruit extract significantly improve the blood glucose levels as compared to the standard drug Glibenclamide in Streptozotocin mediated diabetic group.

Conclusion: It was concluded that Grewia asiatica may be used in the treatment of diabetes or decreasing the elevated level of blood sugar.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioanalytical Method Development and Validation for the Simultaneous Determination of Vildagliptin and Telmisartan in Rabbit Plasma Using RP-HPLC

Budideti Kishore Kumar Reddy, Kothapalli Bonnoth Chandra Sekhar, Chinnala Krishna Mohan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 76-86
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i131141

A simple, reproducible bioanalytical method of liquid chromatography and PDA detector was developed and validated for the simultaneous Determination of Vildagliptin and Telmisartan in Rabbit Plasma using liquid-liquid extraction technique. K2 EDTA was used as anti-coagulant. Analytes were extracted by Methyl-tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) and subsequent separation on a Kromasil C18 column (5 µ, 100 × 4.6 mm) using Acetonitrile : Methanol 75:25 v/v as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and (40±1)°C column oven temperature. Analytes were monitored with PDA detector at an isosbestic point of 225 nm for both Vildagliptin and Telmisartan.  Retention times of Vildagliptin and Telmisartan were found to be at 2.545 mins and 6.633 mins respectively. The method was validated over a linear (r2 = 0.9979) concentration range of 24.979 - 5003.808  µg/ml for Vildagliptin and 1.011- 202.559 µg/ml for Telmisartan. The inter-day and intra-day precisions were found to be less than 15% and the accuracy was all within ±15% (at LLOQ ±20%). The developed HPLC-PDA method was fully validated for all the other parameters as per FDA guidelines like selectivity, matrix effect, recovery and stability as well. Due to the high degree of sensitivity, very less time consuming, easy extraction procedure and low requirement of sample volume, the method will be applicable for therapeutic drug monitoring.