Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Microbial Load Accumulating in Paper Mouth and Face Masks and Obtaining Antimicrobial Properties with Chamomile Extract

Ufuk Yilmaz, Ferudun Koçer, Ahmet Tutuş, Sinan Sönmez

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4631096

The aim of this study was to determine the microfungi and bacteria accumulated in different usage periods of paper mouth and face masks which are used for protection against microfungi and bacteria in many areas and to give antimicrobial properties to these masks by impregnating Chamomile extract with high antimicrobial properties. Disc diffusion test was applied in this study. The mouth and face masks used for different periods (3-6-12 hours) were cultured on the media to calculate the microbial load. Nutrient Agar and Malt Extract Agar were used to determine bacterial loads. Then, the paper mouth and face mask were impregnated with different concentrations of chamomile extract and microbial loads were compared. The results of the study show that the use of chamomile extract in paper mouth and face masks, where fungus flora is low and bacteria flora is rich, has the effect of reducing microbial load. These paper masks impregnated with chamomile extract concentration can be used in first aid units, clinics, surgery, dental units and so on. places can be used to prevent the spread of infection. At the same time, this study is expected to be the source of similar studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluations of Hemostatic Activity of Ethanol Extract of Euonymus fortunei Aerial Parts

Xi-Lin Ouyang, Lin-Yan Shu, Xiao-Ya Qin, Li Yang

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4631097

Aim: To investigate the hemostatic effect of ethanol extracts of Euonymus fortunei and their different polar fractions, and to analyze the changes in intracellular calcium ion concentration in platelet cells.

Methodology: Bleeding time and clotting time was assessed by the slide method and the tail-breaking method, respectively. Four coagulation indexes, including prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and the content of fibrinogen, as well as platelet aggregation effect were also determined. The concentration of calcium ions in platelet cells treated by n-butanol fraction with good active hemostatic activity was also examined.

Results: Compared with the control group, the n-butanol fraction of E. fortunei can not only significantly shorten the bleeding time and coagulation time, but also obviously shorten activated partial thromboplastin time. However, no significant difference was found on the content of fibrinogen. Platelet aggregation experiments show that the n-butanol fraction can increase the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of platelet cells, which may be related to the activation of downstream signals through the platelet membrane G protein-coupled receptor.

Conclusion: Ethanol extract of E. fortunei has excellent hemostatic activity, which may be related to the increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration caused by G protein-coupled receptor on the platelet membrane surface. E. fortunei could be a potential medicinal plant used for hemostatic treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Assessment of the Quality of Communication and Interactions between Dental Students and Dental Technicians for Fixed Prosthesis in Saudi Arabia

Karunakar Shetty, Raghad Mohammed Mona, Fatmah Abdulrahman Ashy, Sarah Naji Aljahdali, Lama Salman Alhazmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 16-24
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4631098

Introduction: Improving communication and collaboration between members of the dental team is important to the long term aim of improving the quality of dental care for patients. The aim of this cross‑sectional study was to compare and assess the communication and interactions between dental students and laboratory technicians for fixed prosthesis.

Materials and Methods: The Survey based study was conducted online using a self-structured, pre-tested, closed ended with Face validity and content validity and consisting of 18 questions for dental students and 18 questions for dental technicians. Questionnaire was designed to compare and assess the quality of communication between dental students and laboratory technicians for fixed prosthodontics in Makkah region of Saudi Arabia. The data were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used to compare and assess the quality of communication between dental students and laboratory technicians for fixed prosthodontics. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: In our survey around forty percent of technicians indicated that work authorization forms were complete and legible to provide the prosthesis. Regarding Communication with the dental technicians by the dental students, 38.5% (77) of them communicate by filling the authorization form, 38.5% (77) of them giving instructions to the delivery boy and 21% (42) of them giving instructions over the phone.

Conclusion: Communication between dentist and dental students are very important and it is recommended to fill the authorization form for fixed prosthesis. Technicians should undergo training with designing of fixed prosthesis especially pontic design. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Docking Evaluation of Syzygium aromaticum Isolated Compounds Against Exo-β-(1,3)-glucanases of Candida albicans

Mohammed H. F. Shalayel, Ghassab M. Al-Mazaideh, Farhan Khashim Al Swailmi, Saleem Aladaileh, Saada Nour, Akef T. Afaneh, Ali Marashdeh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-44
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4631100

Seventeen compounds from Syzygium aromaticum are selected for exo-β-(1,3)-glucanases inhibitory activity by using molecular docking study. The compounds are uploaded from the PubChem database and molecular docking with AutoDock 1.5.6 tools is carried out. The molecular docking scores indicate that stigmasterol and campesterol are of the highest potentials, and approximately have similar binding affinities with Candida albicans' active site (3N9K, 3O6A). The hydroxyl moiety has played an important role in the antifungal potentiality of all studied compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Prescribing Pattern of Methyldopa in the Outpatient Setting

Nehad J. Ahmed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 45-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4631101

Aim: This study aimed to describe the prescribing pattern of methyldopa in a public hospital in Alkharj.

Methodology: This is a retrospective study that was conducted to know the prescribing pattern of methyldopa. The data were collected from the outpatient electronic prescriptions in a public hospital in Alkharj in 2017 and 2018.

Results: Only 27 patients in the outpatient setting received methyldopa in 2017 and 23 patients in 2018. all of the patients who received methyldopa were females. Most of the prescribers were residents (82.61%) and only 17.39% were consultants. About 82.61 % of the prescriptions were written by obstetrics and gynecology department.

Conclusion: The prescribing of methyldopa is infrequent in the outpatient setting. Although it is generally safe, it may cause numerous side-effects as well as it can interact with other medications, so it is important to monitor its prescribing trends to ensure that it is prescribed appropriately.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Activities of Artemissia vulgaris and Acacia nilotica Plant Extracts

Shaista Yaqoob, Fatima Waheed, Qurban Ali, Arif Malik

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 66-73
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4631103

With the growing era, there is tremendous need to produce high potential antimicrobial drugs and medicines from various herbaceous plants and natural resources has been increasing due to increasing multiple drug resistance in pathogens. An experiment was performed to know about antimicrobial activities of various plant extracts. These activities were tested by using agar diffusion method. The bacterial as well as fungal strains were collected and were cultured on agar plates. After that these plates were left in incubator for 24 hours at 37°C to develop zones clearly all round the plant extracts. The activities of bacteria and fungi were determined by using inhibition diameter zones. The clear inhibition zones were found against bacterial strains in study. Antimicrobial activity of acetone, n-hexane and water extracts viz. Acacia nilotica and Artemissia vulgaris tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtils and E. coli as well as Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. Acetone extracts were found to be more effective as compared with n-hexane while water extracts show no activity.  

Open Access Review Article

Genetic Identification: A Review on Autosomal Single Nucleotide Polymorphism’s as Diagnostic Tool for Identifying Human

Fahmida Kahtoon, Ruba Mustafa Elsaid Ahmed, Naveed Iqbal, Zahid Balouch, Fahad Saleh Alenazi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4631099

Single Nucleotide polymorphisms are biological markers, helping researchers  to locate genes that are associated with various  diseases. When SNPs occur within a gene or in a regulatory region near a gene, they may play a more direct role in disease by affecting the gene's function. Most SNPs have no effect on health or development.Advancement in the field of genetics has resulted in the application of several techniques of molecular genetics in Pharmacogenomics. Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) holds the key in defining the risk of an individual’s susceptibility to various illnesses and response to drugs The body of human beings is composed of DNA which is a chemical molecule responsible for imparting phenotypic and genotypic characteristics to the individuals. The most recent advancement of molecular genetics, which has found application in forensic science, is the use of autosomal SNPs because they can provide information about the ancestral genetics of human beings.The primary aim of this research is to explore the significance of autosomal SNPs in forensic science through the identification of humans at a crime scene.

A secondary qualitative research design has been selected for conducting this study. This secondary research is based on a systematic review of the studies which have provided an insight in the significance of autosomal SNPs in forensic sciences by using various Data search Engine. SNPs can be used in the forensic investigation for the identification of individuals present at the crime scene.

Open Access Review Article

An Overview of Genome-Wide Association Studies in Multiple Sclerosis

Khloud Mubarak Algothmi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-65
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4631102

The common neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system is multiple sclerosis (MS). It progresses with autoimmune inflammation and demyelination. Molecular basis study of MS pathogenesis is a significant element of field research, leading to new prevention and treatment strategies by defining the genetic association, epigenetic, and environmental risks factor of MS that could provide a predictive method for estimating human predisposition to MS. From a genetic perspective, MS is a complex disorder due to the combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. The main histocompatibility complex (MHC) is the only universal genetic site associated with MS, and it has been approved for many years. The most common risk for MS in most populations is human leukocyte antigen (HLA) at 6p21. Before the advent of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) encouraging finding new susceptibility loci, other genetic factors in the MS remained uncommon. In this literature review, we summarized details, including references, abstracts, and full text of journal articles. These details were selected and obtained from virtual databases such as Medline and PubMed. Using the keywords and health descriptors in MS, GWAS, IL7R and HLA genes for published data from 2007 until 2019.So, the purpose of this research was to perform an analysis of recent progress in identifying genetic factors and gene polymorphism that affect the risk of MS and how these results explain the disease pathogenesis.

Open Access Review Article

COVID 19-An Update on Oral Changes

Srividhya Srinivasan, K. Saraswathi Gopal, P. Mahesh Kumar, V. Poongodi, R. Anitha

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 74-79
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4631104

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-2 is a novel coronavirus belonging to the family Coronaviridae originating in Wuhan, China has created a  impact across the globe. The disease has been declared a pandemic by the WHO on March 11, 2020. In this review, an update on virology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation with detailed update on oral manifestations .

Open Access Review Article

Potential Hexokinase II Inhibition by Benzimidazole Anthelmintics: Albendazole, Mebendazole and Fenbendazole

Hillary Le, Sung-Kun Kim

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 80-86
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4631105

The nitrogen heterocycle benzimidazoles have been known to be anthelmintic drugs. Beyond that role, the benzimidazoles exhibit other pharmacological potential as anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, anti-hypertensive and anticancer agents. A growing body of evidence supports the anticancer efficiency via treatment with benzimidazoles. The target proteins for pharmacological effect appear to be cell microtubules. However, it has been reported that the benzimidazoles could inhibit hexokinase II, which is a critical factor in the glycolysis pathway in humans. Here, we discuss on the most common benzimidazoles such as albendazole, mebendazole and fenbendazole and focus on the potential anticancer activities of the target enzyme hexokinase II. This review would give better insight in development of target-specific benzimidazole derivatives as potential anticancer therapeutics.