Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Obesity and Uric Acid and Their Relationship among Saudi Adults in Makkah Region

Zayed M. Altowerqi, Zainal Abidin Bin Zainuddin, Badr Ahmed Fallatah

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4431074

This research aims to determine the prevalence of obesity and uric acid among male adults in Makkah region as well as the association between obesity and uric acid level among Makkah adults as a whole. Twenty-six (26) male adults aged between 26 and 60 years participated in this study. Height, weight and blood samples were collected by the researcher. The study results showed 38.5% of participants were overweight and 38.5% were obese. Another significant finding was 57.7% of participants had high uric acid (≥ 7 mg/dL). In regards to the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and uric acid (UA), this study reported a positive non-significant correlation between BMI and UA, indicating that increased BMI correlated with increased UA levels. Therefore, adhoc intervention programs dedicated to reducing obesity and uric acid should be initiated in Makkah region to reduce risk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mental Distress after 1st Wave of COVID-19 among Medical Students

Rabia Khurram, Daniyal Abdul Razzak, Waqas Ahmad, Ambreen Qamar, Tayyaba Mumtaz, Qurat Ul Ain Sameed

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-12
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4431075

Aim: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the mental distress facing by the MBBSs students during the first wave of COVID-19.

Study Design: Cross-sectional.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Quaid-e Azam medical college Bahawalpur during the period of May 2020 to July 2020.

Methodology: MBBS undergraduate students were included in the study. For assessing mental stress, the questionnaire used was the modified form of Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R). The proforma was prepared by using Google Docs and disseminated through the student’s WhatsApp groups. Data was analyzed by using Special Package for Social Science version-20. Frequency and percentages were calculated for the qualitative variables while association was analyzed by using Chi-square test. p-value ≤0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: About half of the participants were female students i.e. 55.2%. The frequency distribution of stress level among students showed that the majority of participants were facing mild level of stress i.e. 130 participants out of total 310 participants (41.9%), 112 participants were having moderate stress level (36.2%), followed by 53 participants with severe level of stress (17.1%) while 15 participants (4.8%) were having extremely severe intensity of stress. It was also found out that the gender and socioeconomic status have a significant association with the mental stress but the year of study has no any association with the mental stress as reported statistically non-significant p-value.

Conclusion: The current study concluded that the mental distress experienced by medical undergraduate during COVID-19 is more severe than that of the general population and the female students are more prone to develop depressive symptoms. So there is a need of counselling session to improve the mental health of our medical under graduates as they are the future handlers of medical profession.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Antimicrobiotic Efficacy Test of Triple Antibiotic Paste, Double Antibiotic Paste with Fungicide and Calcium Hydroxide with Chitosan as Vehicle against Enterococcus faecalis: An In vitro Study

Sudhakar Naidu, Mahendravarma Nadimpalli, Gowtam Dev Dondapati, Thangi Sowjanya, Srivalli Podili, Mattapudi Basavaiah Babu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 13-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4431076

Introduction: This present research aimed to assess the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of triple antibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide with two different vehicles against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis).

Materials and Methodology: An agar well diffusion assay was used to determine the experimental medicaments' efficacy against E. faecalis. Medicaments were divided into six groups, which includes Triple antibiotic powder (TAP) with saline or chitosan, Double antibiotic powder with fungicide (DAP 1) with saline or Chitosan, and calcium hydroxide with saline or Chitosan. These medicines were tested in an agar well diffusion test for three days, i.e., 1,4,7 days. The diameters of growth inhibition zones were recorded and compared for each group were tested in an agar well diffusion test for three days, i.e., 1,4,7 days. The diameters of growth inhibition zones were recorded and compared for each group. These medicaments were evaluated for three days an agar well diffusion test, i.e., on 1,4,7 days. The inhibition zones diameters for each group were recorded and compared — the differences between groups analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests.

Results: The largest inhibition zones were observed for the triple antibiotic powder with chitosan and the smallest for Ca(OH)2 with saline. As days progress, they produced lesser antibacterial effects in all groups.

Conclusion: Triple antibiotic paste and Chitosan were more effective in eliminating microorganisms than calcium hydroxide and DAP 1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis of Novel 2(3H)-Benzoxazolone Mannich Bases as Potential Agents for Future Studies of Cancer Treatment

Emine Erdag

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-30
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4431077

Aims: In this study, a series of new Mannich bases of 2(3H)-benzoxazolone derivatives containing substituted cyclic amine moieties with a potential to show cytotoxic activity have been prepared. In order to develop effective anticancer agents against various cancer cell lines, it is essential to study the structure activity relationship and the effect of different substituents on the activity of heterocyclic scaffolds which were known to have cytotoxic activities.

Study Design: In silico and experimental design.

Place and Duration of Study: Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Near East University, Nicosia, Cyprus, between January 2019- September 2020.

Methodology: In this work, 2(3H)-benzoxazolone derivatives were prepared by Mannich reaction. The synthesis and structural characterization of the compounds were performed experimentally by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra and elemental analysis. In silico prediction of cell line cytotoxicity with PASS based CLC-Pred tool was performed to predict cytotoxicity of the compounds against different tumor cell lines.

Results: In silico prediction results for the compounds showed that all benzoxazolone derivatives have cytotoxic activity against different cell lines and tumor types. It was clearly understood that the cytotoxicity of the compounds was affected by the substituents on their piperazine moieties and by the substituents on benzoxazolone core structure.

Conclusion: In conclusion, newly synthesized Mannich bases of benzoxazolone derivatives were reported for the first time which may have a potential to show anticancer activities at different cancer cell lines. The efficiency of new compounds against cancer could be found via PASS based CLC-Pred database and could be further investigated by in vivo experimental cytotoxicity studies in the future to design new anticancer drug candidates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association between Maternal Thyroid Hormone Level and Fetal Weight

Zeba Mueed, Pankaj Kumar Rai, Arun Kumar Jain, Ravi Deval

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4431078

Aims: Present study is aimed to find out the association between maternal thyroid hormone at delivery and weight of delivered fetus.

Study Design: This is a case-control study in which low birth weight was cases and appropriate for gestational age were considered as control.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at National Institute of Pathology (ICMR), New Delhi and Department of Biotechnology, Invertis University, Bareilly from July 2018 to July 2020.

Subjects and Methods: A total of 193 maternal blood samples were collected and fetal parameters were recorded as per inclusion criteria. Quantitative estimation of Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) was done in the separated serum samples by pre-coated ELISA kits and data analysis was performed using SigmaStat. Cases include women having full-term deliveries with birth weight < 2.5Kg i.e. Low Birth Weight (LBW) and Controls includes women having Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA) delivery with birth weight > 2.5Kg.

Results: No significant difference was observed in maternal age as well as age at marriage and other demographic parameters, while maternal weight and BMI is significantly less in LBW as compared to AGA i.e. 49.62±5.34 & 53.96±6.92 and 21.32±4.01 and 22.66±1.57 respectively having P<0.001. Pearson correlation coefficient also revealed a significant negative correlation of T4 with both fetal weight and fetal length and a positive correlation of T3 with fetal weight, fetal length, and fetal head circumference, whereas TSH did not show any significant association with fetal parameters.

Conclusion: It was concluded that maternal T3 and T4 affects the fetal development during gestational period, TSH did not show any significant association with fetal parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Translation, Cultural Adaptation, and Psychometric Features of the Persian Version of the Copenhagen Multi-Centre Psychological Infertility-Fertility Problem Stress Scales (COMPI-FPSS)

Ladan Ahmad-Amraji, Fatemeh Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari, Kobra Abouzari-Gazafroodi, Ehsan Kazemnezhad Leyli, Robabeh Soleimani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 41-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4431079

Aims: This study was conducted for translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the Persian version of the Copenhagen multi-centre psychological infertility-fertility problem stress scales (COMPI-FPSS).

Study Design: This study was a methodological study.

Place and Duration of Study: This research was done in an infertility clinic of an educational hospital in Rasht (north of Iran), from November 2019 to January 2020.

Methodology: This study was performed in two phases including tool translation and psychometric testing. Totally, 200 infertile people selected through convenience sampling among subjects met inclusion criteria were included in the study. After obtaining permission from the original tool designer, the COMPI-FPSS (14 items) was translated into Persian using the forward-backward method. Face, content, and construct validity, as well as internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient and McDonald's coefficient omega) were evaluated, and test-retest was conducted. The data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) by SPSS software Ver. 16.

Results: EFA led to retaining of 11 items with 3 factors of “personal domain”, “marital domain”, and “social domain”, which explained 54.42% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the whole questionnaire was calculated as 0.89; also the overall McDonald's coefficient omega of the questionnaire was equal to 0.82. The correlation between the two test administrations with a 14-day interval was estimated as 0.93.

Conclusion: The Persian version of the COMPI-FPSS with 11 items and 3 factors had the desired cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability and it is recommended to use it in the future studies and infertility treatment centers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Frequency and Outcome of Hypoglycemia in Severely Malnourished Children at Tertiary Care Hospital Larkana

. Rizwana, . Bhagchand, Gulab Rai, Chetan Das, Shanti Lal, Saifullah Jamro

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 51-56
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4431080

Objective: To determine frequency and outcome of hypoglycemia in severely malnourished children at tertiary care Hospital Larkana.

Methodology: This descriptive, case series study was carried out at the department of Pediatric Medicine Chandka Medical Hospital Larkana, during 6 months. Severely malnourished children of both gender and age between 6 months to 5 years were enrolled. Severity of malnutrition was evaluated as per standard anthropometric measures i.e. height, body weight, MUAC (mid upper arm circumference) by standard MUAC tape. Hypoglycemia was assessed by checking random blood sugar on glucometer. All the data was recorded via self-made proforma and analyzed by using SPSS version 20.

Results: Mean age of the patients was 24.27±15.30 months. Mean MUAC was 9.39±1.56. There were 96 (52.20%) females and 88 (47.80%) males. Mean serum glucose level was found to be 86.02±21.58 mg/dL. There were 23(12.50%) patients with hypoglycemia and out of which 16 (69.60%) patients expired and 7 (30.40%) patients survived.

Conclusion: Hypoglycemia was found to be 12.50% in severely malnourished children and it was significantly associated with adverse outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effectiveness of Mobilizations along With Hot Therapy versus Mobilizations for Management of Chronic Neck Pain Due to Over Usage of Smart Phones among Young at LUMHS Jamshoro

Jeetendar Valecha, Syed Mukhtar Ahmed, Tasghir Nabi, Mahesh Kumar Mugria, Siknader Ali Sangrasi, Kumail Shaikh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 57-62
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4431081

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of mobilizations along with hot therapy versus mobilizations for the management of chronic neck pain due to over usage of smart phones among young.

Materials and Methods: This interventional clinical trial was conducted at OPD, Institute of Physiotherapy & Rehabilitation Sciences (IPRS) in Liaquat University Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro (LUMHS). All the individuals from LUMHS Jamshoro including students, age 18-35 years and either of gender were included. All the individuals were divided in two groups (group A and group B). Cases of group A were underwent management of mobilization with hot therapy and cases of group B underwent only mobilization management. Outcome was observed in the terms of decrease the pain during work, reading and sleeping. All the data was recorded via study proforma.

Results: Total 64 individuals were studied. Mean age was 26.2+4.2 years in group A and 28.6+5.3years. Males were in majority in both groups. According to the pain assessment on movement, mild pain was in 18.8%, moderate pain was 50.0%, severe pain was in 12.5% and very severe pain was in 18.85 of the patients of group A. However in group B most of the patients 93.8% had mild pain and 6.2% patients had severe pain, while no any patients with moderate pain and very severe pain was found in group B. After treatment pain was more decreased in patients of group A as pain during work, reading and sleeping was significantly higher in only mobilizations treatment group as compared to those underwent mobilizations with hot therapy treatment, p-values were quite significant.

Conclusion: It was concluded that the treatment of mobilization with Hot pack was more effective than treatment only mobilization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiurolithiatic Evaluation of α- Mangostin Fraction Isolated from Garcinia mangostana Pericarp through Computational, in vitro and in vivo Approach

Akash Kumaran, Prabhu Sukumaran

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 63-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4431082

Background: The aqueous crude extract of Garcinia mangostana fruit pericarp was already proven to contain antiurolithiatic property. Based on this previous study the current study was focused on analysing the anti-urolithiatic property of α- mangostin, a xanthone polyphenol isolated from the fruit pericarp of G. manostana, which has not been tested for its anti-urolithiatic property till now.

Objective: The aim of this present study is to evaluate the anti-urolithiatic property of the isolated α- mangostin from G. mangostana fruit pericarp using in silico, in vitro and in vivo analysis.

Study Design: Antiurolithiatic activity of α- mangostin through Molecular docking study à In vitro S.S.M model study à Animal studies.

Place and Duration: Department of Biotechnology, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Post Bag No.1, Pennalur, Sriperumbudur Tk, Kancheepuram Dt, TN-602117, India.

Materials and Methods: In silico Molecular docking of α- mangostin with Kidney stone forming proteins- Xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh), Oxalate oxidase and Tamm-Horesefall Protein (THP) were performed using AutoDock 4.0 and was visualised in Discovery studio software. In vitro Simultaneous Static flow Model (S.S.M) was performed to investigate its Antiurolithiatic property against Calcium Oxalate (CaOx) and Calcium Phosphate (CaP) crystals. Based on the in silico and in vitro analysis, the study was extrapolated to Ethylene Glycol (EG) induced urolithiasis rat models. The animal study was performed with 36 Albino Wistar rats which were divided into 6 groups. All group except group I received EG (0.75% in drinking water) for the induction of Urolithiasis for 28 days under curative regimen. Group III was administered orally with Cystone (750 mg/kg) from 15th to 28thday. Group IV to VI was administered orally with GMPE (300 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 750 mg/kg) from 15thto 28th day.

Results: Molecular Docking studies showed an inhibitory interaction of α- mangostin with oxalate oxidase, Xdh and THP with binding affinity of -4.47, -4.00 and -3.41 Kcal/mol respectively. S.S.M showed 54.71% inhibition for CaOx crystals and 62.21% inhibition of CaP crystals. The animal studies showed significant results in reduction of serum calcium (P<0.01), serum phosphate (P<0.01), urine calcium(P<0.001) and urine phosphate(P<0.01).

Conclusion: Thus, α- mangostin proved to be potent Anti-urolithiatic agent by reducing and disintegrating the urinary crystals.

Open Access Review Article

Molecular Evaluation of COVID-19 in Pandemic Era

Diksha Kumari, Bishun Deo Prasad, Padmanabh Dwivedi, Sangita Sahni

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-95
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4431083

COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) has recently emerged as an ongoing pandemic disease or probably syndemic and became the latest threat to global health. The main route of transmission of virus droplet start with respiratory problems coughing, sneezing, fever during infection period, which may end up with death, if not treated. Many emerging epidemiological factors have made COVID-19 as global alarming disease. To control the outbreak of COVID-19, a critical management along with quarantine measure is applicable, which requires early detection of infection. The early detection of COVID-19 infection is playing a vital role in controlling of progression of illness and limiting viral spread within the population. Therefore, reliable, highly specific and sensitive diagnosis techniques are necessary for its early detection.  Among several detection techniques, qRT-PCR is the rapidly employed, sensitive and widely accepted technique. In present review, different molecular techniques with emphasis on qRT-PCR for early diagnosis of emerging COVID-19 will be discussed.