Open Access Minireview Article

Recent Advances and Developments in Hyphenated Techniques and their Applications

Jero Victor Wilson, L. V. Karthikeyan, Shubham Kumar Parida, Bikash Chandra Nath, M. R. Jeyaprakash

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 58-68
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4331070

Background: A hyphenated technique is blend or coupling of two distinctive analytical methods like chromatographic and spectral methods with appropriate interface.

Objective: This article describes about the various hyphenated techniques, a brief note on their instrumentation and working principles that are used in the current setup of industries. Like-wise their remarkable improvement and efficiency over the past decade. The techniques like single quadrupole inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-Q-MS), ICP- Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QQQ), Liquid chromatography-Two -dimensional Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-GCXGC-MS/MS), Two dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC), Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) ,etc. are considered as recent improvements in this trend.

Conclusion: This development in the hyphenated techniques supports in different scientific fields, biomedical research, food and drug analysis. In addition to this improvement produced remarkable dimensional changes in the natural product analysis and elemental specifications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Curcumin: Natural Antimicrobial and Anti Inflammatory Agent

Pehlivanović Belma, Čaklovica Kenan, Lagumdžija Dina, Omerović Naida, Žiga Smajić Nermina, Škrbo Selma, Bečić Fahir

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4331060

The pursuance of novel antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents has been expanding due to a significant need for more efficient pharmacotherapy of various infections and chronic diseases. During the last decade, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and pharmacological properties of curcumin have been extensively studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of curcumin against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as its antifungal activity by using in vitro agar well diffusion assay. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin was determined with in vitro assay of inhibition of protein denaturation. Results demonstrated wide antimicrobial activity of curcumin upon all of the test bacteria and fungi. The strongest activity of curcumin was observed at a concentration of 0.50 mg/ml against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans, resulting in a maximum zone of inhibition of 14.7 mm, 14.3 mm, 13.7 mm, 10.7 mm and 10.7 mm, respectively. Findings suggested that the antimicrobial activity of curcuminis dependent upon the concentrations. Furthermore, results demonstrated high effectiveness of curcumin compared to standard acetylsalicylic acid in inhibiting heat-induced protein denaturation, which activity is also depended upon the concentrations. The present study emphasises the potential application of curcumin as a natural antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. However, findings of this study are restricted to in vitro assays and consideration should be given to conducting a study involving wider dose range test substances as well as including further research on in vivo models.

Open Access Original Research Article

Emotional Intelligence and its Relationship to Leadership, Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Pharmacy Students, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Rahaf Nabeel Alaaddin, Nahla Khamis Ibrahim, Mai Kadi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 9-21
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4331061

Background: Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the capability of an individual to recognize his own and others’ emotions. The current study was conducted to describe the EI and its relation to leadership, stress, anxiety, and depression among pharmacy students at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among pharmacy students enrolled in the Faculty of Pharmacy at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, during the educational year 2018/2019. A standardized data collection sheet was used. It inquired about personal and socio-demographic data, habits, general life satisfaction, and the academic stress. It contained also the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (SSREI) scale, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), and the authentic leadership questionnaires. Descriptive, inferential statistics and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. 

Results: A total of 400 pharmacy students enrolled in the study. Their mean age was 21.61± 1.45 years. The total EI score (mean ± SD) was 118.42± 14.60. The predictors of the overall EI score were students' high leadership score (>48), general life satisfaction, and physical activity. EI was positively correlated with the authentic leadership scale and negatively correlated to DASS. 

Conclusion: Pharmacy students at UQU have above average EI score. Higher EI was positively associated with better leadership capacity and higher EI was negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Physical activity is an important EI predictor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Efficacies of Antimigraine Drugs Using Nitroglycerin Induced Migraine Rats Model

Anson S. Maroky, V. Parthasarathy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-42
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4331067

Aim: The migraine pathology is still not explained effectively. There is a common relationship between anxiety, depression, and migraine. So the aim of the study to illustrate effectively the behavioural and biomarker changes in the migraine condition.

Methods: Nitroglycerin (NTG) induced migraine rats model was used the present study. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Ergotamine, sumatriptan, and BIBN4096 were used as antimigraine drugs. The behavioural activity was measured by scratching head, body shaking, and social interaction task. ELISA detected biomarkers like interleukin 6 (IL-6),                  Substance P (SP) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in various rats brain regions such as cortex, brain stem, trigeminal ganglion.

Results: A significant reduction in hyperalgesic response and behavioral changes like scratching head, body shaking and social interaction task. Biomarkers like 5-HT, SP and IL-6 were significantly reduced in the various brain regions such as prefrontal cortex, brain stem and trigeminal ganglia of the rats in the BIBN4096 treated groups.

Conclusion: The present study showed a good antimigraine efficacy with a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonistic agent BIBN4096 than ergotamine and sumatriptan but still lack of behavioural pattern, need to explore nonpharmacological intervention along with the drug treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Inflammatory Formulation and Characterization of an Herbal Formulation

Snigdha Pattnaik, Laxmidhar Moharana

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 51-57
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4331069

Anti-inflammatory refers to group of medication that is utilized for curing pain and inflammation. Many synthetic products are used as anti-inflammatory agents but the effects caused by them is not satisfactory. Cordis obliqua is an anti-inflammatory herb that is enormously involved in pain reduction. The present paper aims to develop a topical gel formulation comprising herbs i.e. Cordis obliqua and curcumin with potent anti-inflammatory activity. The gel formulation was then subjected to characterization studies which involve pH, viscosity, excrudability, spreadability and in vitro analysis. pH of gel formulation was found to be 7.2±1.01 which is almost equivalent to the skin pH. In viscosity test, it was observed that viscosity of gel formulation was found to be effective. Moreover, spreadability co-efficient of the formulation satisfactory which indicates that sanitizer gel easily adhers on the skin and covers the bacteria residing on the skin, if any.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Nocturnal Enuresis Management in Children in the Advanced Diagnostic Center in Khartoum State

Mhdia Elhadi Osman, Aaza Ahmed Bashar, Nasrin E. Khalifa, Halima Mustafa Elagib

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 69-77
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4331071

Nocturnal enuresis is defined as nighttime bedwetting in children five years of age or older in the absence of neurological or structural problems affecting the bladder. A wide variety of interventions are used to treat nocturnal enuresis include simple behavioral intervention, enuresis alarm, and pharmacological treatment—the aim of the study to assess the management of nocturnal enuresis in children. A prospective cross-sectional study included 150 children attend the advanced diagnostic center. Data collected by direct interview questionnaire was tested –coded and analyzed by SPSS version 20 in tables and graph &excel. The result of this study showed that the highest treatment adopted was simple-cognitive behavioral therapy (87%), with the highest (94.7%) of patient surveyed adopted lifting and awaking technique,(38%) of patient surveyed have taken imipramine, (26%) of patient surveyed have taken 75mg dose of imipramine, (37%)of patients surveyed had a full response from imipramine therapy. The study showed that the first-line treatment that is needed is simple-cognitive behavioral therapy with instruction regarding diet and fluids, and it is very useful. The main drug was used in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis is imipramine with a dose of 75mg.

Open Access Original Research Article

Long-term Outcome of Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treated with IC-BFM2002 Regimen

Gholamreza Bahoush

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 87-95
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4331072

Background: Changes in pediatric chemotherapy regimens over the last three decades have introduced a variety of protocols to increase the survival of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Intercontinental Berlin-Frankfort-Munich (IC-BFM) 2002 is one of the protocols widely used in countries that could not perform minimal residual disease by polymerase chain reaction (MRD PCR) method. Evaluation the results of these regimens is very effective in improving their quality.

Materials and Methods: Children with newly diagnosed ALL in Ali Asghar Children's Hospital were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in both groups underwent chemotherapy according to IC-BFM 2002 protocol. Patients were divided into two groups based on the type of reinduction regimen, so that patients in-group A received protocol II and patients in-group B received protocol III as a reinduction regimen. Then demographic information and patient outcome were statistically analyzed with SPSS 23.

Results: Sixty-three patients were included in the study. There were 32 patients in-group A (18 boys and 14 girls) and 31 patients in-group B (11 boys and 20 girls). The number of high-risk patients was higher in-group A, but this difference was not statistically significant. The recurrence rate in-group B patients was about seven times higher than the recurrence rate in group A patients, and this difference was statistically significant. In-group A, no patients had an early relapse, while about half of the recurrences in-group B occurred as early relapse and the rest as late relapse. CNS recurrence occurred in only two patients. 5-yr EFS of all enrolled patients was 88.90 ± 8.00% (95% CI). This rate for group A and B was 96.90 ± 6.20% (95% CI) and 80.60 ± 14.20% (95% CI), respectively (P=0.022).

Conclusion: It seems that IC-BFM 2002 protocol is an appropriate treatment regimen with acceptable results for children with ALL in developing countries, a workable protocol with significant consequences. Protocol II seems to be suitable for reinduction and increasing the Methotrexate dose may not be necessary for non-high-risk groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating Distance between Vibrating Line and Fovea Palatinae in Class I, Class II and Class III Soft Palate Types

Bharat Kumar, Muhammad Abbas, Asma Naz, Naresh Kumar, Shahid Ali, Muneeb Ahmed Lone

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 78-86
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4331073

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the mean distance between the vibrating line and fovea palatinae in Class I, Class II and Class III Soft Palate types.

Methodology: This study was conducted at Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences Karachi among 197patients. Duration of study was six months. All patients were examined for vibrating line clinically, assessed using phonation method. Subsequently, distance between vibrating line and fovea paltatinae was measured with uncalibrated compass in various contours of soft palate.

Results: Out of 197 patient, the vibrating line was seen in130 (64%) anterior to fovea palatinae, whereas, 67 (34%) vibrating line was at the fovea palatinae. The mean distance of those anterior located vibrating line from fovea palatine was calculated as 2.13 (±0.82) mm in Class, 2.07 (±0.69) mm in Class II and 1.80 (±0.82) mm in Class III soft palate contours.

Statistical analysis showed no significant between gender, while statistically significant difference among age group and mean distance of anterior located vibrating line from fovea palatinae were found.

Conclusions: The mean distance of vibrating line which is predominately found anterior to the fovea palatinae was 2.07 (±0.77) mm.

Open Access Review Article

Active Compound and Heavy Metals in Bleaching Creams and Their Health Effects: A Review

Faten M. Ali Zainy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 22-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4331063

For a long time, it could be found that appearance enhancement products fell into the cosmetic category. Therefore, more people want to appear beautiful, thus the desire to appear beautiful has been urgent since the early days. Skincare products, hair, perfumes, oral care, and nail products are used by women despite their containment of toxic chemicals harmful to health in a society that wants to look its best because it is a beauty freak. Different toxic components and dangerous chemicals utilized in cosmetics are integrated beyond acceptable limits. These heavy metals may reason dangerous sick influences on the skin causing carcinogenicity. Therefore, it begins to be a requirement for people to turn out having knowledge of the different dangers of heavy metals utilized in cosmetics.

Open Access Review Article

Antidermatophytic Activity of Essential Oils from Plants

Pankaj Saxena

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 43-50
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4331068

Superficial mycoses are the strictly surface infections involving skin, hair, nails and mucosa. It is caused by dermatophytes that infect only keratin rich tissues without involving the living tissue and they are incapable of penetrating subcutaneous tissues. Ringworm or Dermatophytosis is found world-wide with most prevalence in hot climatic countries. Nowadays, the increasing impact of these infections, the limitations encountered in their treatment like antibiotic resistance, side-effects and high toxicity and the rising over prescription and overuse of conventional antifungals all stimulate a search for alternative natural drugs. In general, plant-derived essential oils are non-phytotoxic and potentially effective against all fungal pathogens & dermatophytes. They can be used as a natural therapy to inhibit the growth of these fungal pathogens. In recent years there has been a gradual revival of interest in the use of medicinal products such as essential oil and other botanical products in response to the ever increasing incidence of adverse side effects associated with conventional drugs, high cost medicines, long duration of treatment time and emergence of resistance to antifungal drugs especially in case of dermatophytosis.