Open Access Minireview Article

The Prospect of Treating Alzheimer Disease through Sleep

Jin Huang

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 49-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4031032

Alzheimer's disease is caused by the deposition of amyloid and Tau proteins. These two proteins are present in normal brain cells, but in Alzheimer's disease, they accumulate in large quantities, affecting how brain cells function normally. The result is that brain cells can't communicate properly, leading to memory loss. The current treatment for Alzheimer's disease is mostly controlled by drugs. The three main drugs are Donepezil, Rivastigmine, and Galantamine, Reminyl. However, it has limited side effects and usually manifests as gastrointestinal distress. One of the functions of sleep is to accelerate the removal of amyloid in the brain, which can effectively improve the accumulation of amyloid and Tau proteins.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prescribing Patterns of Isosorbide Dinitrate in Outpatient Department of a Public Hospital

Nehad J. Ahmed, Menshawy A. Menshawy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4031028

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prescribing pattern of isosorbide dinitrate in outpatient department.

Methods: The study was carried out at outpatient department in Alkharj. The collected data included personal data, dosage forms of the prescribed isosorbide dinitrate, the prescribing departments and the level of the prescribers.

Results: Isosorbide dinitrate was prescribed to 57 patients in the outpatient department; about 61.4% of them aged more than 59. About 80.7% of patients received isosorbide dinitrate tablets and 19.3% of them received sublingual tablets. Most of the prescriptions were prescribed by cardiology department (56.14%) followed by Internal Medicine department (26.32%).

Conclusion: Isosorbide dinitrate prescribing was uncommon in the outpatient setting but it can cause several side effects and drug interactions, besides some patients are allergic to it. So the doctor should judge that the benefit to the patient is greater than the risk of side effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Short and Long Term Restraint Stress on the Histology of Liver, Kidney and Suprarenal Gland in Albino Mice during Postweaning Period

Othman Hakum Said, Chukwuma J. Okafor, Hassan Thabit Haji, Prakash B. Babu, Vanisri S. Nayak, Nkem F. Obianagha, Emilio Stivens Galano

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 6-19
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4031029

On exposure to stress and for the sake of survival, cells make adjustments with the changes in their environment to the physiologic needs and non-lethal pathologic injury. When the environmental changes are greater than the capacity of the cell to maintain normal homeostasis the cell undergoes acute cell injury. If the injury or insult is removed on time, or the cell can adapt and withstand the injury, the term reversible injury is applied. The processes of adaptation include decreasing or increasing their size, increasing their number, or changing the pathway of phenotypic differentiation of cells.

In the present study, albino mice of postweaning age of BALB C strain (21 days old) were exposed to short term (5 days) and long term (21 days) restraint stress to evaluate any histological changes in the kidney, liver, and suprarenal gland.

Mice subjected to long term stress showed in the kidney degeneration of the cells of the glomerulus and the convoluted tubules. In the liver, they showed congested sinusoids and the presence of some fatty change, whereas in the suprarenal gland mice subjected to 21 days of stress showed moderate hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex with the presence of moderate lipoid deposits when compared to controls. The overall effect on short term stress was mild when compared to exposure to 21 days stress

Long term stress causes degeneration in hepatic cells, infiltration in the liver, degeneration of glomerulus, Bowman’s capsule, convoluted tubules in the kidney which could lead to nephrotoxicity. In the suprarenal gland, long term stress induces hypertrophy of the adrenal cortex. These morphological changes can explain the impaired immunity which develops in organisms that are exposed to chronic stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Global Public Health Problem: Hypertension

Laxmidhar Moharana, Shakti Ketan Prusty

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 20-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4031030

Hypertension is a big global public health problem. This research concentrates on exploring hypertension prevalence and its related causes in a Yemetu community located at Oyo States’ local in Nigeria. Hypertension is one of the most significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Growing on hydroxyl-butyrate as the primary source of carbon and nitrogen offered a strong competition for clones carrying new degrading enzymes, and antibiotic resistance competition established new determinants of antibiotic resistance from soil and oral flora. A descriptive & cross-sectional design was referred. Research included 804 participants of 171 households aged 18-90 years, chosen by cluster sampling methodology. It was a survey of the building to the building. World Health Organization (WHO) used STEP smart approach for tracking risk factors for chronic diseases (STEPS 1 & 2) to assess behavioral risk factors. Systolic blood pressure was described as hypertension. Overall hypertension prevalence was 33.1 percent (36.8 percent for males and 31.1 percent for females). The percentage of hypertension that is self-reported is 12.2%, as anti-hypertensive treatment actually accounted for 5.1%. The respondents mean age is 38.7 ±14.5 years. Respondents' BMI found to be 6.3%, 53.0%, 30.5% and 14.2% respectively for underweight, average, overweight and obese.

Open Access Original Research Article

RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for the Determination of Pemigatinib using Design of Experiments Approach

C. H. Srujani, K. Harika, K. S. Nataraj, A. Krishna Manjari Pawar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-48
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4031031

Aim: To develop and validate a simple, precise, accurate and robust RP-HPLC method for the determination of Pemigatinib by using Design of Experiments (DoE) approach.

Study Design: A 23 Factorial design consisting of three factors at two levels was considered for the experimental plan initially to select the initial chromatographic conditions and optimization was done using Box-Behnken Design. The critical method parameters selected for optimization were % Organic phase composition, pH of the buffer and flow rate. The critical quality attributes investigated were retention time, theoretical plates and tailing factor.

Methodology: Chromatographic separation was achieved on Agilent Zorbax XDB C18 (250×4.6 mm, 5 µm) column maintained at ambient temperature and PDA-UV detection set at 262nm. The optimized and predicted data from the Design Expert® ( modelling software (Stat-Ease Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) consisted of mobile phase 0.1% OPA pH 2.5 buffer (60%): Acetonitrile (40%) pumped at a flow rate of 1.06ml/min gave the highest desirability.

Results: The retention time of the drug was found to be 3.258 min. The developed method was linear over the concentration range of 25-150 µg/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The optimized method was validated as per ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines.

Conclusion: Based on the ANOVA results, the selected models for the responses retention time and tailing factor were found to be significant with P=0.05. 2D Contour plots were used to visualize the effect of factors and their interactions on the responses. Design validation was done using predicted vs. actual plots for the responses. The results of the validation parameters were within the acceptable limit. The stability of the drug was examined under different stress conditions forcibly and significant degradation was found in reductive condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation as Disintegrant, Acetone-dehydrated Pre-Gelatinized Starch of Arthocarpus altilis Fruits in Oral paracetamol Tablets

T. O. Uwah, D. E. Effiong, E. I. Akpabio, G. Jacob, I. Awa

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-69
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4031033

Introduction: Modifying natural polymers have imparted desirable properties making them suitable as pharmaceutical additives.

Aim: This research work was to prepare pre-gelatinized breadfruit starch using acetone to reduce drying time and energy expended. The modified starch was evaluated as a disintegrant in paracetamol oral compacts.

Methods: Starch from unripe mature bread fruit was pre-gelatinized, precipitated with acetone to reduce drying time. Native and pre-gelatinized starches were characterized for micromeritics, compatibility studies with test drug using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) and water interaction properties (viscosity, swelling power and hydration capacity). Paracetamol granules formed by wet granulation were compacted incorporating starches as disintegrant intragranularly, extragranularly and combining both methods. Disintegration and dissolution studies done.

Results: Pre-gelatinization did not alter the native starch chemically and their pH were within pharmaceutical limits. The disintegration efficiency ratio (DER) for the P2 and P3 (tablet batches with pre-gelatinized starches) compared favourably with that of corn starch. Also, the dissolution kinetics of the breadfruit starches followed the Hixson Crowel’s model while that of reference corn starch was best described by the Higuchi kinetic model.

Conclusion: Breadfruit starch is edible and the properties of its pre-gelatinized form as a disintegrant compares favourably with corn starch BP. It could be an good alternative as pharmaceutical excipient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Controlled Release of Bi-Layered Malvidin Tablets Using 3D Printing Techniques

Tejinder Kaur, Suruchi Singh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 70-78
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4031034

Malvidin belongs to the class of anthocyanidin, a pigment compound present in fruits and vegetables like the colored berries, flowers, and vegetables which have pigments on it and it is available commercially as malvidin chloride. Malvidin is known to possess many medicinal characteristics like anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and anti-cancer. In this research paper, a 3D printing technique is used which evolves a 3D printer based on desktop that extrudes tablets comprising the active drug which here is malvidin our main ingredient and the other excipients which are used as binders and disintegrants. Methods which are adapted here for the formulation of 3D printed tablet make the tablets appropriate for immediate and sustained release with its definite physical and mechanical properties like hardness, friability, and weight. Tablets that are extruded by the 3D printer are controlled release bi-layer tablets. Due to involvement of 3D printer, printing cost for the bi-layered tablets found very low that makes our method as cost efficient.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Survey on the Prevalence of Anaemia in Pregnant and Lactating Women Eating Processed Food

Shakti Ketan Prusty, Pratap Kumar Sahu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 95-101
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4031036

Anaemia is a medical condition in which there is less number of red blood cells in the blood. Lack of sufficient healthy red blood cells in blood is observed in anaemia patients. In human beings, blood carries oxygen to other body tissues, transport of oxygen is done by red blood cells. An anaemic person always feels tired and weak. Weakness is because of less oxygen in body tissues. The body requirement of iron in pregnant and lactating women is generally high, insufficient intake of iron results in anaemia. Survey on the prevalence of anaemia in the different age group is done but the current survey also puts light on a factor which is not covered before. Because of good taste and availability, processed food intake is increasing in every household. A close link of high intake of processed food and nutrient deficiency in pregnant and lactating women, especially iron deficiency is observed. The current survey opens the future perspective to conduct more research on the connection between packaged food eating habits and prevalence of various diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antidepressant Activity of Nardostachys jatamansi Extract in Animal Models of Depression

Faraz Saleem, Muhammad Owais Ismail, Zahida Memon, Faraz Arif

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 102-111
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4031037

Background: Depression refers to a wide range of mental health problems characterized by the loss of interest in routine activities, low mood and a range of associated emotional, cognitive, physical and behavioral symptoms. It is one of the major causes of mortality as tendency of suicidal attacks are exhibited in these patients. The diagnosis of depressive patients is very complicated in many cases and they do not respond to rational clinical prescription. In traditional medicine, Nardostachys jatamansi has been used as stimulant, antispasmodic, laxative and antiepileptic in ayurvedic and unani systems of medicine. The objective of our study was to evaluate and compare the antidepressant activity of N. jatamansi extract with fluoxetine in animal models of depression.

Methodology: It was a preclinical experimental study in which Total 100 BALB/c mice divide into 14 groups i.e. Group 1 & 2 control 0.9% NaCl i.p for forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) respectively, Group 3 & 4 Fluoxetine 0.5 mg/kg i.p for FST and TST respectively, Group 5, 6 & 7 of N. jatamansi 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg respectively for FST, Group 8, 9 & 10 N. jatamansi 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg respectively for TST, Group 11 N. jatamansi (most effective dose) for Locomotor Test, Group 12 NaCl 0.9% for Yohimbine Potentiation Test (YPT), Group 13 Fluoxetine 0.5 mg/kg for YPT and Group 14 Received extract of N. jatamansi (most effective dose) for YPT. Antidepressant activity of N. jatamansi extract at different doses after induction of depression via FST and TST was recorded. Moreover the antidepressant effect was confirmed by locomotor test. YPT was also applied to comment on possible underlying mechanism.

Results: In our study 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses of N. jatamansi showed significant reduction in immobility time when compared to controls and 500 mg/kg showed significant reduction as compared to group given fluoxetine in FST model. All the groups in TST model showed significant reduction in immobility time when compared to controls and fluoxetine given group. N. jatamansi at the dose of 500 mg/kg was found to be most effective in both the models. No significant change in locomotor activity was found in locomotor test. The percentage mortality of 50% was observed in N. jatamansi group using yohimbine potentiation test.

Conclusion: In our study Nardostachys jatamansi showed significant reduction in immobility time when compared to controls and fluoxetine.

Open Access Review Article

The Potential Therapeutic Advantage of Abrus precatorius Linn. an Alternative to Glycyrrhiza glabra: A Review

Ashaolu Victoria Oladimeji, M. F. Valan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 79-94
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4031035

Far back since the existence of the human race, plant species have been used as herb or medicine to either treat, suppress or cure the human numerous sicknesses. This poses the truth that green medicine is safe, cost-efficient, and effective with little or no side effects. Up-till date, the medicinal plant has gained world attraction which has led to global development and discovery of new drug formulations. The beneficial features of plant medicine are enormous and should not be under-estimated. However, in this study, Abrus precatorius Linn., an alternative to Glycyrrhiza glabra has been extensively reviewed to expose this herb secret to the scientific research world for the development of possible novel drug formulations in response to the present global diseases around the globe.