Open Access Original Research Article

Prescribing of Xylometazoline in the Outpatient Department of a Public Hospital

Nehad J. Ahmed, Menshawy A. Menshawy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3931018

Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the prescribing pattern of Xylometazoline in the outpatient department in a public hospital.

Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study that was conducted in a public hospital in alkharj. Prescription data was collected from electronic medical records in the outpatient department.

Results: A total of 600 patients received xylometazoline during the study time. 55% of them were males and more than 57% of them aged less than 10 years. More than 86% of the prescriptions were prescribe by the emergency department followed by E.N.T department (13%). Most of the patients received xylometazoline for 3 days and 15.17% of them received it for 5 days.

Conclusion: Xylometazoline was prescribed commonly in the outpatients department and could cause several adverse events so its prescribing should be assessed continuously to prevent its adverse effects and to decrease its interactions with drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Controlled Release of Bi-Layered EGCG Tablets Using 3D Printing Techniques

Satish Kumar Sharma, Pankaj Bhatt

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 5-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3931019

Epigallo-catechin Gallate (or EGCG) is a polyphenol which is withdrawn from green tea and is commercially available as Epigallocatechin gallate. Epigallo-catechin gallate is known to have been used as dye and food colorants, but it also has many medicinal properties like anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, and anti-cancer. Keeping these medical properties in mind, in the present research paper, a 3D printing technique evolving a desktop based 3D printer to extrude tablets along with the active drug ingredient and other excipients that are used as binders and disintegrants. The method adapted in the formulation of a3D printed tablet in this research makes the tablet suitable for immediate and sustained release and does not affects it’s certain physical and mechanical properties such as hardness, friability, and weight variation. The tablets which are extruded from the 3D printer are the bi-layer tablets with controlled release. With the involvement of the 3D printer, the cost of printing the bi-layered tablets have found to be very low which makes the method cost efficient. The output bi-layer tablet has been developed using various analysis and specified standard apparatus and method so that the set standards of the tablet does not get affected. The immediate release and the sustained release methods were studied separately. The final stage of the research completes when the 3D printed tablets with set time intervals for the initial and sustained release and without changing the set mechanical properties of the tablet are obtained.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Prescribing Trends of Digoxin in the Outpatient Setting

Nehad J. Ahmed, Menshawy A. Menshawy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-37
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3931022

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine digoxin prescribing pattern in the outpatient setting in Alkharj.

Methods: This retrospective study included a review of outpatient records between in 2017 and 2018. It included the entire outpatient who received digoxin during the study period.

Results: Only 38 patients received digoxin during 2017 and in 2018, 31 patients received digoxin. More than half of the patients receiving digoxin in 2018 were males (58.06%) and about 54.84% of them aged more than 59 years. Most of the prescribers were residents (77.42%). More than 61 % of the prescriptions were written by cardiology department followed by emergency department (22.58%).

Conclusion: The use of digoxin is uncommon in the outpatient department in Alkharj nonetheless it has a narrow therapeutic window and it should be prescribed carefully because of its adverse events. It is also important to increase the awareness of healthcare providers and patients about digoxin use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Cancer Cyclodextrin Nanocapsules Based Formulation Development for Lung Chemotherapy

. Pankaj

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3931024

Lung carcinoma is one of the highly malignant carcinoma. Oncologists also face a difficulty in handling lung carcinoma. A novel therapeutically strategy in patients with pulmonary cancer may be the immediate injection of chemical-therapeutic agents within lungs. Many drugs are available for in market for treatment of lung cancer but face difficulty due to poor solubility. The paper discusses about development of cyclodextrin modified cationic polymer complex i.e. polyethylene glycol (PEG), wherein the complex is used for providing drug delivery of poorly soluble drugs, more specifically ellipcitine. The complex was made by coating PEG over cyclodextrin nanocapsules wherein the core of the capsule is filled with PEG-7 Glyceryl Cocoate oil for enhancing the delivery of the anti-cancer agent. The complex was then evaluated under characterization studies which includes particle size analysis, zeta potential, morphological analysis, cytotoxicity analysis and anti-cancer effect of the complex. It was found that the complex was more potent in delivering the drug within cancerous cells and was potent to treat lung carcinoma.

Open Access Original Research Article

Oregano Derived Anti-Bacterial Hand Sanitizer: Formulation and Characterization

Satish Kumar Sharma, Iqra Rahat

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-72
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3931025

In day to day activity hands serves important role in accomplishing tasks, but the most important function that people forget while achieving task is sanitization of hands. It is the most important practice that is required in every sector while it may be food sector, pharma sector or corporate sector in order to prevent from spreading diseases caused due to pathogenic microbes which preferably includes viruses, bacteria, fungi and alike. The present research focus towards formulating a herbal sanitizer wherein an oregano herb possessing anti-bacterial activities and a baobab extract possessing anti-inflammatory properties is mixed with ethanol along with glycerin, wherein glycerin act as a humectant and emulsifying agent to aid in preparation of a anti-bacterial herbal sanitizer. Carbomer was used as a gelling agent. The prepared sanitizer is then subjected to characterization studies which includes pH, viscosity, anti-microbial analysis, anti-bacterial efficacy, anti-oxidant assay, stability, and spreadability. After analyzing the results it was found that, the sanitizer possessed specific potent activity against pathogenic bacterial growth but was not harmful to skin.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Outpatient Prescribing Pattern of Hyoscine-N-Butylbromidein Alkharj

Nehad J. Ahmed, Menshawy A. Menshawy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 73-77
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3931026

Objective: This study aims to assess the prescribing pattern of hyoscine butylbromide in out-patient department in Al Saih.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in in Al Saih city. The data were collected from electronic records retrospectively in the outpatient setting of a public hospital.

Results: A total of 784 patients received hyoscine butylbromide during the study period. More than half of the patients were in the age level of 20-39 years (51.53%). Hyoscine-N-Butylbromide was prescribed mainly as a tablet (91.71%) followed by syrup (7.91%).Most of the prescriptions were written by the emergency department (96.17%).

Conclusion: The present study showed that hyoscine butylbromidewas commonly prescribed. It was uncommonly prescribed to elderly patients. A continuous assessment of its prescribing is required to prevent its adverse events and drug interactions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Epidemic Trend and Effect of COVID-19 Transmission in India during Lockdown Phase

Ranjit Prasad Swain, Pratap Kumar Sahu

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 78-86
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3931027

To evaluate the present situation concerning the epidemic trend associated with the COVID-19 in Indian demography, the dynamics of the case rise has been analyzed from the perspective of the different index. The index for the analysis has been chosen in terms of the Case Recovery Rate (CRR), CASE Fatality Rate (CFR), as well as Mortality rate (MR). The study includes the rise of the case related to the pandemic in the different demographic regions of India as well as deep analysis and calculation of the indexes considered for the study. The analysis of the rising cases has also been investigated to relax the imposed rule so that economy of the country will not get affected adversely. Several preventive and control initiative has been taken by the central and state government in collaboration. The result of this paper can be taken as an input to decide further policy in the fight against the COVID- 19.

Open Access Review Article

Overview of New Onset Diabetes after Transplantation Induced by Tacrolimus

Fatmah Abdullah Bakhdar

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-26
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3931020

Tacrolimus is an important therapy in the post-transplant immunosuppressant regimen. However, it is responsible for the highest incidence of a specific type of diabetes called new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). The dangers of NODAT are not limited to cardiovascular or nerve diseases, but also to kidney complication that may lead to loss of transplant kidney. The aim of this article is to discuss the possible theory of NODAT induces by tacrolimus and its common therapy. In addition, this research is to enhance knowledge about the pharmacokinetic and dynamic of tacrolimus.  This review depends on research in reliable and popular medical databases which are PubMed, Google Scholar, Saudi Digital Library, and Web of Science (ISI). While the terms used to search the published researches are organ transplantation, immunosuppressant, tacrolimus, new-onset diabetes after transplantation, and hypoglycemic drug.

Open Access Review Article

Computerized Physician Order Entry System: A Review on Reduction of Medication Errors

Imran Qureshi, Mirza Tasawer Baig, Uzma Shahid, Javeria Muhammad Arif, Aisha Jabeen, Quratul Ain Pirzada, Ahmed Shahid Mirza, Ambreen Huma, Muhammad Naeem Toor

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 27-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3931021

The advancement of computerized physician order entry system has delivered a fast social move in the realm of medication, introducing both new difficulties just as open doors for improving medicinal services. As clinicians work to adjust to the progressions forced by the CPOE, identification of best practices are required for CPOE’s effective implementation. Using the references of published articles on CPOE’s effective implementation and obstacles in its adherence in hospitals, this article aims to identify best practices and useful tools in effective implementation of CPOE. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include construction and working of CPOE, CPOE related errors, impact of CPOE on medication errors and obstacles in CPOE effective implementation. Only articles in English were included.

Open Access Review Article

Insights into the SARS-CoV-2 Diagnosis in India: Present Status and Future Prospects

Laxmipreeya Behera, Jyoti Prakash Sahoo, Sushree Suparna Mahapatra, Jannila Praveena, Trupti Dash, Kailash Chandra Samal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 38-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3931023

COVID-19, the infectious pandemic disease is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This deadly disease was unknown before its catastrophic outbreak of the infection in Wuhan city of China, in December 2019. The pandemic situation has increased the demand of rapid enhancement of the in-vitro diagnostic assays which would enable the mass screening and testing. Several molecular and serological diagnostics assays such as direct viral antigen tests, nucleic acid amplification tests and serological tests were developed. Nucleic acid tests such as RT-PCR. TrueNAT, Feluda Test, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) etc. detect the presence of RNA virus in the nasal or throat swab or from saliva. Antigen tests detect the presence of a virus as the antigen, which is a surface protein. Antibody tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), lateral flow assays (LFA), chemiluminescence assays (CLIA) etc. detect the presence of antibodies generated against SARS-CoV-2 in the blood samples.