Open Access Original Research Article

Validated High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Quantification of Pamidronate in Bulk and Dosage Form

Sherif A. Abdel- Gawad, Aymen Khalid Al Suwailem, Sami Salem AlShowiman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3730997

Aims: The studied drug is lacking the presence of chromophore so a reaction with NBD-Cl is optimized to facilitate its chromatographic detection, so the main aim of the work is to quantify pamidronate in a sensitive and accurate way either in bulk or dosage forms.

Methodology: The quantification of this group of drugs is a challenging task as they lack the presence of chromophore groups in their structure. The proposed method depends on the chromatographic quantification of the studied drug after its derivatization via its reaction with 4-Chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxazole and the product is separated on ODS C18 column (5 µm, 15 cm x 5 mm, i.d.) as a stationary phase and methanol : water (8:2, v/v) as a mobile phase. The flow rate was 1 ml/min.

Results: The studied drug can be determined in the range of 900 - 3000 ng/mL after optimizing the assay conditions to get optimum stationary – mobile phases match. Method validation is performed according to USP-guidelines and different validation parameters like, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness are calculated and found to be excellent.

Conclusion: The proposed method is accurate, sensitive and can be applied for the routine analysis of pamidronate in quality control laboratories.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development Liquid and Solid Self Microemulsifying Drug Delivery System (L-SMEDDS and S-SMEDDS) Containing Black Seed Oil (Nigella sativa L.)

Sani Ega Priani, Septiani Siti Maulidina, Fitrianti Darusman

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 7-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3730998

Aims: The aims of this research were to develop and characterize liquid and solid micro emulsifying drug delivery system (L-SMEDDS and S-SMEDDS) containing black seed oil. 

Study Design: Experimental Research Design (laboratory).

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at research laboratory of pharmacy department UNISBA, between August 2018- August 2019.

Methodology: The optimization of L-SMEDDS was carried out using various comparison of oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant. All formulations were evaluated for percent transmittance, emulsification time, dispersibility, robustness, and thermodynamic stability. The best formula of L-SMEDSS was evaluated for globule size distribution and converted to S-SMEDDS by spray drying method using aerosil 200 as adsorbent. S-SMEDDS were evaluated for organoleptic, flowability, compressibility, emulsification time, dispersibility, robustness and surface morphology.

Results: The best formula of L-SMEDDS contains tween 80 as a surfactant and PEG 400 as cosurfactant (2:1) with a ratio of oil and Smix (2:8). The L-SMEDDS preparation meets the requirement of percent transmittance (95.77%), emulsification time (37.67 seconds), grade A of dispersibility, stable of robustness and thermodynamics study with the average of globule size was 231 nm. S-SMEDDS preparation meets the requirement of the moisture content, flowability, emulsification time, and stable on robustness testing with a spherical shape.

Conclusion: L-SMEDDS and S-SMEDDS of black seed oil have been developed and have good physical characteristics and stability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Knowledge among University Students

Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Salah-Ud-Din Khan, Eldowaik Mohamed Salah Saad, Muhammad Zahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 26-33
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3731000

Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of ALS among students in a university in Malaysia.

Methods: A cross-sectional and observational study was performed among the students of three different healthcare provider faculties (Medical, Pharmacy and Dental) in a university with the help of pre-validated research questionnaire. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 24.0 was used to analyze and present the data.

Results: A total of 268 university students from three faculties participated in the current study. The medical faculty students and final year students had more appropriate knowledge towards the ALS.

Conclusion: Overall appropriate knowledge was observed among the studied faculty students. The present study concluded that medical students had adequate knowledge of ALS than the other two faculty students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Nitazoxanide Loaded Polymeric Nanocarriers: Box Behnken Experimental Design Based Optimisation and Characterisation

Charu Bharti, Shrestha Sharma, Shobhit Kumar, Syed Arman Rabbani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 34-53
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3731002

The current investigation is focused on formulation, optimisation and characterisation of polymeric based nanomaterial. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) loaded polymeric nanoparticles were prepared by homogenisation technique using Eudragit RL100 as a polymer matrix and Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) as a cross linking agent. NTZ was used as a model drug and investigated for preformulation parameters along with excipients, identification of concentration for optimization, selection of independent (X) and dependent (Y) variables and characterisation of optimised formulation. Polymeric nanoparticles were obtained after optimization using 33 factorial design by Box Behnken Design expert (BBD). The role and influence of key process variables i.e. concentration of polymer, concentration of cross linking agent and speed of rotation of homogeniser at their respective three different levels for the optimisation of formulation were also investigated. The synthesised optimised polymeric nanoparticles were further characterised by dynamic light scattering (DLS) for its particle size (137.11nm), PDI (0.180) and zeta potential (33.4 mV) while X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to justify the amorphous and crystalline nature of drug and excipients. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further revealed surface geometry of these nanoparticles being spherical in shape, drug entrapment efficiency (%DEE) was found to be 81.89% and in vitro release studies showed sustained drug release effect. The antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans and Escherichia coli was also determined.

Open Access Original Research Article

University Students’ Awareness about Oral Health and Hygiene

Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Salah-Ud-Din Khan, Muhammad Zahid Iqbal

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 54-61
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3731003

Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the awareness of university students about oral health and hygiene in a university in Malaysia.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the students of four different faculties (pharmacy, medical, biotechnology and business) in a university in Malaysia with the help of pre-validated research questionnaire.  The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 24.0 was used to analyze and present the data.

Results: The final response gathered was 324 from four faculties. The pharmacy faculty students had better knowledge as compared to the other faculties. The female students had better knowledge of oral health hygiene as compared to males. Final year students reported more appropriate knowledge as compared to pre-final year students.

Conclusion: Overall appropriate knowledge was observed among the four studied faculties of the university. The present study concluded that pharmacy students had more appropriate knowledge of oral health and hygiene than the other faculty students.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Associated with Attitudes towards the Preferred Method of Delivery in Medical and Non-Medical Female Students

Sakineh Abdi, Fatemeh Jafarzadeh- Kenarsari, Zahra Bostani- Khalesi, Ehsan Kazemnejad- Leili

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 62-71
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3731004

Aims: In order to reduce the rate of cesarean section (CS), it is necessary to be aware of attitudes of women to predict their preferred method of delivery and its related factors. This study aimed to compare attitudes of medical and non-medical female students regarding the preferred method of delivery and its related factors in 2019.

Study Design:  cross sectional-analytical study.

Place and Duration of Study: Medical and non-medical undergraduate female students of Guilan, Rasht, Iran, were randomly selected between October 2019 and November 2019.

Methodology: We included 1040 students (873 non-medical, 167 medical students; mean age 20.90 ± 1.54 years). The data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive and inferential (Chi Square, Fisher's exact test, Kruskal–Wallis, Mann-Whitney and multiple regression) statistics (P =.05).

Results: In general, 71.50% of subjects in both groups had a neutral attitude. For group comparison, the medical and non-medical groups (24% and 12.40%) had a positive attitude towards CS and (11.40% and 14.80%) had a positive attitude towards normal vaginal delivery (NVD), respectively. Attitude score according to the university (P =.002), the school (P =.002), the academic year (P =.001), age (P =.031), ethnicity (P =.001), child rank (P =.042), father education (P =.007), mother education (P =.006), childbirth method of the mothers in other children (P =.007), and delivery method of the relatives (P =.05) was significant.

Conclusion: Although non-medical students had more possitive attitude towards NVD, in general, in both groups, the majority of them had a neutral attitude towards the mode of delivery. It seems necessary to develop the educational-counseling interventions to form a positive attitude towards NVD in all students and youngs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Various Drying Methods on Physicochemical Characteristics, Flavonoids and Polyphenol Content, and Antioxidant Activities of Different Extracts from Morinda citrifolia Fruit

Kha Chan Tuyen, Nguyen Thanh Cong, Pham Van Thinh, Trương Ngọc Minh, Tran Dinh Manh, Huỳnh Hoàng Như Khánh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 72-82
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3731005

Introduction: M. citrifolia is known as a medical plant in Vietnam, named Noni, which contains numerous bioactive ingredients and applying good in functional food and pharmaceuticals. The notices on the change of physicochemical characteristics (color, pH, total solids, and titration acid), the content of flavonoids and polyphenol, and antioxidant activities (total, reducing power, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging) of different extracts from Morinda citrifolia fruit at various drying methods (solar energy, microwave, and heat pump), microwave power, and temperature have not been found. Therefore, the paper focused on these things.

Methods: Morinda citrifolia fruit were harvested in July 2020, dried by using different methods (solar energy, microwave, and heat pump), and soaked in 96% solvent (ethanol and aqueous) for evaluating physicochemical characteristics, flavonoids and polyphenol content, and antioxidant activities. Drying M. citrifolia was at the temperature (50, 60, and 70°C) and the microwave power (100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 W), corresponding to the heat pump method and the microwave method, respectively and evaluating the drying speed curve basing on the moisture of M. citrifolia according to the drying time.

Results: Physicochemical characteristics, flavonoids content, polyphenol content, and antioxidant activities (total, reducing power, and DPPH free radical scavenging) were affected by various drying methods, different extracting solvents (p<0.05) and changed the drying time, microwave power, and temperature according to the non-linear model of level 2. The stabilization of physicochemical characteristics, flavonoids content, polyphenol content, and antioxidant activities of M. citrifolia in the drying method of microwave power was the highest, followed by the heat pump and solar energy. Ethanol solvent was more effective than aqueous solvent as extracting bioactive substances (flavonoids content and polyphenol content).

Conclusion: The results will be useful for preparing the dried M. citrifolia to serve for the storage and the produce of M. citrifolia in functional food and pharmaceuticals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison between Conventional 2.0 mm Miniplates versus 3-D Plates In Management of Mandibular Fractures

Meena Kumari, Kashif Ali Channar, Suneel Kumar Punjabi, Mahwish Memon, Salman Shams, Syed Ghazanfar Hassan

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 83-88
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3731006

Objective: To compare the outcomes stability, malunion and intra operative time by using 2.0mm conventional miniplates and 3-D plates in management of the anterior mandibular fracture.

Materials and Methods: Total 94 patients were included and equally divided in two groups. Fixation of fracture was done by 2.0mm conventional miniplates in Group-A and a single 3D plate in Group-B. Stability, healing and malunion were assessed on follow-up at 1st week, 6th week, and 12th week using Chi Square Test.

Results: Stability was 91.5% in group-A and 93.6% in group-B. Clinically malunion was 12.8% at 1st week, 14.8% at 2nd week, 14.8% at 8th week in group-A while in group-B, malunion was 8.5% at 1st week, 2nd week and at 8th week. Radiographically, malunion was 12.8% at 1st week, 14.8% at 2nd week, 14.8% at 8th week in group-A while in group-B, malunion was 8.5% at 1stweek, 2nd week and at 8th week.

Conclusion: The results of the study concluded that 3-D plating system has advantages over conventional 2 mm miniplates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Perception of Saudi Dental Professionals Regarding the Use of Resin Infiltration in their Clinical Practice; A Survey-Based Study in Riyadh, KSA

Abdullah Fozan A. Alhammad, Adel Omer M. Alrayes, Mohammad Mogbil A. Alhedaithy, Abdulkarim Abdullah A. Alabdulkarim, Faisal Raafat F. Alhakeem, Badr Soliman M. Alhussain, Shahzeb Hasan Ansari

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 89-95
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3731007

Introduction: Throughout the advancement of subsurface caries lesions, mineral is disbanded out of the enamel, causing enhanced penetrability that look like clinically as incipient or white spot lesions. Nowadays, these lesions are regularly treated by increasing remineralization, e.g., by enhancing the patient’s oral hygiene or fluoridation. Nevertheless, in uncooperative patients with cavitated proximal lesions, this approach has significant drawbacks.

Methodology: A total of 508 dentists filled the online survey, which was distributed using social media and emails. Online questionnaire was constructed consisting of questions related to demographic data followed by questions linked to their knowledge and perception of Resin Infiltration use among their patients.

Results: Overall knowledge reported by the participants regarding Resin Infiltration was 25.2% poor, 72.9% moderate and only 1.9% excellent. 64% of the dental professionals knew that RI is a micro-invasive procedure.

Conclusion: It can be concluded from the findings that the knowledge of Riyadh based dental professionals regarding the use, indication and technique of Resin Infiltration is not satisfactory.

Open Access Review Article

Current Status of Pandemic COVID-19: A Review

Ligi Milesh, Twinkle Mathew, Ramesh Kumar Kushwaha, Shoumi Halder, Rushikesh Jadhav, Anjlina David, K. Harish, Renuka Madhu, Krishna Ashok

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-25
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3730999

The severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is spreading worldwide rapidly from its original city of China. Corona virus has the presence of positive sense Ribonucleic acid (RNA) genetic material. The infection causes mild respiratory disease especially in humans across all age groups. The widespread distribution of corona virus in other organisms such as birds, livestock and mammals such as bats, pangolins etc. makes it an important pathogen of concern. It has also been reported the number of people that act as healthy carriers of the virus are approximately 2%, where they do not show any symptoms of the infection but act as a prime source of transmission. Transmission of the virus is usually through large droplets generated during sneezing and coughing and thus can remain viable for several days in favorable atmospheric conditions but can be controlled by the usage of disinfectants. World Health Organization recommends isolation as most efficacious method for the containment of patients that are affected by this virus. At present, there are no particular anti-viral medications or vaccines are correctly present to suppress this infection from spreading. However, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have proved to be effective for assessing viral RNA but may prove to be very time-consuming assay. Thus, as per the present scenario, more research should be carried out to develop a rapid, user-friendly, diagnostic assay which has high specificity and sensitivity at mass level screening thus enabling the further process of drug designing.