Open Access Original Research Article

Familiarity and Risk Factors Associated with Life Style Modification along with Low Blood Pressure– A Study of Medical University Larkana

Maryam Qazi, Bilawal Shaikh, Abdul Aziz Shaikh, Rao Irfan, Tahseen Ahmed, Fahad Jibran Siyal, Muhammad Umair Farooqui, Arslan Ahmer, Rashid Ali Arbani, Saeed Ahmed Lakho

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3330942

The blood pressure is the driven force by which blood moves in a direction against the walls of arteries as it derived by the heart. Normal blood pressure has specific range while an individual with blood pressure towards lower range is very common ailment that is called in medical science as hypotension. In association with these majorities of the people including health science students consider hypotension as an illness which once diagnosed needs to be managed. The objective of this research study is an analysis on the familiarity of the risk factors and life style changes associated with low blood pressure among the health science students of Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University (S.M.B.B.M.U), Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan. This descriptive cross-sectional study was proceed by enlisting health science students Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S) and Bachelor of Dental Surgery (B.D.S) of S.M.B.B.M.U Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan during September 2019 to February 2020. A total of 412 students belongs to the first Prof. to last Prof. M.B.B.S & B.D.S were categorized after the revealed of the superior command and distinctive interrogator for the complications of low blood pressure were noted. The data was analyzed on SPSS Version 24.00 statistical software after defining information in the software. 227/412 (95 M.B.B.S and 132 B.D.S students) considered low blood pressure as a sickness. The students of this institute also agreed that low blood pressure with healthy human’s presents with many complications that required proper management. The data reveals from this research study that majority of the health science students ruminated the low blood pressure as unusual physiological response of the body hence it required serious attention.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Lamotrigine on Fetus Resorption and Histologic Changes in Cranium of Fetus of Albino Mice

Nadeemuddin Shaikh, Abdullah Khilji, Syed Faizan Ali Rizvi, Bushra Begum Ramejo, Hafsa Shafqat, Noor Ahmed Shaikh

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 8-13
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3330943

Background: Lamotrigine is a member of antiepileptic drugs, it belongs to the sodium channel blocking agent’s class and it is pregnancy category C drug. While its teratogenic effects are not hidden by the doctors but it is the preferred drug being prescribed in pregnancy. The current study aims to investigate the effects of fetus resorption and histologic changes in cranium of fetus of albino mice and to compare their weight changes due to lamotrigine therapy.

Methodology: It was an experimental animal study conducted in collaboration of anatomy and surgery department at animal house of University of Lahore in 2019. The duration of study was 25 days, twenty-four albino mice (12 males and 12 females) were placed in conventional cages in pairs for mating purpose. Female mice Group A, controls in which normal saline was administered intraperitoneally on 10th day of gestation and Group B, in which lamotrigine was given intraperitoneally on the 10th day at the dose of 10 mg/kg. Maternal health was monitored daily during the intervention. Body weight, food and water consumption, and changes in general health, behavior, activity and any sign of toxicity were checked daily. After 18th day the pregnant mice were sacrificed under euthanasia and fetuses were removed and histologic assessment was carried out.

Results: Weight of mice treated with lamotrigine decreased significantly (p-value=0.03) and fetus resorptions were also more (p-value=0.013) in Group B. Histologic assessment reveled that there were cleft of lip and palate in group B.

Conclusion: Lamotrigine increased the fetal resorption and decrease the weight and seemed to be responsible for inducing cleft of lip and palate at 10mg/kg dose in albino mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Properties and Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Pulcria crispa on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Albino Rats

Haytham M. Daradka, Ramadan Al- Shdefat, Areej A. Eskandrani

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3330944

Background: Pulcria crispa (P. crispa) is an herbal plant traditionally used to treat common ailments.

Objective: In this study, we investigated P. crispa for its phytochemical constituents, antioxidant properties and effects on biochemical and hematological parameters as well as safety in albino rats.

Methods: Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of P. crispa was conducted using standard procedures. In vitro 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay were used for the investigation of antioxidant activity of extract. Acute effects on physical and behavioral changes and mortality were monitored up to 72 h after administration of different doses of C. crispa  Chronic effects on body to organ ratio, biochemical and hematological parameters were measured after administration of rats with different doses of P. crispa extract for 30 days.

Results: Alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins were the most abundant constituents found in P. crispa extract, which displayed a significant antioxidant activity measured by reducing power and DPPH assays. No physical, behavioral changes and mortality were noted following the acute treatment of rats with the extract. Similarly, no significant change in body to organ weight ratio was observed after chronic treatment. Hematological parameters including RBCs, Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC values were unaltered while W.B.C count was elevated in P.crispa administered rats compared to control.

  1. crispa extract significantly reduced glucose, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, bilirubin, AST and ALT levels, whereas, triglycerides and total protein levels were increased in response to P.crispa treatment.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that P. crispa extract is rich in bioactive compounds and possesses significant antioxidant properties. Extract was also found to be safe and had no significant adverse effects on hematological parameters and exerted beneficial effects on biochemical parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioelectronic Implants and Their Role in Modern Medicine

Ekaterina Vladislavovna Nenasheva, Aleksandra Olegovna Larina, Harun Achmad, Tatiana Timokhina, Alexander Markov

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 23-31
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3330945

Humanity turned to medicines millions of years ago, when medicinal plants were used for healing. In the century before last, a significant contribution to medicine was made by various fields of science; in particular, here one can name a device that has long been used to deliver medicine to the body – a syringe.

Today, the use of injections of drugs of biological origin is a common practice for the treatment of chronic diseases, but the injection procedure itself is often associated with painful perceptions, and the field of injection is limited. Modern advanced therapies are genetic, electronic and cellular therapies that can meet the needs of caregivers, as well as the patients themselves.

It is well known that digital processes in healthcare are currently undergoing intensive development, and in this context, innovative bioelectronic devices are being used to implement new strategies for personalized injection therapy. This paper examines aspects of the development of innovative methods of drug delivery to the patient's body, such as optogenetic therapy, optogenetic methods, and genetic therapy. For these purposes, bioelectronic implants are used today, in which electronics and optogenetics interact with the help of light, transmitting a certain induction signal to each other. By controlling the synthetic optogenetic pathway in the cell, drugs can be delivered to a particular organ within a clearly limited space or time.

Present technology is revolutionary in medicine, as it can replace a traditional syringe, increasing the accuracy of dosage and time of drug administration, while reducing the involvement of the human factor to a minimum. The technology under consideration also acts as minimally invasive, which minimizes the patient's discomfort when taking medications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring the Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic on Education Divide in Pakistan

Naseem Hyder Rajput, Narmeen Noonari, Syed Muhammad Ahsan Bukhari, Mehboob Ali Dehraj, Jabbar Abbas Rajput

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 32-39
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3330946

Background: The education sector is badly shaken in the wake of COVID-19 pandemic as nationwide closures have impacted 89% of the world’s student population.

Aims and Methodology: This qualitative, exploratory study investigated the impacts of COVID-19 on the prevailing education divide through focus group discussion. Focus group included purposefully selected two teachers (one male & one female), two senior headteachers (one male & one female), two Taluka Education Officers (one male & one female), two Assistant District Education Officers (One male & one female) and two Assistant professors of Education (one male one female). The focus group interviews were conducted from the participants through conference calls.

Results: Focus group discussion results showed that there could be variable impacts of COVID-19 across society, parents, input that students could receive from families during this pandemic, assessment, gender, and schools. These variable impacts could result in further widening of the existing education divide in Pakistan. The major reasons, as highlighted by the participants, are the weak education system and the prevalent digital divide in Pakistan due to the use of online learning resources. It is recommended that the authorities should engage economically sound local elders, Non-Government Organizations and volunteer educated persons to meet the technology-based needs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acceptability and Perceptions of Generic Drugs among Patients, Pharmacists, and Physicians

Krupali Patel, Sandul Yasobant, Jaykaran Charan, Mayur Chaudhari, Abhay Gaidhane, Deepak Saxena

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 40-47
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3330948

Background: Generic drugs are the painstaking solution to deal with out of pocket expenditure however, the impact has not yet been seen in India. Thus, to understand the facilitators and barriers, this study aimed to gather evidence on the perception of the acceptability of generic drugs among patients, pharmacists, and physicians.

Methods: The key informant interviews (KII) were conducted during 2017-2018 in Gujarat, India. A total of 25 (9 patients, 8 pharmacists, 8 physicians) KIIs were included in the thematic analysis.

Results: Most of the patients knew about cheaper drugs are available in the market, but they perceived that those meant for poor people. Pharmacists talked about the profit from branded drugs are higher than generics. Pharmacist and doctors expressed concern for the efficacy of generic drugs, as it requires more visits to hospitals. Patients usually report more side effects if using generic drugs, apart from that poor packaging and lack of trust on generic also remained an issue in terms of satisfaction. Pharmacist and patients are both expressed their reliance on doctors suggestion and prescription; however, doctors are really not in favour to prescribe generics. The ethical dilemma remained with the pharmacists in not suggesting generics as an alternative to the branded drugs.

Conclusion: The study concludes that cost is the main perception of patients, pharmacists, and physicians, however; the decision power lies with the pharmacist and doctors, which is mainly not in favour to use or promote the generic drugs even if the cost is low because of efficacy and satisfaction issues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Queries Related to Antimicrobial Agents Use in a Tertiary Hospital from 2015 to 2018

Abdullah U. Althemery, Amal H. AL- Najjar, Mesfer S. Almalki, Abdullah A. Alfaifi, Ahmed K. Aljassem, Nehad J. Ahmed, Ahmad A. Albassam

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 64-70
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3330950

Aim: This study compares factors associated with requests for antimicrobial agents versus those for other types of treatment, contrasting the requests of pharmacists versus those of other health-care staff related to antimicrobial agents.

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted for all requests received from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2018. A series of chi-squared tests was used to analyze the relationship between different categories. All data analyses were conducted using the R statistical computing language.

Results: In total, 2,423 requests were received from 2015 to 2018, of which antimicrobial agents accounted for 21.67%. The highest percentages of antimicrobial requests by pharmacists were related to administration and dosage forms, pregnancy and lactation, and stability. A majority of the requests were answered using tertiary resources. The most-requested information regarding antimicrobial agents was related to clindamycin.

Conclusion: Because many requests pertaining to antimicrobial agents were made, as a proportion of total drug and poison information centre requests, from 2015 to 2018, pharmacists should maintain and indeed expand their active role to combat antibiotic resistance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Dermatophytosis in Badaun, Uttar Pradesh, India

Pankaj Saxena, Neeraj Dholia

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 71-76
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3330951

Dermatophytoses is a superficial fungal infection of tissues having keratin. The responsible fugus are dermatophytes. The infection is usually designated as ring worm or “tinea”. It is observed worldwide with higher prevalence in tropical countries and areas due to high rates of humidity, moisture and high sweating in summer. Recurrent dermatophytosis is a challenge for dermatologists in India and constituted 9.3% of all patients of dermatophytosis. The present study is conducted to reveal the prevalence of dermatophytosis in patients attended in the Maheshwari Hospital and Diagnostic Centre in Badaun. A survey was done for a period of one and half year. The samlples were obtained from Maheshwari Hospital and Diagnostic Centre, Badaun, Uttar Pradesh. A total of 300 patients were included in the study. Physical observation, KOH test, Microscopy and culture tests were performed for screening and confirmation of various fungal infections. Clinically the prevalence of dermatophytosis was 60% that was observed more in males. Patients with age group 16–30 and 31–40 years were more affected.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemicals, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Potential Study of Tinospora cordifolia

Anik Barua, Md. Rabiul Hossain, Labonno Barua, Abu Sadat Md. Sayem, Md. Zainul Abedin, Rashadul Hossain

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 77-84
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3330952

Aims: Tinospora cordifolia is a herb used in the traditional folk medicine due to their health benefits. Studies reported the biochemical composition and some biological properties of the plant stem. The aim of the current study was to investigate the antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties from the extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was accomplished by eleven months in the Department of Pharmacy, University of Science and Technology Chittagong (USTC), Bangladesh. 

Methodology: Presence of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins, saponins were evaluated. Antimicrobial activity of the stem extract was assayed separately using an agar diffusion method against some gram negative and gram positive bacteria. The cytotoxic potential of the stem extract was evaluated by the Brine-Shrimp Lethality Assay mathod. 

Results: The zone of inhibition formed by the methanolic extract in the antimicrobial assays was significant. In addition, cytotoxicity of the extract was found to be significant as compared to the standard gallic acid in Brine-Shrimp lethality assay.

Conclusion: The methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia may possess significant antimicrobial property which requires more studies to isolate the specific bioactive compound for developing a new antimicrobial agent from this plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Artificial Sweeteners and Metabolic Syndrome: Paradox of Physiological Behavior or Neuroendocrine Mechanisms

Maheswara Reddy Mallu, Kusuma Naredla, Maha Lakshmi Meesala, Kamala Vasanthi Karyamsetty, Shaheena Dudekula, Haritha Boppa, Trishanthi Thota, Niranjan Babu Akula

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 85-93
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3330953

Artificial sweeteners owing to their non-caloric nature were proposed as a healthful means with the prospective benefits. Epidemiological data indicate direct relationship between artificial sweetener intake and increase in body weight, glycemic status, and adiposity. Despite strong association, evidence is still lacking in establishing the causal relationship between artificial sweeteners and various risk factors for the development of metabolic syndrome. In vitro studies have disclosed that artificial sweeteners similar to glucose/fructose bind to sweet-taste receptors on the tongue and intestinal mucosa stimulating enhanced sugar absorption, through glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Human studies failed to recapitulate these effects, advocating that artificial sweeteners rather serve to promote food consumption rather than improving satiety. Therefore, enhanced         food consumption, disallowance of caloric adjustments could in some measure explain body   weight gain with the use of artificial sweeteners. However, the physiological behavior and neuroendocrine mechanisms by which the non-caloric sweeteners may stimulate appetite needs further scrutiny.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Fluoride Release Pattern from Different Fluoride Varnishes – An in vitro Study

Seerat Sidhu, Abi M. Thomas, Ruchika Kundra, Joe Mathew Cherian

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 104-115
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3330955

Background: Since the time they were introduced, researchers have put in endeavours to better the delivery of the fluoride in the fluoride varnishes. With numerous fluoride varnishes accessible in the market today, each product claims of superior and enhanced properties. In the recent years, significant differences have been reported in these products in terms of cumulative amount as well as the amount of fluoride released.

Aim: To determine the fluoride release pattern of four different calcium-phosphate based 5% sodium fluoride varnishes.

Materials and Methods: This in vitro study was conducted at Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Christian Dental College, Ludhiana, Punjab, India for 6 months. 75 non-carious premolar teeth were randomly divided into five groups and coated with a different coloured nail varnish except for a 3mm X 3mm window on the labial surface of the crown. Four groups received fluoride varnish coating on this window while the fifth group served as the control. The various fluoride varnishes tested included MI VarnishTM(containing CPP-ACP), ClinproTM White Varnish(containing f-TCP), EmbraceTM Varnish(containing xylitol coated calcium and phosphate) and Enamel Pro® Varnish(containing ACP).Thereafter, the 15 teeth of each group were placed together in a plastic container containing 50ml of artificial saliva. After 1 day, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months, the teeth were placed in a new plastic container containing 50ml of fresh artificial saliva while the previous saliva sample was assessed for the fluoride released in it through the SPADNS Method. The data was compiled by using Microsoft Excel 2010 SPSS version (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA).

Results: ClinproTM White Varnish exhibited the greatest cumulative fluoride release while MI VarnishTM exhibited the greatest substantivity at the end of 6 months. Three of the tested varnishes released increasing amounts of fluoride upto 3 months, thereafter, the values began to decline. Meanwhile, EmbraceTM Varnish released increasing amount of fluoride only upto one month, thereafter the values began to decline.

Conclusion: The varying excepient ingredients could be held accountable for the different fluoride release pattern of the studied on calcium phosphate based 5% sodium fluoride varnishes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antiemetic Effect of Fruit Extracts of Trapa bispinosa Roxb. in Chick Emesis Model

Syed Waleed Ahmed Bokhari, Sabiha Gul, Rida Fatima, Sana Sarfaraz, Muhammad Mohtasheemul Hasan, Afshan Abbbas

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 116-123
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3330956

Background: Vomiting and nausea are common symptoms associated with many diseased conditions. They also occur as side effects due to intake of certain medications. Natural remedies are nowadays being considered as a better alternate compared to allopathic medicine.

Aim: The current study was designed to evaluate the antiemetic effect of hexane and ethanolic extracts of Trapa bispinosa Roxb fruit.

Methodology: The study was conducted on young chicks aged 6-7 days using Copper sulfate (50 mg/kg) for the induction of emesis using oral route. Antiemetic effect was determined by observing the reduction in the number of retches in different groups of chicks. Metoclopramide and Chlorpromazine (150 mg/kg) were used as standard antiemetic agents. Chicks were treated with both extracts (ethanolic and hexane) at the dose of 150 mg/kg.

Results: Hexane extract was found to be most effective when compared with all the groups. The results showed that T.bispinos Roxb. hexane extract was able to effectively prevent the copper sulfate induced emesis in chicks. Phytochemical analysis was also performed and it was predicted that the antiemetic effect of hexane extract might be due to the presence of alkaloids and triterpenoids.

Conclusion: The positive effects obtained from this study showed that natural remedy might also be used as an alternate to allopathic medicine for nausea and vomiting.

Open Access Original Research Article

Practices, Attitude & Perceived Barriers of Dental Students in Substance Use Screening & Interventions in Dental Practice: A Cross-Sectional Study

Shree Goyal, Ritu Gupta, Ipseeta Menon, Dipshikha Das, Lavanya Rohatgi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 124-131
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3330957

Context: Tobacco, the leading preventable cause of death including alcohol and illicit drug abuse, cause morbidity and mortality. Dentists deal with such patients & can/ should intervene, preventing any deleterious habits with apt knowledge and training.

Aims: The study assesses the knowledge, attitude and practices amongst dental students to manage patients with tobacco, alcohol and substance abuse in a clinical set up.

Methodology: A cross-sectional questionnaire (self-administered 22 items) survey was conducted among 300 dental students (Undergraduates, Interns, Postgraduates) in a dental college, North India to assess their knowledge, attitude and practices regarding substance abuse- tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 and subjected to Chi-square test to determine the significant difference between the dental study groups (p≤ 0.05)

Results: There were 37.1% males and 62.9% of females. Final years (33.8%), interns (29.8%) and Post graduates (36.5%) completed the questionnaire. 85.5% Postgraduates, 74.3% final years and 71.9% interns knew where to refer the patients of substance abuse which was statistically significant (p≤ 0.05).A majority (91.1%) of interns prescribe or provide tobacco cessation, followed by 87.1% final years and 78.2% post graduates that were significant values.

Conclusions: Although there’s huge awareness on the management of patients with substance abuse habits, only a few practice it on patients correctly. Lack of training and its application due to many barriers have been discussed in detail pointing out the disparity in the number of patients with habit history being screened and to those being managed.

Open Access Review Article

Bovine Based Collagen Dressings in Wound Care Management

Rameshkumar Santhanam, Mohd Adha P. Rameli, Azleena Al Jeffri, Wan Iryani Wan Ismail

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 48-63
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3330949

Collagen plays a significant role in treating acute and chronic wounds such as cuts, burns, ulcers associated with other illness via enhancing the debridement of infected tissues, angiogenesis and promoting natural growth. There are several types of collagen, which can be obtained from various animal sources such as chicken, bovine, porcine, fish etc. Among that bovine based collagen contributed many shares towards biomedical application. Nowadays using bovine based collagen biomaterials for wound care is in trend to minimize the negative impacts such as infection, pain and other side effects. However, its applicable and effectiveness are not fully revealed. At the same time, clinicians and researchers are exploring and implementing advanced techniques and treatment procedures to reduce the wound healing burden effectively. In this review, we aimed to focus on the fundamental information about types of wound dressings, collagen dressings and the clinical utility of bovine based collagen dressings in providing essential knowledge in advanced wound care management.

Open Access Review Article

The Importance of Isolated and Purified Bacillus species as a Source of a Variety of Antimicrobial Substances

Soha Alamoudi

Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, Page 94-103
DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i3330954

The rapid onset of resistance reduces the efficacy of most conventional antimicrobial drugs and is a general cause of concern for human well-being. Thus, there is a great demand for a continuous supply of novel antibiotics to combat this problem. Bacteria-derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have long been used as food preservatives. Thus, antimicrobial agents are predominantly significant in limiting infectious diseases. Meanwhile, the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains in pathogenic bacteria have begun to be a significant general health threat. Therefore, the lowest effectiveness of the present antibiotics in the direction of the administration was becoming prominent to the consequence of the discussion of new antibiotics. These considerations, Bacillus sp completely famous for making different metabolites of the possibility their utilization, thus, it is completed a search to isolate Bacillus sp for the action making of anti-microorganisms compounds. The Biosynthesis of Bacillus AMPs, extract, purifies, and identifies a bioactive compound by Bacillus sp.

Furthermore, Bacillus-derived AMPs can be synthesized both ribosomal and non-ribosomal and can be classified according to peptide biosynthesis, structure, and molecular weight. The precise mechanism of action of these AMPs is not yet clear; however, the one proposed mechanism is that these AMPs kill bacteria by forming channels in and (or) disrupting the bacterial cell wall. Bacillus-derived AMPs have potential in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the food and agricultural sectors. Here, we focus on Bacillus-derived AMPs as a novel alternative approach to antibacterial drug development.